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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130636, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314929

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the efficiency of advanced chelate compounds-based trace minerals (OTM) in laying hens. Laying hens (240, 32 weeks old) were assigned to one of the following five groups: NOTM (no added trace minerals), CONTM (standard mineral salts), and three experimental groups in which chelates were used to replace 33, 66, and 100% of mineral salts (OTM33, OTM66, and OTM100, respectively). Each treatment had six replicates with eight hens per replicate. After 18 weeks, performance and physicochemical properties of eggs in all experimental groups was better than those in the NOTM group. Among the treatments, OTM66 and OTM100 produced the best results in terms of laying performance, yolk PUFA/SFA ratio, Zn and Se contents, and malondialdehyde concentration in both serum and yolk. In conclusion, up to 66% OTM supplementation was beneficial for performance, lipid and mineral composition of yolk, and oxidative status.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Minerais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Food Chem ; 368: 130773, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399183

RESUMO

The presence of antinutrients in common beans negatively affects mineral bioavailability. Therefore, this study aimed to predict the antinutrient to mineral molar ratios (proxy-indicators of in vitro mineral bioavailability) of a wide range of raw bean types, using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Iron, zinc, phytate and tannin concentrations and, antinutrient to mineral molar ratios were determined. Next, model calibration using NIR spectra from milled beans was performed. This entailed wavelength selection, pre-processing and partial least squares regression. Bean type had a significant effect on tannin content. The average values of phytate to iron (Phy:Fe), phytate to zinc (Phy:Zn), tannins to iron (Tan:Fe) and phytate and tannins to iron (Phy + Tan:Fe) MRs were 27.6, 61.7, 16.0 and 43.6, respectively. With determination coefficients for test set prediction above 75%, the PLS-R models for Phy:Zn, Tan:Fe and Phy + Tan:Fe molar ratios are useful for screening purposes.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Minerais , Ácido Fítico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Zinco
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130731, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404003

RESUMO

Rapadura is an artisanal candy obtained from concentrated sugarcane juice. In this study, a differentiation between South American rapadura producers has been tried using a Kurtosis-based projection pursuit analysis (kPPA) concerning essential minerals, acrylamide, moisture contents, pH, and color. These parameters revealed significant inter- and intra-country differences. Based on the employed measurements, a multivariate exploration with kPPA extracted information from rapadura even though it is a very artisanal product and was effective in separating classes, especially Brazilian and Ecuadorian rapadura, where principal component analysis failed. Moreover, ellipse confidence regions showed significant differences between non-organic and organic rapadura from Colombia and Peru in granulated form. From a chemometric point of view, the application of kPPA can be used in cases when other metrics (as based on the variance) fail and can be useful in the exploratory analysis of complex multivariate chemical data.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Saccharum , Brasil , Minerais , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132235, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826926

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems in recent decades. However, there are few remediation technologies for insoluble cerussite (PbCO3), which are common in the environment and have high bioavailability. In this study, the immobilisation of Pb(II) released from PbCO3 by Pseudomonas rhodesiae HP-7 isolated from Pb-contaminated soil was studied. The results showed that hydroxyapatite and PbCO3 were dissolved by the organic acids secreted by the HP-7 strain, and then the dissolved Pb2+ and H2PO4- reacted to form low bioavailable Pb5(PO4)3Cl precipitate. XRD and mass conservation calculations showed that 85.7% of PbCO3 was transformed to Pb5(PO4)3Cl when P:Pb was 9:5. Our research showed that the HP-7 strain and hydroxyapatite could reduce the bioavailability of Pb(II) in PbCO3, which could be used for the remediation of Pb-polluted environments.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Poluentes do Solo , Carbonatos , Durapatita , Minerais , Fosfatos , Pseudomonas , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150234, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562759

RESUMO

Temperature is considered to be one of the main factors affecting bioleaching, but few studies have assessed the effects of diurnal temperature range (DTR) on the bioleaching process. This study investigates the effects of different bioleaching temperatures (30 and 40 °C) and DTR on the bioleaching of metal sulfide ores by microbial communities. The results showed that DTR had an obvious inhibitory effect on the bioleaching efficiency of the artificial microbial community, although this effect was mainly concentrated in the early and middle stages (0-18 days) of exposure, gradually decreasing until almost disappearing in the late stage (18-24 days). Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) analysis showed that DTR did not change the composition of the EPS matrix (humic acid-like substances, polysaccharides and protein-like substances), but had a significant effect on the generative behavior of EPS, inhibiting the secretion of EPS during the early and middle stages of the bioleaching process. However, the continual increase in EPS secretion in the bioleaching system gradually reduced the adverse effects of DTR on mineral dissolution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy- energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis of the bioleached residue showed that DTR had no obvious effect on the mineralogical characteristics of sulfide ore. Therefore, in industrial sulfide ore bioleaching applications, in order to accelerate the artificial microbial community start-up process, temperature control measures should be increased in the bioleaching process to reduce the adverse effects of DTR on mineral dissolution.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Consórcios Microbianos , Minerais , Sulfetos , Temperatura
6.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132430, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600931

RESUMO

The heterogeneous reaction between formic acid and mineral dust play an important role in tropospheric chemistry. However, the molecular mechanism on formic acid uptake on mineral dust is not yet to be fully understood. In our work, a comprehensive and multiscale theoretical study (include density functional theory, DFT calculations and reactive molecular dynamics, RMD simulations) has been provided to investigate this heterogeneous reaction at molecular level. The results of DFT calculations show that the SiO2 and TiO2 particles have a strong tendency to adsorb formic acid to its surface, and the attractive part of the binding energy was dominated by electrostatic component. RMD simulations show that the uptake of formic acid and water on TiO2 particles would modified TiO2 particles, which formed Ti-OH and Ti-OCHO on particle surface. Besides, the formic acid coordination surface modes were dominated by the monodentate formate mode rather than bidentate formate mode. The molecular level study is helpful for understanding the accumulation of formic acid on mineral dust particles and global balance of atmospheric formic acid.


Assuntos
Óxidos , Dióxido de Silício , Formiatos , Minerais
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149918, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482133

RESUMO

Co-sorption of metal ions and anions/ligands at the mineral-water interface plays a critical role in regulating the mobility, transport, fate, and bioavailability of these components in natural environments. This review focuses on co-sorption of metal ions and naturally occurring anions/ligands on environmentally relevant minerals. The underlying mechanisms for their interfacial reactions are summarized and the environmental impacts are discussed. Co-sorption mechanisms of these components depend on a variety of factors, such as the identity and properties of minerals, pH, species and concentration of metal ions and anions/ligands, addition sequence of co-sorbed ions, and reaction time. The simultaneous presence of metal ions and anions/ligands alters the initial sorption behaviors with promotive or competitive effects. Promotive effects are mainly attributed to surface electrostatic interactions, ternary surface complexation, and surface precipitation, especially for the co-sorption systems of metal ions and inorganic anions on minerals. Competitive effects involve potential complexation of metal-anions/ligands in solution or their competition for surface adsorption sites. Organic ligands usually increase metal ion sorption on minerals at low pH via forming ternary surface complexes or surface precipitates, but inhibit metal ion sorption via the formation of aqueous complexes at high pH. The different mechanisms may act simultaneously during metal ion and anion/ligand co-sorption on minerals. Finally, the potential application for remediation of metal-contaminated sites is discussed based on the different co-sorption behaviors. Future challenges and topics are raised for metal-anion/ligand co-sorption research.


Assuntos
Metais , Minerais , Adsorção , Ânions , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Ligantes
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149990, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492488

RESUMO

Increased food demands and ceasing nutrient deposits have resulted in a great shortfall between the food supply and demand and would be worse in the years to come. Higher inputs of synthetic fertilizers on lands have resulted in environmental pollution, persistent changes in the soil ecology, and physicochemical conditions. This has greatly decreased the natural soil fertility thereby hindering agricultural productivity, human health, and hygiene. Bio-based resilient nutrient sources as wastewater-derived algae are promising as a complete nutrient for agriculture and have the potential to be used in soilless cultivations. Innovations in nano-fortification and nano-sizing of minerals and algae have the potential to facilitate nutrients bioavailability and efficacy for a multifold increase in productivity. In this context, various options on minerals nanofertilizer application in agricultural food production besides efficient biofertilizer have been investigated. Algal biofertilizer with the nanoscale application has huge prospects for further agriculture productivities and fosters suitable development.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Minerais , Plantas , Solo
9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 347-356, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509109

RESUMO

Although silicates are the most common anions in aquatic systems, little is known on the roles they play on the transport of emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics. Using dynamic column experiments, we revealed the controls of Si loadings on goethite (α-FeOOH) coated sands on the transport of a widely used quinolone antibiotic, here focusing on Nalidixic Acid (NA). We find that dynamic flow-through conditions (Darcy velocities of 2.98 cm/h and 14.92 cm/h) sustain monomeric Si species with loadings of up to ~ 0.8 Si/nm2 but that oligomeric species can form at the goethite surfaces under static (batch, no-flow conditions). While these monomeric species occupy no more than ~ 22% of the reactive OH groups on goethite, they can effectively suppress NA binding, and therefore enhance NA mobility in dynamic conditions. NA can also bind on goethite when it is simultaneously injected with high concentrations of Si (2000 µM), yet it becomes progressively replaced by Si over time. Combining kinetics and surface complexation modeling, we present a new transport model to account for the stepwise polymerization of Si on goethite and NA transport. Our findings show that dissolved Si, common to natural surface waters, can play a determining role on the surface speciation and transport of antibiotics in the environment.


Assuntos
Compostos de Ferro , Quinolonas , Adsorção , Cinética , Minerais , Porosidade , Silicatos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149980, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525764

RESUMO

Dust storm particles have been one of the important contributors to global aerosol loading, affecting human health and climate system. Beijing, a megapolitan city, experienced two severe dust storms in spring of 2015, with maximum hourly-mean PM10 mass concentrations exceeding 1000 µg/m3. The first dust storm (Dust 1) was from east area of Gobi Desert about 850 km in the north of Beijing and the second (Dust 2) was from west area of Gobi Desert about 1500 km in the northwest of Beijing. Morphologies and elemental compositions of dust particles were identified using high-resolution electron microscopy. The statistical analysis showed that the number fractions of mineral dust particles during the two dust storm episodes were 85.3% and 95.4%, respectively. Clay minerals were the most abundant among mineral particles, with a number fraction larger than 50%, followed by quartz particles (17.3% and 14.8%) and feldspar. Feldspar and carbonate particles accounted for 14.8% and 3.4% of mineral particles in Dust 1, and 9.9% and 13.6% in Dust 2, with the difference due to the different source areas. When the dust storms directly migrated to Beijing, the occurrence of S-containing mineral particles and the relative weight ratio of S in individual mineral particles were extremely low, indicating limited production of sulfate on the dust-storm particles in the atmosphere, regardless of the differences of source areas, migration paths, and mineralogical components. After the peaks of dust storms passed, the occurrence of S on the mineral particles were much higher, although the relative weight ratios of S in the mineral particles was still very small. This result suggests that most of the mineral particles underwent heterogeneous reactions, but the reaction rates were low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Minerais/análise , Tamanho da Partícula
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150183, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520915

RESUMO

Sustainable phosphorus (P) management is crucial to both food security and environmental conservation. The optimization of P input from mineral fertilizers has been advocated as an effective approach to improve P use efficiency. However, strategies for maximizing P use efficiency by linking soil-crop systems and fertilizer types with the P flow, from a whole P supply chain perspective, are lacking. In this study, a meta-analysis and substance flow analysis (SFA) were employed to evaluate the effects of different mineral P fertilizer types on crop yield and P flow from rock phosphate (RP) exploitation to P use in China. Compared to single superphosphate (SSP), triple superphosphate (TSP), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), a significantly higher yield was obtained when diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) were used 2005 onwards. However, P loss, from RP extraction to application, was 24% higher for DAP and MAP than for SSP, TSP, and CMP. DAP and MAP use led to a 6% larger P footprint than SSP, TSP, and CMP use. The P use efficiency could be improved by 22%, 36%, and 40% in wheat, maize, and rice production, respectively, by integrating the soil-crop system with mineral P fertilizer types, while P loss and P footprint could be reduced by 13% and 17%, respectively. These results indicate that P use efficiency can be significantly improved by integrating mineral P fertilizer types with soil-crop systems, providing an effective approach for RP exploitation to improve P use efficiency and alleviate the overexploitation of RP.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Fósforo , Agricultura , China , Produção Agrícola , Fertilizantes/análise , Minerais , Nitrogênio , Fósforo/análise , Solo
12.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131469, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340118

RESUMO

The strong ability of ferrihydrite and its aged minerals for fixing arsenate is a key factor in remediating arsenate-polluted environments. It is therefore crucial to clarify the stability of Fe-As complexes and the release conditions for As(V). The As(V) release amount was evaluated and compared in the presence of six representative anions, namely, phosphate, silicate, sulfate, inositol hexaphosphate, citrate, and oxalate. It was found that the As(V) release amount changed with the aging time of ferrihydrite and that this tendency generally followed two rules. These are, longer aging time leads to lower As(V) release (Rule 1), and longer aging time leads to higher As(V) release (Rule 2). Whether Rule 1 or Rule 2 dominated As release depended on the number of surface groups, size of competing anions, and contribution of As(V) re-adsorption. Characterization results using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) provided evidence for the predicted mechanisms of As(V) release under various circumstances. In this work, it was demonstrated that when inorganic anions such as sulfate and silicate are present, ferrihydrite with longer aging time led to decreased As(V) release. When organic anions are present, ferrihydrite with less aging time results in reduced As(V) leaching. For anions such as phosphate, the As(V) release amount in relation to the ferrihydrite aging time depends on the concentration of phosphate ions. Nevertheless, the ligand concentration and As(V) loading rate on ferrihydrite should be simultaneously considered for the rule governing As(V) releasing.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Fosfatos , Adsorção , Minerais , Silicatos , Difração de Raios X
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126765, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364208

RESUMO

Biomineralization has not been widely applied due to the lack of bacterial reusability, which needs to be investigated urgently. In this study, we found Lysinibacillus could immobilize Pb2+ at initial pH ≥ 2.0. Lead ion recovery and cell reutilization could be achieved efficiently at pH = 1.0 (c(HNO3) = 0.1 mol/L). Besides, the strong chelating agent EDTA-2Na (c(EDTA-2Na)= 0.1 mol/L) was used for comparison. The oxidative damaging effect of cells could be reduced by both eluents. Mechanism analysis was conducted through zeta potential measurement, 3D-EEM, cyclic voltammetry, FE-EPMA, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. After the cells were eluted by HNO3, the enzyme activity enhanced and the removal efficiency increased continuously. Cells were used to remove Pb2+ repeatedly, and regular-shaped Pb3(PO4)2 crystals were always formed. After the cells were eluted by EDTA-2Na, cells were more prone to redox reaction and were induced to produce mercaptan (R-SH). The active hydrogen in R-SH could react with peroxide free radicals. New free radicals were formed after the R-SH was stripped of hydrogen, and finally, PbS stable mineral was formed. This research provides a new strategy to realize bacterial reutilization, which is a breakthrough in the field of biomineralization.


Assuntos
Biomineralização , Águas Residuárias , Bactérias , Chumbo , Minerais
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126806, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388930

RESUMO

Under anoxic conditions, aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq)-induced recrystallization of iron (oxyhydr)oxides changes the speciation and geochemical cycle of trace elements in environments. Oxidation of trace element, i.e., As(III), driven by Fe(II)aq-iron (oxyhydr)oxides interactions under anoxic condition was observed previously, but the oxidative species and involved mechanisms are remained unknown. In the present study, we explored the formed oxidative intermediates during Fe(II)aq-induced recrystallization of goethite under anoxic conditions. The methyl phenyl sulfoxide-based probe experiment suggested the featured oxidation by Fe(IV) species in Fe(II)aq-goethite system. Both the Mössbauer spectra and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopic evidenced the generation and quenching of Fe(IV) intermediate. It was proved that the interfacial electron exchange between Fe(II)aq and Fe(III) of goethite initiated the generation of Fe(IV). After transferring electrons to goethite, Fe(II)aq was transformed to labile Fe(III), which was then transformed to Fe(IV) via a proton-coupled electron transfer process. This highly reactive transient Fe(IV) could quickly react with reductive species, i.e. Fe(II) or As(III). Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of Fe(II)-iron (oxyhydr)oxides reactions under anoxic conditions, our findings are expected to provide new insight into the anoxic oxidative transformation processes of matters in non-surface environments on earth.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Compostos de Ferro , Compostos Ferrosos , Minerais , Oxirredução
15.
Food Chem ; 369: 130672, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450513

RESUMO

In this study, mineral composition, centesimal composition and lead were evaluated in pine nut seeds (raw and cooked) from five Brazilian states. Mineral composition was determined by ICP OES and lead by GF AAS. The results for minerals were evaluated by Boxplot, PCA and HCA, using the R software. Average minerals in raw and cooked samples (mg 100 g-1) were: 15.2 and 10.8 (Ca), 0.168 and 0.113 (Cu), 0.506 and 0.330 (Fe), 536 and 420 (K), 51.3 and 40.6 (Mg), 0.373 and 0.208 (Mn), 132 and 102 (P) and 0.746 and 0.520 (Zn). The average centesimal composition (raw and cooked) was: 53.5 and 47.2% (moisture), 1.76 and 1.26% (ash), 3.90 and 3.53% (protein), 40.8 and 48.0% (carbohydrate) and 179 and 206 kcal/100 g (total caloric value) and Pb was not detected. The chemometric analysis showed a distinction of raw and cooked samples due to significant nutrient losses after thermal processing.


Assuntos
Araucaria , Nozes , Análise de Dados , Minerais , Sementes
16.
Food Chem ; 371: 131381, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808774

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the mineral composition of twelve samples of red jambo (Syzygium malaccensis) collected in 10 cities in the state of Bahia. The samples were digested in a digester block with a reflux system and cold finger, and the analytes were determined by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analyzing NIST 1570a certified reference material (spinach leaves) at a 95% confidence level. The results were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, which allowed the identification of outliers in the results of the city of Jaguaquara. The analyte concentrations in the samples (mg 100 g -1) comprised a range of: Ca (3.0-28.9), Fe (0.035-0.125), K (134.8-197.5), Mg (2.7-19.8), Mn (0.012-0.131), Na (0.5-10.8), P (0.24-13.5), Sr (0.010-0.314), and Zn (0.026-0.129). This demonstrates that the fruit can be indicated as a potential nutritional supplement in human nutrition.


Assuntos
Syzygium , Humanos , Íons , Minerais , Sódio , Análise Espectral
17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 156-163, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590455

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary high doses of chromium-methionine (CrMet) supplementation on blood hemato-biochemical parameters and growth performance of finishing lambs reared under warm condition with average temperature-humidity index (THI) of 85.8 unit. Fifteen male lambs (31.9 ± 1.2 kg) fed with either un-supplemented diet (CON) or supplemented with 1.5 (Cr1.5) and 3 (Cr3) mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM) for 8 weeks. The results showed that high levels of supplemental Cr had no negative impacts on red (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC). Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) tended to be higher in CrMet-fed lambs than those of CON (P < 0.1). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), as a lipid peroxidation marker, was, respectively, 20.24 and 22.1%, lower in lambs given 1.5 and 3 mg of chromium comparing those of CON (P < 0.05). Moreover, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, U/dL) displayed higher activity in Cr3 (421.2) group than those of CON (334.6) and Cr1.5 (351.2) groups (P < 0.05). Accordingly, GSH-PX activity per gram hemoglobin (U/gHb) was 45.9% greater in lambs of Cr3 than the CON (P < 0.05). Furthermore, feeding 3 mg of Cr led to increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P < 0.05): as such, SOD was 1193.1, 1281.5, and 1433.0 U/gHb in CON, Cr1.5, and Cr3, respectively. Chromium supplementation linearly decreased serum iron concentration (P < 0.05), but neither blood calcium, phosphorous, copper, zinc, and glucose concentrations nor aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were affected by supplemental CrMet. In comparison with CON (1250), lambs in Cr1.5 (1199) and Cr3 (1192) groups had lower daily feed intake (g/d, P < 0.01). In addition, feed to gain ratio was 21.5% lower in the Cr3 group than the control (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that feeding summer-exposed finishing lambs with 3 mg of Cr/kg DM improves blood antioxidant status and feed to gain efficiency without adverse effects on lambs' health and metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Metionina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Células Sanguíneas , Cromo/farmacologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Minerais , Ovinos
18.
Food Chem ; 372: 131188, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624779

RESUMO

The present study assessed the nutritional composition of coffee silverskin (CSS) obtained from arabica roasted coffee. Following validated analytical methods, CSS resulted to be a high source of proteins (14.2 g/100 g) and dietary fibers (51.5 g/100 g). Moreover, the mineral analysis revealed high contents of calcium (1.1 g/100 g) and potassium (1.0 g/100 g). To date, this study provided the widest mineral profile of CSS with 30 minerals targeted including 23 microminerals with high levels of iron (238.0 mg/kg), manganese (46.7 mg/kg), copper (37.9 mg/kg), and zinc (31.9 mg/kg). Moreover, vitamins B2 (0.18-0.2 mg/kg) and B3 (2.5-3.1 mg/kg) were studied and reported for the first time in CSS. ß-sitosterol (77.1 mg/kg), campesterol, stigmasterol, and Δ5-avenasterol, were also observed from the phytosterol analysis of CSS with a total level of 98.4 mg/kg. This rich nutritional profile highlights the potential values of CSS for innovative reuses in bioactive ingredients development.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Complexo Vitamínico B , Café , Minerais , Estigmasterol
19.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131987, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474385

RESUMO

As traditional methods of oil shale production emitting high levels of pollutants, in-situ exploitation has aroused great concerns. In order to study the effect of in-situ pyrolysis products on the underground environment, an in-situ oil shale exploitation of underground environment impact laboratory simulation system was designed. Based on the hydrogeological condition of oil shale area in Nong'an City, a physical simulation test was conducted. It was found the temperature of surrounding layers continued to be perturbed after heating of the formation had stopped. The time during which the temperature was perturbed was about 4-5 times the heating period. During the simulation test, stray gas migration through fractures and faults was considered a mechanism for groundwater contamination. In the test, the maximum TOC content in aquifer was the value of 97.0 mg/L. The maximum total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the simulated formation was 129 mg/kg after oil pyrolysis.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Petróleo , Minerais , Mineração , Modelos Teóricos
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20200639, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730607

RESUMO

Collisional granites of the Araçuaí Orogen, southeastern Brazil, record petrological and geochronological evidence for multiple crustal melting during the orogeny evolution. U-Pb zircon data indicate that these granites crystallized at 586 ± 2 M.y. High-grade metamorphism (M1) involved partial melting by fluid-absent reactions that produced the first generation of garnet in temperatures of approx. 750°C. Preservation of the mineral assemblage A1 (garnet-biotite-plagioclase-K-feldspar-quartz-ilmenite-melt) indicates that most of the generated melt was lost from these rocks at or near peak metamorphic conditions. A second metamorphic event (M2) is characterized by growth of a second generation of garnet in preserved A2 assemblage (garnet-sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-K-feldspar-quartz-ilmenite-melt). Mineral equilibria modeling constrains conditions of M2 metamorphism to 713-729 °C and 6.2-7.3 kbar. Retrograde assemblage (A3) records equilibrium conditions at 610-660 °C. The Hf isotope composition indicates significant crustal contribution to the genesis of the collisional granites. The elevated geotherms in thickened crust provide enough heat for the M1 event at 562 ± 2 M.y. Subsequent heating probably associated to the transfer of mantle heat to the crust during the extensional thinning and gravitational collapse of the orogen lead to the M2 event at 526 ± 4 M.y. This event is concomitant to the emplacement of the post-collisional magmas in the orogen.


Assuntos
Minerais , Dióxido de Silício , Brasil
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