Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.689
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111615, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396135

RESUMO

Thyroid tumor and thyroid goiter are prevalent disease around the world. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between exposure to a total of twelve mineral elements and thyroid disease as well as thyroid functions. Participants with thyroid tumor or goiter (N = 197) were matched with a healthy population (N = 197) by age (± 2 years old) and same sex. Questionnaires were used to collect data about the demographic characteristics and information of subjects. Serum and urine samples were collected simultaneously for each of the subjects. Mineral elements, iodine level of urine and levels of the total seven thyroid function indexes in serum were detected respectively. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the associations between mineral elements and the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter through single-element models and multiple-element models. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate relationships between mineral elements and percentage changes of thyroid functions. Higher concentrations of mineral elements in the recruited population were found in this study than other comparable studies, and the levels of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), thallium (Tl) and lead (Pb) in the case group were lower than the control group. According to the single-element models, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl showed significant negative associations with the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter, and, Cd showed nonmonotonic dose response. Cd and mercury (Hg) showed a nonmonotonic percentage change with T4, while Tl was associated with the increased FT4 in the control group. Therefore, Cd, Hg and Tl may disturb the balance of thyroid function to some extent, and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Sb, and Tl may become potential influencing factors for the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter.


Assuntos
Bócio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Bócio/epidemiologia , Bócio/urina , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais Pesados/urina , Minerais/urina , Análise Multivariada , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/urina , Oligoelementos/urina , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111379, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017691

RESUMO

The use of irrigation water containing arsenic (As) had led to large areas of As-contaminated farmland, and as a result, plants and food have become severely poisoned. Humic acid (HA) can be complexed with metals, which in turn affects the metals' behavior. Herein, we explored the accumulation of arsenate in lettuce treated with different concentrations of arsenate and studied the effects of HA on the accumulation and toxicity of arsenate. The addition of HA did not cause significant changes in the arsenate content in lettuce but had a significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, which improved the antioxidant capability of the lettuce plants. Furthermore, HA promoted the accumulation of nutrients, such as magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), molybdenum (Mo) and manganese (Mn), in the leaves. Arsenate disrupted metabolic pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. The addition of HA increased the contents of amino acids and sugars, thereby improving lettuce growth. The present study explored the effects of HA on As accumulation and related physiological changes (antioxidant enzyme activities, absorption of nutrients and metabolic mechanisms) and provided insights into the regulation of As contamination by HA, which is relatively inexpensive.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/toxicidade , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arseniatos/metabolismo , Arsênico/metabolismo , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978123

RESUMO

The outer membrane c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts) OmcA and MtrC in Shewanella are key terminal reductases that bind and transfer electrons directly to iron (hydr)oxides. Although the amounts of OmcA and MtrC at the cell surface and their molecular structures are largely comparable, MtrC is known to play a more important role in dissimilatory iron reduction. To explore the roles of these outer membrane c-Cyts in the interaction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with iron oxides, the processes of attachment of S. oneidensis MR-1 wild type and c-type cytochrome-deficient mutants (the ΔomcA, ΔmtrC, and ΔomcA ΔmtrC mutants) to goethite are compared via quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Strains with OmcA exhibit a rapid initial attachment. The quantitative model for QCM-D responses reveals that MtrC enhances the contact area and contact elasticity of cells with goethite by more than one and two times, respectively. In situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR 2D-CoS) analysis shows that MtrC promotes the initial interfacial reaction via an inner-sphere coordination. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis demonstrates that OmcA enhances the attractive force between cells and goethite by about 60%. As a result, OmcA contributes to a higher attractive force with goethite and induces a rapid short-term attachment, while MtrC is more important in the longer-term interaction through an enhanced contact area, which promotes interfacial reactions. These results reveal that c-Cyts OmcA and MtrC adopt different mechanisms for enhancing the attachment of S. oneidensis MR-1 cells to goethite. It improves our understanding of the function of outer membrane c-Cyts and the influence of cell surface macromolecules in cell-mineral interactions.IMPORTANCE Shewanella species are one group of versatile and widespread dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, which are capable of respiring insoluble iron minerals via six multiheme c-type cytochromes. Outer membrane c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts) OmcA and MtrC are the terminal reductases in this pathway and have comparable protein structures. In this study, we elucidate the different roles of OmcA and MtrC in the interaction of S. oneidensis MR-1 with goethite at the whole-cell level. OmcA confers enhanced affinity toward goethite and results in rapid attachment. Meanwhile, MtrC significantly increases the contact area of bacterial cells with goethite and promotes the interfacial reaction, which may explain its central role in extracellular electron transfer. This study provides novel insights into the role of bacterial surface macromolecules in the interfacial interaction of bacteria with minerals, which is critical to the development of a comprehensive understanding of cell-mineral interactions.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Grupo dos Citocromos c/genética , Compostos de Ferro/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Shewanella/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Grupo dos Citocromos c/metabolismo , Shewanella/metabolismo
4.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 525-546, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943305

RESUMO

Determining mineral status of production animals is important when developing an optimum health program. Nutrition is the largest expense in food animal production and has the greatest impact on health and productivity of the animals. Knowing the bioavailability of minerals in the diet is difficult. Evaluating fluid or tissues from animals is the optimum method to determine bioavailability. Evaluating the diet provides some information. Serum/blood or liver from the animal needs to be analyzed to determine bioavailability of vitamin and minerals in the diet. This article reviews how to sample and the function of these minerals in cattle.


Assuntos
Gado/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gado/sangue , Minerais/análise , Estado Nutricional , Ruminantes/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/metabolismo
5.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(8): 482-486, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762189

RESUMO

Chronic osteomyelitis in long tubular bones is generally aggravated by metabolic imbalance in patients' organisms affecting mineral metabolism. It is critically important that the extent of this imbalance should be determined prior to surgical intervention to choose optimal methodology, proper monitoring of recovery and adequate prognostication of final results. With this in mind a comparative assessment has been carried out to shed light on the intensity of mineral metabolism in the blood serum of patients suffering from osteomyelitis in their shoulders and crura. Dynamics of how indices of electrolytes and activity of acidic and alkaline phosphatases vary have been studied in blood serum samples in 24 patients, 18 patients suffering from osteomyelitis in crus bones and 6 - in shoulders. In addition, correlations between total calcium, inorganic phosphate and phosphatase index have been computed. The mineral metabolism indices which were exhibited by the patients having shoulder osteomyelitis and by the patients with crus osteomyelitis are statistically meaningful differences prior to surgery and 2-3 days after surgery. 21 days after surgical intervention the activity of osseous remodeling enzymes, content of total calcium and phosphates as well as the correlations with the phosphatase index show no significant differences. These specific features of mineral metabolism turn out to level out in the process of treating chronic osteomyelitis in upper and lower limbs with transosseous compression-distraction osteosynthes. It has been the first study aimed at discovering comparative characteristics of mineral metabolism in patients with shoulder osteomyelitis and the ones with crus osteomyelitis at different times following surgical intervention. The study looks into correlations between the electrolytes and the mineralization index and shows specific traits exhibited by patients who suffering from osteomyelitis in shoulder and crus went through reparative regeneration at different periods of treatment.


Assuntos
Osteomielite , Ombro , Fosfatase Alcalina , Osso e Ossos , Cálcio , Humanos , Minerais/metabolismo , Osteomielite/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235082, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634148

RESUMO

Kidney donation results in reductions in kidney function and lasting perturbations in phosphate homeostasis, which may lead to adverse cardiovascular sequelae. However, the acute effects of kidney donation on bone mineral parameters including regulators of calcium and phosphate metabolism are unknown. We conducted a prospective observational controlled study to determine the acute effects of kidney donation on mineral metabolism and skeletal health. Biochemical endpoints were determined before and after donation on days 1, 2 and 3, 6 weeks and 12 months in donors and at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 months in controls. Baseline characteristic of donors (n = 34) and controls (n = 34) were similar: age (53±10 vs 50±14 years, p = 0.33), BMI (26.3±2.89 vs 25.9±3.65, p = 0.59), systolic BP (128±13 vs 130±6 mmHg, p = 0.59), diastolic BP (80±9 vs 81±9 mmHg, p = 0.68) and baseline GFR (84.4±20.2 vs 83.6±25.2 ml/min/1.73m2, p = 0.89). eGFR reduced from 84.4±20.2 to 52.3±17.5 ml/min/1.73m2 (p<0.001) by day 1 with incomplete recovery by 12 months (67.7±22.6; p = 0.002). Phosphate increased by day 1 (1.1(0.9-1.2) to 1.3(1.1-1.4) mmol/L, p <0.001) but declined to 0.8(0.8-1.0) mmol/L (p<0.001) before normalizing by 6 weeks. Calcium declined on day 1 (p = 0.003) but recovered at 6 weeks or 12 months. PTH and FGF-23 remained unchanged, but α-Klotho reduced by day 1 (p = 0.001) and remained low at 6 weeks (p = 0.02) and 1 year (p = 0.04). In this study, we conclude that kidney donation results in acute disturbances in mineral metabolism characterised by a reduced phosphate and circulating α-Klotho concentration without acute changes in the phosphaturic hormones FGF23 and PTH.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Transplante de Rim , Minerais/metabolismo , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232811, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614852

RESUMO

In the present work, the olive mill solid waste (OMSW)-derived biochar (BC) was produced at various pyrolytic temperatures (300-700°C) and characterized to investigate its potential negative versus positive application effects on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and nutrients (P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) availability in a calcareous loamy sand soil. Therefore, a greenhouse pot experiment with maize (Zea mays L.) was conducted using treatments consisting of a control (CK), inorganic fertilizer of NPK (INF), and 1% and 3% (w/w) of OMSW-derived BCs. The results showed that BC yield, volatile matter, functional groups, and zeta potential decreased with pyrolytic temperature, whereas BC pH, EC, and its contents of ash and fixed carbon increased with pyrolytic temperature. The changes in the BC properties with increasing pyrolytic temperatures reflected on soil pH, EC and the performance of soil nutrients availability. The BC application, especially with increasing pyrolytic temperature and/or application rate, significantly increased soil pH, EC, NH4OAc-extractable K, Na, Ca, and Mg, and ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable Fe and Zn, while AB-DTPA-extractable Mn decreased. The application of 1% and 3% BC, respectively, increased the NH4OAc-extractable K by 2.5 and 5.2-fold for BC300, by 3.2 and 8.0-fold for BC500, and by 3.3 and 8.9-fold for BC700 compared with that of untreated soil. The results also showed significant increase in shoot content of K, Na, and Zn, while there was significant decrease in shoot content of P, Ca, Mg, and Mn. Furthermore, no significant effects were observed for maize growth as a result of BC addition. In conclusion, OMSW-derived BC can potentially have positive effects on the enhancement of soil K availability and its plant content but it reduced shoot nutrients, especially for P, Ca, Mg, and Mn; therefore, application of OMSW-derived BC to calcareous soil might be restricted.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Nutrientes/análise , Olea/química , Areia/química , Solo/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104777, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the fluoride/mineral kinetics in an oral biofilm following concurrent application of fluoride and other mineral ions released from experimental toothpaste containing S-PRG filler using depth-specific analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty subjects wore in situ plaque-generating devices, comprised of a pair of enamel slabs, and a biofilm was allowed to form. The devices were removed after three days, immersed in the toothpaste filtrate containing Al, B, Sr and F ions for 1 min, and then reinserted at the same location. After 30 min, the devices were removed and samples were obtained by sectioning into outer, middle and inner biofilm layers (300-µm thick). Samples treated with filtrate containing F without S-PRG filler extract served as the control. Fluoride and the three other mineral ions extracted from 4-µm sections were quantified using a fluoride electrode and ICP-AES, respectively. The results were corrected for biomass volume, estimated by the area measurement of stained 2-µm sections. RESULTS: The mean uptake ratios (S-PRG/control, ng/mm3) of Al, B, Sr and F were 186.6/53.7, 58.4/25.0, 456.9/125.7 and 43.6/12.0, respectively, in the outer layer, indicating that the mineral ions could easily diffuse into the biofilm. F concentrations in the outer biofilm treated using filtrate with S-PRG filler extract were significantly higher than those in controls, although both biofilms were exposed to filtrates containing the same level of F. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that toothpaste containing S-PRG filler promotes fluoride retention in oral biofilms via the uptake of other mineral ions.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Placa Dentária , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Cremes Dentais/química , Esmalte Dentário , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2213-2219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388661

RESUMO

Endoparasitic nematode infection could have negative impacts on performances of sheep and goats. However, supplementary protein and minerals can also affect nematodes. This paper reviews present information on the importance of protein and minerals supplementation as means to control nematode infection in small ruminants. Protein supplementation seems to improve host resilience by diverting metabolizable protein (MP) towards dealing with detrimental effects of the infection and thus improve production and reproductive performances of animal. A large body of evidence shows that supplementation of copper, iron, and zinc can also enhance host resistance against nematode infection as shown by decreased fecal egg count (FEC) and worm burdens. As such, protein and mineral supplementations can play a major role in sustainable control of parasitic nematode infection and thus reduce reliance on chemotherapic drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Minerais/metabolismo , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2718-2726, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359609

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITM) with organic trace minerals (OTM; complexed glycinates) on reproductive performance, blood profiles, and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. A total of 648, 23-week-old healthy broiler breeders (ZhenNing), with similar body weight (1.40 ± 0.002 kg), were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group (27 hens/replicate) and fed the respective experimental diets for 14 wk (including 2 wk for adaptation). The experimental treatments consisted of T1: Cont., commercially recommended levels of ITM (Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn sulfates); T2: Mix, half trace minerals (TM) were provided from ITM and half from OTM (glycinates); T3: M-OTM, TM were provided from glycinates and reduced to 70% of T1; T4: L-OTM, TM were provided from glycinates and reduced to 50% of T1. The results showed that commercial level of inorganic trace minerals replaced by low-dose complexed glycinates (T3 and T4) exhibited no significant effects on laying performance, 50% ITM replaced by complexed glycinates (T2) numerically improved laying rate by 1.23% than cont. treatment (T1). Broiler breeders fed complexed glycinates tended to produce more qualified eggs (P = 0.05) in T3, with better yolk color (P < 0.01) and eggshell thickness (P = 0.05) in T2 treatment. Replacement of low-dose complexed glycinates reduced fertilization rate (P < 0.01), while it did not affect hatchability. There were no significant differences in serum reproductive hormones such as estrogen and progesterone among the treatments. Serum total protein, albumin, and phosphorus were increased respectively with the replacement of ITM by low-dose OTM from complexed glycinates (P < 0.05). Total liver antioxidant capacity in M-OTM and L-OTM treatment was higher than that of Cont. and Mix treatments (P < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of high levels of ITM by lower levels of OTM in the form of complexed glycinates is beneficial for egg quality and liver antioxidant status in broiler breeders during the peak laying period.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Feminino , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8436, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439843

RESUMO

Mineral contents in bovine muscle can affect meat quality, growth, health, and reproductive traits. To better understand the genetic basis of this phenotype in Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle, we analysed genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression data from 114 muscle samples. The analysis implemented a new application for two complementary algorithms: the partial correlation and information theory (PCIT) and the regulatory impact factor (RIF), in which we included the estimated genomic breeding values (GEBVs) for the phenotypes additionally to the expression levels, originally proposed for these methods. We used PCIT to determine putative regulatory relationships based on significant associations between gene expression and GEBVs for each mineral amount. Then, RIF was adopted to determine the regulatory impact of genes and miRNAs expression over the GEBVs for the mineral amounts. We also investigated over-represented pathways, as well as pieces of evidences from previous studies carried in the same population and in the literature, to determine regulatory genes for the mineral amounts. For example, NOX1 expression level was positively correlated to Zinc and has been described as Zinc-regulated in humans. Based on our approach, we were able to identify genes, miRNAs and pathways not yet described as underlying mineral amount. The results support the hypothesis that extracellular matrix interactions are the core regulator of mineral amount in muscle cells. Putative regulators described here add information to this hypothesis, expanding the knowledge on molecular relationships between gene expression and minerals.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Genoma , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8545, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444654

RESUMO

Vascular calcification occurs in various diseases including atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes but the mechanism underlying mineral deposition remains incompletely understood. Here we examined lower limb arteries of type 2 diabetes subjects for the presence of ectopic calcification and mineral particles using histology, electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses. While arteries of healthy controls showed no calcification following von Kossa staining, arteries from 83% of diabetic individuals examined (19/23) revealed microscopic mineral deposits, mainly within the tunica media. Mineralo-organic particles containing calcium phosphate and proteins such as albumin, fetuin-A and apolipoprotein-A1 were detected in calcified arteries. Ectopic calcification and mineralo-organic particles were observed in a majority of diabetic patients and predominantly in arteries showing hyperplasia. While a low number of subjects was examined and information about disease severity and patient characteristics is lacking, these calcifications and mineralo-organic particles may represent signs of tissue dysfunction.


Assuntos
Artérias/patologia , Arteriosclerose/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Artérias/metabolismo , Arteriosclerose/metabolismo , Calcinose/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Minerais/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química
13.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437583

RESUMO

Indigestible fiber-protein-phytate complexes reduce the feeding value of soy products. We investigated the effects of multienzyme supplement (MES, Victus) on standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and minerals in roasted full-fat soybean (FFSB) seeds and expelled-extruded soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. The crude protein (CP) was 33.4% and 42.8% dry matter (DM) in FFSB seeds and SBM, respectively and corresponding values for crude fat were 17.4% and 11.8% DM. Semi-purified diets with 50% of either FFSB seeds or SBM as the sole source of AA were prepared without or with MES supplying phytase, protease, xylanase, and ß-glucanase at 2,200, 8,300, 400, and 100 U/kg of feed, respectively. Diets had TiO2 as an indigestible marker and the ratio of cornstarch to sucrose and corn oil was identical to calculate DE by the difference method. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (22.1 ± 0.61 kg) were fed diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design to give eight replicates per diet. The period lasted for 9 d: 5 d for acclimation, 2 d for fecal, and 2 d for ileal digesta samples. There was no (P > 0.05) interaction between soy type and MES or MES effect on SID of AA; SBM had higher (P < 0.05) SID of CP, His, Leu, and Lys. There was no (P > 0.05) interaction between soy type and MES on energy digestibility. The FFSB seeds had higher ATTD of gross energy (GE, 80.2% vs. 76.6%; P < 0.01) than SBM. Pigs fed MES had higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM (91.3% vs. 87.7 %), GE (87.5% vs. 82.4%), CP (86.4% vs. 82.9%), crude fat (70.6% vs. 54.9%), Ca (63.2% vs. 60.2%), and P (67.5% vs. 63.2%). In conclusions, differences on AA and energy digestibility in soy products could be linked to processing and compositional differences. Although MES had no effect on SID of AA, the effects on the utilization of minerals and energy demonstrated the value of fiber-degrading enzymes, protease, and phytase in improving the nutritive value of soy products independent of processing.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Complexos Multienzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Soja/química , Suínos/fisiologia , 6-Fitase/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(4): 501-510, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-turnover bone disease is a major consequence of SHPT and may explain the high risk for fracture in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Bisphosphonates suppress bone turnover and improve bone strength, but their effects have not been fully characterized in advanced CKD with severe SHPT. Bisphosphonates also increase 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in normal and uremic rats, but the underlying mechanism remains to be determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the skeletal and mineral metabolic effects of RIS, a pyridinyl bisphosphonate, in rats with severe SHPT induced by 5/6 nephrectomy plus a high phosphate diet. RESULTS: Nephrectomized rats developed severe SHPT, along with hyperphosphatemia, low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and markedly increased FGF23. Moreover, these rats exhibited characteristic features of high-turnover renal osteodystrophy, including increased indices of trabecular bone turnover, decreased cortical bone thickness, inferior cortical biomechanical properties, and a prominent increase in peritrabecular fibrosis. RIS treatment increased bone volume and partially attenuated trabecular bone remodeling, cortical bone loss, and mechanical properties, whereas it produced a marked improvement in peritrabecular fibrosis along with a corresponding decrease in osteogenic gene markers. RIS treatment also suppressed the elevation of FGF23, which was associated with increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: In a rat model of severe SHPT, treatment with RIS partially attenuated histological manifestations of high-turnover bone disease. RIS treatment also suppressed the elevation of FGF23, which may explain the increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production during the treatment.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Ácido Risedrônico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/sangue , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Nefrectomia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ácido Risedrônico/farmacologia
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1491-1501, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111317

RESUMO

This study investigated the influence of an organic mineral-supplemented broiler diet on the quality of nuggets. The resulting chicken nuggets were enriched with inorganic and organic forms of Zn and Se. The nuggets were processed by incorporating extracts from food industry by-products (rosemary [RH and RL], hydroxytyrosol [HYT], pomegranate [P], grape [GS], and Harpagophytum [H]). The physiochemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of the chicken nuggets were evaluated over a 12-month period of frozen storage. The addition of natural extracts did not affect the pH, proximate composition, or color (CIELab) of the nuggets among samples. However, significative differences were found between month of analysis (range from pH 6.16 to 6.63; luminosity from 62.51 to 84.74; redness from 0.16 to 7.14; and yellowness from 10.80 to 33.77). In addition, the combination of phenolic compounds with Zn and Se retarded microbial growth and reduced protein and lipid oxidation, thus maintaining the sensory quality and extending the shelf life of this product. For instance, the combination of RL + GS reduced in 75% the microbiological growth regarding the control sample (C), while samples that incorporated RH + P or HYT + P + H presented 50% less than C. In addition, upon only incorporating organic minerals Zn and Se, microbiological deterioration is reduced in 15%. This mix was significantly effective at reducing the oxidative reactions of lipids and proteins by 40% and 50%, as measured after 9 and 12 mo of frozen storage, respectively. The addition of the natural extracts and Zn and Se did not adversely affect the acceptability of the meat product.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Carne/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Alimentos Congelados/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/metabolismo
16.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1528-1539, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111320

RESUMO

Two experiments were performed, using broilers or turkeys, each utilizing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, to compare their response to phytase and xylanase supplementation with growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and ileal phytate degradation as response criteria. For both experiments, 960 Ross 308 or 960 BUT 10 (0-day-old) birds were allocated to 6 treatments: (1) control diet, containing phytase at 500 FTU/kg; (2) the control diet with xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg); (3) the control diet supplemented on top with phytase (1,500 FTU/kg); (4) diet supplemented with 1,500 FTU/kg phytase and xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg); (5) the control diet supplemented with phytase (3,000 FTU/kg); and (6) diet supplemented with 3,000 FTU/kg phytase and xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg). Each treatment had 8 replicates of 20 birds each. Water and diets based on wheat, soybean meal, oilseed rape meal, and barley were available ad libitum. Body weight gain and feed intake were measured from 0 to 28 D, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) corrected for mortality was calculated. Ileal digestibility for dry matter and minerals on day 7 and 28 were analyzed in addition to levels of inositol phosphate esters (InsP6-3) and myo-inositol. Statistical comparisons were performed using ANOVA. Xylanase supplementation improved 28D FCR in broilers and turkeys. Increasing doses of phytase reduced FI and improved FCR only in broilers. In broilers, the age × phytase interaction for phosphorous digestibility showed that increasing phytase dose was more visible on day 7, than on day 28. Mineral digestibility was lower in 28-day-old turkey compared with 7-day-old turkey. InsP6 disappearance increased with increasing phytase levels in both species, with lower levels analyzed in turkeys. InsP6 disappearance was greater in younger turkeys (day 7 compared with day 28). In conclusion, although broilers and turkeys shared several similarities in their growth and nutrient utilization responses, the outcomes of the 2 trials also differed in many aspects. Whether this is because of difference in diets (InsP or Ca level) or differences between species needs further investigation.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Perus/fisiologia , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Perus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1540-1550, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111321

RESUMO

This study investigated the influence of meat and bone meal (MBM), phytase, and antibiotics (AB) on the performance, intestinal pH, ileal digestibility, cecal microbiota, and tibial mineralization in Ross 308 broilers challenged with necrotic enteritis (NE). A total of 672-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were allocated to 8 treatments with 6 replicate pens, with 14 birds each. The study employed a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: MBM (no or yes), AB (no or yes, zinc bacitracin + salinomycin), and phytase level (500 or 1,500 FTU/kg; both using 500 matrix recommendations). Diets were based on wheat-soybean meal-canola meal. All birds were challenged with Eimeria spp on day 9 and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) strain EHE-NE18 on day 14 and day 15. On day 21 (postchallenge), birds fed MBM had reduced weight gain (WG; P < 0.05) relative to without MBM. A 2-way phytase × AB interaction for WG on day 14 (P < 0.001) and day 21 (P < 0.001) and feed conversion ratio on day 21 (P < 0.001) and day 42 (P < 0.01) indicated positive effects of high phytase on bird performance in the presence of AB. On day 42, a 3-way MBM × phytase × AB interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for WG, showing high phytase increased WG with AB, relative to the birds without AB in the presence of MBM. A 2-way MBM × phytase interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for apparent ileal digestibility of Ca and P on day 16, whereby there was a notable reduction in Ca and P digestibility in birds fed MBM-free diets and a low phytase level, but with the high phytase level, Ca and P digestibility was not influenced by MBM. In conclusion, in NE challenged birds, high phytase has a beneficial effect on leg health and mineral utilization to the extent that it can replace MBM and has beneficial effects on bird performance in the presence of AB.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Clostridium/metabolismo , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eimeria/fisiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Tíbia/fisiologia
18.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 40(4): 490-507, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204608

RESUMO

Rice has been a staple food for more than half of the global population. Different parts of rice grains contain different amounts of macro- and micro-nutrients. Polished white rice, which is the main form of rice consumption, mainly contains starch, however, the bran and germ, which are removed during polishing, contain large amounts of micronutrients and bioactive compounds. To engineer nutritionally superior rice varieties, it is imperative to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of different nutrients in different parts of the rice grain. Keeping this in mind, in this review, we have performed a comprehensive literature review to put together all the recent findings regarding the spatio-temporal distribution of all the important micronutrients in different cell-layers/tissues of developing seeds and mature seed grains. Furthermore, we have overviewed the underlying cell-layer specific possible regulatory mechanism responsible for the loading/partitioning for each of the micronutrients into specific tissue types. Most of the nutrient filling occurs between 7 and 18 days after fertilization (DAF) through the dorsal vascular bundle and the aleurone layer. During the last few years, spatio-temporal distribution of various minerals and the role of their transporters has been studied in great detail. However, with regard to vitamins and other bioactive compounds, such studies are still very limited. Distribution of minerals in the grain is mainly regulated by the distribution of their ligands and transporters, whereas the accumulation of various vitamins is mainly metabolic enzyme activity. Collective knowledge discussed here in this niche area would help to design new studies to improve the micronutrient content located in the inner part of the seed.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Oryza/genética
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150262

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the concentration of Ca in diets fed to late gestating sows affects the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P, serum concentrations of Ca and P, hormones, and blood biomarkers for bone formation and resorption. Thirty-six sows (average parity = 2.8) were housed in metabolism crates from day 91 to day 104 of gestation and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing 25, 50, 75, or 100% of the requirement for Ca. All diets met the requirement for P. The initial 5 d of each period were the adaptation period, which was followed by 4 d of quantitative collection of feces and urine. At the end of the collection period, a blood sample was collected from all sows. Results indicated that feed intake, weights of dried fecal and urine samples, and the ATTD of DM were not affected by dietary Ca, but ATTD of Ca increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as Ca in diets increased. Urine Ca output was not affected by dietary Ca, but Ca retention increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as Ca intake increased. Fecal P output increased (linear, P < 0.001) as dietary Ca increased, which resulted in a linear decrease (P < 0.001) in the ATTD of P. Urine P output also decreased (linear, P < 0.001) as dietary Ca increased, but P retention increased (linear, P < 0.05). Regressing the apparent total tract digestible Ca against dietary Ca intake resulted in a regression line with a slope of 0.33, indicating that true total tract digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate was 33%. Serum concentrations of Ca and P and estrogen, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone were not affected by dietary Ca. Serum concentration of carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary Ca increased, which is a result of reduced bone resorption as dietary Ca increased. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to decrease (linear, P < 0.10) as Ca in diets increased, but the concentration of osteocalcin (OC) in serum was not affected by dietary Ca. The ratio between OC and CTX-I tended to increase (P < 0.10) as dietary Ca increased, which indicated that there was more bone formation than resorption in sows as dietary Ca increased. In conclusion, P digestibility in late gestating sows decreased, but retention of P increased, as dietary Ca increased from inadequate to adequate levels and blood biomarkers for bone resorption changed as Ca and P retention increased.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fezes , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
20.
Sci Adv ; 6(5): eaax8254, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064339

RESUMO

Plant-microbe interactions are mediated by signaling compounds that control vital plant functions, such as nodulation, defense, and allelopathy. While interruption of signaling is typically attributed to biological processes, potential abiotic controls remain less studied. Here, we show that higher organic carbon (OC) contents in soils repress flavonoid signals by up to 70%. Furthermore, the magnitude of repression is differentially dependent on the chemical structure of the signaling molecule, the availability of metal ions, and the source of the plant-derived OC. Up to 63% of the signaling repression occurs between dissolved OC and flavonoids rather than through flavonoid sorption to particulate OC. In plant experiments, OC interrupts the signaling between a legume and a nitrogen-fixing microbial symbiont, resulting in a 75% decrease in nodule formation. Our results suggest that soil OC decreases the lifetime of flavonoids underlying plant-microbe interactions.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Metais/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Solo/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA