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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445255

RESUMO

One of the most important features of striated cardiac muscle is the excitability that turns on the excitation-contraction coupling cycle, resulting in the heart blood pumping function. The function of the heart pump may be impaired by events such as myocardial infarction, the consequence of coronary artery thrombosis due to blood clots or plaques. This results in the death of billions of cardiomyocytes, the formation of scar tissue, and consequently impaired contractility. A whole heart transplant remains the gold standard so far and the current pharmacological approaches tend to stop further myocardium deterioration, but this is not a long-term solution. Electrically conductive, scaffold-based cardiac tissue engineering provides a promising solution to repair the injured myocardium. The non-conductive component of the scaffold provides a biocompatible microenvironment to the cultured cells while the conductive component improves intercellular coupling as well as electrical signal propagation through the scar tissue when implanted at the infarcted site. The in vivo electrical coupling of the cells leads to a better regeneration of the infarcted myocardium, reducing arrhythmias, QRS/QT intervals, and scar size and promoting cardiac cell maturation. This review presents the emerging applications of intrinsically conductive polymers in cardiac tissue engineering to repair post-ischemic myocardial insult.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Condutividade Elétrica , Infarto do Miocárdio , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Engenharia Tecidual
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445337

RESUMO

In fibrotic diseases, myofibroblasts derive from a range of cell types including endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs are key regulators in biological processes but their profile is relatively understudied in EndMT. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), EndMT was induced by treatment with TGFß2 and IL1ß. A significant decrease in endothelial markers such as VE-cadherin, CD31 and an increase in mesenchymal markers such as fibronectin were observed. In parallel, miRNA profiling showed that miR-126-3p was down-regulated in HUVECs undergoing EndMT and over-expression of miR-126-3p prevented EndMT, maintaining CD31 and repressing fibronectin expression. EndMT was investigated using lineage tracing with transgenic Cdh5-Cre-ERT2; Rosa26R-stop-YFP mice in two established models of fibrosis: cardiac ischaemic injury and kidney ureteric occlusion. In both cardiac and kidney fibrosis, lineage tracing showed a significant subpopulation of endothelial-derived cells expressed mesenchymal markers, indicating they had undergone EndMT. In addition, miR-126-3p was restricted to endothelial cells and down-regulated in murine fibrotic kidney and heart tissue. These findings were confirmed in patient kidney biopsies. MiR-126-3p expression is restricted to endothelial cells and is down-regulated during EndMT. Over-expression of miR-126-3p reduces EndMT, therefore, it could be considered for miRNA-based therapeutics in fibrotic organs.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/genética , Rim/patologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Fibrose/genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/patologia
3.
Life Sci ; 283: 119849, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343539

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin frequently complicates treatment outcome. Aberrantly activated calcium/calmodulin pathway can eventually trigger signaling cascades that mediate cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that trifluoperazine, a strong calmodulin antagonist, may alleviate this morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heart failure and cardiotoxicity were assessed via echocardiography, PCR, immunohistochemistry, histopathology, Masson's trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy. Whereas liver and kidney structural and functional alterations were evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that combination treatment with trifluoperazine could overcome doxorubicin-induced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Moreover, heart weight/body weight ratio and histopathological examination showed that trifluoperazine mitigated doxorubicin-induced cardiac atrophy, inflammation and myofibril degeneration. Transmission electron microscopy further confirmed the marked restoration of the left ventricular ultrastructures by trifluoperazine pretreatment. In addition, Masson's trichrome staining revealed that trifluoperazine could significantly inhibit doxorubicin-induced left ventricular remodeling by fibrosis. Of note, doxorubicin induced the expression of myocardial nuclear NF-κB-p65 and caspase-3 which were markedly inhibited by trifluoperazine, suggesting that cardioprotection conferred by trifluoperazine involved, at least in part, suppression of NF-κB and apoptosis. Furthermore, biochemical and histopathological examinations showed that trifluoperazine improved doxorubicin-induced renal and hepatic impairments both functionally and structurally. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the present in vivo study is the first to provide evidences underscoring the protective effects of trifluoperazine that may pave the way for repurposing this calmodulin antagonist in ameliorating organ toxicity by doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade , Cardiotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Cardiotoxinas/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Miocárdio/patologia
4.
Life Sci ; 283: 119866, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352257

RESUMO

AIMS: Morphine, a commonly used drug for anesthesia, affects lipid metabolism in different tissues, but the mechanism is currently unclear. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the first step of triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. Here we aim to investigate whether ATGL phosphorylation is involved in morphine-induced TG accumulation. MAIN METHODS: Oil red O staining and TG content analysis were used to detect the effect of morphine on lipid storage. A series of ATGL phosphoamino acid site mutant plasmids were constructed by gene synthesis and transfected to HL-1 cells to evaluate the phosphorylation levels of ATGL phosphoamino acid in morphine-treated HL-1 cells with immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assay. KEY FINDINGS: Morphine acute treatment induced excessive accumulation of TG and decreased the phosphorylation level of ATGL Ser406 in HL-1 cells. Of note, the phosphorylation positive mutation of ATGL Ser406 to aspartic acid effectively reversed morphine-induced excessive accumulation of TG in HL-1 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This discovery will help to fully understand the lipid regulation function of morphine in a new scope. In addition, it will expand the phosphorylation research of ATGL more comprehensively and provide powerful clues for lipid metabolism regulation.


Assuntos
Lipase/metabolismo , Morfina/farmacologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfina/farmacocinética , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4963, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400625

RESUMO

We have shown that calcium-activated potassium (KCa)-channels regulate fundamental progenitor-cell functions, including proliferation, but their contribution to cell-therapy effectiveness is unknown. Here, we test the participation of KCa-channels in human heart explant-derived cell (EDC) physiology and therapeutic potential. TRAM34-sensitive KCa3.1-channels, encoded by the KCNN4 gene, are exclusively expressed in therapeutically bioactive EDC subfractions and maintain a strongly polarized resting potential; whereas therapeutically inert EDCs lack KCa3.1 channels and exhibit depolarized resting potentials. Somatic gene transfer of KCNN4 results in membrane hyperpolarization and increases intracellular [Ca2+], which boosts cell-proliferation and the production of pro-healing cytokines/nanoparticles. Intramyocardial injection of EDCs after KCNN4-gene overexpression markedly increases the salutary effects of EDCs on cardiac function, viable myocardium and peri-infarct neovascularization in a well-established murine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Thus, electrophysiological engineering provides a potentially valuable strategy to improve the therapeutic value of progenitor cells for cardioprotection and possibly other indications.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Coração , Canais de Potássio Cálcio-Ativados/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Intermediária/genética , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Intermediária/metabolismo , Isquemia , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Nanopartículas , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio Cálcio-Ativados/genética , Células-Tronco
6.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 439-444, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374267

RESUMO

Objective: The present study was to determine the effects of aerobic interval training (AIT) on the expressions of SIRT1, Nox4 and inflammatory factor in the heart of rats with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group (C), sedentary MI group (MI) and MI with AIT group (ME) (n=10). The MI model was established by ligation the left anterior descending coronary artery. Rats in C groups were subjected to the same surgery, but only threaded and not ligated. After surgery 1 week, rats in ME groups took adaptability training for 1 week, and then subjected to 4 weeks treadmill exercise training. After training, the hearts were collected for histological observation. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in heart was assessed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) mRNA was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The protein expressions of SIRT1, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) were detected by Western blotting. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Results: Compared with the C group, the expression level of cardiac Nox4 protein was increased (P<0.01), the level of MDA, activity of LDH and the level of ROS were increased significantly (P<0.01), and the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1ß protein were augmented in the heart of rats with MI (P<0.01). However, the expressions of SIRT1 mRNA and protein and the activity of SOD were obviously decreased in MI group (P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with the MI group, AIT increased the expressions of SIRT1 mRNA and protein and the activity of SOD in the heart of ME group (P<0.01); Meanwhile, the expressions of cardiac Nox4, MDA level, LDH activity and ROS level were diminished in ME group (P<0.01) as well as the decreased expressions of TNF-α and IL-1ß protein (P<0.01). SIRT1 expression was negatively related to the expressions of NOX4 and ROS. Conclusion: AIT obviously inhibited myocardial oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction, improved cardiac function in rats with MI, and the mechanism was closely related to the activation of SIRT1-Nox4-ROS signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Miocárdio , Animais , Inflamação , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445418

RESUMO

Central pattern generators produce rhythmic behaviors independently of sensory input; however, their outputs can be modulated by neuropeptides, thereby allowing for functional flexibility. We investigated the effects of C-type allatostatins (AST-C) on the cardiac ganglion (CG), which is the central pattern generator that controls the heart of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, to identify the biological mechanism underlying the significant variability in individual responses to AST-C. We proposed that the presence of multiple receptors, and thus differential receptor distribution, was at least partly responsible for this observed variability. Using transcriptome mining and PCR-based cloning, we identified four AST-C receptors (ASTCRs) in the CG; we then characterized their cellular localization, binding potential, and functional activation. Only two of the four receptors, ASTCR1 and ASTCR2, were fully functional GPCRs that targeted to the cell surface and were activated by AST-C peptides in our insect cell expression system. All four, however, were amplified from CG cDNAs. Following the confirmation of ASTCR expression, we used physiological and bioinformatic techniques to correlate receptor expression with cardiac responses to AST-C across individuals. Expression of ASTCR1 in the CG showed a negative correlation with increasing contraction amplitude in response to AST-C perfusion through the lobster heart, suggesting that the differential expression of ASTCRs within the CG is partly responsible for the specific physiological response to AST-C exhibited by a given individual lobster.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Nephropidae/genética , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Nephropidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nephropidae/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células Sf9 , Distribuição Tecidual
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360813

RESUMO

Proper cardiac function depends on the coordinated expression of multiple gene networks related to fuel utilization and mitochondrial ATP production, heart contraction, and ion transport. Key transcriptional regulators that regulate these gene networks have been identified. Among them, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) have emerged as crucial modulators of cardiac function by regulating cellular metabolism and contraction machinery. Consistent with this role, lack of ERRα or ERRγ results in cardiac derangements that lead to functional maladaptation in response to increased workload. Interestingly, metabolic inflexibility associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy has been recently associated with increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and expression of ERRγ, suggesting that sustained expression of this nuclear receptor could result in a cardiac pathogenic outcome. Here, we describe the generation of mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ERRγ, which die at young ages due to heart failure. ERRγ transgenic mice show signs of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, increased cell death, and fibrosis. Our results suggest that ERRγ could play a role in mediating cardiac pathogenic responses.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
9.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(8): 880-896, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426676

RESUMO

Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells. Here we report the reprogramming of mouse tail-tip fibroblasts simultaneously into cells resembling these three cell types using the microRNA mimic miR-208b-3p, ascorbic acid and bone morphogenetic protein 4, as well as the formation of tissue-like structures formed by the directly reprogrammed cells. Implantation of the formed cardiovascular tissue into the infarcted hearts of mice led to the migration of reprogrammed cells to the injured tissue, reducing regional cardiac strain and improving cardiac function. The migrated endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells contributed to vessel formation, and the migrated cardiomyocytes, which initially displayed immature characteristics, became mature over time and formed gap junctions with host cardiomyocytes. Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to make cardiac tissue may aid the development of applications in cell therapy, disease modelling and drug discovery for cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/transplante , Coração/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/transplante , Regeneração , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/farmacologia , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Transcriptoma
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361060

RESUMO

Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates various transcriptional and chromatin regulators, thus modulating numerous important cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and oxidative stress. The role of HIPK2 in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis is well established, and evidence of its involvement in the homeostasis of multiple organs has been recently emerging. We have previously demonstrated that Hipk2-null (Hipk2-KO) mice present cerebellar alterations associated with psychomotor abnormalities and that the double ablation of HIPK2 and its interactor HMGA1 causes perinatal death due to respiratory failure. To identify other alterations caused by the loss of HIPK2, we performed a systematic morphological analysis of Hipk2-KO mice. Post-mortem examinations and histological analysis revealed that Hipk2 ablation causes neuronal loss, neuronal morphological alterations, and satellitosis throughout the whole central nervous system (CNS); a myopathic phenotype characterized by variable fiber size, mitochondrial proliferation, sarcoplasmic inclusions, morphological alterations at neuromuscular junctions; and a cardiac phenotype characterized by fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These data demonstrate the importance of HIPK2 in the physiology of skeletal and cardiac muscles and of different parts of the CNS, thus suggesting its potential relevance for different new aspects of human pathology.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Proteínas HMGA/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação
11.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7984-7994, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335975

RESUMO

Rationale: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) triggers a systemic inflammatory response including crosstalk along the heart-kidney axis. We employed radionuclide-based inflammation-targeted whole-body molecular imaging to identify potential cardio-renal crosstalk after MI in a translational setup. Methods: Serial whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) with the specific CXCR4 ligand 68Ga-Pentixafor was performed after MI in mice. Tracer retention in kidneys and heart was compared to hematopoietic organs to evaluate systemic inflammation, validated by ex vivo analysis and correlated with progressive contractile dysfunction. Additionally, 96 patients underwent 68Ga-Pentixafor PET within the first week after MI, for systems-based image analysis and to determine prognostic value for adverse renal outcome. Results: In mice, transient myocardial CXCR4 upregulation occurred early after MI. Cardiac and renal PET signal directly correlated over the time course (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), suggesting an inflammatory link between organs. Ex-vivo autoradiography (r = 0.9, p < 0.01) and CD68 immunostaining indicated signal localization to inflammatory cell content. Renal signal at 7d was inversely proportional to left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 weeks after MI (r = -0.79, p < 0.01). In patients, renal CXCR4 signal also correlated with signal from infarct (r = 0.25, p < 0.05) and remote myocardium (r = 0.39, p < 0.0001). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was available in 48/96 (50%) during follow-up. Worsening of renal function (GFR loss >5 mL/min/1.73m2), occurred a mean 80.5 days after MI in 16/48 (33.3%). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed adverse renal outcome for patients with elevated remote myocardial CXCR4 signal (p < 0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis confirmed an independent predictive value (relative to baseline GFR, LVEF, infarct size; HR, 5.27). Conclusion: Systems-based CXCR4-targeted molecular imaging identifies inflammatory crosstalk along the cardio-renal axis early after MI.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos
12.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7948-7969, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335973

RESUMO

Heart disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Because death of the myocardium is irreversible, it remains a significant clinical challenge to rescue myocardial deficiency. Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is a promising strategy for repairing heart defects and offers platforms for studying cardiac tissue. Numerous achievements have been made in CTE in the past decades based on various advanced engineering approaches. 3D bioprinting has attracted much attention due to its ability to integrate multiple cells within printed scaffolds with complex 3D structures, and many advancements in bioprinted CTE have been reported recently. Herein, we review the recent progress in 3D bioprinting for CTE. After a brief overview of CTE with conventional methods, the current 3D printing strategies are discussed. Bioink formulations based on various biomaterials are introduced, and strategies utilizing composite bioinks are further discussed. Moreover, several applications including heart patches, tissue-engineered cardiac muscle, and other bionic structures created via 3D bioprinting are summarized. Finally, we discuss several crucial challenges and present our perspective on 3D bioprinting techniques in the field of CTE.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Biônica/métodos , Bioimpressão/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Coração/fisiologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional/tendências , Tecidos Suporte/química
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 347: 109617, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of Dapagliflozin (Dapa) cardioprotection against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Structural and functional changes in the heart as well as decrease of erythropoietin (EPO) levels were reported in DCM. EPO simultaneously activates three pathways: the Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK2/STAT5), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt), and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK/MAPK) cascades, that result in proliferation and differentiation of cardiac cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: DCM was induced by a high fat diet for 10 weeks followed by administration of streptozotocin. After confirmation of diabetes, rats were divided randomly to 5 groups: Group 1; normal control group, Group 2; untreated diabetic group and Groups (3-5); diabetic groups received Dapa daily (0.75 mg, 1.5 or 3 mg/Kg, p.o) respectively for a month. At the end of the experiment, full anaesthesia was induced in all rats using ether inhalation and ECG was recorded. Blood samples were collected then rats were sacrificed and their heart were dissected out and processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Untreated diabetic rats showed abnormal ECG pattern, elevation of serum cardiac enzymes, decrease EPO levels, downregulation of P-Akt, P-JAK2 and pMAPK pathways, abnormal histological structure of the heart and increase immunostaining intensity of P53 and TNF α in the cardiomyocytes. Dapa in a dose dependent manner attenuated the alterations in the previously mentioned parameters. CONCLUSION: The cardioprotective effect of Dapa could be mediated by increasing EPO levels and activation of P-Akt, P-JAK2 and pMAPK signalling cascades which in turn decrease apoptosis.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoetina/sangue , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
14.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444734

RESUMO

Seeds of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) contain a large amount of protein (26.3%), dietary fiber (27.5%), and fatty acids (33.2%), including linoleic, α-linolenic, and some amount of γ-linolenic acid. In our study, obese male Zucker rats (n = 6) at 8 weeks of age were supplemented for a further 4 weeks with either ground hemp seeds (12% diet) or lipid fractions in the form of hemp seed oil (4% diet). Hemp oil decreased blood plasma HDL-cholesterol (x0.76, p ≤ 0.0001), triglycerides (x0.55, p = 0.01), and calculated atherogenic parameters. Meanwhile, hemp seeds decreased HDL-cholesterol (x0.71, p ≤ 0.0001) and total cholesterol (x0.81, p = 0.006) but not the atherogenic index. The plasma antioxidant capacity of water-soluble compounds was decreased by the seeds (x0.30, p = 0.0015), which in turn was associated with a decrease in plasma uric acid (x0.18, p = 0.03). Dietary hemp seeds also decreased plasma urea (x0.80, p = 0.02), while the oil decreased the plasma total protein (x0.90, p = 0.05). Hemp seeds and the oil decreased lipid peroxidation in the blood plasma and in the heart (reflected as malondialdehyde content), improved contraction to noradrenaline, and up-regulated the sensitivity of potassium channels dependent on ATP and Ca2+. Meanwhile, acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was improved by hemp seeds exclusively. Dietary supplementation with ground hemp seeds was much more beneficial than the oil, which suggests that the lipid fractions are only partially responsible for this effect.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes , Animais , Antioxidantes , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Tromboxano A2/análise , Vasoconstrição , Vasodilatação
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360761

RESUMO

Regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK) plays a crucial role in modulating biological function. However, the role of PRAK in mediating cardiac dysfunction and metabolic disorders remains unclear. We examined the effects of deletion of PRAK on modulating cardiac function and insulin resistance in mice exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD). Wild-type and PRAK-/- mice at 8 weeks old were exposed to either chow food or HFD for a consecutive 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests were employed to assess insulin resistance. Echocardiography was employed to assess myocardial function. Western blot was used to determine the molecular signaling involved in phosphorylation of IRS-1, AMPKα, ERK-44/42, and irisin. Real time-PCR was used to assess the hypertrophic genes of the myocardium. Histological analysis was employed to assess the hypertrophic response, interstitial myocardial fibrosis, and apoptosis in the heart. Western blot was employed to determine cellular signaling pathway. HFD-induced metabolic stress is indicated by glucose intolerance and insulin intolerance. PRAK knockout aggravated insulin resistance, as indicated by glucose intolerance and insulin intolerance testing as compared with wild-type littermates. As compared with wild-type mice, hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were manifested in PRAK-knockout mice following high-fat diet intervention. High-fat diet intervention displayed a decline in fractional shortening and ejection fraction. However, deletion of PRAK exacerbated the decline in cardiac function as compared with wild-type mice following HFD treatment. In addition, PRAK knockout mice enhanced the expression of myocardial hypertrophic genes including ANP, BNP, and ßMHC in HFD treatment, which was also associated with an increase in cardiomyocyte size and interstitial fibrosis. Western blot indicated that deletion of PRAK induces decreases in phosphorylation of IRS-1, AMPKα, and ERK44/42 as compared with wild-type controls. Our finding indicates that deletion of PRAK promoted myocardial dysfunction, cardiac remodeling, and metabolic disorders in response to HFD.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/enzimologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/genética , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Volume Sistólico , Remodelação Ventricular
16.
Life Sci ; 283: 119857, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339715

RESUMO

AIM: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) accomodates a spectrum of cardiac abnormalities. This study aims to investigate whether DCM is associated with changes in cyclic adenosine 3'-5' monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, particularly cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). MAIN METHODS: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg) injection. Myocardial remodeling, structure and function were evaluated by histology and echocardiography, respectively. We delineated the sequential changes affecting cAMP signaling and characterized the expression pattern of the predominant cardiac PDE isoforms (PDE 1-5) and ß-adrenergic (ß-AR) receptors at 4, 8 and 12 weeks following diabetes induction, by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. cAMP levels were measured by immunoassays. KEY FINDINGS: T1D-induced DCM was associated with cardiac remodeling, steatosis and fibrosis. Upregulation of ß1-AR receptor transcripts was noted in diabetic hearts at 4 weeks along with an increase in cAMP levels and an upregulation in the ejection fraction and fraction shortening. However, ß2-AR receptors expression remained unchanged regardless of the disease stage. Moreover, we noted an early and specific upregulation of cardiac PDE1A, PDE2A, PDE4B, PDE4D and PDE5A expression at week 4, followed by increases in PDE3A levels in diabetic hearts at week 8. However, DCM was not associated with changes in PDE4A gene expression irrespective of the disease stage. SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time differential and time-specific regulations in cardiac PDEs, data that may prove useful in proposing new therapeutic approaches in T1D-induced DCM.


Assuntos
3',5'-AMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371986

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. In order to safeguard the structure and the functionality of the myocardium, it is extremely important to adequately support the cardiomyocytes. Two cellular organelles of cardiomyocytes are essential for cell survival and to ensure proper functioning of the myocardium: mitochondria and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are responsible for the energy metabolism of the myocardium, and regulate the processes that can lead to cell death. The sarcoplasmic reticulum preserves the physiological concentration of the calcium ion, and triggers processes to protect the structural and functional integrity of the proteins. The alterations of these organelles can damage myocardial functioning. A proper nutritional balance regarding the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients leads to a significant improvement in the symptoms and consequences of heart disease. In particular, the Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of plant-based foods, small quantities of red meat, and high quantities of olive oil, reduces and improves the pathological condition of patients with heart failure. In addition, nutritional support and nutraceutical supplementation in patients who develop heart failure can contribute to the protection of the failing myocardium. Since polyphenols have numerous beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this review gathers what is known about the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich bergamot fruit on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the role of bergamot polyphenols in mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic dysfunctions in diabetic cardiomyopathy is reported.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia
18.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359878

RESUMO

Objective: Inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) are the primarily chosen drugs to treat heart failure and hypertension. Moreover, an imbalance in tissue ACE/ACE2 activity is implicated in COVID-19. In the present study, we tested the relationships between circulating and tissue (lung and heart) ACE levels in men. Methods: Serum, lung (n = 91) and heart (n = 72) tissue samples were collected from Caucasian patients undergoing lung surgery or heart transplantation. ACE I/D genotype, ACE concentration and ACE activity were determined from serum and tissue samples. Clinical parameters were also recorded. Results: A protocol for ACE extraction was developed for tissue ACE measurements. Extraction of tissue-localized ACE was optimal in a 0.3% Triton-X-100 containing buffer, resulting in 260 ± 12% higher ACE activity over detergent-free conditions. SDS or higher Triton-X-100 concentrations inhibited the ACE activity. Serum ACE concentration correlated with ACE I/D genotype (II: 166 ± 143 ng/mL, n = 19, ID: 198 ± 113 ng/mL, n = 44 and DD: 258 ± 109 ng/mL, n = 28, p < 0.05) as expected. In contrast, ACE expression levels in the lung tissue were approximately the same irrespective of the ACE I/D genotype (II: 1423 ± 1276 ng/mg, ID: 1040 ± 712 ng/mg and DD: 930 ± 1273 ng/mg, p > 0.05) in the same patients (values are in median ± IQR). Moreover, no correlations were found between circulating and lung tissue ACE concentrations and activities (Spearman's p > 0.05). In contrast, a significant correlation was identified between ACE activities in serum and heart tissues (Spearman's Rho = 0.32, p < 0.01). Finally, ACE activities in lung and the serum were endogenously inhibited to similar degrees (i.e., to 69 ± 1% and 53 ± 2%, respectively). Conclusion: Our data suggest that circulating ACE activity correlates with left ventricular ACE, but not with lung ACE in human. More specifically, ACE activity is tightly coordinated by genotype-dependent expression, endogenous inhibition and secretion mechanisms.


Assuntos
Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/análise , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360742

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are emerging as a new treatment strategy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and-depending on the wistfully awaited results of two clinical trials (DELIVER and EMPEROR-Preserved)-may be the first drug class to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients suffering from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Proposed mechanisms of action of this class of drugs are diverse and include metabolic and hemodynamic effects as well as effects on inflammation, neurohumoral activation, and intracellular ion homeostasis. In this review we focus on the growing body of evidence for SGLT2i-mediated effects on cardiac intracellular Na+ as an upstream mechanism. Therefore, we will first give a short overview of physiological cardiomyocyte Na+ handling and its deterioration in heart failure. On this basis we discuss the salutary effects of SGLT2i on Na+ homeostasis by influencing NHE1 activity, late INa as well as CaMKII activity. Finally, we highlight the potential relevance of these effects for systolic and diastolic dysfunction as well as arrhythmogenesis.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Humanos , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360749

RESUMO

Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) is a convergence point of multiple signalling pathways, including necroptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress; however, it is completely unknown whether it underlies acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion exhibited compromised cardiac function which was not abrogated by pharmacological intervention of RIP3 inhibition. An immunoblotting analysis revealed that the detrimental effects of I/R were unlikely mediated by necroptotic cell death, since neither the canonical RIP3-MLKL pathway (mixed lineage kinase-like pseudokinase) nor the proposed non-canonical molecular axes involving CaMKIIδ-mPTP (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ-mitochondrial permeability transition pore), PGAM5-Drp1 (phosphoglycerate mutase 5-dynamin-related protein 1) and JNK-BNIP3 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase-BCL2-interacting protein 3) were activated. Similarly, we found no evidence of the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome signalling (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) in such injury. RIP3 inhibition prevented the plasma membrane rupture and delayed mPTP opening which was associated with the modulation of xanthin oxidase (XO) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Taken together, this is the first study indicating that RIP3 regulates early reperfusion injury via oxidative stress- and mitochondrial activity-related effects, rather than cell loss due to necroptosis.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Necroptose , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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