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1.
Am J Disaster Med ; 17(1): 49-56, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Military firefighters are the first responders in the event of a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) event in the Marseille area. They receive initial training to intervene safely in a CBRN context. We wanted to evaluate the use of CBRN personal protective equipment (PPE) at a distance from this training. METHOD: A prospective observational bicentric descriptive study on 20 operational firefighters operating on rescue and emergency vehicles. Two PPE dressing sessions, separated by 3 months, were evaluated and timed. A reminder of the correct procedure was given by the investigator after the first dressing. RESULTS: On average, 60.5 percent of the steps were correctly performed during the first dressing and 83 percent during the second dressing. Between the two dressings, there was a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in the team verification of the dressing and the chronological order of the dressing as well as the actions to be taken before dressing (remembering to make oneself comfortable, to urinate, to drink). The second dressing is on average 21 seconds faster than the first. Professional training and exercise experience of the firefighters in CBRN improve the success and speed of dressing in the absence of a prior reminder. CONCLUSION: Shorter and more frequent training and exercises, which simulate real-life situations for firefighters, lead to safer, more competent and faster donning of PPE.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Militares , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
2.
Vet Rec ; 191(3): 130, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929699

RESUMO

Reviewed by Paul Watkins, a veterinary surgeon with an interest in veterinary and medical history, who has published widely on these areas.


Assuntos
Militares , Medicina Veterinária/história , Animais , História do Século XX , Organizações
4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(2): 2101765, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936870

RESUMO

Background: Given the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly among military personnel, new treatment approaches are needed. One may be virtual relaxation interventions, especially 360-degree nature videos, since studies have demonstrated their relaxation effects for healthy participants. If these relaxation effects can be reproduced in patients with PTSD, they may offer a viable tool to reduce distress and hyperarousal. Objective: This research protocol describes a planned study that will examine the relaxation effects of 360-degree nature videos for patients with PTSD. It will also investigate whether these relaxation effects differ depending on the hardware immersion level (head-mounted display [HMD] vs. PC screen) in comparison to a control condition in which patients only listen to natural sounds and do not view a video. Finally, the effect of each intervention's dose duration (five vs. ten minutes) will be explored. Method: A counterbalanced, randomised, controlled, within-subject experiment will be conducted (sample size N = 36). Only soldiers aged 18 years or older with a primary diagnosis of PTSD will be included. Those with psychosis, substance dependence, a change in psychiatric medication within the last month, suicidal intent, and motion sickness will be excluded. All patients will experience the HMD, PC, and control conditions once for five or ten minutes. Self-reported relaxation measures will be collected before and after, and patients' skin conductance level, heart rate, and heart rate variability will be assessed during each condition. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to examine the patients' experiences in detail. Conclusions: This feasibility study will provide initial evidence of whether viewing 360-degree nature videos via HMD or PC screen is relaxing for patients with PTSD and whether the effects are greater compared with the control condition. The study will also validate the dose duration and thereby informing a subsequent confirmatory interventional trial. Trial registration: DRKS00020277. HIGHLIGHTS: This randomised controlled feasibility study will examine whether 360-degree nature videos are a suitable relaxation intervention for military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder.


Introducción: Dada la prevalencia del trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT), particularmente entre militares, se necesitan nuevos enfoques de tratamiento. Uno podría ser intervenciones de relajación virtual, especialmente videos de naturaleza de 360-grados, ya que los estudios han demostrado sus efectos de relajación para participantes sanos. Si estos efectos de relajación pueden reproducirse en pacientes con TEPT, podrían ofrecer una herramienta viable para reducir la angustia y la hiperalerta.Objetivo: Este protocolo de investigación describe un estudio planificado que examinará los efectos de relajación con videos de naturaleza de 360-grados, para pacientes con TEPT. También investigará de qué manera estos efectos de relajación difieren dependiendo del nivel de inmersión del hardware (pantalla montada en la cabeza [HMD] vs. pantalla de PC) en comparación con una condición de control en la que los pacientes solo escuchan los sonidos de la naturaleza y no ven un video. Finalmente, el efecto de la duración de la dosis de cada intervención (cinco vs diez minutos) será explorados.Método: Se llevará a cabo un experimento contrabalanceado, aleatorizado, controlado e intrasujeto (tamaño de muestra N = 36). Solo serán incluidos los soldados de 18 años o más con un diagnóstico primario de TEPT. Serán excluidos aquellos con psicosis, dependencia de sustancias, un cambio en la medicación psiquiátrica en el último mes y quienes presenten ideación suicida o cinetosis (mareo de movimiento). Todos los pacientes experimentarán las condiciones de HMD, PC y control una vez durante cinco o diez minutos. Las mediciones de relajación autoreportadas se recopilarán antes y después y el nivel de conductancia de la piel de los pacientes, la frecuencia cardíaca y la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca se evaluarán durante cada condición. Se realizarán entrevistas semiestructuradas para examinar las experiencias de los pacientes en detalle.Conclusiones: Este estudio de factibilidad proporcionará evidencia inicial de si visualizar videos de naturaleza de 360-grados a través de HMD o la pantalla de la PC es relajante para los pacientes con TEPT, y si los efectos son mayores comparados con la condición de control. El estudio también validará la duración de la dosis y operacionalización de los puntos de termino, informando así un ensayo interventivo confirmatorio posterior.


Assuntos
Militares , Terapia de Relaxamento , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Relaxamento , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915940

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the relationship between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH) in military secret service personnel. Methods: In October 2019, military secret service personnel (162 people) who were recuperating in a sanatorium from January to December 2017 were selected as the research subjects, all of whom were Han and male. The patients (79 people) who were diagnosed with EH according to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension in the "Chinese Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension" (2016 Revised Edition) were the case group, and the people with normal blood pressure (83 people) were the control group. Occupational epidemiological investigation was conducted, 5 ml of fasting cubital venous blood was collected, genomic DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method, and RAAS gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The distribution differences of genotype and allele frequency between groups were compared, and the relationship between genotype, allele frequency and EH was analyzed. Results: The average age of military secret service personnel was (38.2±5.3) years old, and there was no statistical significance in the average age and the age distribution over 40 years old of the case group and the control group (P>0.05) . There were significant differences in the distribution of AGT gene M235T locus, ACE gene I/D polymorphism genotype and allele between the case group and the control group (P<0.05) . The TT genotype with AGT gene M235T locus (OR=3.28, 95%CI: 1.21-8.91) and DD genotype with ACE gene (OR=2.86, 95%CI: 1.17-7.00) were risk factors for EH in military secret service personnel. Conclusion: The TT genotype of AGT gene M235T and the DD genotype of ACE gene may be the susceptibility genotypes of military secret service personnel for EH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Militares , Adulto , Hipertensão Essencial , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética
6.
Bull Hist Med ; 96(2): 211-236, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912619

RESUMO

This article explores attempts to control outbreaks of venereal diseases among prostitutes and imperial soldiers in Cairo and Alexandria leading up to and through World War I. Seeking to move beyond the usual colonial framing of center-periphery, it considers two British imperial outposts-Egypt and Australia-in conversation. The war brought thousands of Australian soldiers to Egypt, leaving their mark on Egypt and becoming marked by their time there, sometimes in indelible and deadly ways, as bodies and bodily fluids collided, and microbes passed between colonial and imperial subjects. The article argues that the highly racialized and classed system for regulating foreign and local prostitution that British officials implemented in Egypt to protect soldiers exacerbated rather than contained the spread of venereal diseases.


Assuntos
Colonialismo , Militares , Profissionais do Sexo , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Austrália , Egito/epidemiologia , Inglaterra , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/história
7.
Torture ; 32(1,2): 113-132, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950426

RESUMO

This paper documents the historical steps of the immediate reactions of the United Nations, Amnesty International, the World Council of Churches (WCC), the Inter-American Com-mission on Human Rights, and lawyers' or-ganisations in support of the victims of torture and others suffering gross violations of their human rights, as perpetrated by the Chilean military from 1973 to 1990. This article is also the history of the founding of the first rehabili-tation programs for torture victims in Chile in 1977 and the other care programs for victims under local and international churches' pro-tection during the worst period of the military dictatorship. The actions of denunciation and defense of the victims were possible through national and international networks sustained in collaborative work from inside and outside Chile, which lasted for 17 years. The results and lessons learned projected the creation of new commissions, funds, and international networks that continue today in the inter-national arena. The rehabilitation programs under the dictatorship began as a solidarity response to the needs of victims The reha-bilitation programs, born during the dictator-ship, projected their practice and experience to create a comprehensive health program as part of the State's reparation measures. The testimonies of the victims made it possible to understand the consequences of human rights violations on individuals and society. State policies and civil society actions have sought to contribute to the reparation of victims through rehabilitation actions directly. This paper is part of the memory of that past by reconstructing the solidarity actions of denunciation and rehabilitation, and the details of which are often unknown.


Assuntos
Militares , Tortura , Chile , Direitos Humanos , Humanos
8.
Torture ; 32(1,2): 172-176, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950431

RESUMO

The author advocates for a psychosocial and community perspective in the work with child soldiers, as torture survivors.


Assuntos
Militares , Tortura , Criança , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Militares/psicologia , Sobreviventes , Tortura/psicologia
10.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1300-1307, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased physical fitness, loss of vision and hearing, and increased risk of chronic diseases are significant primary and secondary implications associated with the health of U.S. Military Service members who use tobacco, including electronic cigarettes. Despite the medical and non-medical costs to the U.S. Department of Defense and potential adverse health effects to Service members, electronic cigarette use is on the rise. METHODS: U.S. Military Service members who completed their Periodic Health Assessment, a standardized, electronic, logic-based tool, from July 2018 to July 2019 were eligible. This exploratory study examines the prevalence and significant risk factors associated with self-reported use of electronic cigarettes, as well as determines if tobacco use varies by sex and Service branch, through use of Chi-square analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: U.S. Military Service members 17-70 years old were included in this study (N = 1.12 M), with 80% of study participants being male and 20% female. Exposure to secondhand smoke (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 2.15-2.22) and screening positive for hazardous drinking (OR: 2.70, 95% CI: 2.64-2.76) were found to show the greatest increase in odds of using electronic cigarettes, with similar findings after stratification by sex and Service branch. Stratification by Service branch revealed further differences in the association between electronic cigarette use and various demographic, military, lifestyle, and health characteristics. CONCLUSION: Electronic cigarette use is increasing across the United States. U.S. Service members have unique risk factors and patterns of tobacco use. Despite tobacco use having potential adverse effects on military readiness, its use remains prevalent in this population. Our findings identify opportunities for the U.S. Department of Defense to review tobacco policy and availability and accessibility of cessation services to promote quitting tobacco, especially electronic cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Militares , Vaping , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychol Serv ; 19(3): 431-442, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878068

RESUMO

The current study examined (a) how veteran status, race, and other individual characteristics are associated with any lifetime incarceration in the U.S. adult population; and (b) differences between veterans and other adults with any incarceration histories on sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial characteristics. Data from structured interviews conducted in 2012-2013 on a nationally representative sample of 36,121 U.S. adults were analyzed. Results showed that male gender, U.S. born, history of homelessness, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and various substance use disorders were independently associated with any lifetime incarceration (all adjusted odds ratios [AORs] ≥ 1.5). Veteran status was not significantly associated with any lifetime incarceration (AOR = 1.12). Among adults with any lifetime incarceration, veterans were more likely to be male than nonveterans (AOR = 5.90), but were otherwise similar in sociodemographic background, physical and mental health, and psychosocial characteristics. Being black was moderately associated with lifetime incarceration among both veterans and nonveterans (AOR = 1.54 and 1.50, respectively) with no significant veteran × race interaction. Collectively, these findings suggest veterans and nonveterans are similarly represented among Americans with any lifetime incarceration and share similar factors associated with incarceration. Although prevalence of incarceration did vary by race, psychosocial and substance abuse factors emerged as the major factors associated with incarceration, highlighting the importance of behavioral health and social services for at-risk adults across military and civilian settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Militares , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Veteranos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/psicologia
12.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(7): 562-570, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to traumatic events could increase post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk among enlisted U.S. Army drone operators. Published research on PTSD risk in this population is unavailable.METHODS: We used a combined medical and administrative longitudinal dataset to examine adjusted associations between drone operator service among U.S. Army enlisted members and three PTSD indicators: whether screened via the PTSD Checklist - Civilian (PCL-C); PCL-C scores; and incident PTSD diagnoses. We compiled summary statistics for and conducted tests of differences in independent variable distributions when comparing drone operators and others. Two multivariable survival regression models and an ordinary least squares model were used to estimate adjusted associations.RESULTS: There were 1.68 million person-years of observed time in the study population (N = 678,548; drone operator N = 2856). Compared to other servicemembers, the adjusted likelihood of undergoing PTSD screening was 35% lower [95% confidence interval (CI) for the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 0.56-0.76]. Among subjects who took the PCL-C, scores did not differ significantly on the basis of drone operator service (adjusted change: -1.26 points; CI: -3.41-0.89). The adjusted hazard of receiving a PTSD diagnosis was 34% lower among drone operators (CI: 0.54-0.80).DISCUSSION: These findings provide reassurance that enlisted U.S. Army drone operators are not at increased risk of PTSD. Further research is needed in order to identify the mechanisms of the decreased PTSD risk observed, and whether other or longer-term mental health risks are present among those in this occupation.Nelson DA, Wilson M, Kurina LM. Post-traumatic stress disorder among U.S. Army drone operators. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(7):562-570.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Aéreos não Tripulados
13.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(7): 571-580, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The practice of self-medication among military fighter aircrew could compromise flight safety because of the adverse effects that can occur in flight. However, data on this subject is scarce. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of the practice in this population.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the French Air Force fighter aircrew based on an anonymous questionnaire distributed electronically. The questions included personal characteristics, opinions, and relations with the healthcare domain as well as the use of self-medication in general and before a flight.RESULTS: Between March and November 2020, 170 questionnaires were reviewed for an overall return rate of approximately 34%. Our data showed an absolute self-medication rate of 97.6%, but the frequency of its use was rare or nonexistent in 53.5% of cases. Factors associated with a more frequent use of self-medication were the function of pilot, age under 35, having a regular prescription, lacking intentionality toward getting enough sleep, having confidence in the medical profession, and some specific clinical situations. The consumption of 97 medications was recorded and 49 before a flight.DISCUSSION: Despite the limitations due to the design of this survey, results suggest that the use of self-medication in fighter aircrews is a reality, but that the frequency of its use is less common. This practice is probably the result of a complex interaction between many personal factors. However, its impact on flight safety remains uncertain.du Baret de Limé M, Monin J, Leschiera J, Duquet J, Manen O, Chiniard T. Self-medication among military fighter aircrews. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(7):571-580.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Militares , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(7): 557-561, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies have documented the impact of insufficient sleep on soldier performance, most studies have done so using artificial measures of performance (e.g., tablet or simulator tests). The current study sought to test the relationship between sleep and soldier performance during infantry battle drill training, a more naturalistic measure of performance.METHODS: Subjects in the study were 15 junior Special Operations infantry soldiers. Soldiers wore an actigraph and reported their subjective sleep duration and quality prior to close quarter battle (CQB) drills. Experienced leaders monitored each iteration of the CQB exercise and recorded the number of errors committed.RESULTS: The number of errors committed during the live ammunition iterations was negatively correlated with subjective number of hours slept and subjective sleep efficiency/quality during the month prior. Soldiers with subjective sleep duration ≥7 h had a significantly lower number of errors than soldiers with subjective sleep duration <7 h (1.71 vs. 0.63 errors), and soldiers with sleep quality <85% committed more errors than those with sleep quality ≥85% (1.50 vs. 0.40 errors).DISCUSSION: These data preliminarily suggest that sleep quality and duration may influence subsequent performance on infantry battle drill training, particularly for soldiers with limited experience in battle drill conduction who have not yet perfected battle drill techniques. Future studies should enact sleep augmentation to determine the causal influence of sleep on performance in this setting.Mantua J, Shevchik JD, Chaudhury S, Eldringhoff HP, Mickelson CA, McKeon AB. Sleep and infantry battle drill performance in Special Operations soldiers. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(7):557-561.


Assuntos
Militares , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Militares/educação , Privação do Sono
15.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(7): 593-596, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859314

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Israel began vaccinating with the booster dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in July 2021, before the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized the vaccine in September 2021. The first and second vaccines were shown to have several side effects that could possibly affect aircrews' fitness to fly. Thus, the Israel Air Force (IAF) decided on a disqualification period of 24 h following the first vaccine, and 48 h following the second vaccine. The aim of this study was to determine the disqualification period following the booster dose of the vaccine.METHODS: A survey was conducted among IAF aviators in the Aeromedical Center (AMC) in order to characterize the side effects and their duration following a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine booster dose.RESULTS: The most common local side effect was injection site pain. The most common systemic side effects were general weakness, fatigue, and myalgia. Duration of side effects was up to 48 h from vaccine administration among the majority of aircrew members.CONCLUSION: The IAF AMC policy for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine booster dose recipients is to disqualify from flight for 48 h following the vaccination.Ekshtein A, Hay G, Shapira S, Ben-Ari O. Return to flying duties following a COVID-19 booster dose. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(7):593-596.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Militares , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Israel
16.
Physiol Rep ; 10(13): e15385, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818300

RESUMO

Initial military training (IMT) results in increased fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased fat mass (FM). The underlying metabolic adaptations facilitating changes in body composition during IMT are unknown. The objective of this study was to assess changes in body composition and the serum metabolome during 22-week US Army IMT. Fifty-four volunteers (mean ± SD; 22 ± 3 year; 24.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2 ) completed this longitudinal study. Body composition measurements (InBody 770) and blood samples were collected under fasting, rested conditions PRE and POST IMT. Global metabolite profiling was performed to identify metabolites involved in energy, carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism (Metabolon, Inc.). There was no change in body mass (POST-PRE; 0.4 ± 5.1 kg, p = 0.59), while FM decreased (-1.7 ± 3.5 kg, p < 0.01), and FFM increased (2.1 ± 2.8 kg, p < 0.01) POST compared to PRE IMT. Of 677 identified metabolites, 340 differed at POST compared to PRE (p < 0.05, Q < 0.10). The majority of these metabolites were related to fatty acid (73%) and amino acid (26%) metabolism. Increases were detected in 41% of branched-chain amino acid metabolites, 53% of histidine metabolites, and 35% of urea cycle metabolites. Decreases were detected in 93% of long-chain fatty acid metabolites, while 58% of primary bile acid metabolites increased. Increases in amino acid metabolites suggest higher rates of protein turnover, while changes in fatty acid metabolites indicate increased fat oxidation, which likely contribute changes in body composition during IMT. Overall, changes in metabolomics profiles provide insight into metabolic adaptions underlying changes in body composition during IMT.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Militares , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos
17.
Anesth Analg ; 135(2S Suppl 1): S14-S17, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839828

RESUMO

This special article briefly discusses the role of women as the new journal Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia (now Anesthesia & Analgesia [A&A]) began in 1922. It was a time of a few women physicians, and they were usually isolated from the world of mainstream medicine and its predominantly male practitioners The journal's founders, Frank McMechan and his wife Laurette of Cincinnati, were committed to developing an organization for everyone, and women physicians were welcomed early on. Three women physicians even served as the presidents of various anesthesia organizations early in the formation of the present national organization. This acceptance of women was to change as medical education and practice evolved to embrace scientific medicine, after the Flexner Report of 1910 documented the deficiencies of American medicine. Mrs McMechan made the most important contributions by a woman because she cared totally for Dr McMechan, after he experienced disabling and very severe arthritis. He became dependent on his wife for most activities, including the simple act of eating. He could not function without her; she kept him going physically for another 27 years after the onset of his very debilitating illness. After her husband's death in 1939, Mrs McMechan served an executive function, keeping the organization going and maintaining production of the journal. This article also briefly discusses the life of the first woman physician to publish an article in A&A, Frances Edith Haines, MD, of Chicago. Haines published several articles in the journal; the first was in 1922, in the second journal issue. She was the president of the Mid-Western Association of Anesthetists, an affiliated organization, in 1926. She also served in World War I as a contract physician anesthetist for the US Army; she was the first woman contract surgeon to go overseas, to Limoges, France. Her adventure-filled and bold life changed as she aged and developed financial problems. She tried, but failed, to get financial help from the government and the military for her war service, and she died in 1966. These women are examples of women physicians involved with the journal, as it began in 1922. As the number of women physicians has increased recently, some past problems, such as difficulty with getting admitted to medical schools, for example, have improved. However, there are still many issues for women in medicine, including in our specialty.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Anestesiologia , Militares , Médicas , Idoso , Anestesiologistas , Anestesiologia/história , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicas/história
18.
Wiad Lek ; 75(6): 1425-1433, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analize the legislative activity of MOH of Ukraine in wartime. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Were conducted a study of the orders for the first 30 days of the Russian military invasion by the method of content analysis. Using the method of deduction, the all orders was divided into areas of their influence. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Twenty-nine orders were found during the first month of the war, which regulated the issues of medical care, circulation of drugs, blood transfusions, drugs, medical records, etc. Particular attention is paid to the organization of affordable medical care for all segments of the population, including the involvement of interns, senior students of medical institutions of higher education, as well as foreign professionals. The analysis of the legislative activity of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine to optimize the functioning of the medical care system for both military and civilian population in the context of Russian military aggression showed the Ministry's prompt response to time and high activity in the first two weeks of the war.


Assuntos
Militares , Etnicidade , Humanos , Federação Russa , Ucrânia
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e062617, 2022 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determination of reference intervals (RIs) using big data faces several obstacles due to heterogeneity in analysers, period and ethnicity. The present study aimed to establish the RIs for routine common blood count (CBC) and biochemistry laboratory tests in homogeneous, healthy, male Korean soldiers in their 20s using a large health check-up data set, comparing parametric and non-parametric estimation. DESIGN: A multicentre, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Seven armed forces hospitals in South Korea. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 609 649 men underwent health examination when promoted to corporal between January 2015 and September 2021. 260 889 eligible individuals aged 20-25 were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The RIs were established by parametric and non-parametric methods. In the parametric approach, maximum likelihood estimation was applied to measure the Box-Cox transformation parameter and the values at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were recalculated. The non-parametric approach adopted the Tukey's exclusion test and the values at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were obtained. Classification by body mass index was also performed. RESULTS: The obtained RIs for haematology parameters were comparable between devices. If the values followed a Gaussian distribution, parametric and non-parametric methods were well matched for haematology and biochemical markers. When the values were right-skewed, the upper limits were higher with parametric than with non-parametric methods. Participants with obesity showed higher RIs for CBC, some liver function tests and some lipid profiles than participants without obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Using data from healthy, male Korean soldiers in their 20s, we proposed the RIs for CBC and biochemical parameters, comparing parametric and non-parametric estimation. As such approaches based on large data sets become more prevalent, further studies are needed to discriminate eligible individuals and determine RIs in an extrapolated sample.


Assuntos
Militares , Asiáticos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Valores de Referência
20.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 54(8): 1364-1370, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A high mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) incidence rate exists in military and sport. Hypopituitarism is an mTBI sequela; however, few studies have examined this phenomenon in those with an mTBI history. This cross-sectional study of Special Operations Forces combat soldiers aimed 1) to relate anterior pituitary gland volumes (actual and normalized) to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations, 2) to examine the effect of mTBI history on anterior pituitary gland volumes (actual and normalized) and IGF-1 concentrations, and 3) to measure the odds of demonstrating lower anterior pituitary gland volumes (actual and normalized) or IGF-1 concentrations if self-reporting mTBI history. METHODS: Anterior pituitary gland volumes were manually segmented from T1-weighted 3D brain MRI sequences; IGF-1 serum concentrations were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Correlations and linear regression were used to determine the association between IGF-1 serum concentration and anterior pituitary gland volume (n = 74). Independent samples t-tests were used to compare outcomes between mTBI groups and logistic regression models were fit to test the odds of demonstrating IGF-1 concentration or anterior pituitary volume less than sample median based on mTBI group (n = 54). RESULTS: A significant linear relationship between the subjects' anterior pituitary gland volumes and IGF-1 concentrations (r72 = 0.35, P = 0.002) was observed. Soldiers with mTBI history had lower IGF-1 concentrations (P < 0.001) and lower anterior pituitary gland volumes (P = 0.037) and were at greater odds for IGF-1 serum concentrations less than the sample median (odds ratio = 5.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.77-18.55). CONCLUSIONS: Anterior pituitary gland volume was associated with IGF-1 serum concentrations. Mild TBI history may be adversely associated with anterior pituitary gland volumes and IGF-1 concentrations. Longitudinal IGF-1 and anterior pituitary gland monitoring may be indicated in those who report one or more mTBI.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Militares , Adeno-Hipófise , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Adeno-Hipófise/metabolismo
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