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1.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 12-16, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322506

RESUMO

Aim - study of marker enzymes, hormonal and carbohydrate-protein indicators of the state of reparative osteogenesis in patients with complicated and uncomplicated course of injuries of facial cranium. The study included 81 patients with injuries of facial cranium, which were divided into 2 groups, depending on the presence of complications. The following enzyme indicators were studied: the level of excretion of hydroxyproline in daily urine; alkaline and acid phosphatase activity; the percentage of bone isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase. To assess the mineral metabolism, the level of total and ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the blood serum, as well as their excretion in the urine, were determined. To assess the state of metabolism, the concentration of glycosaminoglycans and their fractions in the blood serum were studied. To study the structural and functional state of the bone tissue the densitometry was performed. In patients with complicated course of injuries of facial cranium assosiated with traumatic brain injury there was revealed the increase (р<0,05) of: excretion of phosphorus, uronic acids and oxyproline, while the excretion of calcium was not disturbed (р>0,05), and excretion of magnesium was decreased (р<0,05). It was found out that the level of calcium of blood serum in patients with complicated course is significantly (р<0,05) lower than in the control group and does not depend on the presence of craniocerebral injury (р>0,05). The decrease of the level of ionized calcium content in blood serum can be the confirmation of lower metabolic activity of reparative osteogenesis processes, first of all at the expense of damage of central mechanisms. When studying the content of carbohydrate-protein metabolites by complicated course of injuries of facial cranium, the absolute increase (р<0,05) of concentration of chondroitin-6-sulfates was revealed, and during the analysis of results it was found out that in absolute values, as well as in structural indexes, the specific weight of various fractions changes, that can be the evidence of instability of mechanisms of osteogenesis and of damage of physiological mechanisms of reparative osteogenesis. Densitometric equivalents of forming of complicated course of injuries of facial cranium are the increase of broadband ultrasonic attenuation and the decrease of its spreading speed on the background of low levels of chondroitin-6-sulfates.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Traumatismos Faciais , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Fósforo/sangue , Crânio/lesões , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Cálcio/urina , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/metabolismo , Traumatismos Faciais/enzimologia , Traumatismos Faciais/metabolismo , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxiprolina/urina , Minerais/metabolismo , Fósforo/urina
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 869-877, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200307

RESUMO

Jarosites are secondary iron-hydroxyl-sulfate minerals and widely occur in bioleaching, acid mine drainage, and acid sulfate soil environments. Anaerobic reductive dissolution of jarosites is yet to be methodically examined. In this study, we explored the bio-dissolution of jarosites by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans) by using hydrogen in batch experiments. After bio-dissolution by At. ferrooxidans for 22 d, ferrous ion concentrations reached 10.07 mM (biologically produced jarosites), 7.68 mM (potassium jarosite), and 1.45 mM (lead jarosite). Strengthening the dissolved jarosites by decreasing the initial pH (pH < 2.0) or by adding citric acid (1, 5, and 10 mM) was inefficient for bio-dissolution owing to restricted cellular activity. The pathways of bio-dissolution should include direct contact bio-dissolution and indirect bio-dissolution and relate to the solubility of jarosites in a bio-dissolution system. The results demonstrate that anaerobic reductive bio-dissolution of jarosites by At. ferrooxidans using hydrogen shows potential. This study also provides opportunities to contribute to the development of the bioleaching field via the aerobic/anaerobic cycle using a single strain to control and reuse jarosites in situ.


Assuntos
Acidithiobacillus/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Elétrons , Compostos Ferrosos , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Mineração , Oxirredução
3.
J Plant Physiol ; 239: 1-9, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177025

RESUMO

Elicitation is an economic and sustainable technique for increasing the content of secondary metabolites, mainly bioactive compounds, in plants grown for better human nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses (water relations and mineral nutrition) and the enrichment in glucosinolates (GLSs) and phenolic compounds of broccoli plants (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) receiving different elicitation treatments. The treatments involved the priming of seeds with KCl and the exposure of plants to elicitors, including K2SO4 and NaCl solutions and foliar sprays of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), and methionine (Met). The physiological response of the plants in terms of root hydraulic conductance was improved by priming with KCl and elicitation with MeJA or Met. Foliar application of Met significantly increased the plant biomass and enhanced mineral nutrition. In general, all treatments increased the accumulation of indole GLSs, but K2SO4 and MeJA gave the best response and MeJA also favored the formation of a newly described compound, cinnamic-GLS, in the plants. Also, the use of Met and SA as elicitors and the supply of K2SO4 increased the abundance of phenolic compounds; K2SO4 also enhanced growth but did not alter the water relations or the accumulation of mineral nutrients. Therefore, although the response to elicitation was positive, with an increased content of bioactive compounds, regulation of the water relations and of the mineral status of the broccoli plants was critical to maintain the yield.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/fisiologia , Cloreto de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sulfatos/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Ciclopentanos/administração & dosagem , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem , Água/metabolismo
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4133-4144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239672

RESUMO

Background: Although titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) had great potential to promote osteogenesis, their weak bonding strength with titanium substrates greatly limited their clinical application. Purpose: The objective of this study was to maintain porosity and improve the stability of TNT coatings by preparing some micro-patterned mesoporous/nanotube (MP/TNT) structures via a photolithography-assisted anodization technology. Methods: The adhesion strength of different coatings was studied by ultrasonic cleaning machine and scratch tester. The early adhesion, spreading, proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on different substrates were investigated in vitro by fluorescent staining, CCK8, alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and polymerase chain reaction assays, respectively. Results: Results of ultrasonic and scratch assays showed that the stability of TNTs (especially 125 nm) was significantly improved after being patterned with MP structures. In vitro cell assays further demonstrated that the insertion of MP structure into 125 nm TNT coating, which was denoted as MP125, could effectively improve the early adhesion, spreading and proliferation of surface MC3T3-E1 cells without damaging their osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: We determined that the MP/TNT patterned samples (especially MP125) have excellent stability and osteogenesis properties, and may have better clinical application prospects.


Assuntos
Nanotubos/química , Osteogênese , Titânio/química , Adsorção , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Adesão Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Forma Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Minerais/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/genética , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Osteopontina/genética , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Porosidade , Água/química
5.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(4): 324-337, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192701

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different sources and levels of trace elements on growth performance, carcass composition and mineral excretion levels of broilers. In a completely randomised experimental design, 900 one-day-old male Ross-308 broilers were assigned to 5 treatments, with 6 replicates of 30 birds each. The control group (CITE) was fed with a basal diet containing regular inclusion levels of inorganic trace elements. Treatment groups were supplied with reduced levels (30% and 50% of the regular level) of inorganic (ITE) or organic trace elements (OTE), respectively. Groups 50% ITE, 30% OTE and 50% OTE diets had equivalent average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed to gain ratio (F/G ratio) and mortality rate compared with group CITE in any phase. However, compared with group CITE chicks in group 30% ITE have lower ADG and ADFI and higher F/G ratio. The carcass yields were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with group CITE, in groups 30% ITE, 50% ITE, 30% OTE and 50% OTE the shear force values of the breast muscle were only 71.8%, 83.4%, 63.5% and 59.4% (p < 0.05), respectively. Birds received diets containing reduced levels of trace elements had diminished excretions of Mn and Zn throughout the entire period (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the reduced supplementation of trace elements had no or slightly negative impact on growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality, but decreased faecal mineral excretion. Moreover, the trace element supply as OTE played a limited role on performance and excretion and was only partly beneficial for animal performance in case the trace element supply was reduced to 30%.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Eliminação Intestinal , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cobre/química , Cobre/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fezes/química , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/química , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Manganês/química , Manganês/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/química , Zinco/metabolismo
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 3007-3015, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069380

RESUMO

A total of 2,156 weaned pigs (6.75 ± 0.11 kg BW) were used in a 42-d study to evaluate whether improvements in growth performance associated with super-dosing phytase can be explained by the complete dephosphorylation of phytate and liberation of inositol. Two phytase doses (0 and 2,500 FTU/kg) and 3 inositol concentrations (0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) were combined to create 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Pigs were fed a 3-phase feeding program, with periods being 10, 10, and 22 d, respectively. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 21, and 42 from a subset of 48 pigs to analyze mineral and myo-inositol concentrations. During Phase 1, super-dosing phytase tended to improve ADG compared with pigs fed diets without phytase (P = 0.09). Increasing concentrations of inositol improved the efficiency of gain in pigs fed diets without phytase (1,022.1, 1,040.9, and 1,089.2 g/kg), but not diets with phytase (1,102.2, 1,087.2, and 1,076.2 g/kg), and this improvement was equivalent to that observed with super-dosing phytase in the absence of inositol (interaction, P = 0.015). During Phase 2, super-dosing phytase improved ADG (P = 0.001), resulting in heavier BW (P = 0.007). During Phase 3 and overall, inositol supplementation increased ADG and ADFI in a quadratic manner (P < 0.10), with the highest ADG and ADFI observed for pigs fed 0.15% of inositol. Super-dosing phytase increased serum Zn on day 21, but not on day 42 (interaction, P = 0.008), increased serum Cu (P = 0.01), but decreased serum Fe (P = 0.02). Plasma myo-inositol increased linearly from 66.9 to 97.1 and 113.2 nmol/mL with increasing inositol (P < 0.001). When plasma myo-inositol was analyzed within the subgroup of pigs fed diets without added inositol, super-dosing phytase increased plasma myo-inositol from 57.81 to 76.05 nmol/mL (0 and 2,500 FTU/kg, respectively; P = 0.05). Results demonstrate that exogenous inositol improved efficiency of gain in weaned pigs to the same level as that observed with super-dosing phytase, but this occurred only during the first 10 d of the nursery period. This suggests that the improvement in efficiency of growth when applying super-dosing phytase could be linked, in part, to complete dephosphorylation of phytate and liberation of myo-inositol, and that myo-inositol had a greater metabolic impact in piglets immediately after weaning. Consequently, myo-inositol may be a conditionally essential nutrient for young pigs during weaning stress, but further research is needed to prove this hypothesis.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Suínos/sangue , Desmame
7.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2524-2533, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056701

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of increasing the dose of a 6-phytase from Buttiauxella on phytate degradation, mineral, energy, and AA digestibility in weaned pigs fed complex diets based on wheat, corn, soybean meal, barley, and rapeseed meal. A negative control (NC) diet containing no added inorganic phosphorus (P) and a reduction of 0.1% calcium (Ca) and 36 kcal/kg ME was supplemented with Buttiauxella phytase at 0, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 FTU/kg diet and tested against a nutritionally adequate, positive control (PC) diet. One phytase units (FTU) is the amount of enzyme that liberates 1 micromole of inorganic phosphate per minute from a sodium phytate substrate at pH 5.5 and 37 °C. Barrows (Topigs × Pietrian; initial mean body weight 19.3 kg) were housed individually in metabolic crates and fed the test diets in mash form via 2 equal meals per day for 9 d (fed at 2.5 times the maintenance energy requirement), with 8 replicate pigs per treatment, in 2 experimental runs (total n = 48). After a 3-d adaptation period, urine and feces were collected over 5 d for measurements of apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of nutrients. On day 9, pigs were euthanized and ileal digesta collected for measurements of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) digestibility of all measured AA except Trp (P < 0.1), and AID P, nitrogen, phytate, ATTD P, Ca versus NC. Increasing phytase dose from 0 (NC) to 2,000 FTU/kg increased AID Lys, Cys, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, mean AA, P, N, phytate, ATTD P, N, Na, energy, ME, P retention (g/d), and reduced P excretion (g/d) in a linear or exponential manner (P < 0.05). Phytase at 2,000 FTU/kg improved AA digestibility by between +3.1 percentage points (Trp) and +8.8 percentage points (Cys) versus NC (average +6.3 percentage points) (P < 0.05). Phytase inclusion at 2,000 FTU/kg reduced P excretion (g/d) by 57% versus PC (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing Buttiauxella phytase in the range of 0 to 2,000 FTU/kg increased phytate degradation, improved AA and P digestibility, and reduced P excretion in weaned pigs fed complex diets.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brassica rapa , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hordeum , Minerais/metabolismo , Soja , Triticum , Zea mays
8.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2822-2836, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115459

RESUMO

Nutrient requirements of sows during lactation are related mainly to their milk yield and feed intake, and vary greatly among individuals. In practice, nutrient requirements are generally determined at the population level based on average performance. The objective of the present modeling approach was to explore the variability in nutrient requirements among sows by combining current knowledge about nutrient use with on-farm data available on sows at farrowing [parity, BW, backfat thickness (BT)] and their individual performance (litter size, litter average daily gain, daily sow feed intake) to estimate nutrient requirements. The approach was tested on a database of 1,450 lactations from 2 farms. The effects of farm (A, B), week of lactation (W1: week 1, W2: week 2, W3+: week 3 and beyond), and parity (P1: 1, P2: 2, P3+: 3 and beyond) on sow performance and their nutrient requirements were evaluated. The mean daily ME requirement was strongly correlated with litter growth (R2 = 0.95; P < 0.001) and varied slightly according to sow BW, which influenced the maintenance cost. The mean daily standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine requirement was influenced by farm, week of lactation, and parity. Variability in SID lysine requirement per kg feed was related mainly to feed intake (R2 = 0.51; P < 0.001) and, to a smaller extent, litter growth (R2 = 0.27; P < 0.001). It was lowest in W1 (7.0 g/kg), greatest in W2 (7.9 g/kg), and intermediate in W3+ (7.5 g/kg; P < 0.001) because milk production increased faster than feed intake capacity did. It was lower for P3+ (6.7 g/kg) and P2 sows (7.3 g/kg) than P1 sows (8.3 g/kg) due to the greater feed intake of multiparous sows. The SID lysine requirement per kg of feed was met for 80% of sows when supplies were 112 and 120% of the mean population requirement on farm A and B, respectively, indicating higher variability in requirements on farm B. Other amino acid and mineral requirements were influenced in the same way as SID lysine. The present modeling approach allows to capture individual variability in the performance of sows and litters according to farm, stage of lactation, and parity. It is an initial step in the development of new types of models able to process historical farm data (e.g., for ex post assessment of nutrient requirements) and real-time data (e.g., to control precision feeding).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Leite/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Lisina/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Paridade , Gravidez
9.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 128: 283-290, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059968

RESUMO

Livestock manures are potential sources of antibiotics in the environment. Sulfamethazine (SMZ), frequently used in veterinary medicine, can enter the environment by using manure as soil fertilizer due to its incomplete absorption in the animal gut and its unmetabolized excretion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mineralization of 14C-labelled SMZ in manure under a new redox scenario provided by microbial electrochemical reactors, termed microbial electroremediating cells (MERC). These devices aim to overcome the electron acceptor limitation in bacterial oxidative metabolism by means of using electrodes to enhance the biodegradation of pollutants in the environment. Our results revealed that the total degradation of 14C-SMZ reached 43.5% in short term batch laboratory scale experiments under reducing conditions (-400 mV vs. Ag/AgCl). Actually, SMZ mineralization was enhanced up to 10-fold in the early stages (after 2 weeks) in comparison with an electrode-free natural attenuation assay. Moreover, mineralization showed a dependence on electrode potential, with negligible results for conditions set to +400 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The impact of merging electrodes and microorganisms for manure bioremediation suggests a promising future for this emerging technology to treat polluted livestock wastes and prevent soil and groundwater pollution.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Eletrodos , Esterco/microbiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Sulfametazina/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Suínos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5624-5630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of reclaimed dredged sediments as growing media may offer a profitable alternative to their disposal as a waste and at the same time meets the need of peat-substitute substrates in horticulture. When sediments are reused to cultivate food crops, issues related to human health rise due to potential accumulation of contaminants in the product. This pilot study aimed at verifying the suitability of a reclaimed dredged port sediment, used pure or mixed with peat, as a growing medium for lettuce cultivation. RESULTS: The pure sediment caused a reduction in crop yield, probably due to its unsuitable physical properties, whereas the mixture sediment-peat and pure peat resulted in the same yield. Although the sediment contained potentially phytotoxic heavy metals and some organic pollutants, no symptoms of plant toxicity were noted. Besides, no organic contaminants were detected in lettuce heads, and heavy metals amounts were not hazardous for consumers. Conversely, plants grown in the sediment were particularly rich in minerals like Ca, Mg and Fe, and showed higher concentrations of organic acids and antioxidants. CONCLUSION: The use of the sediment as a growing medium for lettuce was shown to be safe for both inorganic and organic contaminants. Nevertheless, considering crop yield results, the mixture of the sediment with other materials is recommended in order to produce a substrate with more suitable physicochemical properties for vegetable cultivation. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5239-5248, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudocereals are nutrient-rich grains with high mineral content but also phytate content. Phytate is a mineral absorption inhibitor. The study's aim was to evaluate phytate degradation during spontaneous fermentation and during Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® fermentation of quinoa, canihua, and amaranth grains and flours. It also aimed to evaluate the accessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium and to estimate their bioavailability before and after the fermentation of flours with starter culture. Lactic acid, pH, phytate, and mineral content were analyzed during fermentation. RESULTS: Higher phytate degradation was found during the fermentation of flours (64-93%) than during that of grains (12-51%). Results suggest that phytate degradation was mainly due to endogenous phytase activity in different pseudocereals rather than the phytase produced by added microorganisms. The addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® resulted in a higher level of lactic acid (76.8-82.4 g kg-1 DM) during fermentation, and a relatively quicker reduction in pH to 4 than in spontaneous fermentation. Mineral accessibility was increased (1.7-4.6-fold) and phytate : mineral molar ratios were reduced (1.5-4.2-fold) in agreement with phytate degradation (1.8-4.2-fold) in fermented flours. The reduced molar ratios were still above the threshold value for the improved estimated mineral bioavailability of mainly iron. CONCLUSION: Fermentation proved to be effective for degrading phytate in pseudocereal flours, but less so in grains. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® improved mineral accessibility and estimated bioavailability in flours. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/microbiologia , Chenopodium quinoa/microbiologia , Chenopodium/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Amaranthus/química , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Chenopodium/química , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Minerais/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2290, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123249

RESUMO

Microbial contribution to gold biogeochemical cycling has been proposed. However, studies have focused primarily on the influence of prokaryotes on gold reduction and precipitation through a detoxification-oriented mechanism. Here we show, fungi, a major driver of mineral bioweathering, can initiate gold oxidation under Earth surface conditions, which is of significance for dissolved gold species formation and distribution. Presence of the gold-oxidizing fungus TA_pink1, an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum, suggests fungi have the potential to substantially impact gold biogeochemical cycling. Our data further reveal that indigenous fungal diversity positively correlates with in situ gold concentrations. Hypocreales, the order of the gold-oxidizing fungus, show the highest centrality in the fungal microbiome of the auriferous environment. Therefore, we argue that the redox interaction between fungi and gold is critical and should be considered in gold biogeochemical cycling.


Assuntos
Fusarium/metabolismo , Ouro/metabolismo , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Ouro/química , Minerais/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Austrália Ocidental
13.
Contrib Nephrol ; 198: 40-51, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between aortic calcification and demographic and biochemical parameters in hemodialysis patients. SUMMARY: Calcification scores of the aortic arch and abdominal aorta were determined from multi-slice computed tomography scans and evaluated according to the Agatston score. The associations between demographic and biochemical parameters and aortic calcification score were determined. In total, 190 patients were included in the study. There was a significant positive correlation between aortic calcification scores and age, duration of hemodialysis, cardiothoracic ratio, normalized protein catabolic rate, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), serum markers of mineral metabolism, and inflammation. A significant negative correlation was found between aortic calcification scores and platelet count. Multivariate analysis showed that age, duration of hemodialysis, baPWV, phosphate, calcium and phosphate (Ca×P) product, parathyroid hormone, and C-reactive protein levels were independent risk factors for calcification of the aortic arch, while baPWV and Ca×P product were independent risk factors for calcification of the abdominal aorta. Key Messages: Aortic calcification scores correlate with age, duration of hemodialysis, and several biochemical parameters of inflammation and mineral metabolism.


Assuntos
Aorta/patologia , Diálise Renal , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Idoso , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010095

RESUMO

In this study, several lines of evidence are provided to show that Na + , K + -ATPase activity exerts vital roles in normal brain development and function and that loss of enzyme activity is implicated in neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as increased risk of cancer, metabolic, pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is presented to show that fluoride (F) inhibits Na + , K + -ATPase activity by altering biological pathways through modifying the expression of genes and the activity of glycolytic enzymes, metalloenzymes, hormones, proteins, neuropeptides and cytokines, as well as biological interface interactions that rely on the bioavailability of chemical elements magnesium and manganese to modulate ATP and Na + , K + -ATPase enzyme activity. Taken together, the findings of this study provide unprecedented insights into the molecular mechanisms and biological pathways by which F inhibits Na + , K + -ATPase activity and contributes to the etiology and pathophysiology of diseases associated with impairment of this essential enzyme. Moreover, the findings of this study further suggest that there are windows of susceptibility over the life course where chronic F exposure in pregnancy and early infancy may impair Na + , K + -ATPase activity with both short- and long-term implications for disease and inequalities in health. These findings would warrant considerable attention and potential intervention, not to mention additional research on the potential effects of F intake in contributing to chronic disease.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/farmacologia , Saúde Pública , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Exposição Ambiental , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Humanos , Minerais/metabolismo
15.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 101: 232-242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029316

RESUMO

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been used in orthopedic surgery for several decades. Numerous methods were invented to alter the properties of PEEK. By adding nanoparticles, fibers, etc., elastic modulus and strength of PEEK can be changed to meet certain demand. In this study, tantalum (Ta), a promising metal, was introduced to modify the properties of PEEK, in which PEEK was reinforced with different contents of tantalum nanoparticles (from 1 wt% to 9 wt%). Mechanical properties and biological functions (both in vitro and in vivo) were then investigated. The highest elastic modulus and compressive strength were observed in 3%Ta-PEEK. Cell experiments as cell adhesion, collagen secretion, biomineralization and osteogenesis related gene expression showed preferable results in 3%Ta-PEEK and 5%Ta-PEEK. Improved bone integration was shown in 3%Ta-PEEK and 5%Ta-PEEK in vivo. Above all, enhanced mechanical properties and promoted bone formation were proved for 3%Ta-PEEK and 5%Ta-PEEK compared to others groups both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the addition of tantalum nanoparticles modified the osseointegration ability of PEEK. This composite of tantalum and PEEK could have a clinical potential for orthopedic implants.


Assuntos
Cetonas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Tantálio/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Minerais/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria por Raios X , Propriedades de Superfície , Termogravimetria
16.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 1281-1287, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942635

RESUMO

Osteoblastic bone formation is important for maintaining the balance of bone turnover. However, the underlying mechanisms are still needed to be elucidated. Histamine H1 type receptor (H1R) is a major subtype of histamine membrane receptors family, which has displayed diverse biological functions in various tissues and cells. In the current study, we have identified a novel physiological function of H1R in regulating osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that H1R is expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells. Interestingly, H1R is up-regulated in the process of differentiation and mineralization of the MC3T3-E1cells induced by osteogenic medium (OM). Blockage of H1R using its specific antagonist Loratadine prevented differentiation and mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells by reducing ALP activity, bone matrix deposition, and the expressions of osteogenic marker genes including ALP, OCN, Osx, and type I collagen as well as the transcriptional factor RUNX-2, which is a central regulator of osteoblastogenesis. In contrast, we found that activation of H1R with Histamine exerts opposite actions by increasing the expressions of RUNX-2. Finally, we found that the effects of H1R in osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization are mediated by the AMPK/eNOS signaling. Based on these findings, we concluded that H1R might be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of skeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Minerais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos H1/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Animais , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Osteogênese
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5044-5049, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is evident that, during the conversion of agricultural sidestreams into valuable substances, a complete utilization is necessary for economic reasons. The present study investigated the transformation of defatted rice bran into proteins (single cell and extracted protein), soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and minerals. RESULTS: In a process chain, starch/glucose was enzymatically extracted and converted into single cell protein (Chlorella sorokiniana). Then, rice bran proteins were extracted and partially precipitated. The remaining liquid was ultrafiltered (3 kDa) to obtain a further protein fraction and minerals. The protein fraction contained a considerable amount of soluble dietary fiber. With these steps, around 69% of the rice bran was transformed, resulting in three protein fractions with an average purity of approximately 45% and minerals with a purity of approximately 63%. In a subsequent process, the remaining cake was disintegrated at 95 °C and pH 2. A further 12% of the rice bran could be liquefied. After centrifugation, the supernatant was subjected to ultrafiltration (3 kDa) to obtain soluble dietary fiber in the retentate and minerals in the permeate. However, only around 2% of the rice bran was converted into soluble dietary fiber, whereas the remainder comprised a mixture of minerals and monomeric sugars. CONCLUSION: The process chain can be rearranged and optimized especially to increase the output of soluble dietary fiber and proteins as a result of using the digested monomeric sugars for algae cultivation. At the end of the process, 18% of rice bran remained as an insoluble dietary fiber fraction. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Chlorella/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 174: 255-262, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831474

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effects of endophyte infection on Pb accumulation, organic acids (OAs) and mineral element contents by comparing endophyte-uninfected (E-) and endophyte-infected (E+) rice exposed to 0, 10.36, 20.72, 31.08 and 41.44 mg/L Pb2+ for 10 days. Pb2+ stress decreased growth, dry weight, and chlorophyll (Chl) content in E- and E+ in a concentration-dependent manner. Pb2+ accumulation was similar in E- and E+. Under Pb2+ stress, E+ accumulated more malate and fumarate in the leaves compared to E-, as well as more tartrate, malate, succinate and fumarate in the roots. Furthermore, E+ secreted more malate and lactate under 41.44 mg/L Pb2+ stress. Malate accumulation was induced by endophyte infection under Pb2+ exposure suggesting that malate is the most obvious candidate ligand for Pb2+. Endophyte infection increased Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Ni contents in the leaves and Ni contents in the roots under Pb2+ stress, but reduced Fe content in the roots under high Pb2+ stress. Under same Pb2+ concentration, endophyte infection significantly increased plant height, the dry weight of the shoots, and Chl content. The effects of endophyte infection might be due to changes in OAs accumulation and exudation and improvements in mineral uptake under Pb2+ stress.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
19.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 20: 53-61, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797434

RESUMO

The present study deals with the development of the principles and conditions of fish waste mineralization using the method of wet combustion with hydrogen peroxide in alternating electromagnetic field and describes testing mineralized human waste and fish waste as sources of nutrients for plants in the biotechnical human life support system (BTLSS). The study shows that mineralization of fish waste in the wet combustion reactor should be performed in the presence of readily oxidized organic matter, represented by human waste, as an activator of oxidation. Re-mineralization of the sediment in the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid in the wet combustion reactor converts mineral elements bound in the sediment into the form available to plants. Using mineralized fish waste as an additional source of mineral elements in the nutrient solutions for growing plants based on mineralized human waste is a way to reduce the amounts of mineral elements added to the solution to replenish it, enabling fuller closure of material loops in the BTLSS.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Peixes/fisiologia , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Minerais/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Oxirredução
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 2114-2124, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753602

RESUMO

This study was to investigate the effect of zinc pectin oligosaccharides chelate (Zn-POS) on growth performance, serum enzyme activities, tissue zinc accumulation, metallothionein (MT) concentrations, and gene expression of zinc transporters (ZnT) in broilers. Five hundred forty 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 5 dietary groups with 6 replicates of 18 birds per replicate. The diets were formulated with the same supplemental Zn level (80 mg/kg diet) but different amount of the Zn-POS: 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg Zn-POS/kg diet. ZnSO4 was used to adjust to the desired amount of the Zn (80 mg/kg) in the Zn-POS diets. Broilers were fed with the experimental diets for 42 d including the starter (days 1 to 21) and grower (days 22 to 42) phases. Our results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn-POS linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) the average daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio during 22 to 42 d and 1 to 42 d as well as body weight on day 42, whereas reduced (P < 0.05) the sum of mortality and lag abnormalities in broilers on day 42. Besides, serum alkaline phosphatase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically in response to dietary Zn-POS supplemental level on day 42. Dietary Zn-POS supplementation increased Zn accumulation in serum (linear, P < 0.05), liver (linear, P < 0.05), and pancreas (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). In addition, Zn-POS supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) MT concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers. Pancreatic mRNA levels of MT, ZnT-1, and ZnT-2 increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically, and the mRNA expression of metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 increased linearly (P < 0.05), in response to dietary Zn-POS supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn-POS in the diet increases Zn enrichment in the metabolic organs such as liver and pancreas and promotes productive performance in broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pectinas , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja , Zinco/metabolismo
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