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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443509

RESUMO

The main goal of this work was to study the structural transformation of humic acids (HAs) under the influence of selected strains of fungi (Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces lilacinus) and bacteria (Bacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) with/without the presence of NPK fertilizers. Two-year experiments were conducted on two different soils and HAs isolated from these soils were examined for structure, humification degree, and quantity using fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and extraction methods. Results showed that the applied additives contributed to the beneficial transformation of HAs, but effects differed for various soils. HAs from silty soil with higher organic carbon content showed simplification of their structure, and decreases in humification, molecular weight, and aromaticity under the influence of fungi and bacteria without NPK, and with NPK alone. With both fungi and NPK, increases in O/H and O/C atomic ratios indicated an increase in the number of O-containing functional groups. HAs from sandy soil did not show as many significant changes as did those from silty soil. Sandy soil exhibited a strong decline in HA content in the second year that was reduced/neutralized by the presence of fungi, bacteria, and NPK. Periodically observed fluorescence at ~300 nm/450 nm reflected formation of low-molecular HAs originating from the activity of microorganisms.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilizantes/análise , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Minerais/farmacologia , Solo/química , Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445794

RESUMO

Xenogeneic biomaterials Cerbone® and OsteoBiol® are widely used in oral implantology. In dental practice, xenogeneic biomaterial is usually combined with autologous bone to provide bone volume stability needed for long-term dental implants. Magnesium alloy implants dissolve and form mineral corrosion layer that is directly in contact with bone tissue, allowing deposition of the newly formed bone. CSBD heals by intramembranous ossification and therefore is a convenient model for analyses of ostoconductive and osteoinductive properties of different type of biomaterials. Magnesium alloy-enriched biomaterials have not yet been applied in oral implantology. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate biological properties of potentially new bovine xenogeneic biomaterial enriched with magnesium alloy in a 5 mm CSBD model. Osteoconductive properties of Cerabone®, Cerabone® + Al. bone, and OsteoBiol® were also analyzed. Dynamics of bone healing was followed up on the days 3, 7, 15, 21, and 30. Calvary bone samples were analyzed by micro-CT, and values of the bone morphometric parameters were assessed. Bone samples were further processed for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Histological observation revealed CSBD closure at day 30 of the given xenogeneic biomaterial groups, with the exception of the control group. TNF-α showed high intensity of expression at the sites of MSC clusters that underwent ossification. Osx was expressed in pre-osteoblasts, which were differentiated into mature osteoblasts and osteocytes. Results of the micro-CT analyses showed linear increase in bone volume of all xenogeneic biomaterial groups and also in the control. The highest average values of bone volume were found for the Cerabone® + Mg group. In addition, less residual biomaterial was estimated in the Cerabone® + Mg group than in the Cerabone® group, indicating its better biodegradation during CSBD healing. Overall, the magnesium alloy xenogeneic biomaterial demonstrated key properties of osteoinduction and biodegradidibility during CSBD healing, which is the reason why it should be recommended for application in clinical practice of oral implantology.


Assuntos
Ligas/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnésio/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Substitutos Ósseos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Corrosão , Hidroxiapatitas/farmacologia , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Minerais/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Próteses e Implantes , Ratos , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065270

RESUMO

Accumulated lipid droplets in liver cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Deep ocean water (DOW) containing high levels of magnesium, calcium, and potassium, etc. was proven to suppress hepatic lipid in obese rats fed high fat diet in the previous study. However, the effect of mineral compositions of DOW on the prevention of NAFLD is still unclear. This study removed calcium and potassium from DOW for modulating the mineral composition, and further compared the effects of DOW (D1(Mg + Ca + K)), DOW with low potassium (D2(Mg + Ca)), and DOW with low calcium and potassium (D3(Mg)) on the prevention of NAFLD in the mice model fed with high fat diet. In these results, DOW with high magnesium levels reduced serum and liver triglyceride and cholesterol levels and serum AST and ALT activities. However, when the calcium and/or potassium minerals were removed from DOW, the effects of reduction of triglyceride level, inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) expressions, and activation of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities would be weaker. In conclusion, DOW including magnesium, calcium and potassium minerals has the strongest preventive effect on NAFLD in a mouse model by increasing the antioxidant system and inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Magnésio/análise , Magnésio/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Minerais/análise , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Potássio/análise , Potássio/farmacologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12329, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112842

RESUMO

Minerals play an important role in animal metabolism. Knowledge of mineral requirements allows well-formulated diets to be provided, which is the main factor that affects performance. To determine the macromineral and trace element requirements for growth and maintenance, thirty-eight 2-month-old Santa Ines lambs with initial body weight (BW) of 13.0 ± 1.49 kg were distributed in a factorial design with feeding levels (ad libitum, 30% and 60% feed restriction) and sex classes [castrated (CM) and intact males (IM)]. The net mineral requirements for gain were higher (P < 0.05) with increasing BW and average daily gain, except for Ca and Na, which remained constant as the empty BW (EBW) increased. The macromineral net requirement for maintenance (g/kg EBW0.75) and the true retention coefficient (k; %) were 0.0784 and 65.2 for Ca, 0.0926 and 80.0 for P, and 0.0379 and 59.0 for K, respectively. The k of Mg was higher (P < 0.05) for IM (11.3 for IM and 7.9 for CM). Sex did not affect (P > 0.05) the maintenance requirement of the trace elements Co, Cu, Zn and Cr which were 0.0015, 0.037, 0.698, and 0.0055 (mg/kg EBW0.75), respectively. Our study indicated that the Santa Ines net mineral requirements are different from the main nutritional requirements established by committees for sheep, which may result in unbalanced diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Minerais/farmacologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799486

RESUMO

The overall goal of this study was to determine whether Aquamin®, a calcium-, magnesium-, trace element-rich, red algae-derived natural product, would alter the expression of proteins involved in growth-regulation and differentiation in colon. Thirty healthy human subjects (at risk for colorectal cancer) were enrolled in a three-arm, 90-day interventional trial. Aquamin® was compared to calcium alone and placebo. Before and after the interventional period, colonic biopsies were obtained. Biopsies were evaluated by immunohistology for expression of Ki67 (proliferation marker) and for CK20 and p21 (differentiation markers). Tandem mass tag-mass spectrometry-based detection was used to assess levels of multiple proteins. As compared to placebo or calcium, Aquamin® reduced the level of Ki67 expression and slightly increased CK20 expression. Increased p21 expression was observed with both calcium and Aquamin®. In proteomic screen, Aquamin® treatment resulted in many more proteins being upregulated (including pro-apoptotic, cytokeratins, cell-cell adhesion molecules, and components of the basement membrane) or downregulated (proliferation and nucleic acid metabolism) than placebo. Calcium alone also altered the expression of many of the same proteins but not to the same extent as Aquamin®. We conclude that daily Aquamin® ingestion alters protein expression profile in the colon that could be beneficial to colonic health.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Proteômica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801825

RESUMO

The loss of bone following tooth extraction poses a significant clinical problem for maxillofacial esthetics, function, and future implant placement. In the present study, the efficacy of an erythropoietin-impregnated collagen scaffold as an alveolar ridge augmentation material versus a conventional collagen scaffold and a BioOss inorganic bovine bone xenograft was examined. The collagen/Erythropoietin (EPO) scaffold exhibited significantly more rapid and complete osseous regeneration of the alveolar defect when compared to bone xenograft and the collagen membrane alone. The new EPO induced extracellular matrix was rich in Collagen I, Collagen III, Fibronectin (Fn) and E-cadherin, and featured significantly increased levels of the osteogenic transcription factors Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix (Osx). Histomorphometric evaluation revealed a significant two-fold increase in the number of capillaries between the EPO and the BioOss group. Moreover, there was a highly significant 3.5-fold higher level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the collagen/EPO-treated group compared to controls. The significant effect of EPO on VEGF, FN, and RUNX2 upregulation was confirmed in vitro, and VEGF pathway analysis using VEGF inhibitors confirmed that EPO modulated extracellular matrix protein expression through VEGF even in the absence of blood vessels. Together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of an EPO-impregnated collagen scaffold for bone regeneration as it induces rapid matrix production and osseoinduction adjacent to new capillaries via VEGF.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Capilares/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoetina/farmacologia , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Processo Alveolar/fisiologia , Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar/métodos , Animais , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Capilares/fisiologia , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Minerais/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transplante Heterólogo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923301

RESUMO

Though numerous valuable compounds from red algae already experience high demand in medicine, nutrition, and different branches of industry, these organisms are still recognized as an underexploited resource. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the chemical composition of 15 Arctic red algal species from the perspective of their practical relevance in medicine and the food industry. We show that several virtually unstudied species may be regarded as promising sources of different valuable metabolites and minerals. Thus, several filamentous ceramialean algae (Ceramium virgatum, Polysiphonia stricta, Savoiea arctica) had total protein content of 20-32% of dry weight, which is comparable to or higher than that of already commercially exploited species (Palmaria palmata, Porphyra sp.). Moreover, ceramialean algae contained high amounts of pigments, macronutrients, and ascorbic acid. Euthora cristata (Gigartinales) accumulated free essential amino acids, taurine, pantothenic acid, and floridoside. Thalli of P. palmata and C. virgatum contained the highest amounts of the nonproteinogenic amino acid ß-alanine (9.1 and 3.2 µM g-1 DW, respectively). Several red algae tend to accumulate heavy metals; although this may limit their application in the food industry, it makes them promising candidates for phytoremediation or the use as bioindicators.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Medicina , Minerais/química , Rodófitas/química , Regiões Árticas , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Minerais/isolamento & purificação , Minerais/farmacologia , Oceanos e Mares
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803164

RESUMO

Maternal nutrients are essential for proper fetal and placental development and function. However, the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation under two rates of maternal weight gain on placental genome-wide gene expression have not been investigated so far. Furthermore, biological processes and pathways in the placenta that act in response to early maternal nutrition are yet to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the impact of maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation (from pre-breeding to day 83 post-breeding) and two rates of gain during the first 83 days of pregnancy on the gene expression of placental caruncles (CAR; maternal placenta) and cotyledons (COT; fetal placenta) of crossbred Angus beef heifers. We identified 267 unique differentially expressed genes (DEG). Among the DEGs from CAR, we identified ACAT2, SREBF2, and HMGCCS1 that underlie the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, the transcription factors PAX2 and PAX8 were over-represented in biological processes related to kidney organogenesis. The DEGs from COT included SLC2A1, SLC2A3, SLC27A4, and INSIG1. Our over-representation analysis retrieved biological processes related to nutrient transport and ion homeostasis, whereas the pathways included insulin secretion, PPAR signaling, and biosynthesis of amino acids. Vitamin and mineral supplementation and rate of gain were associated with changes in gene expression, biological processes, and KEGG pathways in beef cattle placental tissues.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Placenta/química , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Minerais/farmacologia , Gravidez , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Vitaminas/farmacologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249962, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909656

RESUMO

In-situ resource utilization (ISRU) is increasingly acknowledged as an essential requirement for the construction of sustainable extra-terrestrial colonies. Even with decreasing launch costs, the ultimate goal of establishing colonies must be the usage of resources found at the destination of interest. Typical approaches towards ISRU are often constrained by the mass and energy requirements of transporting processing machineries, such as rovers and massive reactors, and the vast amount of consumables needed. Application of self-reproducing bacteria for the extraction of resources is a promising approach to reduce these pitfalls. In this work, the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis was used to reduce three different types of Lunar and Martian regolith simulants, allowing for the magnetic extraction of iron-rich materials. The combination of bacterial treatment and magnetic extraction resulted in a 5.8-times higher quantity of iron and 43.6% higher iron concentration compared to solely magnetic extraction. The materials were 3D printed into cylinders and the mechanical properties were tested, resulting in a 400% improvement in compressive strength in the bacterially treated samples. This work demonstrates a proof of concept for the on-demand production of construction and replacement parts in space exploration.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Shewanella/metabolismo , Força Compressiva , Ferro/análise , Ferro/isolamento & purificação , Magnetismo , Marte , Minerais/química , Minerais/farmacologia , Lua , Impressão Tridimensional , Shewanella/química , Shewanella/efeitos dos fármacos , Shewanella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dióxido de Silício/química , Solo/química
10.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 66(1): 133-143, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104976

RESUMO

The microbial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature and represent important biological entities that affect various aspects of human life. As such, they attracted considerable attention during last decades, with the factors affecting the biofilm development being among the frequently studied topics. In our work, the biofilm was cultivated on the surface of polypropylene fibers in a nutrient medium inoculated by the suspension of two unsterile soils. The effects of ionic strength and valence of salt on the amount of the produced biofilm and on composition of biofilm microbial communities were investigated. The effect of valence was significant in some OTUs: Arthrobacter/Pseudarthrobacter/Paenarthrobacter and Bacillus with positive response to monovalent salt (KCl) and Streptomyces, Lysinibacillus, Pseudomonas, and Ensifer with positive response to divalent salt (MgSO4). The significant preference for a certain concentration of salts was observed in the case of OTUs Agrobacterium, Bacillus (both 100 mM), and Brevundimonas (30 mM). A new quantification method based on measuring of oxidizable organic carbon in biofilm biomass, based on dichromate oxidation, was used. We compared the results obtained using this method with results of crystal violet destaining and measuring of extracted DNA concentration as proxies of the biofilm biomass. The dichromate oxidation is simple, inexpensive, and fast, and our results show that it may be more sensitive than crystal violet destaining. The highest biomass values tended to associate with high concentrations of the divalent salt. This trend was not observed in treatments where the monovalent salt was added. Our data confirm the importance of inorganic ions for biofilm composition and biomass accumulation.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Sais/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura/química , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/análise , Polipropilenos , Sais/análise , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255647

RESUMO

The growing demand for new, sophisticated, multifunctional materials has brought natural structural composites into focus, since they underwent a substantial optimization during long evolutionary selection pressure and adaptation processes. Marine biological materials are the most important sources of both inspiration for biomimetics and of raw materials for practical applications in technology and biomedicine. The use of marine natural products as multifunctional biomaterials is currently undergoing a renaissance in the modern materials science. The diversity of marine biomaterials, their forms and fields of application are highlighted in this review. We will discuss the challenges, solutions, and future directions of modern marine biomaterialogy using a thorough analysis of scientific sources over the past ten years.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Biotecnologia , Minerais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas/farmacologia , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/isolamento & purificação , Biotecnologia/tendências , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Minerais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003648

RESUMO

The third coronavirus outbreak in the last two decades has caused significant damage to the world's economy and community health. The highly contagious COVID-19 infection has affected millions of people to date and has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Aside from the highly infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, the lack of a treatment or vaccine has been the main reason for its spread. Thus, it has become necessary to find alternative methods for controlling SARS-CoV-2. For the present review, we conducted an online search for different available nutrition-based therapies for previously known coronavirus infections and RNA-based virus infections as well as general antiviral therapies. These treatments have promise for combating COVID-19, as various nutrients and minerals play direct and indirect roles in the control and prevention of this newly emerged viral infection. The patients' nutritional status with COVID-19 must be analyzed before administering any treatment, and nutritional supplements should be given to the affected individuals along with routine treatment. We suggest a potential interventional role of nutrients to strengthen the immune system against the emerging infection caused by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Micronutrientes , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
13.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024043

RESUMO

Worldwide increases in antibiotic resistance and the dearth of new antibiotics have created a global crisis in the treatment of infectious diseases. These concerns highlight the pressing need for novel antimicrobial agents. Natural clay minerals have a long history of therapeutic and biomedical applications and have lately received specific attention for their potent antimicrobial properties. In particular, Kisameet clay (KC) has strong antibacterial activity against a variety of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens in vitro Here, we have extended the known spectrum of activity of KC by demonstrating its efficacy against two major fungal pathogens, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans In addition, KC also exhibits potent activity against the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium marinum, a model organism for M. ulcerans infection. Moreover, aqueous KC leachates (KC-L) exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, eradicated Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilms, and prevented their formation. The mechanism(s) underlying KC antibacterial activity appears to be complex. Adjusting KC-L to neutral pH rendered it inactive, indicating a contribution of pH, although low pH alone was insufficient for its antibacterial activity. Treatment of KC minerals with cation-chelating agents such as EDTA, 2,2'-bipyridyl, and deferoxamine reduced the antibacterial activity, while supplementation of KC-L with these chelating agents eliminated the inhibitory activity. Together, the data suggest a positive role for divalent and trivalent cations, including iron and aluminum, in bacterial inhibition by KC. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the range of KC bioactivity and provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying its antibacterial effects.IMPORTANCE The escalating emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, together with the paucity of novel antimicrobial agents in antibiotic development, is recognized as a worldwide public health crisis. Kisameet clay (KC), found in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a clay mineral with a long history of therapeutic applications among people of the First Nations. We previously reported the antibacterial activity of KC against a group of MDR clinical pathogens. Here, we demonstrate its activity against two major human-pathogenic fungal species, as well as against bacterial biofilms, which underlie many recalcitrant bacterial infections. In these studies, we also identified several geochemical characteristics of KC, such as metal ions and low pH, which are involved in its antibacterial activity. These findings provide a better understanding of the components of KC antibacterial activity and a basis for developing defined preparations of this clay mineral for therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Argila/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Colúmbia Britânica , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Cátions , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Minerais/química
14.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 80: 103496, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947019

RESUMO

The ulexite (UX), a borate mineral, is used as boron source and commonly used in various industrial processes. The hematological and hepatic effects of UX were investigated by exposing adult zebrafish to UX (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L) over 96 hours. The blood and liver tissues were taken at the end of the trial period then micronucleus (MN) rates, oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), apoptosis (Caspase-3), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), myeloperoxidase (MPO), paraoxonase (PON), arylesterase (AR) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were determined. Genotoxic damage by UX occurred only at 40 mg/L in the blood MN assay. Oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in liver also occurred at this dose. Moreover, 5-20 mg/L doses led to decreases of DNA damage and apoptosis levels via promoting antioxidant system in liver tissues. UX exhibits beneficial roles on blood and liver tissues of zebrafish at relatively lower doses, which may be relevant to nutritional and medicinal industries.


Assuntos
Boratos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arildialquilfosfatase/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Testes para Micronúcleos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867219

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that binge drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to non-desirable outcomes, which have become a serious threat to public health. However, the bioactive compounds in some alcohol-containing beverages might mitigate the negative effects of alcohol. In beer, the variety and concentration of bioactive compounds in the non-alcoholic fraction suggests that its consumption at moderate levels may not only be harmless but could also positively contribute to an improvement of certain physiological states and be also useful in the prevention of different chronic diseases. The present review focuses on the effects of non-alcoholic components of beer on abdominal fat, osteoporosis, and body hydration in women, conditions selected for their relevance to health and aging. Although beer drinking is commonly believed to cause abdominal fat deposition, the available literature indicates this outcome is inconsistent in women. Additionally, the non-alcoholic beer fraction might improve bone health in postmenopausal women, and the effects of beer on body hydration, although still unconfirmed seem promising. Most of the health benefits of beer are due to its bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols, which are the most studied. As alcohol-free beer also contains these compounds, it may well offer a healthy alternative to beer consumers.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerveja , Minerais/farmacologia , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerveja/efeitos adversos , Cerveja/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose , Pós-Menopausa , Adulto Jovem
16.
Molecules ; 25(15)2020 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722602

RESUMO

Laboratory measurements of capillary pressure (Pc) and the electrical resistivity index (RI) of reservoir rocks are used to calibrate well logging tools and to determine reservoir fluid distribution. Significant studies on the methods and factors affecting these measurements in rocks containing oil, gas, and water are adequately reported in the literature. However, with the advent of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, surfactants are mixed with injection fluids to generate foam to enhance the gas injection process. Foam is a complex and non-Newtonian fluid whose behavior in porous media is different from conventional reservoir fluids. As a result, the effect of foam on Pc and the reliability of using known rock models such as the Archie equation to fit experimental resistivity data in rocks containing foam are yet to be ascertained. In this study, we investigated the effect of foam on the behavior of both Pc and RI curves in sandstone and carbonate rocks using both porous plate and two-pole resistivity methods at ambient temperature. Our results consistently showed that for a given water saturation (Sw), the RI of a rock increases in the presence of foam than without foam. We found that, below a critical Sw, the resistivity of a rock containing foam continues to rise rapidly. We argue, based on knowledge of foam behavior in porous media, that this critical Sw represents the regime where the foam texture begins to become finer, and it is dependent on the properties of the rock and the foam. Nonetheless, the Archie model fits the experimental data of the rocks but with resulting saturation exponents that are higher than conventional gas-water rock systems. The degree of variation in the saturation exponents between the two fluid systems also depends on the rock and fluid properties. A theory is presented to explain this phenomenon. We also found that foam affects the saturation exponent in a similar way as oil-wet rocks in the sense that they decrease the cross-sectional area of water available in the pores for current flow. Foam appears to have competing and opposite effects caused by the presence of clay, micropores, and conducting minerals, which tend to lower the saturation exponent at low Sw. Finally, the Pc curve is consistently lower in foam than without foam for the same Sw.


Assuntos
Resistência Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbonatos/química , Minerais/química , Carbonatos/farmacologia , Impedância Elétrica , Microbolhas , Minerais/farmacologia , Porosidade , Pressão , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química , Molhabilidade
17.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 39(8): 685-693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649272

RESUMO

Background: In December 2019, the viral pandemic of respiratory illness caused by COVID-19 began sweeping its way across the globe. Several aspects of this infectious disease mimic metabolic events shown to occur during latent subclinical magnesium deficiency. Hypomagnesemia is a relatively common clinical occurrence that often goes unrecognized since magnesium levels are rarely monitored in the clinical setting. Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium. It is involved in >600 enzymatic reactions in the body, including those contributing to the exaggerated immune and inflammatory responses exhibited by COVID-19 patients.Methods: A summary of experimental findings and knowledge of the biochemical role magnesium may play in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is presented in this perspective. The National Academy of Medicine's Standards for Systematic Reviews were independently employed to identify clinical and prospective cohort studies assessing the relationship of magnesium with interleukin-6, a prominent drug target for treating COVID-19.Results: Clinical recommendations are given for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Constant monitoring of ionized magnesium status with subsequent repletion, when appropriate, may be an effective strategy to influence disease contraction and progression. The peer-reviewed literature supports that several aspects of magnesium nutrition warrant clinical consideration. Mechanisms include its "calcium-channel blocking" effects that lead to downstream suppression of nuclear factor-Kß, interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, and other related endocrine disrupters; its role in regulating renal potassium loss; and its ability to activate and enhance the functionality of vitamin D, among others.Conclusion: As the world awaits an effective vaccine, nutrition plays an important and safe role in helping mitigate patient morbidity and mortality. Our group is working with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to collect patient-level data from intensive care units across the United States to better understand nutrition care practices that lead to better outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Magnésio/sangue , Magnésio/farmacologia , Minerais/sangue , Minerais/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Terapia Nutricional , Pandemias , Potássio/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/sangue , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0228364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484823

RESUMO

Nitrogen transformation in soil is a complex process and the soil microbial population can regulate the potential for N mineralization, nitrification and denitrification. Here we show that agricultural soils under standard agricultural N-management are consistently characterized by a high presence of gene copies for some of the key biological activities related to the N-cycle. This led to a strong NO3- reduction (75%) passing from the soil surface (15.38 ± 11.36 g N-NO3 kg-1 on average) to the 1 m deep layer (3.92 ± 4.42 g N-NO3 kg-1 on average), and ensured low nitrate presence in the deepest layer. Under these circumstances the other soil properties play a minor role in reducing soil nitrate presence in soil. However, with excessive N fertilization, the abundance of bacterial gene copies is not sufficient to explain N leaching in soil and other factors, i.e. soil texture and rainfall, become more important in controlling these aspects.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Fertilizantes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Nitratos/análise , Ciclo do Nitrogênio/genética , Solo/química , Dosagem de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo do Nitrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Neurosci Lett ; 731: 134989, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380141

RESUMO

Injection of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) induces 0.3 M NaCl intake in rats. In the present work, we investigated whether such an effect applies to hypertonic (0.3 M) mineral solutions in general or is selective to sodium solutions in a 240 min intake test. Muscimol injection (0.5 nmol/0.2 µL) compared to vehicle injection into the LPBN of adult hydrated rats produced a preferential ingestion of 0.3 M NaCl (25.3 ± 10.2 mL) followed by a 0.3 M NaHCO3 intake (11.7 ± 5.6 mL), with no significant effect on water, KCl and CaCl2 intake. Only the effect of muscimol on NaCl intake (19.0 ± 10.4 mL) persisted in cell-dehydrated rats, with hardly any effect on water or other mineral solutions. The results suggest that the LPBN controls the ingestion of hypertonic NaCl and NaHCO3. They also suggest a selective mechanisms involving the LPBN to check hypertonic sodium intake.


Assuntos
Minerais/metabolismo , Muscimol/farmacologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Agonistas GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Masculino , Minerais/farmacologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
20.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369976

RESUMO

Coffee consumption has been related to a preventive effect against several non-transmissible pathologies. Due to the content of this beverage in phytochemicals and minerals, it has been proposed that its impact on health may partly depend on gut microbiota modulation. Our aim was to explore the interaction among gut microbiota, fecal short chain fatty acids, and health-related parameters in 147 healthy subjects classified according to coffee consumption, to deepen the association of the role of the (poly)phenol and alkaloid content of this beverage. Food daily intake was assessed by an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Coffee consumption was categorized into three groups: non-coffee-consumers (0-3 mL/day), moderate consumers (3-45 mL/day) and high-coffee consumers (45-500 mL/day). Some relevant groups of the gut microbiota were determined by qPCR, and concentration of fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. Serum health related biomarkers were determined by standardized methods. Interestingly, a higher level of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas was observed in the high consumers of coffee, who also had lower levels of lipoperoxidation. Two groups of coffee-derived (poly)phenol, methoxyphenols and alkylphenols, and caffeine, among alkaloids, were directly associated with Bacteroides group levels. Thus, regular consumption of coffee appears to be associated with changes in some intestinal microbiota groups in which dietary (poly)phenol and caffeine may play a role.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Café/química , Café/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Benefícios do Seguro , Minerais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Cafeína/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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