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1.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(10): 724-726, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619941

RESUMO

The prevalence of myopia in China is increasing. The early onset and rapid progression of myopia in younger children have attracted more attention. The establishment of standardized children's refractive development records is the basis of myopic prevention and control. It would be helpful to follow the refractive status and pay more attention to the refractive development of potential myopic children, so as to reduce the prevalence of myopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 724-726).


Assuntos
Miopia , Testes Visuais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
2.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(10): 749-756, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619945

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the longitudinal epidemiological characteristics of myopia in primary school students from grade one to grade three in Hubei province, and to analyze the main factors affecting the occurrence and development of myopia, so as to provide the direction and theoretical basis for the prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents. Methods: Longitudinal study. A total of 13, 244 primary school students from grade one to grade three in 17 prefectures and forest districts of Hubei province were included in the study by means of random stratified cluster sampling. Among them, there were 7, 331 boys and 5, 913 girls with an age of (7.7±1.0) years. The same group of students were followed up for two years from October 2017 to October 2019 to complete three data collections. All included subjects underwent visual acuity examination, which required further automatic computer optometry after using cyclopentolate hydrochloride eye drops if the visual acuity was less than 1.0. In the questionnaire, the general situation and eye behavior of the included subjects were collected. The Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of myopia among different genders,different reproductive history and grades. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare the difference in the mean spherical equivalent refraction, and logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of myopia. Results: The prevalence of myopia was 23.10% at baseline in 2017, 28.67% after one year's follow-up and 33.26% after two years' follow-up among primary school students in grade one to grade three in Hubei province. The overall prevalence of myopia increased with time (χ²=307.47, P<0.05). It also increased with the increase of grades. After two years of follow-up, the myopia rate of students in grades one through three was 25.62%, 35.07% and 41.05%, respectively (χ²=200.98, P<0.05). In 2017, the prevalence of myopia was 21.62% in boys and 24.93% in girls, and it increased to 31.20% and 35.69% after 2 years of follow-up, respectively. Both the prevalence of myopia and the spherical equivalent refraction were higher in girls than in boys. Moreover, myopia was associated with parents' myopia (OR=1.17), less time for outdoor activities (OR=1.06), no rest after half an hour's study (OR=1.18), more time for daily exposure to electronic products (OR=1.07), longer time for extracurricular study (OR=1.09), and higher grades (OR=1.78). Children whose parents were more myopic and who ate sweets and fizzy drinks more often had greater levels of myopia. Conclusions: Myopia occurs early in primary school students of grade one to grade three in Hubei province and increases rapidly. More attention should be paid to good habits for eyes, regular screening, outdoor activities and girls. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 749-756).


Assuntos
Miopia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
3.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(10): 757-765, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619946

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among people aged 50 years and above in Funing county, Jiangsu province. Methods: Randomly cluster sampling was used in selecting individuals aged ≥50 years in 82 clusters from Funing County Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Uncorrected refractive error was defined as an improvement of at least 2 lines in best corrected visual acuity compared with presenting visual acuity in the better eye. The mean±standard deviation was used to describe the continuous data, and the rate or composition ratio was used to represent the classified data. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in different ages, genders, educational levels, durations of diabetes and levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05. Results: A total of 2 067 persons were enumerated, and 1910 (92.4%) participants were in the statistical analyses. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error was 25.63%. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error for myopia only, hyperopia only, astigmatism only, myopia with astigmatism and hyperopia with astigmatism was 72.55% (37/51), 46.77% (58/124), 17.81% (13/73), 63.95% (94/147) and 51.98% (100/194), respectively. The results showed that the older age, level of glycosylated hemoglobin, myopia and lens state were the independent influencing factors of uncorrected refractive error. The odds ratio (OR) for people aged 70 to<80 years and ≥80 years was 1.81 and 1.90, respectively, with statistical significance compared to people younger than 60 years. Compared with the level of glycosylated hemoglobin less than 5.6%, the OR with glycosylated hemoglobin from7.1% to 8.0% and more than 10% was 1.84 (P<0.05) and 1.82 (P<0.05), respectively. The OR of myopia, low myopia, moderate myopia and high myopia was 2.98 (P<0.01), 6.94 (P<0.01), 42.43 (P<0.01) and 77.85 (P<0.01), respectively. The OR of opacity of the eye lens was 7.60 (P<0.01). Conclusions: Uncorrected refractive error is one of the important causes of visual impairment in diabetic patients aged 50 and above in Funing county, Jiangsu province; the important influencing factors were age, glycosylated hemoglobin concentration, myopia and lens status. Relevant health departments should popularize the eye health for diabetic patients and conduct regular optometry and fundus examination. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 757-765).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual
4.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 366, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving an appropriate vault is the main concern after the implantation of Implantable Collamer Lens (ICLs) for surgical correction of high myopia. The vault will vary with time and optical parameters, such as accommodation and pupil size. This research is to evaluate the vault change in Myopic and Toric ICLs under different lighting conditions; and to analyze the relationship between vault changes and pupillary responses to light. METHODS: We enrolled and analyzed 68 eyes from 68 patients who were implanted with Myopic EVO ICLs; we also included 60 eyes from 60 patients who were implanted with Toric EVO ICLs. The anterior chamber depth, pupil size and the post-operative vault were evaluated, 1 week after the operation, using a Visante Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) under different lighting conditions. For each eye that was assessed, we calculated the vault change, which is defined as the difference between vault under mesopic condition and photopic condition; and the rate of vault change, which is defined as the vault change divided by mesopic vault. RESULTS: No significant difference was noted with the anterior chamber depth between mesopic and photopic conditions in either group. A significant decrease in vault and pupil size was detected under photopic condition in both groups. We found no difference in vault change between Myopic and Toric EVO ICLs under different lighting conditions. Moreover, the rate of vault change had a significant decrease with increased mesopic vault (baseline value). CONCLUSIONS: Too low a mesopic vault has a big rate of vault change, which may cause the contact of ICL with crystalline lens in photopic state; Too high a mesopic vault would constrict the posterior movement of pupil. The findings of the study suggest that, for patients with high or low vault, we should be more careful and must perform checks in different lighting conditions.


Assuntos
Cristalino , Miopia , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas , Acomodação Ocular , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Miopia/cirurgia
5.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(5): 735-741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633945

RESUMO

This study assessed the causes of visual impairment over a decade in Buenos Aires City. This is a retrospective case series where we reviewed the database of visual disability certificates issued by the Buenos Aires City Ministry of Health between 2009 and 2017. In Argentina, visual disability is defined as a visual acuity = 20/200 in the better eye, or a corresponding visual field of less than 20 degrees in the less impaired eye. The database included the following variables: year of issue, age, gender, and cause of visual disability. Between 2009 and 2017 a total of 7656 subjects were certified as legally blind. The mean age of the sample was 57 ± 21 years and 52.1% were females. The emission was near 700 certificates per year. The age distribution showed that 62.8% of certificates were from patients older than 50 years and that only 6.6% were given to subjects under 20. The leading causes of visual disability in Buenos Aires City were age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) with a rate of 15.5%, degenerative myopia (14.4%), primary open-angle glaucoma (11.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (6.6%). In subjects younger than 50, degenerative myopia was the first cause of visual disability. Interestingly in Argentina, where the prevalence of myopia is low, degenerative myopia is found to be the major cause of visual disability in middle-aged adult subjects. Population and clinical methods to avoid this preventable disease should need to be implemented as a matter of urgency.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Miopia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos da Visão
6.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 326, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly myopic eyes differ in morphology from emmetropic eyes, and the correct estimation of the vitreous volume is difficult. To explore an effective method to estimate ocular volume using refractive factors in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of children with high myopia who visited the Shenzhen Shekou People's Hospital (July-December 2018) before undergoing posterior scleral reinforcement surgery. Data on refractive factors and ocular 3D reconstruction imaging based on high-end CT were collected for linear correlation and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Ten patients (20 eyes) were included. There are nine males and one female. They were 4 to 12 years of age. The spherical equivalent ranges from + 0.25 to -20.00 D. The cylindrical equivalent ranges from - 0.50 to -6.25 D. The AL(axial length, AL) ranges from 21.78 to 33.90 mm. The corneal curvature (mean) ranges from 42.44 to 46.75. The 3D reconstruction of the CT images shows that the ocular volume ranges from 4.591 to 10.988 ml. The ocular volume of the 20 eyes decreases with the increase of diopter and total curvature, both presenting a linear trend, with the Pearson correlation coefficients being - 0.776 (P < 0.001) and - 0.633 (P = 0.003), respectively. The ocular volume of the 20 eyes increases with the increasing AL, also presenting a linear trend, with the Pearson correlation coefficient being 0.939 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In children, the ocular volume is negatively and linearly correlated with the diopter and curvature, and positively and linearly correlated with the AL.


Assuntos
Miopia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Olho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/cirurgia , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 318, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of myopia among children in Chengdu is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopia in 3- to 14-year-old Chinese children in Chengdu. METHODS: This study was a school-based cross-sectional study in children aged 3-14 years. Visual acuity (VA), spherical equivalent error (SER) with noncycloplegic autorefraction, axial length (AL) and corneal radius (CR) were measured. RESULTS: A total of 19,455 children were recruited for this study. The prevalence of myopia was 38.1 %; the prevalence of low myopia was 26.6 %, that of moderate myopia was 9.8 %, and that of high myopia was 1.7 %. The prevalence of myopia and SER increased with age from 6 years old. The prevalence of myopia was higher, and the SER indicated more severe myopia in the girls than in the boys (40.1 % vs. 36.2 %, χ2 = 30.67, df = 1, P < 0.001; -0.93 D ± 1.75 D vs. -0.84 D ± 1.74 D, t = 3.613, df=19,453, P < 0.001). The girls had a higher prevalence of myopia and myopic SER than did the boys aged 9 years and older (P < 0.05). Among the myopic children, the rates of uncorrected, undercorrected and fully corrected myopia were 54.8 %, 31.1 and 14.1 %, respectively. AL and AL/CR increased with age from 6 years old, but CR remained stable after 4 years old. The AL was longer, and the CR was flatter in the boys than in the girls aged 3 to 14 years old (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of myopia, AL and AL/CR increased, and the SER became more myopic with age from 6 years old. The girls had a higher prevalence of myopia and myopic SER than did the boys, but the boys had a longer AL, flatter CR and higher AL/CR ratio than did the girls. The rate of uncorrected myopia was very high in the myopic children. More actions need to be taken to decrease the prevalence of myopia, especially uncorrected myopia in children.


Assuntos
Miopia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
J Refract Surg ; 37(9): 609-615, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether intraoperative aberrometry improves the accuracy of refractive outcomes after cataract surgery in highly myopic, highly hyperopic, and post-refractive eyes. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective review compared the spherical equivalent of postoperative refraction to that predicted by the Barrett Universal II formula versus Optiwave Refractive Analysis (ORA) (Alcon Laboratories, Inc) for highly myopic and hyperopic eyes and to the Barrett True K formula versus ORA for post-refractive eyes. The number and magnitude of lens changes were analyzed and used to determine in how many cases refractive surprises were affected by ORA, with additional subanalysis of outcomes based on average keratometry values. RESULTS: ORA led to a change in the lens power implanted in 48% (96 of 198) of eyes, and prevented hyperopic surprise in 27% (15 of 55) and excess myopia in 46% (19 of 41). Steeper keratometry values correlated with more frequent changes on ORA-recommended implanted intraocular lens (P = .0031). ORA led to a similar percentage of eyes falling within ±0.50, ±0.75, and ±1.00 diopters compared to the Barrett Universal II and Barrett True K formulas. In post-refractive eyes, ORA led to a similar mean absolute error when compared to the Barrett True K formula (P = .62). For highly myopic eyes with an axial length of greater than 27 mm, ORA demonstrated a trend toward lower mean absolute error when compared to the Barrett Universal II formula (P = .076). CONCLUSIONS: ORA demonstrated similar refractive results to the Barrett True K formula in post-refractive eyes and to the Barrett Universal II formula in highly myopic and hyper-opic eyes and may provide additional benefit for eyes with steeper corneas or an axial length of greater than 27 mm. [J Refract Surg. 2021;37(9):609-615.].


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Miopia , Facoemulsificação , Aberrometria , Biometria , Humanos , Miopia/cirurgia , Óptica e Fotônica , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Refract Surg ; 37(9): 636-641, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506239

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the vault size after Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) (KS-AquaPORT; STAAR Surgical) surgery using the KS formula. METHODS: In this prospective study, the postoperative vault was examined using the KS formula in 121 eyes of 65 patients (28 men and 37 women) who underwent ICL implantation for myopia and myopic astigmatism. The mean horizontal angle-to-angle (ATA), anterior chamber depth, and axial length before surgery were 11.83 ± 0.40, 3.25 ± 0.34, and 26.52 ± 1.17, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (CASIA2; Tomey Corporation) was used for ATA measurement. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis of the potential factors influencing the predicted vault error (postoperative vault - predicted vault by KS formula) showed that only ICL size was a significant factor (P < .001, r = 0.36). At an ICL size of 12.1 mm, the postoperative vault was smaller than the predicted vault, and the postoperative vault tended to be larger than the predicted vault at ICL sizes of 13.2 and 13.7 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Vault prediction by the KS formula was generally good, but the ICL size influenced the vault prediction error; therefore, a modified KS formula was created to reduce the error in measurements of the postoperative vault. [J Refract Surg. 2021;37(9):636-641.].


Assuntos
Miopia , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas , Feminino , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Masculino , Miopia/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Refract Surg ; 37(9): 590-594, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506241

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine patient preference and treatment outcomes with an intracanalicular dexamethasone 0.4 mg insert compared to a standard steroid drop regimen in the contralateral eye following bilateral photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: In this randomized, prospective, self-controlled, open-label interventional study, one eye received the dexamethasone insert and the second eye received prednisolone acetate 1% taper following bilateral PRK surgery. Postoperative evaluations were performed on day 3, day 4, month 1, and month 3. Phone call surveys were performed on week 2. The Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability questionnaire was used to determine patient preference between postoperative regimens and postoperative pain. Corneal endpoints included time to epithelialization, presence of corneal haze, sodium fluorescein staining, and modified Standardized Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) scores. Both corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty patients participated in the study. At month 3, 70% of patients preferred the dexamethasone insert, 20% preferred prednisolone acetate, and 10% expressed no preference. Patient surveys did not show a difference in postoperative pain between the study group and control group. No statistical difference was shown in time to epithelialization, 90-day CDVA or UDVA, postoperative corneal haze, corneal staining, or modified SPEED scores. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing PRK, there was preference toward a dexamethasone insert in place of topical prednisolone acetate for the postoperative steroid treatment. There were no statistically or clinically significant differences between the two cohorts in regard to healing time or visual outcomes. [J Refract Surg. 2021;37(9):590-594.].


Assuntos
Miopia , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa , Humanos , Inflamação , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(9): 1126-1128, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500538

RESUMO

The study objective was to assess the correlation of time outdoors in sunlight hours with spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and other variables. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, between January and April 2019. A total of 110 Individuals were included via convenient sampling, with myopia defined as having at least -0.5 D (SER ≤ -0.5 D). Collection of Questionnaires with interviews regarding eye care behaviour along with auto-refraction was done, followed by calculation of spherical equivalent refraction. Those having high myopia of 6 D or more (SER ≤ - 6 D), hyperopia of 0.5 D or more (SER ≥ +0.5 D), and history significant for ocular trauma and surgeries, were excluded. After data cleaning and their entry, analyses were done using SPSS version 26. The mean age data, available for 105 individuals, was 15.4 ± 3.69 years. Spearman's correlation was used for right SER with time outdoors in summers (r= +0.25, p=0.008) and winters (r= +0.243, p=0.010), indicating an inverse relationship with myopia. Females had more myopic refraction than males, but the independent sample t-test was not significant. Logistic regression was used and a protective effect was found for both summer and winter time outdoors, while education level was associated with myopia. Key Words: Myopia, Spherical equivalent refraction (SER), Sunlight exposure.


Assuntos
Miopia , Luz Solar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais
12.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484707

RESUMO

Background: Around the globe, various self-quarantine, social distancing, and school-closure policies were implemented during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak to reduce disease transmission. Many economies/territories were compelled to consider digital learning modalities. In particular, increased digital learning engagement with digital devices and mounting psychosocial stress due to social isolation are likely to pose adverse risks for youth visual health globally. This study examines the association between increased digital device use, psychosocial stress, and myopia symptoms among Chinese youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is a retrospective observational population study consisting of 3918 participants enrolled in primary, secondary, and university in China. Participants are recruited through an online survey, which included self-reported information on daily digital device use, psychosocial stress level, condition of visual acuity, and demographic information. We utilize statistical tools including χ2 test, paired sample t test, and multiple multivariate logistic regression. Results: Each hour increase in digital device use is associated with 1.25 odds ratio OR (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-1.30; P < 0.001) increased risk of developing myopic symptoms, each additional hour of digital device use weighted by near-view and blue-light exposure is associated with OR = 1.04 OR (95% CI = 1.03-1.05; P < 0.001) and OR = 2.25 (95% CI = 1.94-2.60; P < 0.001) increased risk respectively. Subjects reporting under stressful conditions are between OR = 1.98 (95% CI = 1.67-2.36; P < 0.001) and OR = 2.03 (95% CI = 1.71-2.42; P < 0.001) more likely to develop myopic symptoms, relative to those citing less stress. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to favorable conditions for myopigenic behavioral changes characterized by extended sedentary engagement with digital devices, which are significantly associated with higher risks of myopia incidence. Relatedly, psychosocial stress accompanying prolonged social isolation during the pandemic is a less noticeable, albeit significant risk factor for myopia development.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Pandemias , Isolamento Social , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , China , Humanos , Miopia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Rev Prat ; 71(5): 471-475, 2021 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553522

RESUMO

Myopia boom: how to slow the progress? Myopia is an optical defect linked to an excessive elongation of the eyeball resulting in a blurred vision from afar. The last few years have seen an emergence of this phenomenon, which although partly genetic, mainly presents environmental risk factors such as low exposure to sunlight or prolonged near reading. Current generations are more myopic than prior generations and are so at a younger age. Detected early, myopia control management can help slow its progression in children and ensure a better quality of life. Why is myopia soaring? How to slow its progression in our children? Several optical methods are now possible and it is essential to properly inform parents about these too little known possibilities.


Assuntos
Miopia , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/terapia , Pais
14.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 345, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationships between motor fusion and sex, age and spherical equivalent (SE). METHODS: This observational study enrolled 243 healthy, nonstrabismic adults, including 94 men and 149 women aged 20 to 59 years. The subjects were divided into three groups according to SE: myopic, emmetropic and hyperopic groups. The subjects were also divided into four groups according to age: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years groups. Motor fusion was measured with a synoptophore, including subjective angle (SA), divergence, convergence and fusional vergence range (FVR). RESULTS: The mean values of divergence, convergence and FVR for the whole sample group were 9.72 ± 0.26°, 19.34 ± 0.54°, and 29.06 ± 0.62°, respectively. A higher value of divergence was found in the myopic group than in the emmetropic group (p < 0.05). SE and divergence were significantly different among age groups (all p < 0.05). In addition, linear regression analysis showed that SE was correlated with divergence (p = 0.003). Age was correlated with SE, divergence and FVR (p < 0.001, p = 0.005, p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the proportion of SA being in the comfort zone (defined as the value of SA satisfying Percival's criterion) in the age groups was significantly different (χ2 = 8.283, p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Motor fusion is associated with age and SE in the normal Chinese adult population.


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(11): 4, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473223

RESUMO

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required a shift to electronic devices for education and entertainment, with children more confined to home, which may affect eye growth and myopia. Our goal was to assess behaviors during COVID-19 in myopic and non-myopic children. Methods: Parents completed a questionnaire for their children (ages 8.3 ± 2.4 years, n = 53) regarding visual activity in summer 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as during school time and the summer before COVID-19. Children also wore an Actiwatch for 10 days in summer 2020 for objective measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Subjective measures showed that during COVID-19, children exhibited increased electronic device use and decreased activity and time outdoors (P < 0.05 for all), while time spent doing near work was not different than during a typical school or summer session before COVID-19 (P > 0.05). Objective measures during COVID-19 showed that myopic children exhibited lower daily light exposure (P = 0.04) and less activity (P = 0.04) than non-myopic children. Conclusions: Children demonstrated increased electronic device use and decreased activity and time outdoors during COVID-19, with myopic children exhibiting lower light exposure and activity than non-myopes. Long-term follow-up is needed to understand if these behavioral changes ultimately contribute to myopia progression. Translational Relevance: Children's behaviors changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may have implications in eye growth and myopia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Objetivos , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused many children to stay indoors. Increased near work and insufficient outdoor activities are considered important risk factors for myopic progression. This study aimed to compare the changes in myopic progression before and after COVID-19 in children treated with low-concentration atropine. METHODS: The records of 103 eyes of 103 children who were treated with low-concentration atropine eye drops were retrospectively reviewed. We classified children according to the concentration of atropine eye drops and children's age. The beginning of the pre-COVID-19 period was set from January 2019 to May 2019, and the endpoint was set in March 2020. The beginning of the post-COVID-19 period was set in March 2020, and the endpoint was set from January 2021 to March 2021. We evaluated the questionnaires administered to children's parents. RESULTS: A significant myopic progression was observed in the post-COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period in the 0.05% and 0.025% atropine groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020, respectively). For children aged 5 to 7 and 8 to 10 years, the axial elongations were significantly faster in the post-COVID-19 period than in the pre-COVID-19 period (P = 0.022 and P = 0.005, respectively). However, the rates of axial elongation and myopic progression were not significantly different between pre- and post-COVID-19 in children aged 11 to 15 years (P = 0.065 and P = 0.792, respectively). The average time spent using computers and smartphones and reading time were significantly increased, and the times of physical and outdoor activity were significantly decreased in the post-COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of myopic progression have increased substantially after the spread of COVID-19 with an increase in the home confinement of children. Therefore, it is necessary to control the environmental risk factors for myopia, even in children undergoing treatment for the inhibition of myopic progression.


Assuntos
Atropina/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Miopia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Atropina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Computadores , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas , Pandemias , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Smartphone
17.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 299, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence of myopia in school students in Urumqi, China, and explore the influence of the interaction between parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits on myopia to identify the at-risk population and provide evidence to help school students avoid developing myopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 6,883 school students aged 7-20 years in Urumqi in December 2019. The Standard Eye Chart and mydriatic optometry were used to determine whether students had myopia. Falconer's method was used to calculate the heritability of parental myopia. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors for myopia and the additive and multiplicative interaction of parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits. RESULTS: After standardizing the age of the 6,883 students, the overall prevalence rate of myopia was 47.50 %. The heritability of parental myopia was 66.57 % for boys, 67.82 % for girls, 65.02 % for the Han group, and 52.71 % for other ethnicities. There were additive interactions between parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits; among them, parental myopia and poor eye habits when reading and writing (the distance between the eyes and book is less than 30 cm when reading and writing, fingers block the sight of one eye while holding the pen, and leaning one's body when reading and writing; habit 1) increased the risk of myopia by 10.99 times (odds ratio [OR] = 10.99, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 8.33-14.68), parental myopia and poor reading posture (reading while lying down, walking, or in the car; habit 2) increased the risk of myopia by 5.92 times (OR = 5.92, 95 % CI = 4.84-7.27). There was no multiplicative interaction between parental myopia and habit 1 or habit 2 (OR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.44-1.08; OR = 0.89, 95 % CI = 0.66-1.21, respectively). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia among students in Urumqi, Xinjiang is relatively high. The risk of developing myopia is affected by parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits. In addition, parental myopia amplifies the harm caused by poor reading and writing habits, thereby increasing the risk of myopia. Students with parents who have myopia should be targeted during myopia prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Miopia , Leitura , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Pais , Postura , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Redação
18.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 292, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the correction effect and optical quality after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) for high myopia. METHODS: 51 high myopia eyes after SMILE and 49 high myopia eyes after FS-LASIK were enrolled and divided into two groups retrospectively. The OQAS and iTrace analyzer were used for optical quality inspection. Between the two groups the spherical equivalent (SE), astigmatism, uncorrected distant visual acuity (UDVA), strehl ratio (SR), modulation transfer function cutoff frequency (MTF cutoff), objective scatter index (OSI) and wavefront aberrations were analyzed and compared before surgery and at 1, 6 and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: After the operation: (1) SE and astigmatism declined and UDVA increased significantly in both groups, and UDVA was better after SMILE than FS-LASIK. (2) SR and MTF cutoff reduced and OSI increased significantly after SMILE and FS-LASIK. SR and MTF cutoff were significantly higher after SMILE than FS-LASIK. OSI was significantly lower after SMILE than FS-LASIK. (3) The total wavefront aberration, total low-order wavefront aberration, defocus and astigmatism aberration as well as trefoil aberration reduced significantly in both groups. The total high-order wavefront aberration increased significantly after FS-LASIK. The spherical and coma aberration increased significantly in both groups. The total high-order wavefront aberration and coma aberration at 1 month were higher after FS-LASIK than SMILE. CONCLUSION: The optical quality descended after SMILE and FS-LASIK. SMILE was superior to FS-LASIK at the correction effect and optical quality for high myopia. The combination of OQAS and iTrace analyzer is a valuable complementary measurement in evaluating the optical quality after the refractive surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This is a retrospective study. This research was approved by the ethics committee of Xiangya Hospital and the IRB approval number is 201612074.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Miopia , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Substância Própria , Humanos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(8): 614-617, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344123

RESUMO

Nowadays, myopia morbidity keeps increasing in China. As the improvements of technique and safety in corneal refractive surgeries, an increasing number of patients with refractive error tend to choose these treatments. The 26-year-old woman with myopia in this case, whose UCVA was 0.1 in OD and 0.2 in OS, had corneal macula in the nasal side of the left eye owing to a corneal trauma occurred more than 10 years ago. After sufficient preoperative examinations, FS-LASIK was performed on the right eye and PTK combined with PRK was performed on the left eye. The UCVA was 1.2 in both eyes 3 months postoperatively, and the corneal macula was mostly cleared in the left eye. It is demonstrated that PTK combined with PRK is an effective and safe way to correct the diopter as well as remove the lesions for the lowly or moderately myopic patients accompanied with superficial corneal opacity. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 614-617).


Assuntos
Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Miopia , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa , Adulto , China , Córnea , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers de Excimer , Miopia/cirurgia , Refração Ocular , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual
20.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(4): 110-115, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410065

RESUMO

The review highlights the features of molecular, morphological and anatomical organization of the vitreous body in normal human eyes and in eyes with elongated anterior-posterior axis. The molecular structure of the vitreous consists of various types of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. The lowest concentration of collagen fibrils is in the central vitreous, so the structural changes of vitreous gel associated with attenuation of the vitreous body happen there much earlier and to a greater degree. Increased aggregation of collagen fibrils with age casuses an increase of liquid fractions of the vitreous with a concomitant decrease in gel volume. Similar processes occur earlier in eyes with axial myopia. Destructive processes in myopia increase progressively with axial elongation. As a result of vitreous collapse, vitreoretinal adhesion weakens and posterior vitreous detachment occurs.


Assuntos
Miopia , Descolamento do Vítreo , Colágeno , Humanos , Corpo Vítreo , Descolamento do Vítreo/diagnóstico
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