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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365771

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the spirometer data of coal mine workers, explore the impact of coal dust on the lung function of coal mine workers. Methods: From June to December 2018, 5272 male coal mine dust-exposed workers who underwent occupational health examinations at the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment Hospital were selected as the research subjects. The basic information and spirometer data of the workers were collected and analyzed for different ages, years of service and the degree of lung function injury of workers exposed to dust and its influencing factors. Results: The total detection rate of lung function injury among dust-exposed workers was 33.9% (1785/5272) . The type of injury was mainly restrictive ventilatory dysfunction (66.7%, 1190/1785) , followed by mixed ventilatory dysfunction (31.4%, 561/1785) , obstructive ventilatory dysfunction (1.9%, 34/1785) . The detection rate of mild lung function impairment was 21.0% (1105/5272) , The detected rate of moderate or higher lung injury was 12.9% (680/5272) . The abnormal detection rate of chest radiography was 3.4% (179/5272) . The logistic regression analysis of the factors affecting lung function damage showed that employees aged 40-<50 were more likely to detect overall lung function injury and the moderate or higher lung injury (P<0.05) , and that they had been working for 35 to 45 years and excavators were more likely to detect overall function injury and different degree of lung injury (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The lung function injury of coal mine dust-exposed workers is related to their age, dust-exposed working years and type of work, mainly with mild injury and restrictive ventilation dysfunction.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1327, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), a common type of occupational diseases, have become the main cause of absenteeism and early retirement in the occupational population, as well as a major risk factor for occupational disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of occupational stress and mental health on MSDs in coal miners in Xinjiang, China, to provide a theoretical basis for reducing the incidence of MSDs in coal miners and improving their physical and mental health. METHODS: In this study, stratified cluster random sampling was used to randomly select six coal mining companies in Xinjiang, and 1675 coal miners were surveyed by questionnaire. The status of occupational stress, mental health and MSDs among coal miners was investigated by means of the Effort-Reward Imbalance questionnaire (ERI), Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90), and Musculoskeletal disorders scale (MSDs) questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of MSDs among coal miners was higher, and there were statistical differences among different sexes, ages, working years, shifts, types of work, educational level and monthly income (P < 0.001). The prevalence of MSDs in different body parts in the occupational stress group and mental disorder group was higher than that in the normal group. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that females had an increased risk of developing MSDs (OR = 2.23, 95% CI.:1.50,3.33). The risk of MSDs was higher with age < 30 years (30-39 years,OR = 2.39, 95% CI.,1.68,3.40; 40-49 years,OR = 2.15, 95% CI.:1.52,3.04; 50-60 years:OR = 3.25, 95% CI.:2.09,5.07), and the longer the working years, the higher the risk of MSDs (OR = 1.90, 95% CI.:1.38,2.62). The two shifts group (OR = 2.18, 95% CI.:1.59,2.98) had an increased risk of developing MSDs compared with the fixed day shift group. The risk of MSDs was lower in heading drivers (OR = 0.41, 95% CI.:0.29,0.60,) and transport workers (OR = 0.30, 95% CI.:0.20,0.43). The higher the education level, the lower the risk of MSDs (high school: OR = 0.46, 95% CI.:0.34,0.62, junior college and above: OR = 0.12, 95% CI.:0.08,0.17), and the higher the monthly income, the lower the risk of MSDs (OR = 0.50, 95% CI.:0.34,0.74). Occupational stress (OR = 1.32, 95% CI.:1.05,1.67) and mental disorder(OR = 2.94, 95% CI.:2.25,3.84) increased the risk of MSDs. A Bayesian network diagram showed that occupational stress and MSDs have direct effects on mental disorders, and occupational stress can have indirect effects on mental disorders through MSDs. CONCLUSION: Our research shows that MSDs are common among coal miners. Occupational stress and psychological disorders can increase the incidence of MSDs.


Assuntos
Mineradores , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Estresse Ocupacional , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280981

RESUMO

The mining industry is a significant asset to the development of countries. Ghana, Africa's second-largest gold producer, has benefited from gold mining as the sector generates about 90% of the country's total exports. Just like all industries, mining is associated with benefits and risks to indigenes and the host environment. Small-scale miners are mostly accused in Ghana of being environmentally disruptive, due to their modes of operations. As a result, this paper seeks to assess the environmental impacts of large-scale gold mining with the Nzema Mines in Ellembelle as a case study. The study employs a double-phase mixed-method approach-a case study approach, consisting of site visitation, key informant interviews, questionnaires, and literature reviews, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis method. The NDVI analysis shows that agricultural land reduced by -0.98%, while the bare area increases by 5.21% between the 2008 and 2015 periods. Our results show that forest reserves and bare area were reduced by -4.99% and -29%, respectively, while residential areas increased by 28.17% between 2015 and 2020. Vegetation, land, air, and water quality are highly threatened by large-scale mining in the area. Weak enforcement of mining policies, ineffective stakeholder institution collaborations, and limited community participation in decision-making processes were also noticed during the study. The authors conclude by giving recommendations to help enhance sustainable mining and ensure environmental sustainability in the district and beyond.


Assuntos
Ouro , Mineradores , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gana , Humanos , Mineração
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300066

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can express the thermal comfort of mine workers. Eight subjects ran on a treadmill (5.5 km/h) to simulate heavy labor in three kinds of mining environments (22 °C/90%, 26 °C/90%, 30 °C/90%), respectively. Based on the measured electrocardiogram (ECG) data, the HRV of the subjects was calculated. The results showed that the HRV indices changed obviously under different temperature environments. In the neutral and hot environment, except for the LF, TP and LF/HF, there were significant differences in each index. However, there was no significant difference between the cold and neutral environments. The R-R intervals, the very low-frequency power (VLF), pNN20 and SampEN had strong negative correlation with the thermal sensation of people from sitting to work (ρ < -0.700). These indices may be used as thermal comfort predictive biomarkers of mine workers.


Assuntos
Mineradores , Biomarcadores , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Sensação Térmica
5.
Malar J ; 20(1): 286, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mining in the Amazon exposes gold miners to various diseases, including malaria, whose control is still a major challenge. The environment of the mines contributes to the proliferation of vector mosquitoes and the precarious housing conditions facilitate transmission of the disease. Understanding gold miners' perceptions is essential for the formulation of strategies to fight malaria. A qualitative study was carried out in the municipality of Calçoene, state of Amapá, Brazilian Amazon adjointining the municipality of Oiapoque, that is in the border area with French Guiana and Suriname. METHODS: A semi-structured interview was applied to an intentional sample of 29 miners, a number determined by the theoretical saturation criterion. Thematic analysis was adopted to obtain the results and the Cohen's Kappa index was calculated to verify the agreement between observers during coding. RESULTS: The agreement between observers was verified by a Cohen's Kappa index of 0.82. Analysis of the interviews showed that gold miners were subjected to prejudice from the community due to forest diseases that they can transmit, and their activities are often associated with crime. When the miners return to their hometown after a period of mining, the urban population blames them for the onset of diseases such as malaria. Most participants in the survey did not know how malaria transmission occurs, and associated its occurrence with contaminated water and food. Participants reported not being afraid of the disease, trusting the diagnosis and available treatment, though this depends on where they are treated. The use of therapeutic resources, such as medicinal plants and medicines acquired in the illegal market, is very common in this population. Despite the challenges identified by the research subjects, they believe that the disease can be controlled, or the cases reduced, but there was low acceptability for a possible mass drug administration (MDA) intervention. CONCLUSION: Despite a recent reduction in malaria prevalence in Brazil, there are still vulnerable populations, such as gold miners, who help to perpetuate the existence of the disease in the Amazon. The lack of knowledge regarding how the transmission of malaria occurs, associated with myths regarding this and the use of traditional health practices and illegal drugs for the treatment of the disease without a specific diagnosis, jeopardizes the country's efforts to eliminate malaria. It is necessary to implement control programmes in these populations, especially those who frequently travel around the border region and to remote locations, which are difficult regions for health teams to access, thus hindering diagnostic and treatment actions. For this reason, understanding the perceptions of these individuals as well as their customs, beliefs and lifestyle, can assist in the production of targeted educational material and adoption of strategies in the elimination of malaria in the country.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/psicologia , Mineradores/psicologia , Brasil , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(6): 342, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002328

RESUMO

DPM (diesel particulate matter) is ubiquitously present in the mining environment and is known for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity to humans. However, its health effects in surface coal mines are not well studied, particularly in India. In this study, DPM exposure and corresponding exposure biomarkers were investigated in four different surface coal mines in Central India. To document and evaluate the DPM exposure in surface coal miners, we characterized 1-NP (1-nitropyrene) in the mining environment as surrogate for DPM using Sioutas Cascade Impactor. Exposure biomarkers were analyzed by collecting post work shift (8-h work shift) urine samples and determining the concentrations of 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) as a metabolite of 1-NP and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) as DNA damage marker. We observed high concentration of 1-NP (7.13-52.46 ng/m3) in all the mines compared with the earlier reported values. The average creatinine corrected 1-AP and 8OHdG levels ranged 0.07-0.43 [Formula: see text]g/g and 32.47-64.16 [Formula: see text]g/g, respectively, in different mines. We found 1-AP in majority of the mine workers' urine (55.53%) and its level was higher than that reported for general environmental exposure in earlier studies. Thus, the study finding indicates occupational exposure to DPM in all the four mines. However, the association between 1-NP level and exposure biomarkers (1-AP and 8OHdG) was inconsistent, which may be due to individual physiological variations. The data on exposure levels in this study will help to understand the epidemiological risk assessment of DPM in surface coal miners. Further biomonitoring and cohort study are needed to exactly quantify the occupational health impacts caused by DPM among coal miners.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Carvão Mineral , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Pirenos , Emissões de Veículos/análise
7.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(10): 753-760, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the effects of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in Chilean miners who work at different altitudes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and July 2019. Miners from five mines (N=338) at different altitudes were evaluated. We recorded sociodemographic, working and altitude information. Haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) and haemoglobin (Hb) were measured in situ, while PSA and testosterone were analysed at a low level. Linear mixed-effect models were used to evaluate the association between PSA level and two CIHH exposures: composite CIHH (with four descriptors) and ChileStd-CIHH (CIHH Chilean standard; based on the Chilean technical guide for occupational exposure to CIHH). All models were adjusted by age, body mass index and day of the work the samples were taken. RESULTS: Highest and lowest PSA levels were found in mines ≥3000 m above sea level (mine 3: median=0.75, IQR=-0.45; mine 4: median=0.46, IQR=-0.35). In the multilevel models, the wider altitude difference between mining operation and camp showed lower PSA levels (model D: ßPSA=-0.93 ng/mL, ßlogPSA=-0.07, p<0001), adjusted for other CIHH descriptors, SaO2, Hb and testosterone. The descriptors of composite CIHH explained better PSA variations than ChileStd-CIHH (model D: marginal R2=0.090 vs model A: marginal R2=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational health regulations and high altitude medicine should consider these results as initial evidence on the inclusion of new descriptors for CIHH and the possible effect of this exposure on PSA levels in this male-dominated occupational sector.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude/complicações , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Adulto , Doença da Altitude/epidemiologia , Doença da Altitude/etiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Oxigênio/sangue , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985692

RESUMO

Mining has a direct impact on the environment and on the health of miners and is considered one of the most hazardous occupations worldwide. Miners are exposed to several occupational health risks, including genotoxic substances, which may cause adverse health effects, such as cancer. This review summarizes the relation between DNA damage and mining activities, focusing on coal and uranium miners. The search was performed using electronic databases, including original surveys reporting genetic damage in miners. Additionally, a temporal bibliometric analysis was performed using an electronic database to create a map of cooccurrence terms. The majority of studies were performed with regard to occupational exposure to coal, whereas genetic damage was assessed mainly through chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MNs) and comet assays. The bibliometric analysis demonstrated associations of coal exposure with silicosis and pneumoconiosis, uranium miners with lung cancer and tumors and some associated factors, such as age, smoking, working time and exposure to radiation. Significantly higher DNA damage in miners compared to nonexposed groups was observed in most of the studies. The timeline reveals that classic biomarkers (comet assay, micronucleus test and chromosomal aberrations) are still important tools to assess genotoxic/mutagenic damage in occupationally exposed miners; however, newer studies concerning genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic changes in miners are being conducted. A major challenge is to investigate further associations between miners and DNA damage and to encourage further studies with miners of other types of ores.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Urânio/toxicidade , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Minas de Carvão/métodos , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Humanos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Mineradores
10.
Workplace Health Saf ; 69(9): 423-434, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coal miners have been reported to have higher rates of risky/harmful alcohol misuse; however, it is not known if metalliferous mining employees whose working conditions differ in workplace practices, also have increased rates of risky/harmful alcohol misuse. This study aimed to examine alcohol consumption in a sample of Australian metalliferous mining workers and to examine the demographic and workplace factors associated with risky/harmful alcohol use. METHODS: All employees from a convenience sample of four Australian mine sites were invited to complete a paper-based cross-sectional survey between June 2015 and May 2017. The survey contained questions relating to social networks, health behaviors, psychological distress, demographic characteristics, and risky/harmful drinking. Current alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a validated measure of risky and/or harmful drinking. Factors associated with risky/harmful drinking were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. FINDINGS: A total of 1,799 participants completed the survey (average site response rate 95%). Overall, 94.8% of males and 92.1% of females reported using alcohol in the preceding 12 months. The odds of risky/harmful alcohol use were significantly higher in those who were male, younger, and reported higher psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS/APPLICATION TO PRACTICE: This study identified that metalliferous mining employees engage in at-risk levels of alcohol consumption significantly higher than the national average despite workplace policies and practices that restrict alcohol use. Personal and workplace risk factors that may help target specific employee groups and inform the development of tailored, integrated multicomponent intervention strategies for the industry were identified.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Metalurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metalurgia/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
New Solut ; 31(1): 48-64, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705238

RESUMO

Scholarship on the health impacts of resource extraction displays prominent gaps and apparent corporate and neocolonial footprints that raise questions about how science is produced. We analyze production of knowledge, on the health impacts of mining, carried out in relation to the Canadian International Resources and Development Institute (CIRDI), a university-based organization with substantial extractive industry involvement and links to Canada's mining-dominated foreign policy. We use a "political ecology of knowledge" framework to situate CIRDI in the context of neoliberal capitalism, neocolonial sustainable development discourses, and mining industry corporate social responsibility techniques. We then document the interactions of specific health disciplinary conventions and knowledges within CIRDI-related research and advocacy efforts involving a major Canadian global health organization. This analysis illustrates both accommodation and resistance to large-scale political economic structures and the need to directly confront the global North governments and sectors pushing extractive-led neoliberal development globally.ResumenLa investigación sobre los impactos en la salud de la extracción de recursos naturales delata brechas importantes y huellas corporativas y neocoloniales, que plantean dudas acerca de cómo se produce la ciencia. Analizamos la producción de conocimiento sobre los impactos en la salud de la minería en relación con el Instituto Canadiense de Desarrollo y Recursos Internacionales (CIRDI, siglas en inglés), una organización universitaria que cuenta con participación sustancial de la industria extractiva y tiene vínculos con la política exterior de Canadá, la cual es dominada por intereses mineros. Utilizamos un marco de "ecología política del conocimiento" para situar a CIRDI en el contexto del capitalismo neoliberal, los discursos neocoloniales de desarrollo sostenible y las técnicas de responsabilidad social corporativa de la industria minera. Luego, documentamos las interacciones entre los conocimientos y convenciones disciplinarias de salud dentro de los esfuerzos de investigación y promoción relacionados con CIRDI que involucran a una importante organización canadiense de salud global. Este análisis muestra tanto la complacencia como la resistencia a las estructuras políticas económicas a gran escala, y la necesidad de confrontar directamente a los gobiernos y sectores del Norte global que manejan el desarrollo neoliberal impulsado por la extracción a nivel mundial.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Mineradores , Canadá , Humanos
12.
Hautarzt ; 72(7): 644-646, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721048

RESUMO

As part of the reappraisal of the legacy of Wismut AG, 12 patients with silica-induced scleroderma among underground uranium ore mine workers (Wismut AG) under long-term exposure to silica fine dust, as well as radon and its daughter products, during the 1960s and 1970s are reported on. Silica-induced scleroderma is clinically, serologically and immunologically indistinguishable from idiopathic systemic sclerosis. In experimental studies, endothelial cells, monocytes and fibroblasts, as well as their synthesis rates and the release of cytokines and chemokines, were activated by silica fine dust in a way that is consistent with the pathophysiological processes in idiopathic systemic sclerosis. It was not possible to achieve recognition of silica-induced systemic sclerosis as an occupational disease in Germany.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mineradores , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Urânio , Células Endoteliais , Alemanha , Humanos , Mineração , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , Prata , Urânio/efeitos adversos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(27): 36793-36802, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uranium mining and processing are an ancient occupation, recognized as being grueling and accountable for injury and disease. Uranium (U) is a radioactive heavy metal used in many industrial applications. It increases the micronuclei frequencies as well as chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Granzyme B and perforin are stored inside the leukocytes in secretory granules. These proteins are released outside the cells by a cell-to-cell contact under specific conditions for inducing apoptosis. So, this study investigated the potential health hazards with prominence on the biological effects of radiation exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic research was conducted on Egyptian male mining field workers. Leucocytes' genotoxicity was evaluated using DNA fragmentation assay and comet assay. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of Granzyme B protein was done. RESULTS: A significant increase in dead cells after dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescent staining in radiation-exposed groups was noticed compared to control groups. Moreover, a significant increase in the fragmented DNA was evident in exposed groups relative to the control one. Granzyme B protein levels showed a significant increase concerning control. CONCLUSION: A wide variety of adverse human health risks are considered a potential risk to Egyptian uranium miners. For employers working in both mining and processing fields, the most common molecular shift highlighted was the leucocyte damage in blood samples. To preserve the health of all employees, health education and administration of effective hazard management procedures are necessary.


Assuntos
Mineradores , Exposição Ocupacional , Urânio , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Granzimas , Humanos , Masculino , Urânio/toxicidade
14.
Environ Res ; 197: 111081, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) as a source of income is rapidly gaining importance in the economically difficult times in Zimbabwe. Small-scale miners are now responsible for over 50% of the Zimbabwean gold production. However, the sector is still characterised by high labour-intensity, low productivity and capital, limited mechanisation and outdated technologies. Since increasing efforts in recent years to improve miners' health while reducing the exposure to mercury have not been effective, a more sustainable approach is needed to identify interventions targeting the health of artisanal and small-scale miners and the mining communities. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was the accurate and extensive empirical identification of the determinants of health in ASGM and of the miners' health needs. In tandem with these needs, topics which generate more effective, sustainable, and feasible future health interventions targeting occupational health should be identified. METHODS: Based on the identification of determinants of health, a health needs assessment (HNA) was used to conduct miners' needs by applying a mixed methods approach and triangulation. This included qualitative and quantitative interviews with individuals, group interviews, focus group discussions, observations and informal conversations. RESULTS: There were 85 structured and 84 semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion, and observations conducted. Six main themes were identified around which miners' health needs can be aggregated as follows: living conditions, nutrition and hygiene; safe work environment and mining processes; financial support; health care services; formalisation and education. DISCUSSION: The following aspects were considered most important for sustainable interventions: possible health impacts, feasibility, value for miners and their willingness to adapt. Accordingly, interventions aiming at increasing education, knowledge and awareness of miners were identified as most promising in improving occupational health.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Mineradores , Exposição Ocupacional , Ouro , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Zimbábue
15.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 415: 115448, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many workers are exposed to lead dust in lead-­zinc mines. Exposure to this heavy toxic metal and its compounds can cause irreversible adverse health effects. OBJECTIVE: To assess possible hematotoxic, nephrotoxic, and hepatotoxic potentials of low levels of lead in a group of mine workers exposed to this heavy metal in an unusual work schedule. METHODS: A total of 73 exposed and 70 non-exposed employees were interviewed. Demographic data, and occupational and medical history of the employees were obtained by questionnaires. Air monitoring was performed to determine the workers' time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to lead dust. The threshold limit value (TLV) for lead was adjusted for unusual work schedules according to the model developed by the University of Montreal and the Institute de Recherche en Sante et en Securite du Travail (IRSST). Blood samples were collected for complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests. Data were analyzed using version 21.0 of the SPSS software. RESULTS: The TWA exposure of workers was 24 µg/m3. On average, the worker's exposure to lead dust did not exceed the 8-h OSHA and ACGIH TLV-TWA of 50 µg/m3. Significant associations were found only between exposure to lead and platelet count, red cell distribution width, total protein, and albumin. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to low levels of lead dust in unusual work schedules was not associated with overt hematotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. However, mild, sub-clinical, pre-pathologic significant changes were noted in some blood parameters of the exposed employees as compared with their referent counterparts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mineradores , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Níveis Máximos Permitidos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 6629807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628352

RESUMO

Background: Work-related musculoskeletal diseases (WMSDs) have been associated with job burnout. Currently, few studies have investigated the relationship between job burnout and WMSDs among coal miners. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,325 staff were selected from 6 coal mining companies using a stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of "Musculoskeletal Questionnaire" and "Occupational Burnout Scale" were used to investigate the link between WMSDs and job burnout. Logistic regression was conducted to analyze the factors influencing WMSDs. Results: A total of 1,500 questionnaires were distributed, with a response rate of 88.33%. The prevalence of WMSDs in coal miners was 65.58%, while the prevalence of total, mild, moderate, and severe burnout were 90%, 39.77%, 43.77%, and 6.49%, respectively. The average score for job burnout was 50.78 ± 11.93. The prevalence of WMSDs among coal miners varied significantly with the length of service (χ 2=14.493, P=0.001), type of work (χ 2=11.438, P=0.022), shift system (χ 2=6.462, P=0.040), and annual income (χ 2=6.315, P=0.043). The proportions of male coal miners with moderate and severe burnout were 45.1% and 6.8%, respectively, which were higher compared with 28.6% and 2.9%, respectively, for women. The proportion of male coal miners with mild burnout was 38.1%, which was lower compared with 59.0% for women (P < 0.05). Coal miners who work more than two shifts had the highest burnout, while those who work day shifts had the lowest burnout (P < 0.001). The prevalence of WMSDs in the severe burnout group and in 9 body locations was significantly higher than that in other burnout groups (P < 0.001). Logistic regression results showed that length of service, type of work, annual income, and burnout level are associated with WMSDs among coal miners (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of job burnout and WMSDs among coal miners in Xinjiang is relatively high. Job burnout is a risk factor for WMSDs among coal miners.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/complicações , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 324, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise pollution in coal mines is of great concern. Personal injuries directly or indirectly related to noise occur from time to time. Its effects impact the health and safety of coal mine workers. This study aimed to identify if and how the level of noise impacts miners' safety behavior in underground coal mines. METHODS: In order to study the influence of noise on miners in the mining industry, we built a coal mine noise simulation experiment system, and set the noise test level at 50 dB ~ 120 dB according to the actual working environment at well. We divided the noise gradient into 8 categories and conducted 93 experiments, in which we aim to test miners' attention distribution, fatigue, and reaction under each level, and the experimental results were analyzed by SPSS22.0 software. RESULTS: The results show that the increase of environmental noise level will have an impact on the attention, reaction, and fatigue. The noise is positively related to the fatigue, the noise is negatively related to the attention and reaction. In the noise environment, the sensitivity of the personnel to optic stimuli is higher than that to acoustic stimuli. The test indicators of attention, fatigue, and reaction will change significantly, when the noise level is greater than 70 ~ 80 dB. CONCLUSIONS: From the perspective of accident prevention, the noise level can be controlled within the range of less than 70 ~ 80 dB, which can control the occurrence of accidents to a certain extent.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Ruído , Local de Trabalho
18.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 35(1): 72-80, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202098

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la exposición al radón y el cáncer genitourinario en población minera a través de una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica. MÉTODO: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica en MEDLINE (PubMed) combinando términos MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) y términos libres. Se realizó una escala específica de valoración de la calidad de los estudios incluidos. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 17 estudios. Todos fueron estudios de cohortes, excepto uno que fue un pool de datos. Todos los estudios incluían análisis de la relación entre la exposición al radón y el cáncer genitourinario. Los resultados son ambiguos: unos estudios apuntan hacia una asociación entre la exposición y el cáncer genitourinario, especialmente de riñón, y otros no encuentran asociación. CONCLUSIÓN: Los estudios incluidos presentan una gran heterogeneidad metodológica. No puede concluirse que exista una asociación entre la exposición al radón y el cáncer genitourinario. Es necesaria más investigación sobre el tema, con estudios que tengan más potencia estadística y mejor control de las variables confusoras, y preferentemente que sean prospectivos


OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to radon and genitourinary cancer in a mining population through a systematic review of the scientific literature. METHOD: A systematic review of the scientific literature was carried out in MEDLINE (PubMed), combining MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free terms. We applied a specific scale to assess the quality of the included studies. RESULTS: We included 17 studies; all were cohort studies with the exception of one which was a pooling of data. All studies included analysed the relationship between exposure to radon and genitourinary cancer. While some studies point towards an association between radon exposure and genitourinary cancer, especially kidney cancer, others do not find such association. CONCLUSIONS: The included studies showed great heterogeneity. It cannot be concluded that there is an association between exposure to radon and genitourinary cancer. More research is needed on this topic, designing studies with higher statistical power, better control of confounders, and preferably prospective


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Radônio/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/induzido quimicamente , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Câncer Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Radônio/toxicidade , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia
19.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(2): 79-87, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417344

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mineworkers in South Africa experience a triple burden of disease due to their distinct work experience. Silicosis increases their risk of tuberculosis (TB), exacerbated by the HIV epidemic. Work-related factors are likely to increase transmission, severity, and post infection sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Understanding these relationships is important to control the impact of the epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 infection rates among mineworkers exceed the population rates in the provinces in which those mines are located. Migrant work, living in crowded hostels, working in narrow poorly ventilated shafts mainly underground constitute important factors that increase transmission risk. Mineworkers continue to experience high levels of silica exposure. The prevalences of silicosis, HIV and pulmonary TB, remain high. Interstitial lung disease, pulmonary TB, and HIV have all been associated with poorer outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Mineworkers with post infection respiratory sequelae are likely to lose their jobs or lose income, due to the physically demanding nature of underground minework. SUMMARY: Further research into the unique work-related risk factors in mining that influence the COVID-19 epidemic is crucial for optimizing current interventions. Reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection transmission, health monitoring of infected and vulnerable workers, and following up of postinfection outcomes is essential to protect the respiratory health of miners.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mineradores , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Silicose/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
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