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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1474-1480, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414611

RESUMO

The discovery of allosteric modulators is a multi-disciplinary approach, which is time- and cost-intensive. High-throughput screening combined with novel computational tools can reduce these factors. Thus, we developed an enzyme activity assay, which can be included in the drug discovery work-flow subsequent to the in-silico library screening. While the in-silico screening yields in the identification of potential allosteric modulators, the developed in-vitro assay allows for the characterisation of them. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), a glyceride hydrolysing enzyme, has been selected for the pilot development. The assay conditions were adjusted to CRL's properties including pH, temperature and substrate specificity for two different substrates. The optimised assay conditions were validated and were used to characterise Tropolone, which was identified as an allosteric modulator. In conclusion, the assay is a reliable, reproducible, and robust tool, which can be streamlined with in-silico screening and incorporated in an automated high-throughput screening workflow.


Assuntos
Lipase/metabolismo , Miniaturização , Regulação Alostérica , Candida/enzimologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estabilidade Enzimática , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Limite de Detecção , Lipase/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(4): 297-304, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of three different miniature locking plate systems used to fixate radial and ulnar fractures in toy breed dogs. Implant size, shape, material and locking systems differ, and their influence on the fracture healing process is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate this matter in vivo using rabbit radial and ulnar fracture models. STUDY DESIGN: Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, and the left radius and ulna were osteotomized to create fracture models. The osteotomies were then fixated using either the TITAN LOCK 1.5, Fixin micro or LCP 1.5 system. Radiographs were obtained 2, 3 and 4 weeks after surgery. Four weeks after surgery, the radiuses were collected and used for biomechanical testing or histological examinations. RESULTS: During the 4 weeks of observation, no adverse effects due to the implants occurred. The radiographic scores in each group did not differ significantly at any time point. The maximum load in the LCP group was significantly higher than that in the TITAN and Fixin groups. There was no significant difference in bending stiffness or work to failure among the groups. Initial fracture healing via woven bone was evident at histological evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: All three miniature locking plate systems provided adequate fracture stabilization 4 weeks after surgery, despite their differences, in rabbit models.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas/veterinária , Coelhos , Fraturas do Rádio/veterinária , Fraturas da Ulna/veterinária , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Placas Ósseas/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Consolidação da Fratura , Masculino , Miniaturização , Período Pós-Operatório , Radiografia/veterinária , Fraturas do Rádio/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas do Rádio/patologia , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Distribuição Aleatória , Fraturas da Ulna/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Ulna/patologia , Fraturas da Ulna/cirurgia
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1597: 202-208, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030954

RESUMO

The applicability of an aerial drone as a carrier for new passive and active miniaturized air sampling systems, including solid phase microextration Arrow (SPME Arrow) and in-tube extraction (ITEX), was studied in this research. Thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected by the sampling systems. The direct comparison of the profiles of VOCs, simultaneously sampled in air by SPME Arrow system including four different coatings, allowed the elucidation of their adsorption selectivity. A more complex experimental design, involving 20 samples (10 flights) and non-supervised pattern recognition techniques, was needed for the clarification of the same sampling parameters in the case of five ITEX sorbent materials. In addition, ITEX sampling accessories, such as particle, water and ozone traps, were evaluated by comparing the results obtained for air samples simultaneously collected by two ITEX systems, packed with the same sorbent and furnished or not with sampling accessories. The effect of the aerial drone horizontal displacement (HD) on the sampling efficiency was clear in the case of SPME Arrow. The number of detected compounds and their relative peak area values (RPA) revealed a clear increase (4 and 43%, respectively) in comparison with samples collected without drone HD. However, just minor differences were observed in the case of ITEX (2 compounds and 9% of the ∑RPA). In addition, the system was able to provide almost simultaneous passive (SPME Arrow) and active (ITEX) samplings at different altitudes (5 and 50 m), being a good tool for low cost vertical profiling studies (∑RPA decreased over 35% for the samples collected at 50 m). Finally, the successful simultaneous air sampling by SPME Arrow and ITEX systems in two difficult access places, such as boreal forest and wetlands, was demonstrated, resulting in 21 and 31 detected compounds in forest and wetlands by SPME Arrow, and 27 and 39 compounds by ITEX.


Assuntos
Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adsorção , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Miniaturização , Microextração em Fase Sólida
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(11): 4347-4362, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949810

RESUMO

Both strain engineering and process optimization are intensively studied in microbial biosurfactant literature. However, screening of multiple strains and/or medium components in parallel is a very labor-intensive and timely process, considering the only applied technique nowadays is evaluation through shake flask and/or bioreactor experiments. Therefore, in this work, the development, optimization, and application of a more throughput technique-based on 24-deep well plates-are described for a new Starmerella bombicola strain producing bolaform sophorolipids. To develop an optimal setup, the influence of plate position and culture volume and the type of sandwich cover was investigated. Optimal parameters, which did not result in significant differences compared with shake flask experiments concerning growth, glucose consumption, and production of novel sophorolipids, were defined and validated. Next, the new method was applied to evaluate the influence of the use of alternative (commercial) nitrogen sources in comparison with the yeast extract currently applied in the production medium, aiming to increase production efficiency. Self-made yeast extracts from S. bombicola cells were also included to evaluate possible recycling of cells after fermentation. In conclusion, the designed method enabled the efficient and successful comparison of ten different nitrogen sources in varying concentrations (1, 4, and 10 g/L) on bola sophorolipid production, which can now also be performed for other parameters important for growth and/or glycolipid production.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Ácidos Oleicos/biossíntese , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Miniaturização , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Opt Lett ; 44(7): 1868-1871, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933168

RESUMO

In advanced biomedicine and microfluidics, there is a strong desire to sort and manipulate various cells and bacteria based on miniaturized microfluidic chips. Here, by integrating fiber tweezers into a T-type microfluidic channel, we report an optofluidic chip to selectively trap Escherichia coli in human blood solution based on different sizes and shapes. Furthermore, we simulate the trapping and pushing regions of other cells and bacteria, including rod-shaped bacteria, sphere-shaped bacteria, and cancer cells based on finite-difference analysis. With the advantages of controllability, low optical power, and compact construction, the strategy may be possibly applied in the fields of optical separation, cell transportation, and water quality analysis.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/instrumentação , Miniaturização/instrumentação , Fibras Ópticas , Pinças Ópticas , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Eritrócitos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/citologia , Humanos
6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(19): 4365-4374, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011787

RESUMO

Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in cells and cell redox balance are of great interest in live cells as they are correlated to several pathological and physiological conditions of living cells. ROS and RNS detection is limited due to their spatially restricted abundance: they are usually located in sub-cellular areas (e.g., in specific organelles) at low concentration. In this work, we will review and highlight the electrochemical approach to this bio-analytical issue. Combining electrochemical methods and miniaturization strategies, specific, highly sensitive, time, and spatially resolved measurements of cellular oxidative stress and redox balance analysis are possible. Graphical abstract In this work, we highlight and review the use of electrochemistry for the highly spatial and temporal resolved detection of ROS/RNS levels and of redox balance in living cells. These levels are central in several pathological and physiological conditions and the electrochemical approach is a vibrant bio-analytical trend in this field.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Humanos , Camundongos , Miniaturização , Oxirredução
7.
Biomed Eng Online ; 18(1): 46, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitreoretinal surgeries require precise, dexterous, and steady instruments for operation in delicate parts of the eye. Robotics has presented solutions for many vitreoretinal surgical problems, but, in a few operations, the available tools are still not dexterous enough to carry out procedures with minimum trauma to patients. Vitrectomy is one of those procedures and requires some dexterous instruments to replace straight ones for better navigation to affected sides inside the eyeball. METHOD: In this paper, we propose a new vein puncturing solution with a 4-DOF motion to increase the workspace inside the eye. A two-member concentric tube-based 25G needle is proposed whose shape is optimized. To operate the concentric tube needle, a novel and miniaturized actuation system is proposed that uses hollow shaft motors for the first time. The presented prototype of actuation system has a stroke of 100 mm in a small size of 148 × 25 × 65 mm (L × W × H), suitable for approaching distant positions inside the eyeball. RESULTS: Experimental results validate that the targeting accuracy of the needle is less than one millimeter and the needle tip can apply a force of 23.51 mN which is enough to perform puncturing. Furthermore, the proposed needle covers maximum workspace of around 128.5° inside the eyeball. For the actuation system, experiments show that it can produce repeatable motions with accuracy in submillimeter. CONCLUSION: The proposed needle system can navigate to the sites which are difficult to approach by currently available straight tools requiring reinsertions. Along with the miniaturized actuation system, this work is expected to improve the outcome of vitrectomy with safe and accurate navigation.


Assuntos
Miniaturização/instrumentação , Agulhas , Vitrectomia/instrumentação , Movimento (Física) , Robótica
8.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(2): 72-85, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924224

RESUMO

Lithic miniaturization was one of our Pleistocene ancestors' more pervasive stone tool production strategies and it marks a key difference between human and non-human tool use. Frequently equated with "microlith" production, lithic miniaturization is a more complex, variable, and evolutionarily consequential phenomenon involving small backed tools, bladelets, small retouched tools, flakes, and small cores. In this review, we evaluate lithic miniaturization's various technological and functional elements. We examine archeological assumptions about why prehistoric stoneworkers engaged in processes of lithic miniaturization by making small stone tools, small elongated tools, and small retouched and backed tools. We point to functional differences that motivate different aspects of lithic miniaturization and several instances where archeological systematics have possibly led archeologists to false negative findings about lithic miniaturization. Finally, we suggest productive avenues by which archeologists can move closer to understanding the complex evolutionary forces driving variability in lithic miniaturization.


Assuntos
Hominidae/fisiologia , Tecnologia , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas/fisiologia , Armas/história , Animais , Arqueologia , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Mãos/fisiologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Miniaturização/instrumentação , Miniaturização/métodos , Tecnologia/história , Tecnologia/instrumentação , Tecnologia/métodos
9.
Ultrason Imaging ; 41(3): 173-187, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898053

RESUMO

With the development of integrated circuit (IC) technologies, complex transmitting and receiving circuits can be integrated into miniature intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, making it possible to adopt better synthesizing schemes for better imaging. Eccentric cylinder wave compounding should be an optimum synthesizing scheme for the small size cylinder shaped catheter. Eccentric cylinder waves centered at different points are emitted, signals are collected after each emission, and images can be synthesized with easy post processing. Detailed analyses about resolution and grating lobes were made; the optimum eccentric distance was determined. Simulations were done to examine the resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and resistance to crosstalk and nonuniformity of arrays. Dual apodization and magnitude-based deconvolution were applied to further improve the results.


Assuntos
Cateteres , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Miniaturização , Imagens de Fantasmas , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Razão Sinal-Ruído
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1939: 3-9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848453

RESUMO

Drugs may have synergistic or antagonistic interactions when combined. Checkerboard assays, where two drugs are combined in many doses, allow sensitive measurement of drug interactions. Here, we describe a protocol to measure the pairwise interactions among three antibiotics, in duplicate, in 5 days, using only two 96-well microplates and standard laboratory equipment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Interações de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Desenho de Equipamento , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Miniaturização/instrumentação , Miniaturização/métodos
12.
Microvasc Res ; 124: 6-18, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742844

RESUMO

Measurements of regional tissue oxygen serve as a proxy to monitor local perfusion and have the potential to guide therapeutic decisions in multiple clinical disciplines. Transcutaneous oximetry (tcpO2) is a commercially available noninvasive technique that uses an electrode to warm underlying skin tissue and measure the resulting oxygen tension at the skin surface. A novel approach is to directly measure interstitial tissue oxygen using subcutaneous oxygen microsensors composed of a biocompatible hydrogel carrier platform with embedded oxygen sensing molecules. After initial injection of the hydrogel into subcutaneous tissue, noninvasive optical measurements of phosphorescence-based emissions at the skin surface are used to sense oxygen in the subcutaneous interstitial space. The object of the present study was to characterize the in vivo performance of subcutaneous microsensors and compare with transcutaneous oximetry (tcpO2). Vascular occlusion tests were performed on the arms of 7 healthy volunteers, with repeated tests occurring 1 to 10 weeks after sensor injection, yielding 95 total tests for analysis. Comparative analysis characterized the response of both devices to decreases in tissue oxygen during occlusion and to increases in tissue oxygen following release of the occlusion. Results indicated: (I) time traces returned by microsensors and tcpO2 were highly correlated, with the median (interquartile range) correlation coefficient of r = 0.93 (0.10); (II) both microsensors and tcpO2 sensed a statistically significant decrease in normalized oxygen during occlusion (p < 0.001 for each device); (III) microsensors detected faster rates change (p < 0.001) and detected overshoot during recovery more frequently (38% vs. 4% of tests); (IV) inter-measurement analysis showed no correlation of baseline values between microsensors and tcpO2 (r = 0.03), but comparison of integrated oxygen dynamics showed similar variation in the normalized response to occlusion between devices (p = 0.06), (V) intra-measurement analysis revealed that microsensors detect greater physiological fluctuations than tcpO2 (p < 0.001) and may provide enhanced sensitivity to processes such as vasomotion. Additionally, the functional response of microsensors was not significantly different across time groupings (per month) post-injection (p = 0.61). Although the compared devices have differences in the mechanisms used to sense oxygen, these findings demonstrate that subcutaneous oxygen microsensors measure changes in interstitial tissue oxygen in human subjects in vivo.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Monitorização Transcutânea dos Gases Sanguíneos/instrumentação , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Transdutores , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Artérias/fisiologia , Monitorização Transcutânea dos Gases Sanguíneos/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 127: 68-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735920

RESUMO

The scalability of bioelectrochemical systems is a key parameter for their practical implementation in the real-world. Up until now, only urine-fed self-stratifying microbial fuel cells (SSM-MFCs) have been shown to be scalable in width and length with limited power density losses. For practical reasons, the present work focuses on the scalability of SSM-MFCs in the one dimension that has not yet been investigated, namely height. Three different height conditions were considered (1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm tall electrodes). The normalised power density of the 2 cm and 3 cm conditions were similar either during the durability test under a hydraulic retention time of ≈39 h (i.e. 15.74 ±â€¯0.99 µW.cm-3) and during the polarisation experiments (i.e. 27.79 ±â€¯0.92 µW.cm-3). Conversely, the 1 cm condition had lower power densities of 11.23 ±â€¯0.07 µW.cm-3 and 17.73 ±â€¯3.94 µW.cm-3 both during the durability test and the polarisation experiment, respectively. These results confirm that SSM-MFCs can be scaled in all 3 dimensions with minimal power density losses, with a minimum height threshold for the electrode comprised between 1 cm and 2 cm.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Miniaturização , Urina/química , Urina/microbiologia
14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(19): 4251-4264, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706075

RESUMO

Cancer diagnostic tools enabling screening, diagnosis, and effective disease management are essential elements to increase the survival rate of diagnosed patients. Low abundance of cancer markers present in large amounts of interferences remains the major issue. Moreover, current diagnostic technologies are restricted to high-resourced settings only. Integrating nanofibers into miniaturized analytical systems holds a significant promise to address these challenges as demonstrated by recent publications. A large surface area, three-dimensional porous network, and diverse range of functional chemistries make nanofibers an excellent candidate as immobilization support and/or transduction elements, enabling high capture yield and ultrasensitive detection in miniaturized devices. Functional nanofibers have thus been used to isolate and detect various cancer-related biomarkers with a high degree of success in both on-chip and off-chip platforms. In fact, the chemical and functional adaptability of nanofibers has been exploited to address the technical challenges unique to each of the cancer markers in body fluids, where circulating tumor cells are prominently investigated among others (proteins, nucleic acids, and exosomes). So far, none of the work has exploited the nanofibers for cancer-derived exosomes, opening an avenue for further research effort. The trend and future prospects signal possibilities to strengthen the implementation of nanofiber-miniaturized system hybrid for a next generation of cancer diagnostic platforms both in clinical and point-of-care testing.


Assuntos
Miniaturização , Nanofibras , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos
15.
Lab Chip ; 19(6): 941-947, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702741

RESUMO

Microfluidic-based portable devices for stool analysis are important for detecting established biomarkers for gastrointestinal disorders and understanding the relationship between gut microbiota imbalances and various health conditions, ranging from digestive disorders to neurodegenerative diseases. However, the challenge of processing stool samples in microfluidic devices hinders the development of a standalone platform. Here, we present the first microfluidic chip that can liquefy stool samples via acoustic streaming. With an acoustic transducer actively generating strong micro-vortex streaming, stool samples and buffers in microchannel can be homogenized at a flow rate up to 30 µL min-1. After homogenization, an array of 100 µm wide micropillars can further purify stool samples by filtering out large debris. A favorable biocompatibility was also demonstrated for our acoustofluidic-based stool liquefaction chip by examining bacteria morphology and viability. Moreover, stool samples with different consistencies were liquefied. Our acoustofluidic chip offers a miniaturized, robust, and biocompatible solution for stool sample preparation in a microfluidic environment and can be potentially integrated with stool analysis units for designing portable stool diagnostics platforms.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Microfluídica/métodos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Miniaturização , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Transdutores
16.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(3): 96, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694397

RESUMO

Transdermal drug delivery has advantages of topical drug administration compared to the other conventional administration methods. However, the skin penetration of drugs is limited by the barrier properties of stratum corneum. The combinational strategy has been investigated to improve the skin permeability of the drug. For this study, we devised an improved device that can perform not only the single application of sonophoresis or iontophoresis but also the simultaneous application. The enhancement effect of sonophoresis was evaluated for various cosmeceutical drugs using a Franz diffusion cell. The enhancement ratio of niacinamide and retinol with sonophoresis was increased to 402% and 292%, respectively. The relationship was found between the enhancement effect of sonophoresis and the physicochemical properties of drugs. In particular, the simultaneous treatment of sonophoresis and iontophoresis enhanced skin penetration of glutamic acid to 240% using the fabricated device. The simultaneous application showed significantly higher enhancement ratio than application of sonophoresis or iontophoresis alone. Moreover, the improved device achieved skin penetration enhancement of various cosmeceutical drugs with lower intensity and a short application time. This combined strategy of transdermal physical enhancement methods is advantageous in terms of decline in energy density, thereby reducing the skin irritation. The miniaturized device with sonophoresis and iontophoresis is a promising approach due to enhanced transdermal drug delivery and feasibility of self-administration in cosmetic and therapeutic fields.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Iontoforese/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Difusão , Desenho de Equipamento , Ácido Glutâmico/administração & dosagem , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Iontoforese/instrumentação , Miniaturização , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Farmacocinética , Absorção Cutânea
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 99, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626878

RESUMO

Neurovascular coupling, cerebrovascular remodeling and hemodynamic changes are critical to brain function, and dysregulated in neuropathologies such as brain tumors. Interrogating these phenomena in freely behaving animals requires a portable microscope with multiple optical contrast mechanisms. Therefore, we developed a miniaturized microscope with: a fluorescence (FL) channel for imaging neural activity (e.g., GCaMP) or fluorescent cancer cells (e.g., 9L-GFP); an intrinsic optical signal (IOS) channel for imaging hemoglobin absorption (i.e., cerebral blood volume); and a laser speckle contrast (LSC) channel for imaging perfusion (i.e., cerebral blood flow). Following extensive validation, we demonstrate the microscope's capabilities via experiments in unanesthetized murine brains that include: (i) multi-contrast imaging of neurovascular changes following auditory stimulation; (ii) wide-area tonotopic mapping; (iii) EEG-synchronized imaging during anesthesia recovery; and (iv) microvascular connectivity mapping over the life-cycle of a brain tumor. This affordable, flexible, plug-and-play microscope heralds a new era in functional imaging of freely behaving animals.


Assuntos
Microscopia/instrumentação , Miniaturização , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Neuroimagem/instrumentação , Neuroimagem/métodos , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos SCID
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