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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18746, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011456

RESUMO

Converging evidence reveals the negative interpretation bias in anxiety. Given that anxiety is a severe psychological problem among Chinese military personnel, the present study examined whether high trait anxiety military personnel showed negative interpretation bias in real-world situations and whether their interpretations were influenced by self-relevance.The sample included 24 high trait anxiety (H-TA) and 22 low trait anxiety (L-TA) Chinese military servicemen. Participants completed 20 open-ended ambiguous scenarios by deciding how much they believed in the positive and negative ending of each sentence. The 20 scenarios were designed according to real life in military and half of them were self-relevant and the others were non-self-relevant.A 2(group) ×2(self-relevance) ANOVA of positive and negative endings revealed that compared to L-TA, H-TA believed more in negative continuations and less in positive continuations. Moderate correlations were found between samples' believes in positive and negative endings and their trait anxiety scores. Military personnel showed more positive interpretation biases in non-self-relevant scenarios than in self-relevant scenarios.These findings are the first to show interpretation bias in military situations, and interventional strategies to modify servicemen's interpretation bias could be designed according to military situations.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Repressão Psicológica
2.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(1-2): 47-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912288

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a severe vector-borne disease with two main clinical forms, visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Both forms of leishmaniasis are also endemic in Mediterranean countries including the Balkan region from where mainly visceral leishmaniasis is reported. Austrian soldiers returning from Kosovo were screened for anti-Leishmania antibodies to assess the risk of infection during operations. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in more than 20% of the soldiers investigated, which indicates a considerable risk of infection during missions in this area and thus suggests the application of protective measures.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Militares , Animais , Áustria , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Kosovo , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919935, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995212

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding suicide ideation (SI) during combat deployment can inform prevention and treatment during and after deployment. Objective: To examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime and past-year stressors, and mental disorders with 30-day SI among a representative sample of US Army soldiers deployed in Afghanistan. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this survey study, soldiers deployed to Afghanistan completed self-administered questionnaires in July 2012. The sample was weighted to represent all 87 032 soldiers serving in Afghanistan. Prevalence of lifetime, past-year, and 30-day SI and mental disorders was determined. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors associated with SI. Data analyses for this study were conducted between August 2018 and August 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Suicide ideation, lifetime and 12-month stressors, and mental disorders were assessed with questionnaires. Administrative records identified sociodemographic characteristics and suicide attempts. Results: A total of 3957 soldiers (3473 [weighted 87.5%] male; 2135 [weighted 52.6%] aged ≤29 years) completed self-administered questionnaires during their deployment in Afghanistan. Lifetime, past-year, and 30-day SI prevalence estimates were 11.7%, 3.0%, and 1.9%, respectively. Among soldiers with SI, 44.2% had major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19.3% had posttraumatic stress disorder in the past 30-day period. A series of analyses of the 23 grouped variables potentially associated with SI resulted in a final model of sex; race/ethnicity; lifetime noncombat trauma; past 12-month relationship problems, legal problems, and death or illness of a friend or family member; and MDD. In this final multivariable model, white race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 3.1 [95% CI, 1.8-5.1]), lifetime noncombat trauma (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1-4.0]), and MDD (past 30 days: OR, 31.8 [95% CI, 15.0-67.7]; before past 30 days: OR, 4.9 [95% CI, 2.5-9.6]) were associated with SI. Among the 85 soldiers with past 30-day SI, from survey administration through 12 months after returning from deployment, 6% (5 participants) had a documented suicide attempt vs 0.14% (6 participants) of the 3872 soldiers without SI. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that major depressive disorder and noncombat trauma are important factors in identifying SI risk during combat deployment.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 304-313, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145812

RESUMO

In 1949, the American Graves Registration Service Pacific Zone proposed the identification of 27 sets of remains (skulls/crania/mandibles) based on comparisons with written dental records. All were denied, and the remains were buried as unknowns. In 2003 and 2015, the remains were exhumed by the DPAA. Currently, 26 individuals previously recommended for identification have been positively identified. The DPAA Science Director's opinion corresponded with 24 of their recommendations, while DNA excluded three. Caution should be taken by the forensic scientist when building assemblages through skeletal and dental articulation. The forensic odontologist must always consider variations in restorative care/extraction patterns and the possibility of documentation errors when reviewing/interpreting historical and current day dental records used for AM/PM comparisons. The odontologist should base their opinion on the strength of the antemortem/postmortem comparison, number and type of concordances, and distinct dental care and extraction patterns.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Registros Odontológicos , Odontologia Legal/métodos , Amálgama Dentário , Prótese Dentária , Exumação , História do Século XX , Humanos , Mandíbula/patologia , Maxila/patologia , Militares/história , Fotografação , Radiografia Dentária , Dente/patologia , Estados Unidos , II Guerra Mundial
5.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 59, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: British Army Phase One training exposes men and women to challenging distances of 13.5 km·d- 1 vs. 11.8 km·d- 1 and energy expenditures of ~ 4000 kcal·d- 1 and ~ 3000 kcal·d- 1, respectively. As such, it is essential that adequate nutrition is provided to support training demands. However, to date, there is a paucity of data on habitual dietary intake of British Army recruits. The aims of this study were to: (i) compare habitual dietary intake in British Army recruits undergoing Phase One training to Military Dietary Reference Values (MDRVs), and (ii) establish if there was a relative sex difference in dietary intake between men and women. METHOD: Researcher led weighed food records and food diaries were used to assess dietary intake in twenty-eight women (age 21.4 ± 3.0 yrs., height: 163.7 ± 5.0 cm, body mass 65.0 ± 6.7 kg), and seventeen men (age 20.4 ± 2.3 yrs., height: 178.0 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.6 ± 8.1 kg) at the Army Training Centre, Pirbright for 8-days in week ten of training. Macro and micronutrient content were estimated using dietary analysis software (Nutritics, Dublin) and assessed via an independent sample t-test to establish if there was a sex difference in daily energy, macro or micronutrient intakes. RESULTS: Estimated daily energy intake was less than the MDRV for both men and women, with men consuming a greater amount of energy compared with women (2846 ± 573 vs. 2207 ± 585 kcal·day- 1, p < 0.001). Both sexes under consumed carbohydrate (CHO) when data was expressed relative to body mass with men consuming a greater amount than women (4.8 ± 1.3 vs. 3.8 ± 1.4 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p = 0.025, ES = 0.74). Both sexes also failed to meet MDRVs for protein intake with men consuming more than women (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p > 0.030, ES = 0.67). There were no differences in dietary fat intake between men and women (1.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p = 0.483, ES = 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Daily EI in men and women in Phase One training does not meet MDRVs. Interventions to increase macronutrient intakes should be considered along with research investigating the potential benefits for increasing different macronutrient intakes on training adaptations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
6.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 49(4): 283-290, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hearing loss (HL) is common in the adult working population. It is widely assumed that diving is a risk factor for HL. However, studies with sufficient follow-up comparing HL in divers to non-divers are limited. This study aimed to assess the hearing threshold (HT) of Royal Netherlands Navy divers who had been diving for more than 15 years and to compare it to the ISO standard 7029:2017 reference table. METHODS: In this 25-year retrospective cohort study the Royal Netherlands Navy Diving Medical Centre audited the medical records of 1,117 Navy divers. Yearly dive medical assessments were performed according to professional standards, including audiometry. HTs were compared to the ISO 7029:2017 reference table, including Z-distribution, using paired t-tests. RESULTS: Thirty-five divers were included who had been diving for 15 years or longer. The HT increased significantly in nine of the 16 measured frequencies, while the Z-score decreased significantly in nine of the 16 tested frequencies (eight in both ears). In the 25-year follow-up the pattern was more obvious, with one significantly increased HT, and 10 significantly decreased Z-scores. DISCUSSION: The absolute HT increases after 15 years of military diving, but less than would be expected from normal age-related deterioration. Moreover, when comparing Z-scores, this sample of divers actually hear better than non-divers. We conclude that military diving is not an increased risk for HL compared to regular occupational hazards and suggest withdrawing the requirement for routine yearly audiometric evaluation as part of a dive medical examination.


Assuntos
Mergulho , Transtornos da Audição , Perda Auditiva , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Audiometria , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Mergulho/efeitos adversos , Audição/fisiologia , Transtornos da Audição/etiologia , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Am Surg ; 85(11): 1304-1307, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775975

RESUMO

Born in Norfolk, England, on September 29, 1758, Horatio Nelson was the sixth of eleven children in a working-class family. With the help of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a captain in the Royal Navy, Nelson began his naval career as a 13-year-old midshipman on the British battleship Raisonnable. His courage and leadership in the battle marked him for promotion, and he rose quickly from midshipman to admiral, serving in the West Indies, East Indies, North America, Europe, and even the Arctic. As his rank ascended, Nelson's consistent strategy was close engagement, an approach that led to success in combat but placed him in direct danger. Thus, Britain's greatest warrior was also her most famous patient: Nelson suffered more injuries and underwent more operations than any other flag officer in Royal Navy history. His career reached a climax off Cape Trafalgar, where he not only led the Royal Navy to victory over the combined French and Spanish fleets but also met his own death.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Militares/história , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/história , Amputação/história , Traumatismos do Braço/história , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/história , Testa/lesões , Hérnia Abdominal/história , História do Século XVIII , Reino Unido , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/história
8.
J Music Ther ; 56(4): 315-347, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696919

RESUMO

Music therapy treatment is increasingly being used to promote health, enhance quality of life, and improve functioning in military personnel, but evidence on the use of music interventions with military service members is still emerging. The purpose of this scoping review was to synthesize the available literature regarding music therapy treatment with military personnel by identifying the types of information available, key characteristics, and gaps in the knowledge base. The review was completed using the methodological framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. A total of 27 publications met the criteria for review. The results included anecdotal reports, white papers/ briefs, case studies, historical reviews, clinical program descriptions, and research studies. Both active duty and veteran service members were represented in the literature, and post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury were the most commonly listed conditions among those served. Music therapy services were offered in both group and individual formats, and drumming was the most common music intervention cited. Most publications accurately represented music therapy, and the historical reviews highlighted the connection between the development of the field of music therapy and the use of music with military personnel. Several gaps were identified, including a lack of specificity in reporting, low levels of evidence, and limited inclusion of women service members.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Musicoterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos
9.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 54(4): 503-515, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703776

RESUMO

Mental illness and injury, including post-traumatic stress disorder, represents a significant source of disability and morbidity among military and veteran populations. This article explores the pathophysiology, identification, and treatment of military service-connected trauma-related and stressor-related disorders. Particular attention is given to trauma informed care, evidence-based practice recommendations, and the sequencing of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in pursuit of optimal patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
10.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 45(2): 163-185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the current evidence on sleep disturbances in military service members (SMs) and veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: An electronic literature search first identified abstracts published from 2008-2018 inclusively referencing sleep, TBI, and military personnel from Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation New Dawn, and Persian Gulf veterans. Selection criteria eliminated studies on non-combat TBI, open or penetrating injuries, and articles where the relationship between sleep and TBI was not directly examined. Articles on all military branches and components, those currently serving and veterans-ranging from medical chart reviews to clinical trials, were included. Forty-one articles were selected for full text-review. RESULTS: Twenty-four papers estimated the prevalence of sleep disturbances in TBI. Eight studies demonstrated the contribution of common co-occurring conditions, most notably posttraumatic stress disorder, to the relationship between disrupted sleep and TBI. Ten studies differentiated sleep profiles between military SMs and veterans with and without acute TBI and detected significant differences in sleep disturbances across the course of injury. Longitudinal studies were scarce but helped to establish the temporal relationship between sleep disturbances and TBI and isolate sleep-related mechanisms influencing TBI prognosis. Only three studies reported on interventions for improving sleep quality and TBI symptoms. Systematic research testing assessments and interventions that target sleep disturbances for improving sleep, TBI symptoms, and long-term functional outcomes were identified as critical knowledge gaps. CONCLUSION: Findings unequivocally establish that sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in SMs and veterans with TBI. However, studies testing the effectiveness of treatments for improving sleep in military groups with TBI have been limited and their results inconsistent. This review highlights a critical opportunity for advancing military medicine through future research aimed at identifying and testing sleep-focused treatments in SMs and veterans with combat-related TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Feminino , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1517, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health and well-being of military spouses directly contribute to a robust military force by enabling the spouse to better support the active duty member's career. In order to understand the overall health and well-being of military spouses, we assessed health indicators among military spouses using the Healthy People 2020 framework and examined associations of these health indicators with military experiences and psychosocial factors. METHODS: Using data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored survey of 9872 spouses of service members with 2-5 years of military service, we examined attainment of Healthy People 2020 goals for spouses and service members, including healthy weight, exercise, sleep, and alcohol and tobacco use. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed associations of spouse health indicators with stressful military life experiences and social support, adjusting for demographics and military descriptors. The spousal survey was administered nationwide in 2011. RESULTS: The majority of military spouses met each health goal assessed. However, less than half met the healthy weight and the strength training goals. Reporting greater perceived family support from the military was associated with better behavioral health outcomes, while having no one to turn to for support was associated with poorer outcomes. Using the Healthy People 2020 objectives as a framework for identifying key health behaviors and benchmarks, this study identified factors, including military-specific experiences, that may contribute to physical health behaviors and outcomes among military spouses. With respect to demographic characteristics, the findings are consistent with other literature that women are more likely to refrain from risky substance use and that greater education is associated with better overall health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that enhanced social and military support and tailored programming for military spouses may improve health outcomes and contribute to the well-being of military couples. Such programming could also bolster force readiness and retention.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Militares , Apoio Social , Cônjuges , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Treinamento de Resistência , Fatores Sexuais , Cônjuges/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e18044, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725682

RESUMO

Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) often results in back pain and radicular pain and is frequently treated with minimally invasive non-surgical methods in Korean Armed Forces Hospitals. Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy (APLD) has been reported to have good clinical outcomes with low complication rates; however, the clinical efficacy of APLD performed in young male soldiers is uncertain. In order to clarify the efficacy of APLD for the treatment of LDH in young male soldiers, we designed a retrospective case-control study to compare patients who received APLD with patients treated with epidural steroid injection (ESI) alone.A total of 181 patients were enrolled and divided into the APLD (n = 92) and ESI (n = 89) groups according to the treatment modality. A simple logistic regression analysis was conducted to clarify the difference between the two. To optimize patient selection, APLD group was additionally divided for subgroup analysis into favorable (n = 59) and unfavorable (n = 33) groups based on satisfaction scales. A simple logistic analysis was also performed.The differences between pre- and postoperative numerical rating scale of pain (P = .0027) and hospital-own satisfaction scale (P = .0045) of the APLD group were significantly better compared to those of the ESI group. In terms of subgroup analysis, single-level pathology (P = 0.244) and protruded disc (P = .0443) were associated with favorable outcomes, whereas dual pathology and extruded disc were related with unfavorable outcomes.APLD using Dekompressor, performed in young male soldiers with back and radicular pain owing to LDH, showed better clinical outcomes compared to the ESI only therapy. Additionally, a single-level pathology with protruded disc was associated with favorable outcomes and may be indicated for treatment.


Assuntos
Discotomia Percutânea/métodos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Militares , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Discotomia Percutânea/instrumentação , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/instrumentação , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(3): 175-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675293

RESUMO

The objective of this analysis was to compare the efficiency of scholarly activity withinmilitary orthopaedic training programs. The authors obtained the lists of abstracts accepted for presentation at the 2009 through 2014 Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons (SOMOS) annual meetings. Data were extracted for each individual presentation. Three primary groups were compared: a traditional program, a research program, and a hybrid program. The hybrid program produced the highest percentage of the presentations (28.6%). The traditional program contributed the most presentations (3.32) and publications (2.16) per resident and had the highest publication rate (87.7%) and the shortest time to publication (14.4 months). The research program published in the highest average impact journals (3.2). The addition of a research year does not improve the number of academic presentations or published papers but may improve the impact factor of the journals in which the projects are published. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(3):175-179, 2019).


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Ortopedia , Publicações , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Militares , Ortopedia/educação
14.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(3): 189-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675295

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to determine the outcomes of revision arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization in a young, military population. The hypothesis was that this subgroup functions well in a high-demand environment without increased rates of failure. Patients were enrolled in an institutional database and followed prospectively. The primary outcomes were scores on the semiannual Physical Readiness Test (PRT), as compared to prior to reinjury. Secondary outcomes included the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). Sixteen patients met inclusion. Mean age at revision was 20.9 years, and mean follow-up was 32.8 months (range, 12-60 months). Mean bone loss was 9%. Mean PRT score was similar to preinjury (86 vs. 87, p > .05), and mean push-ups showed a small decline (70.4 vs. 78.5, p > .05). Significant improvements were seen in SANE, SF-36 physical component, ASES, and WOSI scores. The results in this cohort suggest that revision arthroscopic stabilization is an acceptable treatment in high-demand military personnel. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(3):189-195, 2019).


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Instabilidade Articular , Militares , Articulação do Ombro , Adulto , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ombro , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(2): 137-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637694

RESUMO

Chemical and biological (CB) warfare have long been practiced, and although these types of warfare are not acceptable in modern times, this does not prevent them from occurring. This makes it important for societies to be able to appropriately respond to these events, including the best way to decontaminate victims to keep them and emergency responders safe. Decontamination methods such as chemical, physical, wet, and dry methods are discussed, as well as their downsides. Secondary contamination, which played a significant role in the Tokyo sarin attacks, has long been noted by anecdotal evidence, although it has been little studied. Biological agents cause more problems after infection has taken place, and thus preventing the spread of infection is the largest concern. There are many differences between military and civilian populations, and the response to mass casualty attacks differs accordingly. There are several emerging technologies that can make this process easier on all parties, such as bioscavengers, antitoxins, and color changing bleach for visualization. A reliable way to quantify decontamination is also needed, which would allow for better care of victims both in normal hospital situations, as well as during aeromedical transport. In addition, several gaps were identified, such as the lack of scientific basis for 90 percent reduction during decontamination, a way to quantify decontamination, and the lack of studies on toxic industrial chemicals and secondary contamination.


Assuntos
Guerra Biológica , Guerra Química , Descontaminação/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Militares , Guerra Nuclear , Humanos
17.
Nursing ; 49(11): 45-48, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651775

RESUMO

Promoted by President Nixon in 1972, Admiral Alene Duerk (1920-2018) was the first female admiral to serve in any navy in the world. This article highlights her accomplishments as a nurse and a military leader.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Militar/história , Militares/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1394, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse is an important contributor to sexual acquisition and transmission of HIV in military communities. This cross-sectional study quantified the prevalence of probable problematic alcohol use among male service members in the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC), identified associated factors, and investigated associations of alcohol misuse with risky sexual behaviors. METHODS: Participants included 2549 active duty male soldiers ≥ 18 years old. Data were collected via computer-assisted personal-interview from October 2013-April 2014. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to identify probable problematic alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥ 8) compared to no/low-risk alcohol use (AUDIT score ≤ 7). Bivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with probable problematic alcohol use. Several multivariable logistic regressions (adjusted for age, marital status, education level) were used to examine associations of probable problematic alcohol use with risky sexual behaviors. Tests were two sided; statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of men screened positive for probable problematic alcohol use. The odds of probable problematic alcohol use were elevated among men who were single and living with a partner (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.24-2.21), ranked as a non-commissioned officer [NCO] (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.10-1.77), and in the 30-39 and 40-49 age groups (OR 30-39 age group = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.56-3.02; OR 40-49 age group = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.26-2.55). Probable problematic alcohol use was associated with increased odds of having sex with a sex worker (SW), having multiple sexual partners, and participating in transactional sex (aOR sex with a SW = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.78-3.13; aOR multiple sexual partners = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.66-2.60; aOR transactional sex = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.59-2.50). CONCLUSIONS: Results emphasize the need to address alcohol use in the FARDC and integrate alcohol abuse education into HIV prevention programs among male service members. Alcohol abuse prevention efforts should target men who are 30-49 years of age, unmarried, and ranked as a NCO. Messages and interventions to reduce alcohol misuse in relation to risky sexual behaviors are needed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Militares/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 119, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial research has found that women assess their health as poor relative to men, but the reasons for this are not fully understood. Military women are characterised by good health and the ability to work in an archetypically male culture. Thus, studies on the gender pattern of self-reported health in military personnel could generate hypotheses for future research on the possible associations between gender and health. However, such studies are rare and limited to a few countries. The aim of this study was to examine self-reported physical and mental health in Norwegian military women. METHODS: We compared responses on self-reported health of 1068 active duty military women in Norway to those of active duty military men (n = 8100). Further, we compared the military women to civilian women working in the Norwegian Armed Forces (n = 1081). Participants were stratified into three age groups: 20-29; 30-39; and 40-60 years. We used Pearson Chi-square tests, Students t-tests and regression models to assess differences between the groups. RESULTS: The military women in our study reported physical illness and injuries equal to those of military men, but more military women used pain relieving and psychotropic drugs. More military women aged 20-29 and 30-39 years reported mental health issues than military men of the same age. In the age group 30-39 years, twice as many military women assessed their health as poor compared to military men. In the age group 40-60 years, more military women than men reported musculoskeletal pain. Military women used less smokeless tobacco than military men, but there were few differences in alcohol consumption and smoking. Military women appeared to be more physically healthy than civilian women, but we found few differences in mental health between these two groups. CONCLUSION: Most military women reported physical symptoms equal to those of military men, but there were differences between the genders in mental health and drug use. More favourable health compared to civilian women was most evident in the youngest age group and did not apply to mental health.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Militares/psicologia , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Análise de Regressão , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109664, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610450

RESUMO

Degradation of wetland ecosystems has negatively impacted many species, perhaps none more so than marsh birds that breed in vegetative emergent wetlands throughout North America. The U.S. Department of Defense manages approximately 29 million acres of land within the continental U.S., and many military installations contain wetland complexes that may be important for wetland birds. Thus, failure to adequately manage habitat for marsh birds could result in species extirpations and additional listings under the Endangered Species Act, and may result in regulatory burdens that reduce military readiness. We conducted spatial analyses to identify important breeding habitat on > 500 military installations for 12 species of marsh birds, with the goal of identifying installations that are, and are not, likely to harbor breeding habitat for each species. We also sought to assess the local value of military installations for species of greatest concern by comparing habitat suitability within installations to that in areas directly adjacent to those sites. We built range-wide, spatially-explicit models of species distribution to project suitability of breeding habitat for marsh birds within and adjacent to military installations. Our results demonstrate that installations with the best marsh bird habitat are geographically aggregated (both among and within species), primarily at sites along the eastern seaboard and within the southern U.S. In addition, only a few sites appear to contain high-quality habitat for most species. Five or fewer sites contained most of the high-quality habitat for 9 of 12 species, whereas most of the high-quality habitat for remaining species was found at ≤ 10 sites. This work fills an information gap regarding the distribution of breeding habitat for marsh birds on military lands across the U.S., and should facilitate both strategic conservation of habitat over broad scales and the integration of marsh birds into management efforts at the site level. Our analyses also identify installations that are not likely to harbor breeding habitat for priority species, and thus should help minimize conflicts between needs of the military and marsh-bird conservation.


Assuntos
Militares , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Aves , Cruzamento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , América do Norte
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