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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 248: 111-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671689

RESUMO

Metal-rich sediments have the potential to impair life in freshwater streams and rivers and, thereby, to inhibit recovery of ecological conditions after any remediation of mine water discharges. Sediments remain metal-rich over long time periods and have long-term potential ecotoxicological interactions with local biota, unless the sediments themselves are physically removed or replaced by less metal-rich sediment. Laboratory-derived environmental quality standards are difficult to apply to the field situation, as many complicating factors exist in the real world. Therefore, there is a strong case to consider other, field-relevant, measures of toxic effects as alternatives to laboratory-derived standards and to seek better biological tools to detect, diagnose and ideally predict community-level ecotoxicological impairment. Hence, this review concentrated on field measures of toxic effects of metal-rich sediment in freshwater streams, with less emphasis on laboratory-based toxicity testing approaches. To this end, this review provides an overview of the impact of metal-rich sediments on freshwater stream life, focusing on biological impacts linked to metal contamination.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/análise , Mineração , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Doce , Sedimentos Geológicos/química
2.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1549-1556, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589739

RESUMO

We report a preliminary assessment of ferrate [Fe(VI)] for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD), focused on precipitation of metals (i.e., iron [Fe] and manganese [Mn]) and subsequent removal. Two dosing approaches were studied to simulate the two commercially viable forms of Fe(VI) production: Fe(VI) only, and Fe(VI) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Subsequent metal speciation was assessed via filter fractionation. When only Fe(VI) was added, the pH remained <3.6, and the precipitation of Mn and Fe was <30 and <70%, respectively, at the highest, stoichiometrically excessive Fe(VI) dose. When NaOH and Fe(VI) were added simultaneously, precipitation of Mn was much more complete, at doses near the predicted oxidation stoichiometric requirement. The optimal dosage of Fe(VI) for Mn treatment was 25 µM. The formation of Mn(VII) was noted at Fe(VI) dosages above the stoichiometric requirement, which would be problematic in full-scale AMD treatment systems. Precipitation of Fe was >99% when only NaOH was added, indicating that oxidation by Fe(VI) did not play a significant role when added. The Fe(III) and Al(III) particles were relatively large, suggesting probable success in subsequent removal through sedimentation. Resultant Mn-oxide particles were relatively small, indicating that additional particle destabilization may be required to meet Mn effluent goals. Ferrate seems viable for the treatment of AMD, especially when sourced through onsite generation due to the coexistence of NaOH in the product stream. More research on the use of Fe(VI) for AMD treatment is required to answer extant questions.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Ferro , Manganês , Mineração , Oxirredução
3.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109542, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569024

RESUMO

Microbial community is sensitive to the variations of environment, and it plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling in acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, an integrated high-throughput absolute abundance quantification (iHAAQ) method was applied to study the dynamics of microbial community and the characteristics of microorganism. The results showed a significant difference in bacterial community with diversity being higher in watershed area. The main influential factors for bacterial communities in watershed were physicochemical properties (e.g., pH and potassium), while in mining areas the main driving factors were metals/metalloids (e.g., As, Zn, and Pb). Notably, the major functions of microbial community were transporter and ABC transporter in mining area, while two-component system was more abundant in watershed by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation analysis (level 3). In particular, Phyllobacterium, Bacteroides, and Sulfurovum were demonstrated to be potentially useful bacterial species for bioremediation, which should be a good choice for future studies. These results could facilitate our understanding of microbial diversity in different sediments of mining areas and identify microbial communities for bioremediation projects.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rios , Ácidos , Bactérias , Mineração
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1100-1109, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470473

RESUMO

Jarosite is an iron-hydroxysulfate mineral commonly found in acid mine drainage (AMD). Given its strong adsorption capacity and its ability to co-precipitation with heavy metals, jarosite is considered a potent scavenger of contaminants in AMD-impacted environments. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play an important role in the reductive dissolution of jarosite; however, the mechanism involved has yet to be elucidated. In this study, an indigenous SRB community enriched from the Dabaoshan mine area (Guangdong, China) was employed to explore the mechanism of the microbial reduction of jarosite. Different cultures, with or without dissolved sulfate and the physical separation of jarosite from bacteria by dialysis bags, were examined. Results indicate that the reduction of jarosite by SRB occurred via an indirect mechanism. In systems with dissolved sulfate, lactate was incompletely oxidized to acetate coupled with the reduction of SO42- to S2-, which subsequently reduced the Fe3+ in jarosite, forming secondary minerals including vivianite, mackinawite and pyrite. In systems without dissolved sulfate, jarosite dissolution occurred prior to reduction, and similar secondary minerals formed as well. Extracellular polymeric substances secreted by SRB appeared to facilitate the release of sulfate from jarosite. Structural sulfate in the solid phase of jarosite may not be available for SRB respiration. Although direct contact between SRB and jarosite is not necessary for mineral reduction, wrapping jarosite into dialysis bags suppressed the reduction to a certain extent. Microbial community composition differed in direct contact treatments and physical separation treatments. Physical separation of the SRB community from jarosite mineral supported the growth of Citrobacter, while Desulfosporosinus dominated in direct contact treatments.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiologia Ambiental , Compostos Férricos , Metais Pesados , Mineração , Sulfatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água
5.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109581, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563048

RESUMO

Mining-industry is one of the most important activities in the economic development of many countries and produces highly significant alterations on the environment, mainly due to the release of a strong acidic metal-rich wastewater called acid mine drainage (AMD). Consequently, the establishment of multiple wastewater treatment strategies remains as a fundamental challenge in AMD research. Bioremediation, as a constantly-evolving multidisciplinary endeavor had been complemented during the last decades by novel tools of increasingly higher resolution such as those based on omics approaches, which are providing detailed insights into the ecology, evolution and mechanisms of microbial communities acting in bioremediation processes. This review specifically addresses, reanalyzes and reexamines in a composite comparative manner, the available sequence information and associated metadata available in public databases about AMD impacted microbial communities; summarizing our understanding of its composition and functions, and proposing potential genetic enhancements for improved bioremediation strategies. 16 S rRNA gene-targeted sequencing data from 9 studies previously published including AMD systems reported and studied around the world, were collected and reanalyzed to compare and identify the core and most abundant genera in four distinct AMD ecosystems: surface biofilm, water, impacted soils/sediments and bioreactor microbiomes. We determined that the microbial communities of bioreactors were the most diverse in bacterial types detected. The metabolic pathways predicted strongly suggest the key role of syntrophic communities with denitrification, methanogenesis, manganese, sulfate and iron reduction. The perspectives to explore the dynamics of engineering systems by high-throughput sequencing and biochemical techniques are discussed and foreseen application of synthetic biology and omics exploration on improved AMD biotransformation are proposed.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Mineração , Ácidos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1257-1266, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539957

RESUMO

Phosphate mining activities on Christmas Island began in the late 1800's providing a unique, long-term case study in which to assess the impacts of mining on coral reef development. Watershed modelling was used to identify potential "hotspots" of mining runoff on to adjacent reefs. Pollution hotspots were also confirmed by analysis of reef sediment. Phosphate rich mining runoff flowed from local watersheds onto nearshore coral reefs with levels of up to 54,000 mg/kg of total phosphate recorded in reef sediment at the Dryers reef site adjacent to the main phosphate storage facility. Using this combination of watershed modelling and in-situ sediment contamination data we identified six coral reef sites along an environmental impact gradient. In-situ benthic transects were paired with a new rubble-encruster method enabling the analysis to combine large scale transect information alongside fine-scale data on epibenthic and encruster assemblages. Results demonstrate that phosphate rich sediment loading negatively impacted coral reef building communities, in particular, branching corals and calcareous encrusting organisms, critical to the future survival of coral reef ecosystems. These findings highlight the importance of curtailing runoff and pollution from catchment based mining activities and protecting reefs for the future.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração , Fosfatos , Agricultura , Animais , Antozoários , Austrália
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2803-2812, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418206

RESUMO

Under the background of domestic and international pressure of carbon emission reduction and the requirement of energy structure adjustment, renewable energy development is under great pressure in China. Renewable energy development on abandoned mine areas has great potential due to its large area. It has great significance to develop renewable energy on abandoned mine areas for China's energy strategy. This study proposed the development scenarios of biomass energy and solar energy and estimated the development potential of renewable energy on abandoned mine areas in Liaoning Province. The results showed that the area of abandoned mine areas in Liaoning Pro-vince is 1227.6 km2, the potential of renewable energy development is large, and the potential of renewable energy in each scenario is quite different. In scenario 1, with the goal mode of maximizing the generation of photovoltaic power, the total generating capacity is 79.4 TWh, the total coal discount is 32.1 Mt standard coal, and the carbon reduction is 79.1 Mt CO2. In scenario 2, with the goal mode of maximizing biomass energy utilization, the total power generation from photovoltaic and biomass energy is 31.2-33.1 TWh, the total coal discount is 12.7-13.4 Mt standard coal, and the carbon emission reduction is 31.1-33.0 Mt CO2. In scenario 3, with the goal mode of maximizing comprehensive utilization of mine energy and consideration of ecological restoration, the total gene-rating capacity from photovoltaic and biomass energy is 62.3-63.7 TWh, the total coal discount is 25.1-25.7 Mt standard coal, and the carbon emission reduction is 62.1-63.5 Mt CO2. Under the three scenarios, the generation capacity range of is 31.2-79.4 TWh, accounting for 15.3%-38.9% of the total power consumption in Liaoning Province in 2016, which could be converted into 12.7-32.1 Mt standard coal, and contribute to a reduction of 31.1-79.1 Mt CO2 emission. The calculations of new energy development potential on abandoned mine areas and quantification of its capacity of alternatives to fossil energy will be helpful for carbon emission reduction, energy structure adjustment, and the recovery of the mining ecosystem.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Mineração , Energia Renovável , Carbono , China
8.
Waste Manag ; 98: 113-125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445456

RESUMO

Landfill owners, governmental institutions, technology providers, academia and local communities are important stakeholders involved in Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). This concept of excavating and processing historical waste streams to higher added values can be seen as a continuation of traditional landfill mining (LFM) and seems to be an innovative and promising idea for potential environmental and societal benefits. However, ELFM's profitability is still under debate, and environmental as well as societal impacts have to be further investigated. This study provides a first step towards an anticipatory approach, assessing ELFM through stakeholder integration. In the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with various stakeholders, involved in a case study in Flanders, Belgium. Participants were selected across a quadruple helix (QH) framework, i.e. industrial, governmental, scientific, and local community actors. The research comprises 13 interviews conducted with an aim to elicit stakeholder needs for ELFM implementation using a general inductive approach. In total 18 different stakeholder needs were identified. The paper explains how the stakeholder needs refer to the different dimensions of sustainability, which groups of stakeholders they primarily affect, and what types of uncertainty could be influenced by their implementation. The stakeholder needs are structured into societal, environmental, regulatory and techno-economic needs. Results show additional economic, environmental, and societal aspects of ELFM to be integrated into ELFM research, as well as a need for the dynamic modeling of impacts.


Assuntos
Mineração , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Bélgica
9.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109357, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401446

RESUMO

This study assessed the effectiveness of the current cyanide management practice of a large gold mine as a case study of Thailand's cyanide-contaminated mine waste management policy. Most gold mines worldwide use cyanide to extract gold from ore, and various cyanide compounds, including hydrogen cyanide (HCN), are then discharged into a tailing storage facility (TSF). From there, HCN volatizes into the air, and people inhaling HCN can experience chronic, acute, or even fatal effects. Although recently only two gold mines operated in Thailand, many new gold mines are under consideration for future. Unfortunately, no specific government regulations for cyanide-contaminated mine waste management exist besides guidelines from environmental impact assessments prepared by the gold mines themselves. This raises concerns that cyanide volatilization may threaten public health. The current study addresses the need for vital scientific analysis by applying AERMOD modeling to simulate HCN dispersion from the gold mine studied, under 20 scenarios of various pH levels and cyanide concentrations. The results show that the HCN emissions cause acute effects to the public under most scenarios. Chronic effects also occur in scenarios of low pH or high cyanide concentration; however, no simulation showed fatalities. This study determined an acceptable cyanide concentration in TSF that is low enough to theoretically avoid dangerous public exposure. Results show that the mine's recent cyanide discharge limit of 20 mg/l, set by the mine itself, is not safe. To limit dangers from the mine's HCN emissions, cyanide levels in tailings must be carefully calculated and regulated using the HCN dispersion model, being sure to account for pH.


Assuntos
Ouro , Cianeto de Hidrogênio , Cianetos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrogênio , Mineração , Tailândia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1244-1254, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466163

RESUMO

Bioaccessibility (BAC) of fine surface dust (FSD, particle size ≤10 µm) and surface dust samples (particle size ≤250 µm) collected from a gold mining district was used as a tool to determine the portion of arsenic that would be available via simulated lung and gastrointestinal (G.I) fluids. BAC was considered low for both tests (lung 2.7 ±â€¯1%, n = 5 and G.I 3.4 ±â€¯2%, n = 14 for residential surface dust samples). An analytical procedure was developed to further identify arsenic-bearing phases found in FSD samples and analyze the main components that regulate arsenic solubility. Up to five different arsenic-bearing phases were identified among a total of 35 minerals surveyed by scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (Mineral Liberation Analyzer - MLA). Arsenic-bearing Fe oxy-hydroxides and mixed phases comprised the main arsenic phases encountered in FSD samples, thus likely being responsible for regulating arsenic bioaccessibility. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the mixed phases comprised a mix of oriented nanostructure aggregates formed by hematite and goethite entangled with phyllosilicates. The main As-bearing phases identified in FSD samples are similar to those reported in soil samples in the same region. The predominant arsenic-bearing phase encountered in the ore was arsenopyrite, mostly in large particles (>10 µm in size), and therefore unlikely to be found in residential dust. Arsenic intake from both inhalation and ingestion were minimal when compared to total arsenic intake (considering food and water ingestion), which itself was <7% of the value established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit (BMDL0.5) of 3.0 µg per kg-1 body weight per day. These results indicated that the relative risks associated with arsenic exposure by inhalation and oral ingestion in this region are low.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109443, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398782

RESUMO

The continuous presence of toxic elements in the aquatic environments around mine tailings occurs due to bioleaching or chemical extraction promoted by the mining operations. Biogenic passivation treatment of tailings dams can be a new environment-friendly technique to inhibit the solubility of heavy metals. In spite of current bioleaching researches, we tried to minimize the mobility of the trace elements in the laboratory scale through the formation of a passivation layer in the presence of a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) represented the jarosite generation as an inhibitory layer on the mineral surfaces of the tested materials. More detailed observations on electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) showed the co-precipitation of metals with the passivation layer. Thereby, the passivation layer demonstrates potential in elements immobilization which, in turn, can be optimized in the natural systems. Our working hypothesis was to exploit and optimize the formation of the passivation layer to maximize the immobilization of heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Cr). The optimization process of bioleaching experiments using indigenous bacteria caused a reduced solubility for Cu (from around 20% to 4.5%) and Cr (from around 30% to 10.6%) and the formation of 6.5 gr passivation layer. The analyses finally represented the high efficiency of the passivation technique to minimize metals bioleaching in comparison to earlier studies.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/química , Mineração , Sulfetos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Acidithiobacillus , Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostos Férricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais , Solubilidade , Sulfatos , Sulfetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109458, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398784

RESUMO

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a significant contributor of metal pollution leading to ecosystem damage. Bioindicator organisms such as intertidal brown macroalgae have an important role in quantifying the risks of metal bioaccumulation in coastal locations exposed to AMD contamination. Measurement of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn accumulation was performed in Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum sampled from two marine locations near to an abandoned Cu mine in Anglesey, Wales, UK. Transect samples were taken from a coastal location (Amlwch) that has seen a substantial increase in AMD contamination over 15 years, in comparison to a nearby estuarine location (Dulas Estuary leading to Dulas Bay) with a historic legacy of pollution. These were compared with samples from the same sites taken 30 years earlier. Some of the Dulas macroalgae samples had Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations that were above background but in general indicated a non-polluted estuary in comparison to substantial pollution over previous decades. In contrast, Fucus samples collected from directly below an AMD outflow at Amlwch showed extremely elevated metal bioaccumulation (>250 mg Fe g-1, >6 mg Cu g-1, >2 mg Zn g-1, >190 µg As g-1) and evidence of macroalgae toxicity, indicating severe pollution at this site. However, the pollution dispersed within 200 m of the outflow source. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of three brown macroalgae species as indicators for metal bioavailability at high spatial resolution and over time.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metais/análise , Mineração , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Alga Marinha , País de Gales
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 538, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377862

RESUMO

In this study, metal accumulation in green sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) was investigated near the former Black Angel lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland. Sea urchins (n = 9-11; 31-59 mm in diameter) were collected from three stations located at < 1 km, 5 km, and 12 km (reference site) away from the former mine site, respectively. After collection, tissue of the sea urchins was divided into gonads and remaining soft parts (viscera) before subjected to chemical analyses. Focus was on eight elements found in elevated concentrations in the mine waste (iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, silver, cadmium, mercury and lead). Sea urchins at the mine site contained significantly more copper, mercury and lead compared with the reference site for both the gonads and viscera, while the latter also contained significantly more iron, zinc and silver. Arsenic and cadmium were not significantly elevated in sea urchins at the mine site. Most elements were found in higher concentrations in the viscera compared with the gonads. For comprehensive monitoring of metal pollution at mine sites, a diverse selection of monitoring organisms is necessary. The study shows that green sea urchins accumulate selected metals and can be used as a monitoring organism for mining pollution, at least for iron, copper, zinc, silver, mercury and lead. However, the results also show that green sea urchins are less likely to reflect small environmental changes in loading of most metals (except iron, copper and silver) and for arsenic compared to suspension feeders such as blue mussels.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Mytilus edulis/química , Strongylocentrotus/química , Zinco/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Groenlândia , Mineração
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 536, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377907

RESUMO

San Jorge Bay (23° S) is characterised by a permanent coastal upwelling front and a thermal front that influence water circulation into the bay. This bay constantly receives effluents from different mining activities. Several studies have demonstrated different levels of heavy metals in waters and sediments within the bay. The clam Protothaca thaca is a bivalve with sedentary habits, which is distributed along the Peruvian and Chilean coasts and is exploited commercially. During 2010, clams were collected inside the bay: north (La Chimba), centre (Paraíso) and south (Llacolén), as well as from a site outside the bay (Bolsico). Haematological parameters, condition factor index, lesions, parasites and pathogens and heavy metal concentrations in clam tissues were determined. The health indicators of clams inhabiting the bay varied between sites. Clams inside the bay showed higher prevalence and intensity of parasites and lesions than those clams inhabiting the site outside the bay, which could be indicating the presence of some environmental stressor (e.g. heavy metals). This study is the first to evaluate the health status of organisms from San Jorge Bay, and our results support the hypothesis that clams P. thaca can be used to evaluate environmental quality.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Frutos do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Baías , Chile , Meio Ambiente , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Mineração , Parasitos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109424, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299478

RESUMO

The synthesis of a humic acid-layered double hydroxide (HA-LDH) hybrid was purposed for the remediation of contaminated soils in mining area. The hybrid was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. In order to investigate the effect of HA-LDH on the mine soil, greenhouse experiments of Artemisia ordosica were carried out under different concentrations of amendments (0, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%). The plant growth, metal availability, and soil enzyme activities were studied to determine the effects of HA-LDH. The mine soil with 5% HA-LDH was the optimum proportion, and the growth of Artemisia ordosica was in good status. The HA-LDH and Artemisia ordosica could effectively decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals (such as Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Zn, and As) in the mine soil, and improve the enzyme activities of ß-glucosidase, urease, and phosphatase. The HA-LDH with magnetism could be easily separated. The characteristics and reusability of HA-LDH could be well maintained after five cycles of remediation. Consequently, the HA-LDH is promising for the remediation of contaminated soils in mining area.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Metais Pesados/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Solo/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidróxidos/química , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109432, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306919

RESUMO

Vegetation cover can be used in the phytomanagement of polluted areas by adding value to abandoned sites and reducing the dispersion of pollutants by erosion. Appropriate amendments, that allow both efficient plant growth and the immobilization of contaminants in the soil must be chosen in order to optimize the efficiency of this process. We used a mining technosol mainly contaminated by arsenic (1068 mg kg-1) and lead (23387 mg kg-1) to study the effect of three amendments (biochar, compost and iron grit) on (i) physico-chemical properties of the soil and soil pore water, (ii) metal(loid) mobility, bioavailability and bioaccessibility (CaCl2 and Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET)), and (iii) the capability of Trifolium repens to germinate and grow. All the amendments used increased the pH and electrical conductivity of the SPW, resulting in a 90% decrease in the concentration of lead in the soil pore water (SPW). We also demonstrated a decrease in Pb phytoavailability. The amendments allowed the establishment of a plant cover, although the addition of iron grit alone did not allow any clover germination. For the Pontgibaud technosol, the combination of the three amendments resulted in a significant decrease in As and Pb concentrations in clover tissues, mainly in the aerial organs. The amendments also made it possible for some of them to halve the phytoavailable fraction of arsenic. However, for compost, both the As concentrations in the SPW, and the bioavailable fraction of As increased. All the amendments used had contrasting effects on the bioaccessible fractions of metal(loid)s. The most efficient amendment combination was the addition of 5% biochar and 5% compost.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Trifolium/química , Compostagem , Ferro/química , Mineração , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1439-1447, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265954

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are considered as priority environmental pollutants and their accumulation in crop plants particularly in rice has posed a great health risk. This study endeavored to investigate As and Sb contents in paired soil-rice samples obtained from Xikuangshan, the world largest active Sb mining region, situated in China, and to investigate As speciation and location in rice grains. The soil and rice samples were analyzed by coupling the wet chemistry, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence mapping (µ-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µ-XANES) spectroscopy. The results of field survey indicated that the paddy soil in the region was co-polluted by Sb (5.91-322.35 mg kg-1) and As (0.01-57.21 mg kg-1). Despite the higher Sb concentration in the soil, rice accumulated more As than Sb indicating the higher phytoavailability of As. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was the predominant species (>60% on average) in the rice grains while the percentage of inorganic As species was 19%-63%. The µ-XRF mapping of the grain section revealed that the most of As was distributed and concentrated in rice husk, bran and embryo. Sb was distributed similarly to As but was not in the endosperm of rice grain based on LA-ICP-MS. The present results deepened our understanding of the As/Sb co-pollution and their association with the agricultural-product safety in the vicinity of Sb mining area.


Assuntos
Antimônio/análise , Arsênico/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Mineração , Solo/química , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
18.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1698-1708, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284212

RESUMO

Waste water of the Kettara village, as well as the abandoned tailings, constitute a potential environmental issue with direct consequences on air, soil, water resources qualities and, on human health. In this paper, experimental investigations examine the environmental impact which is induced by the wastewater, mine tailings and the lithological factors of rocks. This multidisciplinary research allows to i) understand the transfer of the Metallic Trace Elements (selenium, arsenic, nickel and zinc) and sulfate ions in the fractured shales media, ii) to assess the water potability by using the microbiological analysis. The microbiological results reveal the domestic impact by the presence of several kinds of bacteria in the groundwater resources: E. coli, Fecal coliforms, Total coliforms, Enterococci, Mesophilic Aerobic Flora, Sulphite-reducing bacteria and Salmonella. Selenium, arsenic and the bacteriological contamination of the groundwater could be explained by five kinds of factors: i) the geological formations and the nature of the hydrogeological system (unconfined layer), ii) the groundwater flow, the hydraulic relation between the hydrogeological wells and, the fractures network in the shale aquifer. The piezometric map allows to highlight the groundwater flow from the North-East to North-West and to the South-West, the drainage axis towards the P21 well and the presence of the dividing axis in the contaminated zone by the arsenic, iii) the absence of the unhealthy habitats with permeable traditional septic tanks in the village; iv) the transfer of the spreading animal excrements from the soil to groundwater and, v) the migration of the wastewater towards downstream of the groundwater flow. The presence of the reed beds could explain the reduction of bacteria in the hydrogeological wells of the study area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea , Mineração , Águas Residuárias/análise , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Animais , Água Subterrânea/química , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Marrocos , Qualidade da Água , Poços de Água
19.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 141-151, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306821

RESUMO

The distribution pattern of root-associated bacteria in native plant growth in tailing dumps with extreme conditions remains poorly understood and largely unexplored. Herein we chose a native plant, Bidens bipinnata, growing on both an Sb tailing dump (WKA) and adjacent normal soils (WKC) to in-depth understand the distribution pattern of root-associated bacteria and their responses on environmental factors. We found that the rhizosphere microbial diversity indices in the tailing dump were significantly different from that in the adjacent soil, and that such variation was significantly related with soil nutrients (TC, TOC, TN) and metal(loid) concentrations (Sb and As). Some dominant genera were significant enriched in WKA, suggesting their adaption to harsh environments. Notably, these genera are proposed to be involved in nutrient and metal(liod) cycling, such as nitrogen fixing (Devosia, Cellvibrio, Lysobacter, and Cohnella), P solubilizing (Flavobacterium), and Sb and As oxidation (Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Thiobacillus). Our results suggest that certain root-associated bacteria in tailing dump were governed by soil edaphic factors and play important ecological roles in nutrient amendments and metal cycling for the successful colonization of Bidens bipinnata in this tailing dump.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Antimônio/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Metais/análise , Microbiota , Nitrogênio , Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas , Solo
20.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 680-707, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330359

RESUMO

Solid wastes containing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are widely generated around the globe. Critical concerns have been raised over their impacts on human health and the environment, especially for the exposure to PTEs during the transfer and disposal of the wastes. It is important to devise highly-efficient and cost-effective treatment technologies for the removal or immobilisation of PTEs in solid wastes. However, there is an inadequate overview of the global flow of PTEs-contaminated solid wastes in terms of geographical distribution patterns, which is vital information for decision making in sustainable waste management. Moreover, in view of the scarcity of resources and the call for a circular economy, there is a pressing need to recover materials (e.g., precious metals and rare earth elements) from waste streams and this is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly practice compared with ore mining. Therefore, this article aims to give a thorough overview to the global flow of PTEs and the recovery of waste materials. This review first summarises PTEs content in various types of solid wastes; then, toxic metal(loid)s, radioactive elements, and rare earth elements are critically reviewed, with respect to their patterns of transport transformation and risks in the changing environment. Different treatments for the management of these contaminated solid wastes are discussed. Based on an improved understanding of the dynamics of metal(loid) fates and a review of existing management options, new scientific insights are provided for future research in the development of high-performance and sustainable treatment technologies for PTEs in solid wastes.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Humanos , Metais , Mineração , Resíduos Sólidos
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