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3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 655, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who use drugs including people who inject drugs (PWUD/ID), sex workers (SWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV and viral hepatitis infection. Limited epidemiological data on the infections exists in key populations (KPs) in South Africa. We investigated the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV and selected risk factors among these KPs to inform effective responses. METHODS: We used convenience sampling to recruit a targeted 3500 KPs accessing HIV-related health services across Cape Town (SWs, MSM, PWUD/ID), Durban (SWs, PWUD/ID), Pietermaritzburg (SWs), Mthatha (SWs), Port Elizabeth (SWs), Johannesburg (MSM) and Pretoria (MSM and PWUD/ID) into a cross-sectional survey. An interviewer questionnaire to assess socio-demographic characteristics, drug use and sexual risk practices, was administered. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg); HCV antibody, viral load and genotype, and HIV antibody, was tested. RESULTS: Among the 3439 people included in the study (1528 SWs, 746 MSM, 1165 PWUD/ID) the median age was 29 years, most participants were black African (60%), and 24% reported homelessness. 82% reported substance use in the last month, including alcohol (46%) and heroin (33%). 75% were sexually active in the previous month, with condom use at last sex at 74%. HIV prevalence was 37% (highest among SWs at 47%), HBsAg prevalence 4% (similar across KPs) and HCV prevalence was 16% (highest among PWUD/ID at 46%). CONCLUSIONS: HBV, HCV and HIV pose a health burden for KPs in South Africa. While HIV is key for all included KPs, HCV is of particular importance to PWUD/ID. For KPs, HBV vaccination and behavioural change interventions that support consistent condom and lubricant access and use are needed. Coverage of opioid substitution therapy and needle and syringe services, and access to HCV treatment for PWUD/ID need to be expanded.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/imunologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/etiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/etiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Prat ; 70(1): 90-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877038

RESUMO

Policies vaccination against the human papillomavirus infections in France and worldwide. Since 2007, french guidelines have recommended HPV vaccination for female aged to 14-23 years old then 11 to 19 years old in 2012, and expanded to men who have sex with men aged up to 26 years in 2016. The impact of HPV vaccine programm regarding reduction of high grade cervical precancerous lesions in women was limited by a very low vaccine coverage in France. Safety concerns of this vaccination, lack of practical information for healthcare and citizens could potentially raise vaccine hesitancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , França , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881946

RESUMO

The psychological impacts of the lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic are widely documented. In India, a family-centric society with a high population density and extreme social stratification, the impact of the lockdown might vary across diverse social groups. However, the patterning in the psychological impact of the lockdown among LGBT adults and persons known to be at higher risk of the complications of Covid-19 (such as persons with comorbidities or a history of mental illness) is not known in the Indian context. We used mixed methods (online survey, n = 282 and in-depth interviews, n = 14) to investigate whether the psychological influence of the lockdown was different across these groups of Indian adults. We fitted linear and logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Thematic analysis helped us identify emergent themes in our qualitative narratives. Anxiety was found to be higher among LGBT adults (ß = 2.44, CI: 0.58, 4.31), the high-risk group (persons with comorbidities) (ß = 2.20, CI:0.36, 4.05), and those with a history of depression/loneliness (ß = 3.89, CI:2.34, 5.44). Persons belonging to the LGBT group reported a greater usage of pornography than the heterosexuals (ß = 2.72, CI: 0.09, 5.36) during the lockdown. Qualitative findings suggested that LGBT adults likely used pornography and masturbation to cope with the lockdown, given the limited physical access to sexual partners in a society that stigmatizes homosexuality. Moreover, both qualitative and quantitative study findings suggested that greater frequency of calling family members during lockdown could strengthen social relationships and increase social empathy. The study thereby urgently calls for the attention of policymakers to take sensitive and inclusive health-related decisions for the marginalized and the vulnerable, both during and after the crisis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Sex Med ; 17(10): 1827-1834, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social distancing in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect the sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM). In early March 2020, Israel imposed travel restrictions and limited social contacts to household members only. The effects of these restrictions on the sexual behavior and mental health of MSM are unknown. AIM: To assess sexual behaviors and mental health of Israeli MSM during social distancing and to compare sexual behaviors before and during social distancing, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data were collected through anonymous web-based questionnaires in a popular geospatial application used by MSM between March and April 2020 during the social-distancing period. OUTCOMES: The dependent variable was casual sex, in violation of social-distancing regulations. Independent variables were demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors before and during social-distancing restrictions, and mental health. RESULTS: Of the 2,562 participants, 1,012 (39.5%) continued to meet new casual sex partners during this period. Being of a younger age, single, and with higher levels of mental distress predicted engagement in casual sex during the social-distancing period. MSM reduced their sexual risk and limited sexual repertoire-in particular, kissing with their sexual partners. Participants also spent more time in dating applications than in the pre-social-distancing period and increased their use of sex phone, webcams, and porn consumption. They perceived the threat of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus to be greater than that of HIV: only 3.2% could imagine themselves having sex with a partner who is infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared with 30.1% in case of HIV, P < .01. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: MSM reduced their risk behaviors during social distancing because of the threat of COVID-19. Casual sex during social distancing was associated with negative feelings of mental distress. Future public health response in the future waves of COVID-19 morbidity should strike a balance between containment measures and the need for social distancing with its possible mental and social burdens. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This is the first study in Israel and one of the few in the world to examine sexual behaviors among MSM during the COVID-19 social distancing period. It involved a relatively large sample, through convenience sampling, which limits causality. Findings should be interpreted cautiously, specifically because COVID-19-related behaviors and circumstances may change rapidly. CONCLUSION: The negative feelings of distress due to social distancing should be considered as a potential barrier to adherence among vulnerable populations, such as MSM. Future public health response should strike a balance between containment measures and its possible mental, social, and financial burdens. Shilo G, Mor Z. COVID-19 and the Changes in the Sexual Behavior of Men Who Have Sex With Men: Results of an Online Survey. J Sex Med 2020;17:1827-1834.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 439-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886464

RESUMO

At the 2020 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, held virtually as a result of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic, trends in the HIV epidemic were highlighted, with decreasing HIV incidence reported across several countries, although key regions remain heavily impacted, including the US South. Adolescent girls and young women, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender persons, and people who inject drugs continue to experience a high burden of new infections. Sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy can lead to a number of adverse outcomes in infants; novel strategies to detect and treat these infections are needed. Innovative HIV testing strategies, including self-testing and assisted partner services, are expanding the reach of testing; however, linkage to care can be improved. Novel preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) delivery strategies are increasing uptake of PrEP in different groups, although adherence and persistence remain a challenge. Use of on-demand PrEP is increasing among MSM in the US. Strategies are needed to address barriers to PrEP uptake and persistence among cis- and transgender women. Several novel regimens for postexposure prophylaxis show promise.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções por Retroviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Interface Usuário-Computador
9.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(4): 411-417, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of HIV prevention information transmission model in the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: To establish the HIV "expert-key informant-MSM" preventive information transmission model and to intervene the MSM high-risk sexual behavior. Before and 3 months after the intervention, MSM was measured by general information questionnaire, AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior questionnaire, MSM Health Belief Scale for HIV Prevention, and Safe Sexual Self-efficacy Scale. RESULTS: AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior scores in MSM after the intervention were significantly higher than those before the intervention (Z=-13.047, P<0.001); the scores of health belief before and after the intervention were significantly higher (Z=-3.272, P=0.001); condom use in MSM after the intervention was more common than that before the intervention (P<0.05), except for commercial sex. CONCLUSIONS: The application of HIV prevention information transmission model can effectively improve AIDS-related knowledge, HIV prevention health beliefs, condom use rate of MSM population, and in turn promote the transformation of their high-risk sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Preservativos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e231, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981567

RESUMO

It has been speculated that some drugs can be used against SARS-CoV-2. As for antiretrovirals, the follow-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak may help to understand the potential protective effect of PrEP against SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to identify associations between oral PrEP use and COVID-19-related symptoms self-reporting. Phone call interviews or digital investigation (through WhatsApp® or e-mail) about oral PrEP regular use, social distancing, exposure to suspected or confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related symptoms. Among 108 individuals, the majority were cisgender, white and gay men. Although most of the individuals engaged in social distancing (68.52%), they kept on taking PrEP (75.93%). Few people have had contact with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 (12.04%), but some had COVID-19-related symptoms the month before the interview (27.78%) including rhinorrheoa (56.67%), cough (53.33%), asthaenia (50.00%) and headache (43.33%). Also, oral PrEP was associated with lower self-reporting COVID-19-symptoms (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.96, P = 0.04; h = 0.92) even after controlling confounders as social distancing, age, body-mass index and morbidities . In our sample, the regular use of oral PrEP was associated with lower self-reporting of COVID-19-related symptoms during the outbreak in São Paulo, Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero
13.
LGBT Health ; 7(6): 279-282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790495

RESUMO

Sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations may be affected disproportionately by health emergencies such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Health professionals must take immediate steps to ensure equitable treatment of SGM populations. These steps are to (1) maintain and increase cultural responsiveness training and preparedness for SGM populations, (2) increase use of sexual orientation and gender identity measures in surveillance, (3) conduct research on the impacts of COVID-19 on SGM populations, and (4) include equity-focused initiatives in disaster preparedness plans. These actions toward equity would begin to allow for our current health system to care more appropriately for SGM populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equidade em Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 636, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Key populations - men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and people who inject drugs (PWID) - are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) given their sexual risk behaviours along with social, legal and structural barriers to prevention, care and treatment services. The purpose of this secondary analysis is to assess the prevalence of self-reported STIs and to describe associated risk factors among participations of the first Biological Behavioural Surveillance (BBS) in Mozambique. METHODS: Responses from the first BBS surveys conducted in 2011-2014 were aggregated across survey-cities to produce pooled estimates for each population. Aggregate weighted estimates were computed to analyse self-reported STI prevalence. Unweighted pooled estimates were used in multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with self-reported STI. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported STI was 11.9% (95% CI, 7.8-16.0), 33.6% (95% CI, 29.0-41.3), and 22.0% (95% CI, 17.0-27.0) among MSM, FSW and PWID, respectively. MSM who were circumcised, had HIV, reported drug use, reported receptive anal sex, and non-condom use with their last male partner had greater odds of STI self-report. STI-self report among FSW was associated with living in Beira, being married, employment aside from sex work, physical violence, sexual violence, drug use, access to comprehensive HIV prevention services, non-condom use with last client, and sexual relationship with a non-client romantic partner. Among PWID, risk factors for self-reported STI included living in Nampula/Nacala, access to HIV prevention services, and sex work. CONCLUSION: The high-burden of STIs among survey participants requires integrated HIV and STI prevention, treatment, and harm reduction services that address overlapping risk behaviours, especially injection drug use and sex work. A robust public health response requires the creation of a national STI surveillance system for better screening and diagnostic procedures within these vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Trabalho Sexual , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796759

RESUMO

This study used data collected from an online survey study on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Taiwan to examine changes in sex life during the pandemic and the factors affecting such changes. In total, 1954 respondents were recruited from a Facebook advertisement. The survey inquired changes in sex life during the pandemic, including satisfaction with the individual's sex life, frequency of sexual activity, frequency of sex-seeking activity, and frequency of using protection for sex. The associations of change in sex life with risk perception of COVID-19, general anxiety, gender, age, and sexual orientation were also examined. For each aspect of their sex life, 1.4%-13.5% of respondents reported a decrease in frequency or satisfaction, and 1.6%-2.9% reported an increase in frequency or satisfaction. Risk perception of COVID-19 was significantly and negatively associated with frequencies of sexual and sex-seeking activities. Higher general anxiety was significantly and negatively associated with satisfaction of sex life and frequencies of sexual and sex-seeking activities. Sexual minority respondents were more likely to report decreased satisfaction with sex life and frequencies of sexual activity and sex-seeking activities during COVID-19. Health care providers should consider these factors when developing strategies for sexual wellness amid respiratory infection epidemics.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791641

RESUMO

Objective:To compare the effect of impulse-radio ultrawideband(IR-UWB) radar technology and polysomnography(PSG) in sleep assessment. Method:A total of 79 OSA patients were randomly divided into two groups: 40 patients in group A received PSG and IR-UWB, and 39 patients in group B received micromovement sensitive mattress(MSM) and IR-UWB. Pearson correlation and ROC curve were used for statistics. Result:AHI PSG and AHI MSM were significantly correlated with AHI IR-UWB(r=0.91, P=0.00; r=0.92, P=0.00). Bland-Altman analysis showed that AHI IR-UWB value was highly consistent with AHI PSG value(95.00%), and AHI IR-UWB value(97.44%). The sensitivity and specificity of AHI IR-UWB compared with PSG were 70.40% and 89.90%, respectively. The area under ROC curve was 0.915. Conclusion:IR-UWB has a high diagnostic value for adult OSA in terms of minimum blood oxygen saturation, average blood oxygen saturation, average number of central sleep apnea, average number of complex sleep apnea, average heart rate, sleep efficiency, REM sleep duration, average AHI, etc. It is an economic and practical sleep evaluation tool.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adulto , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Radar , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764776

RESUMO

Sexual minority (SM) youth are at high risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicidal ideation/attempts compared to their heterosexual peers. We examined whether SM identity enhanced the relationship between experiences of IPV and suicidal ideation/attempts. Weighted logistic regression models were run using the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All main effects were significant; each SM identity and both physical and sexual IPV were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The interaction between bisexual identity and physical IPV was significant for suicidal ideation; as physical IPV experiences increased, the difference between bisexual identity and heterosexual youth was non-significant. Findings suggest exploring trauma and suicidal ideation by aggregate groups and increasing support for SM youth in schools and communities.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
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