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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371838

RESUMO

Bone disorders are a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), obesity and gut malabsorption. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is defined as an appropriate increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, driven by either reduced serum calcium or increased phosphate concentrations, due to an underlying condition. The available evidence on the effects of dietary advice on secondary hyperparathyroidism confirms the benefit of a diet characterized by decreased phosphate intake, avoiding low calcium and vitamin D consumption (recommended intakes 1000-1200 mg/day and 400-800 UI/day, respectively). In addition, low protein intake in CKD patients is associated with a better control of SHPT risk factors, although its strength in avoiding hyperphosphatemia and the resulting outcomes are debated, mostly for dialyzed patients. Ultimately, a consensus on the effect of dietary acid loads in the prevention of SHPT is still lacking. In conclusion, a reasonable approach for reducing the risk for secondary hyperparathyroidism is to individualize dietary manipulation based on existing risk factors and concomitant medical conditions. More studies are needed to evaluate long-term outcomes of a balanced diet on the management and prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism in at-risk patients at.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/fisiopatologia , Minerais/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fosfatos/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203033

RESUMO

The Kaliningrad region is known for its specific climate, which can negatively affect the adaptive potential of the body. This manifests in an increased incidence of respiratory diseases and skin conditions. To prevent high morbidity, a plant protein product was included in the diet of first-year university students. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of this food intervention in preventing the most common diseases among Kaliningrad students. Two groups of university students took part in the food trial. In the control group, catabolic processes prevailed in nutrient metabolism. Disadaptation manifested itself in the metabolism of proteins, vitamins, minerals, hematopoiesis and humoral immunity. Inflammation was indicated by α1- and α2-globulins, a weak immune response, and IgM and IgG. High oxidative stress and low antioxidative ability of blood serum were observed. The plant-based protein product (FP) helped preserve testosterone level and prevent an increase in catabolic reactions. Moreover, it had a positive effect on both red blood cell hematopoiesis (a smaller increase in the average volume of erythrocytes, the same average concentration and content of hemoglobin, an increased relative red cell distribution width (RDW) and white blood cell hematopoiesis (a beneficial effect for the immune system: lymphocytes, the relative content of neutrophils, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils). The stimulation of humoral immunity was evidenced by beta- and gamma-globulins, an active immune response, the level of IgM and IgG, antioxidant protection, reduction of peroxides and an increase in antioxidant activity of blood serum. The 34-week observation showed a 1.7-fold decrease in the incidence of respiratory illnesses and a 5.7-fold decrease in skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases. Acute respiratory infections were reduced 1.8-fold. There were no cases of community-acquired pneumonia in the treatment group, compared with 55.1‰ in the control group. The incidence of respiratory diseases was 3.3-10.6 times lower in the treatment group than in the control group in weeks 6-19. The findings testify to the prophylactic effect of functional food during social adaptation and acclimatization of students.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Dermatopatias/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Clima , Alimento Funcional/análise , Hematopoese , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Micronutrientes/análise , Minerais/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Federação Russa , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203167

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disease in women of childbearing age. It is characterized by excessive androgen production, ovulation disorders, and developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to check whether selected minerals were related to the pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS. The concentrations of minerals were determined using an inductively coupled atomic plasma-emission spectrometer (ICP-AES Jobin Yvon JY-24). Blood samples from PCOS and control women were collected, processed, and digested with a microwave system in women with PCOS with and without insulin resistance and in the control group. It was found: zinc (Zn)-10.14 ± 2.11, 9.89 ± 1.44 and 10.30 ± 1.67; nickel (Ni) 0.001 ± 0.0009, 0.001 ± 0.0006 and 0.002 ± 0.00001; iron (Fe) 868.0 ± 155.8, 835.3 ± 156.4 and 833.0 ± 94.6; manganese (Mn) 0.017 ± 0.006, 0.017 ± 0.008 and 0.020 ± 0.009; copper (Cu) 0.714 ± 0.129, 0.713 ± 0.114 and 0.761 ± 0.146; magnesium (Mg) 48.4 ± 8.3, 50.0 ± 8.4 and 45.3 ± 10.7; sodium (Na) 374.3 ± 84.3, 396.3 ± 66.6 and 367.9 ± 88.9; potassium (K) 2541.8 ± 330.9, 2409.6 ± 347.1 and 2336.9 ± 211.4 (µg/g). Some micronutrient deficiencies may have a negative effect on the lipid profile in PCOS patients (Ni, Na). Further studies are needed to better understand dependencies.


Assuntos
Minerais/sangue , Minerais/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Cobre/sangue , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Ferro/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Magnésio/sangue , Manganês/sangue , Níquel/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/sangue
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064348

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate serum, hair, and urinary trace element and mineral content in normal-weight and obese women in relation to metabolic risk factors. A total of 80 women aged 30-70 y.o. were enrolled in the obese group (n = 40) and normal-weight group (n = 40). Serum, hair, and urinary trace element and mineral levels were assessed using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Body fat percentage was evaluated using bioimpedance. Obese subjects were characterized by significantly higher body fat percentage, blood pressure, serum triglyceride concentration, and insulin resistance. Serum Ca, Fe, Mg, Se, V, Zn levels, hair Fe, Mg, V content, and urinary Se and V concentrations were found to be lower in obese subjects as compared to lean controls. In turn, serum Cu and urinary Fe levels in obese women were characterized by a significant increase. In multiple regression models serum Cu, Se, and Zn levels were significantly associated with BMI even after adjustment for blood biochemistry, body composition, and blood pressure. Serum trace element and mineral levels also significantly contributed to group discrimination. These findings allow to propose that obesity-associated disturbances in trace element and mineral status may at least partially contribute to metabolic risk in obese subjects.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Minerais/análise , Obesidade/metabolismo , Soro/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/sangue , Minerais/urina , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/urina , Oligoelementos/sangue , Oligoelementos/urina
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063377

RESUMO

Deficiency of the micronutrient zinc is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this review is to summarize evidence presented in literature for consolidation of current knowledge regarding zinc status in CKD patients, including those undergoing hemodialysis. Zinc deficiency is known to be associated with various risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as increased blood pressure, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Zinc may protect against phosphate-induced arterial calcification by suppressing activation of nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B. Serum zinc levels have been shown to be positively correlated with T50 (shorter T50 indicates higher calcification propensity) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as those with CKD. Additionally, higher intake of dietary zinc was associated with a lower risk of severe abdominal aortic calcification. In hemodialysis patients, the beneficial effects of zinc supplementation in relation to serum zinc and oxidative stress levels was demonstrated in a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials. Thus, evidence presented supports important roles of zinc regarding antioxidative stress and suppression of calcification and indicates that zinc intake/supplementation may help to ameliorate CVD risk factors in CKD patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/deficiência , Arteriosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dislipidemias/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Inflamação , Minerais/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatos/sangue , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Zinco/metabolismo
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 704-709, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130414

RESUMO

Spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata) are an endangered species and are commonly encountered in the pet trade and in many zoological collections across the United States, yet peer-reviewed published reference intervals (RI) for common clinicopathologic tests are unavailable for this species. The objectives of this study were to calculate partial RI for routine hematology, biochemistry, and electrophoretic analyses, as well as to perform an initial comparison of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) in this species. A single blood sample was obtained from a single collection of 32 apparently healthy captive spotted turtles weighing at least 100 g and was submitted for standard hematologic and biochemistry analyses, as well as electrophoresis via CZE and AGE methods. Partial RI were calculated for corresponding analytes for each type of testing. While CZE and AGE protein fractions were found to have good correlation, some significant differences were observed, reinforcing that RI should be reported with the specific method used for their determination. The spotted turtle electrophoretograms were distinctly different from those previously reported from turtles in the same taxonomic family, including differences in the number and relative prominence of protein fractions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar/veterinária , Eletroforese Capilar/veterinária , Tartarugas/sangue , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Hematologia , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Minerais/sangue , Valores de Referência
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 241-252, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827182

RESUMO

Native to Southeast Asia, the Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) is critically endangered largely because of poorly regulated wildlife trade, consumptive practices, and use in traditional Chinese medicine. Efforts to rescue and rehabilitate animals confiscated from the illegal trade are complicated by a general lack of knowledge surrounding the normal health and disease processes unique to the species. To provide clinical reference intervals for normal health states of Sunda pangolins, biochemical parameters were determined from rescued individuals in Vietnam that had undergone a 14-day observation period and met a set of criteria for release back into the wild. Blood samples were collected from 42 apparently healthy Sunda pangolins while anesthetized or awake. Packed cell volume (PCV) and total solids (TS) were determined manually, and serum biochemistry values were determined in-house with a benchtop analyzer. Additional biochemical and mineral parameters not included in the primary panel were determined from a subset of 10 pangolins through an external diagnostic laboratory. Overall reference intervals were calculated for PCV and TS (n = 29) and for standard serum biochemistry parameters (n = 42). Females and males demonstrated significant variation with respect to body mass, potassium (K+), and phosphorus, whereas age was a significant source of variation in alkaline phosphatase. Seasonal variation in glucose (GLU), creatinine (CRE), total proteins, sodium, calcium, and K+ was also observed. Comparisons between anesthetized and awake pangolins demonstrated significant variation in GLU, CRE, and K+. The parameters determined in this study can serve as a clinical reference for ex situ Sunda pangolin conservation efforts. In the context of wildlife rehabilitation, serial bloodwork allows for continued monitoring of patient health and should inform decision making regarding release readiness and timing.


Assuntos
Minerais/sangue , Pangolins/sangue , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Glicemia , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatina/sangue , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Enzimas/sangue , Feminino , Hematócrito , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Vietnã
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 933-947, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480574

RESUMO

The blue iguana (Cyclura lewisi) is an endangered rock iguana species native to Grand Cayman, in the Cayman Islands. Health assessments were conducted on captive and free-roaming iguanas in 2001 and 2003-2014 and were performed in the summer wet season (June-July) of 2003-2004 and 2010-2014 and in the winter dry season (November-December) of 2001 and 2005-2009. Morphometric data were recorded from iguanas when blood samples were collected: 903 samples were collected and data from 890 samples from 775 iguanas were included. Samples were analyzed for hematology, plasma biochemistry, protein electrophoresis, mineral panels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and testosterone. Reference intervals were created for captive subadults, captive adults, and free-roaming adults when data were sufficient. Significant differences among these groups were described, as were differences on the basis of sex, season, and origin (captive vs free-roaming). In captive iguanas, most analytes were significantly different between subadults and adults, mature heterophils and copper were significantly higher in the dry season, zinc levels were significantly higher in the wet season, and cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher in adult females than adult males. Testosterone in adult males was significantly higher in the dry season. These results will aid in future health assessments and disease investigations in wild and captive populations of blue iguanas and are of comparative value for other Cyclura species that are free-roaming, captive, and, especially, in similar conservation release programs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Eletroforese/veterinária , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Hematócrito/veterinária , Iguanas/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Amilases/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glicemia , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cloretos/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Minerais/sangue , Valores de Referência , Índias Ocidentais
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 948-957, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480575

RESUMO

The evaluation of laboratory blood analytes is an important tool for health assessment in avian medicine. Unfortunately, there is a lack of suitable reference values for many zoo bird species. The goal of the present study was to establish reference intervals for a wide range of blood analytes in healthy black-headed ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus) kept in a zoologic garden. Lithium heparinized blood samples from 15 individuals were collected, and 18 different clinical chemistry analytes were measured. New are especially the minimum and maximum values for bile acid (2.38-49.4 µmol/L), cholinesterase (439-1260 U/L), vitamin A (0.65-1.70 mg/L), vitamin E (26.3-52.5 mg/L), and capillary zone electrophoresis (prealbumin, 10.2-23.4%; albumin, 35.9-44.1%; A/G ratio, 1.07-1.69; α-, 15.7-20.0%; ß-, 13.5-19.1%; γ-globulin, 6.08-11.3%). The measured values for clinical chemistry, vitamin, electrophoresis, and hematologic analytes are a basis for further studies and for diagnostics and clinical treatment in this ibis species.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Glicemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Eletroforese/veterinária , Vitaminas/sangue , Amilases/sangue , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Colinesterases/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Minerais/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 683-701, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162071

RESUMO

Objectives were to determine the effects of an injectable formulation of calcitriol on Ca concentration, risk of clinical diseases, and performance in dairy cows. Cows were blocked by lactation number (1 vs. >1) and calving sequence and, within block, assigned randomly within 6 h of calving to receive subcutaneously vehicle only (CON, n = 450) or 200 (CAL200, n = 450) or 300 µg of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (CAL300, n = 450). Cows were fed the same acidogenic diet prepartum. Blood was sampled before treatment administration and again during the first 11 d postpartum and analyzed for concentrations of ionized Ca (iCa), total Ca (tCa), Mg (tMg), and P (tP), ß-hydroxybutyrate, carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC), and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (uOC). Cows were evaluated for diseases in the first 60 d postpartum. Reproduction and survival were monitored for the first 300 d postpartum. Calcitriol increased concentration of blood iCa (CON = 1.12 vs. CAL200 = 1.23 vs. CAL300 = 1.27 mM), plasma tCa (CON = 2.29 vs. CAL200 = 2.44 vs. CAL300 = 2.46 mM), and plasma tP (CON = 1.72 vs. CAL200 = 2.21 vs. CAL300 = 2.28 mM), and differences were observed during the first 5 d postpartum for iCa and tCa, and the first 7 d postpartum for tP. Concentrations of tMg were lower in calcitriol-treated cows than in CON cows (CON = 0.81 vs. CAL200 = 0.78 vs. CAL300 = 0.75 mM), and differences were observed during the first 5 d postpartum. Calcitriol increased plasma concentrations of cOC (CON = 14.5 vs. CAL200 = 23.0 vs. CAL300 = 19.8 ng/mL) and uOC (CON = 1.6 vs. CAL200 = 3.4 vs. CAL300 = 2.6 ng/mL). Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia was less in calcitriol-treated cows (CON = 19.0 vs. CAL200 = 4.7 vs. CAL300 = 9.3%); however, benefits on health were only observed in overconditioned cows (n = 270/1,350). Calcitriol reduced incidence of retained placenta (CON = 14.3 vs. CAL200 = 5.1 vs. CAL300 = 5.9%), puerperal metritis (CON = 12.7 vs. CAL200 = 6.1 vs. CAL300 = 2.5%), and morbidity (CON = 72.1 vs. CAL200 = 57.4 vs. CAL300 = 56.9%) in cows with BCS greater than 3.50, but no benefit on health was observed in cows with BCS equal to or less than 3.50 at parturition. Milk yield did not differ among treatments. Pregnancy at first AI did not differ, but pregnancy rate after the first AI was slower for calcitriol-treated cows because of reduced insemination rate and pregnancy per AI. We found that CAL200 reduced death but increased culling in cows without calving problems. Collectively, results indicate that treatment with calcitriol at parturition was effective in improving concentrations of iCa, tCa, and tP, which reduced the risk of hypocalcemia. Pregnancy rate was reduced by calcitriol treatment, and benefits on health performance were limited to overconditioned cows. Thus, treatment of all cows is not supported, and proper identification of cohorts of cows that benefit from postpartum interventions that increase blood calcitriol or calcium is needed.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Minerais/sangue , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Ração Animal , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Hipocalcemia/sangue , Hipocalcemia/prevenção & controle , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite , Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 19-26, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278756

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of dietary magnesium supplementation on mineral status and intermediary metabolism of ewes during the transition period (TP). For this purpose, 19 pregnant ewes (2nd and 3rd lactation) were divided into a control group (Con, n = 9) kept on a daily magnesium intake of approximately 3.0 g ante-partum (a.p.) and 5.0 g post-partum (p.p.), and a magnesium group (Mg, n = 10, 4.2 g a.p., 7.7 g p.p.). Blood was collected at day (d) 30 a.p., d 14 a.p., d 1 p.p., d 14 p.p. and d 30 p.p., respectively. Serum levels of total magnesium were not affected by the treatment. In Con animals, serum levels of total calcium and phosphate were lower at d 1 p.p. in comparison to d 30 a.p. (P ≤ 0.05). Only in Con ewes, serum glucose levels showed significant fluctuations throughout the entire observation period (P ˂ 0.05) and were correlated negatively with those of beta-hydroxybutyrate (r2: 0.70; P < 0.01, r2: 0.76; P < 0.01) and positively with insulin (r2: 0.46; P < 0.05, r2: 0.59; P < 0.05) on d 30 and 14 a.p., respectively. At d 30 p.p., serum insulin levels were lower in the Mg group compared to the Con group (P < 0.05). As serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate and glucose seemed more stable throughout the TP, magnesium supplementation might be an approach to promote metabolic health in ewes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Magnésio/farmacologia , Minerais/sangue , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Homeostase , Lactação , Magnésio/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
12.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 64: 126707, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the serum malondialdehyde (MDA), non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin A and C), macro-minerals (magnesium and calcium), and trace elements (zinc, copper, and iron) levels in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and to explore their role in disease progression. METHODS: This prospective case-control study was comprised of 40 CAD patients and 40 healthy volunteers as cases and control subjects, respectively. The level of lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the serum MDA level using a UV spectrophotometer. The levels of vitamins A and C were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric method, respectively. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to measure serum macro-minerals (Mg and Ca) and trace elements (Zn, Cu, and Fe) concentrations. RESULTS: The mean age of CAD patients and control subjects was 53.90 ± 2.22 and 37.03 ± 1.50 years, respectively. This study revealed significantly higher concentrations of MDA (p < 0.01) and lower concentrations of vitamin A (p < 0.01), and vitamin C (p < 0.05) in the CAD patients than in control subjects. The mean values of Mg, Cu, Zn, Ca, and Fe were 11.67 ± 0.64, 1.17 ± 0.03, 0.43 ± 0.02, 107.38 ± 1.81, and 1.66 ± 0.04 µg/mL, respectively for the CAD patients and 19.38 ± 0.65, 1.07 ± 0.02, 0.87 ± 0.02, 94.29 ± 1.89, and 1.52 ± 0.05 µg/mL, respectively for the controls and the differences were significant (p < 0.05) between the patients and controls. CONCLUSION: From these findings, we can suggest that there is a strong association of CAD with an elevated level of MDA, depleted levels of antioxidants, and altered macro-minerals and trace elements concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Minerais/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348799

RESUMO

Several essential trace minerals play an important role in the endocrine system; however, toxic trace minerals have a disruptive effect. The aim of this research was to determine basal concentrations and the possible correlations between trace minerals in plasma and several plasma hormones in runners. Sixty high-level male endurance runners (21 ± 3 years; 1.77 ± 0.05 m; 64.97 ± 7.36 kg) participated in the present study. Plasma hormones were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plasma trace minerals were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Correlations and simple linear regression were used to assess the association between trace minerals and hormones. Plasma testosterone concentrations were inversely correlated with manganese (r = -0.543; ß = -0.410; p < 0.01), selenium (r = -0.292; ß = -0.024; p < 0.05), vanadium (r = -0.406; ß = -1.278; p < 0.01), arsenic (r = -0.336; ß = -0.142; p < 0.05), and lead (r = -0.385; ß = -0.418; p < 0.01). Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were positively correlated with arsenic (r = 0.298; ß = 0.327; p < 0.05) and cesium (r = 0.305; ß = 2.272; p < 0.05), and negatively correlated with vanadium (r = -0.303; ß = -2.467; p < 0.05). Moreover, cortisol concentrations showed significant positive correlations with cadmium (r = 0.291; ß = 209.01; p < 0.05). Finally, insulin concentrations were inversely related to vanadium (r = -0.359; ß = -3.982; p < 0.05). In conclusion, endurance runners living in areas with high environmental levels of toxic minerals should check their concentrations of anabolic hormones.


Assuntos
Hormônios , Minerais , Oligoelementos , Arsênio/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas , Minerais/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19275, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159150

RESUMO

Circulating compounds such as drugs and nutritional components might adhere to the oxygenator fibers and tubing during ECMO support. This study evaluated the amount of nutritional supplements adsorbed to the ECMO circuit under controlled ex vivo conditions. Six identical ECMO circuits were primed with fresh human whole blood and maintained under physiological conditions at 36 °C for 24 h. A dose of nutritional supplement calculated for a 70 kg patient was added. 150 mL volume was drawn from the priming bag for control samples and kept under similar conditions. Blood samples were obtained at predetermined time points and analyzed for concentrations of vitamins, minerals, lipids, and proteins. Data were analyzed using mixed models with robust standard errors. No significant differences were found between the ECMO circuits and the controls for any of the measured variables: cobalamin, folate, vitamin A, glucose, minerals, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides or total proteins. There was an initial decrease and then an increase in the concentration of cobalamin and folate. Vitamin A concentrations decreased in both groups over time. There was a decrease in concentration of glucose and an increased concentration of lactate dehydrogenase over time in both groups. There were no significant alterations in the concentrations of nutritional supplements in an ex vivo ECMO circuit compared to control samples. The time span of this study was limited, thus, clinical studies over a longer period of time are needed.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Minerais/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867150

RESUMO

Data regarding association between the use of plastics with hot food and levels of vitamins and minerals, and other biochemical parameters are lacking. Cross-sectional data for 740 healthy pregnant Saudi women were collected from 21 health care centres and 2 hospitals from Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Detailed data regarding the frequency of plastic use with hot food were collected, and laboratory analyses of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), homocysteine (HCY), glycated A1C (A1C), and selected vitamins and minerals were also done. Daily use of plastics with hot food was frequently reported among young mothers (p = 0.002). Plastic use with hot food on a daily basis was positively associated with TSH, HCY, and A1C, while it was negatively associated with concentrations of vitamin E, zinc, and selenium. Future research should address the complex hormonal and metabolic abnormalities that are linked to the release of certain components associated with the use of plastics with hot food. Interventions are urgently needed to eliminate the use of plastics with hot food to prevent health complications that may result from the long-term use of these materials.


Assuntos
Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Homocisteína/sangue , Temperatura Alta , Minerais/sangue , Plásticos/farmacologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita
16.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823974

RESUMO

Older adults are at increased risk for vitamin and mineral deficiencies that contribute to age-related immune system decline. Several lines of evidence suggest that taking a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement (MVM) could improve immune function in individuals 55 and older. To test this hypothesis, we provided healthy older adults with either an MVM supplement formulated to improve immune function (Redoxon® VI, Singapore) or an identical, inactive placebo control to take daily for 12 weeks. Prior to and after treatment, we measured (1) their blood mineral and vitamin status (i.e., vitamin C, zinc and vitamin D); (2) immune function (i.e., whole blood bacterial killing activity, neutrophil phagocytic activity, and reactive oxygen species production); (3) immune status (salivary IgA and plasma cytokine/chemokine levels); and (4) self-reported health status. MVM supplementation improved vitamin C and zinc status in blood and self-reported health-status without altering measures of immune function or status or vitamin D levels, suggesting that healthy older adults may benefit from MVM supplementation. Further development of functional assays and larger study populations should improve detection of specific changes in immune function after supplementation in healthy older adults. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02876315.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso/imunologia , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais/sangue , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fagocitose , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Vitaminas/sangue
17.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718017

RESUMO

The study's objective was to ascertain whether a nutritional multivitamin and mineral supplement enriched with two different dietary fibers influences microbiota composition, mineral absorption, and some immune and metabolic biomarkers in adult rats. Nine-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: the reference group; the group receiving a daily supplement based on a food matrix with proteins, vitamins, and minerals; and two other groups receiving this supplement enriched with inulin (V + I) or acacia (V + A) fiber for four weeks. Microbiota composition was determined in cecal content and mineral content in fecal, blood, and femur samples. Intestinal IgA concentration, hematological, and biochemical variables were evaluated. Both V + I and V + A supplementations increased Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla, which were associated with a higher presence of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. V + A supplementation increased calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc concentrations in femur. V + I supplementation increased the fecal IgA content and reduced plasma total cholesterol and uric acid concentration. Both fiber-enriched supplements tested herein seem to be beneficial to gut-health, although differently.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vitaminas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ceco , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Magnésio , Masculino , Minerais/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20840, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629669

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is reported to be common among Saudi women. Several minerals appear to be important determinants of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), the bioactivity of which regulates bone and mineral metabolism. Here we proposed that mineral status may alter the IGF system among individuals with osteoporosis. This study aims to evaluate the relationships between essential elements and IGF levels among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis. A total of 128 postmenopausal Saudi women aged ≥50 years old were recruited in this study. Diagnosis of osteoporosis was done by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to determine the bone minerals density (BMD). Serum calcium and phosphate were determined using routine chemical analyzer. Serum Co, Mn, Ni, Cd were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum IGF-1 and IGF-2 were determined using Luminex xMAP. Using stepwise linear regression analysis, only Cd was identified to be significantly associated with IGF1 in osteoporosis, explaining 3% (confidence interval 0.01-0.05; P = 0001) of the variance perceived. Our results suggest that Cd exposure indirectly affects BMD which may increase the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Further longitudinal study using a larger sample size is recommended to determine causality of Cd levels and IGF-1.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Minerais/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Densidade Óssea , Cádmio/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Cobalto/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Manganês/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níquel/sangue , Fosfatos/sangue , Arábia Saudita
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 3275-3283, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712807

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate reproductive performances and to reveal the influence of mineral profile on Ouled Djellal ewes reared in different sites during their mating period. Two hundred twenty-six clinically healthy and nonpregnant Ouled Djellal ewes have been used and assigned to four groups according to altitude factor (two plain regions, one tableland region, and one mountain region). In all groups, oestrus was synchronized with ram affect method, and the ewes were naturally inseminated; it was conducted during the month of May for all herds. After 5 months of gestation, reproductive parameters were calculated. Concerning the determination of plasma mineral parameters and its influence on reproduction parameters, blood samples were taken from all ewes on the day of introduction of entire rams into all herds. The analyzed variables were fertility, prolificacy, and fecundity, and their overall averages were 78%, 117%, and 92%, respectively, which are well below the averages in flocks reared in intensive mode. However, the lowest rates are recorded at mountain region (Aïn Zaatout) with 65%, 109%, and 71%, respectively. Plasma sodium and potassium were significantly lower in fecundable ewes than in non-fecundable ewes, whereas plasma calcium levels were significantly increased. The region showed in this study a significant influence on all plasma levels of major minerals during mating period. This study made it possible to describe the evolution of some mineral elements in ewes according to whether they are fecundable or not and according to the region (mountain, tableland, plain) during the mating period. This gave us useful information on the impact of plasma minerals levels on reproductive parameters.


Assuntos
Altitude , Minerais/sangue , Reprodução , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino , Estações do Ano
20.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 39(8): 685-693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649272

RESUMO

Background: In December 2019, the viral pandemic of respiratory illness caused by COVID-19 began sweeping its way across the globe. Several aspects of this infectious disease mimic metabolic events shown to occur during latent subclinical magnesium deficiency. Hypomagnesemia is a relatively common clinical occurrence that often goes unrecognized since magnesium levels are rarely monitored in the clinical setting. Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium. It is involved in >600 enzymatic reactions in the body, including those contributing to the exaggerated immune and inflammatory responses exhibited by COVID-19 patients.Methods: A summary of experimental findings and knowledge of the biochemical role magnesium may play in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is presented in this perspective. The National Academy of Medicine's Standards for Systematic Reviews were independently employed to identify clinical and prospective cohort studies assessing the relationship of magnesium with interleukin-6, a prominent drug target for treating COVID-19.Results: Clinical recommendations are given for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Constant monitoring of ionized magnesium status with subsequent repletion, when appropriate, may be an effective strategy to influence disease contraction and progression. The peer-reviewed literature supports that several aspects of magnesium nutrition warrant clinical consideration. Mechanisms include its "calcium-channel blocking" effects that lead to downstream suppression of nuclear factor-Kß, interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, and other related endocrine disrupters; its role in regulating renal potassium loss; and its ability to activate and enhance the functionality of vitamin D, among others.Conclusion: As the world awaits an effective vaccine, nutrition plays an important and safe role in helping mitigate patient morbidity and mortality. Our group is working with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to collect patient-level data from intensive care units across the United States to better understand nutrition care practices that lead to better outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Magnésio/sangue , Magnésio/farmacologia , Minerais/sangue , Minerais/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Terapia Nutricional , Pandemias , Potássio/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/sangue , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo
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