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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270306, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112580

RESUMO

Obesity is a leading global health problem contributing to various chronic diseases, including type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether blueberries, yoghurt, and their respective bioactive components, Cyanidin-3-O-ß-glucoside (C3G) and peptides alone or in combinations, alter the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscles from diet-induced obese mice. In extensor digitorum longus (EDL), yoghurt up-regulated the expression of activation of 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and down-regulated the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR-1). The combination of blueberries and yoghurt down-regulated the mRNA expression of AGTR-1 and Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) in the EDL. Whereas the combination of C3G and peptides down-regulated AGTR-1 and up-regulated GLUT4 mRNA expression in the EDL. In the soleus, blueberries and yoghurt alone, and their combination down-regulated AGTR-1 and up-regulated GLUT4 mRNA expression. In summary blueberries and yoghurt, regulated multiple genes associated with glucose metabolism in skeletal muscles, and therefore may play a role in the management and prevention of T2DM.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Iogurte
2.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145234

RESUMO

Cholesterol-derived bile acids (BAs) affect numerous physiological functions such as glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and absorption, intestinal inflammation and immunity, as well as intestinal microbiota diversity. Diet influences the composition of the BA pool. In the present study, we analyzed the impact of a dietary supplementation with a freeze-dried blueberry powder (BBP) on the fecal BA pool composition. The diet of 11 men and 13 women at risk of metabolic syndrome was supplemented with 50 g/day of BBP for 8 weeks, and feces were harvested before (pre) and after (post) BBP consumption. BAs were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. No significant changes in total BAs were detected when comparing pre- vs. post-BBP consumption samples. However, post-BBP consumption samples exhibited significant accumulations of glycine-conjugated BAs (p = 0.04), glycochenodeoxycholic (p = 0.01), and glycoursodeoxycholic (p = 0.01) acids, as well as a significant reduction (p = 0.03) in the secondary BA levels compared with pre-BBP feces. In conclusion, the fecal bileacidome is significantly altered after the consumption of BBP for 8 weeks. While additional studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms and physiological implications of these changes, our data suggest that the consumption of blueberries can modulate toxic BA elimination.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Benzofenonas , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Ácidos Borônicos , Ácido Cólico , Fezes/química , Feminino , Glucose/análise , Glicina , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Pós
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(11): 331, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156157

RESUMO

Microbial metabolites in rhizosphere soil are important to plant growth. In this study, microbial diversity in blueberry plant rhizosphere soil was characterized using high-throughput amplicon sequencing technology. There were 11 bacterial phyla and three fungal phyla dominating in the soil. In addition, inorganic-phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (iPSB) in the rhizosphere soil were isolated and evaluated by molybdenum-antimony anti-coloration method. Their silicate solubilizing, auxin production, and nitrogen fixation capabilities were also determined. Eighteen iPSB in the rhizosphere soil strains were isolated and identified as Buttiauxella, Paraburkholderia and Pseudomonas. The higher phosphorus-solubilizing capacity and auxin production in blueberry rhizosphere belonged to genus Buttiauxella sp. The strains belong to genus Paraburkholderia had the same function of dissolving both phosphorus and producing auxin, as well as silicate and nitrogen fixation. The blueberry seeds incubated with the strains had higher germination rates. The results of this study could be helpful in developing the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) method for enhancing soil nutrients to blueberry plant.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Alphaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Antimônio/metabolismo , Bactérias , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Molibdênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 381: 109890, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095867

RESUMO

Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) is one of the five major healthy foods for humans and is recognized as the "king of the world fruit", which has attracted great interest in the phytogenic prebiotics market. Blueberry fruit is favored for its delicious taste and its various functional ingredients (organic acids, phenolics, minerals and vitamins) with multitherapeutic value (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective and vision improvement properties). However, fresh blueberries are highly perishable since they are vulnerable to mechanical damage and microbial decay, resulting in a short shelf life and inevitable subsequent economic losses. Due to the strong seasonal availability and limited storage period of blueberries, their derived bioactive products have emerged as functional foods. Novel food developments that are currently available include blueberry fruit juice, wine, vinegar, jam, dried fruit, pulp powder, colorant and flavoring additives used in cake, biscuit, bread, yogurt, and jelly. This review systematically describes the current status of blueberry fruit as bioactive ingredients and valuable food products with greater nutraceutical health potential of blueberries.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Ácido Acético , Antioxidantes , Frutas , Humanos , Pós , Vitaminas
5.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 150(1): 31-40, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that blueberry anthocyanin extract (BAE) could prevent diabetic retinopathy (DR) development, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still a mystery. METHODS: Human retinal pigment epithelium cell line ARPE-19 cells were exposed to high concentration glucose (H-Glu) with 25 mM for 24 h, and the cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) markers were determined by western blotting. Dual luciferase assay was applied to investigate the relationship between miR-182 and 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1). Furthermore, experiments in vivo were also performed to confirm the function of BAE in DR. RESULTS: The increase of apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and ERS in ARPE-19 cells induced by H-Glu was notably restored by BAE. Meanwhile, BAE greatly inhibited H-Glu-induced miR-182 expression in ARPE-19 cells, and OGG1 was identified to be one of the downstream target moleculars of miR-182. Furthermore, miR-182 overexpression or OGG1 knockdown restored the impact of BAE on H-Glu-treated APRE-19 cells. Even more important, BAE was further confirmed to alleviated the development of DR in diabetes rat models. CONCLUSIONS: BAE significantly inhibited the progression of DR via molecular regulation function between miR-182/OGG1 axis and ROS/ERS.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , DNA Glicosilases , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , MicroRNAs , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Apoptose , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012231

RESUMO

The healthy properties of berries are known; however, red fruits are very perishable, generating large losses in production and marketing. Nonetheless, these wastes can be revalued and used. The main objective of this study was the development of biodegradable pectin films with berry agro-industrial waste extracts to monitor salmon shelf-life. The obtained extracts from blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries wastes were evaluated in terms of flavonols, phenols and anthocyanins contents, and antioxidant capacity. Then, pectin films with the extracts of different berries were developed and characterized. The results showed that the blueberry extract film was thicker (0.248 mm), darker (L* = 61.42), and opaquer (17.71%), while the highest density (1.477 g/cm3) was shown by the raspberry films. The results also showed that blueberries were the best for further application due to their composition in bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, and color change at different pHs. The salmon samples wrapped in blueberry films showed lower values of pH and deterioration of fish during storage compared to the control and pectin samples. This study contributes to the valorization of berries agro-industrial waste by the development of eco-friendly films that can be used in the future as intelligent food packaging materials contributing to the extension of food shelf-life as a sustainable packaging alternative.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Rubus , Salmo salar , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Pectinas/análise
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012528

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental pathologies whose current treatment is neither curative nor effective. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring compounds abundant in blueberries and in other red fruits which have been shown to be successful in the treatment of several neurological diseases, at least in in vitro and in vivo disease models. The aim of the present work was to study the ability of an anthocyanin-rich extract (ARE) obtained from Portuguese blueberries to alleviate autism-like symptoms in a valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of ASD and to get insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of such benefits. Therefore, pregnant BALB/c females were treated subcutaneously with a single dose of VPA (500 mg/kg) or saline on gestational day 12.5. Male offspring mice were orally treated with the ARE from Portuguese blueberries (30 mg/kg/day) or the vehicle for three weeks, and further subjected to behavioral tests and biochemical analysis. Our data suggested that the ARE treatment alleviated autism-like behaviors in in utero VPA-exposed mice and, at the same time, decreased both neuroinflammation and gut inflammation, modulated the gut microbiota composition, increased serotonin levels in cerebral prefrontal cortex and gut, and reduced the synaptic dysfunction verified in autistic mice. Overall, our work suggests that anthocyanins extracted from Portuguese blueberries could constitute an effective strategy to ameliorate typical autistic behaviors through modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Autístico/tratamento farmacológico , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Portugal , Gravidez , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
8.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273845, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040983

RESUMO

Facility cultivation has been evolved from greenhouses to smart farms using artificial intelligence (AI) that simulates big data to maximize production. However, the big data for AI in smart farm is not studied well; the effect of differences among varieties within a crop remains unclear. Therefore, the response of two varieties of blueberry, 'Suziblue' and 'Star', to light was tested using SAPD meter in order to demonstrate the environmental responses could be different among varieties within the same species. The results showed that those two varieties had significant differences in SPAD values based on the leaf's position and time, whereas 'Star' did not. This indicates that the effect of light depends on the variety, which implies that other traits and other crops may show similar differences. These results are based on a simple experiment. However, it is enough to elucidate that it is extremely important to characterize responses to the environment not only for each crop but also for each variety to collect data for smart farming to increase accuracy for modeling; consequently, to maximize the efficiency of these facilities.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Agricultura/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Produtos Agrícolas , Fazendas
9.
J Food Sci ; 87(9): 3809-3821, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978552

RESUMO

Anthocyanins in processed fruit degrade significantly due to their heat and oxygen sensitivity and water solubility. Copigmentation for stabilizing anthocyanins is less effective for whole fruit due to anthocyanins' location within cell vacuoles surrounded by the epicarp layer as barrier to prevent copigment complexing with anthocyanins. This study investigated strategies for enhancing anthocyanin-phenolic copigmentation on blueberry surface, and integrated copigmentation with layer-by-layer (LBL) coating to retain anthocyanin stability in thermally processed blueberries. Results indicated that epicarp layer treatment of fruit by Tween 80 (T80) and CaCl2 is important for enhancing anthocyanin-phenolic copigmentation. The sequential copigmentation treatment using T80, ferulic acid, and CaCl2 (T80→FA→CaCl2 ) or T80, tannic acid, and CaCl2 (T80→TA→CaCl2 ) resulted in higher (p < 0.05) retention of total monomeric anthocyanin (3.18 mg/g and 3.38 mg/g, respectively) in thermally processed blueberries after 7-day ambient storage than that of untreated fruit (2.79 mg/g). Percent polymeric color (PPC) of blueberries treated by T80→FA→CaCl2 (15.5%) or T80→TA→CaCl2 (17.4%) was lower (p < 0.05) than that treated by TA alone (22.5%). The LBL coating enhanced microstructure stability for preserving anthocyanins in thermally processed blueberries. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of sequential copigmentation of blueberries after epicarp layer treatment followed by LBL coating for enhancing anthocyanin stability in processed whole fruit. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: When anthocyanin-rich fruit is thermally processed, anthocyanins degrade and leach to aqueous packing solution because of its heat sensitivity and water solubility. This study developed an innovative technology through implementing sequential treatments of copigmentation and water- and heat-resistant coating for preventing heat and water degradation of anthocyanins in whole fruit during processing in aqueous media. The developed technology can be practically applied to enhance the quality and health benefits of thermally processed anthocyanin-rich whole fruit. The technology can not only be utilized to improve existing fruit products, but also develop new and novel fruit products.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Filmes Comestíveis , Antocianinas/análise , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/análise , Frutas/química , Oxigênio/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polissorbatos , Taninos/análise , Água/análise
10.
J Oral Biosci ; 64(3): 359-365, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several clinical trials have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the efficacy of honey against stomatitis. However, it is unclear which types of honey are effective at preventing and/or treating stomatitis. This study aimed to evaluate the potencies of several types of honey in preventing and/or curing aphthous stomatitis in in vitro studies. METHODS: The following experiments were performed: H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and mucosal cell migration in a scratch assay using buccal mucosa squamous carcinoma (HO-1-N-1) cells and the cellular expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA encoding an enzyme involved in protection against oxidative stress by real-time RT-PCR analysis, and liquid-liquid extraction and UHPLC analysis in order to examine the active components of honey. RESULTS: Of the 13 types of honey used, Canadian blueberry honey exhibited the protective effect on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and enhanced cell migration. In addition, blueberry honey increased the expression of HO-1 mRNA with and without cotreatment with H2O2. With regard to active components of blueberry honey, the water-soluble components with a mass of >10 kDa showed a cytoprotective effect, but they have not been identified. CONCLUSION: Canadian blueberry honey, but not the other types of honey, prevents H2O2-induced oxidation of cells, probably through activation of the antioxidant and cytoprotective enzyme HO-1. Blueberry honey also enhanced cell migration, which may be relevant to wound healing. The results of this study suggest the possibility of prophylactic and therapeutic effects of Canadian blueberry honey on human stomatitis that could complement existing treatments.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Mel , Estomatite , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/genética , Canadá , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estomatite/prevenção & controle , Água
11.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807742

RESUMO

Blueberries are rich in polyphenols, and their effect on cardiovascular health, including risk factors for endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, has been investigated in interventional studies. However, the difference between blueberry treatments in varied forms for their cardiovascular-protective effect remains poorly understood. The current study assessed the effects of whole blueberry and freeze-dried blueberry powder compared to a control on cardiovascular health in young adults. A cross-over randomised controlled trial (RCT) was implemented with 1 week of treatment for three treatment groups, each followed by 1 week of wash out period. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), plasma cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol) and triglyceride levels (TAG), and glucose and nitrite (NO2-) concentrations were compared following fresh blueberry, freeze-dried blueberry powder, and control treatments. Thirty-seven participants with a mean age of 25.86 ± 6.81 completed the study. No significant difference was observed among fresh blueberry, blueberry powder, and the control arm. Plasma NO2- levels were improved by 68.66% and 4.34% separately following whole blueberry and blueberry powder supplementations compared to the baseline, whereas the control supplementation reported a decrease (-9.10%), although it was not statistically significant. There were no other effects shown for SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, TAG, or glucose. No difference was shown between whole blueberry and freeze-dried blueberry powder consumption for improving cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Glucose , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Pós , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807796

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases, still the leading cause of mortality in the world, are closely related to vascular function. Older subjects are more susceptible to endothelial dysfunction and therefore it is important to define possible preventive or support strategies, such as consumption of foods with health-promoting effects. This systematic review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on acute or chronic trials testing the effect of selected plant-based foods on vascular function parameters in older subjects, and consider plausible mechanisms that may support the main findings. A total of 15 trials were included and analyzed, testing the effects of beetroot, plum, blueberry, and vegetable oils. We found some interesting results regarding markers of vascular reactivity, in particular for beetroot, while no effects were found for markers of arterial stiffness. The amelioration of vascular function seems to be more related to the restoration of a condition of nitric oxide impairment, exacerbated by diseases or hypoxic condition, rather than the enhancement of a physiological situation, as indicated by the limited effects on healthy older subjects or in control groups with young subjects. However, the overall set of selected studies is, in any case, rather limited and heterogeneous in terms of characteristics of the studies, indicating the need for additional high-quality intervention trials to better clarify the role of vegetable foods in restoring and/or improving vascular function in order to better elucidate the mechanisms through which these foods may exert their vascular health benefits in older subjects.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Humanos , Verduras
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 379: 109840, 2022 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905649

RESUMO

Between 2016 and 2021, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) collected 4218 samples of fresh and frozen berries (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries and mixed berries) and pomegranate arils at retail across 11 major cities in Canada and tested these samples for the presence of norovirus GI, norovirus GII and hepatitis A virus RNA. The purpose of this testing was to provide information on the prevalence of these viruses in berries and pomegranate arils on the Canadian marketplace. Of the 926 fresh fruit samples tested, norovirus GI RNA was detected in one raspberry sample and norovirus GII RNA was detected in one strawberry sample. Of the 3292 frozen fruit samples tested, norovirus GI RNA was detected in one blackberry sample, one raspberry sample and one strawberry sample, and norovirus GII RNA was detected in one blueberry sample, three raspberry samples, four strawberry samples, one pomegranate arils sample and one mixed berry sample. None of the fresh or frozen fruit samples tested positive for hepatitis A virus RNA. No statistically significant associations were observed between the prevalence of viral RNA in samples of fresh and frozen fruit, between the prevalence of viral RNA in samples of domestic and imported fruit or between the prevalence of viral RNA in samples of specific fruit types. Overall, the prevalence of norovirus GI and GII RNA together in fresh and frozen fruit samples in Canada was 0.36 %. The results of this study may be used to refine surveillance programs for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in fresh and frozen berries and pomegranate arils, e.g. by adapting the commodities tested and/or the numbers of planned samples to better target these hazards. This information may also be used to inform other Government of Canada approaches to better understand the controls associated norovirus and hepatitis A virus in fresh and frozen berries and pomegranate arils.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Fragaria , Vírus da Hepatite A , Norovirus , Romã (Fruta) , Rubus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Norovirus/genética , RNA Viral/genética
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 3490776, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898615

RESUMO

Aging and age-related disorders are prominent issues. Aging is associated with a gradual impairment of physiology at the genetic, cellular, tissue, and whole organism level that directly influences the development of chronic diseases and organ failure. Blueberries, on the other hand, are well known for their high content of bioactive compounds and have demonstrated positive impacts on metabolic factors that influence health and general well-being. This study is aimed at evaluating the ameliorating the effects of blueberry on the liver of aged rats by monitoring changes in metabolic disturbances, oxidative stress, and inflammatory disruption. The aged group of rats was orally administered with blueberry extract (200 mg/kg) for a period of 4 weeks. The results revealed that aging was associated with an increase in body weight, liver weight, and metabolic parameters like serum insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and liver function markers accompanied with a decrease in vitamin D levels. Furthermore, the results showed a significant diminish in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content with an elevation in lipid peroxidation, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) as well as fibrotic markers (TGF-ß1) in the liver of aged rats. Compared to the young rats (control group), blueberry effectively reversed age-mediated disruption of the aforementioned parameters. Hence, blueberries can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of age-related liver dysfunction and disease.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857812

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to evaluate fertilization technologies for the indicators of the quality and quantity of highbush blueberry yield. In the experiment, a similar level of mineral fertilization was used in all treatments. The experiment was to show the differences between fertilization with biostimulation and without biostimulation. The research was carried out in two seasons (2019-2020) on ´Bluecrop` shrubs growing in the Blueberry Experimental Field in central Poland (51° 55'42.7 "N 20° 59'28.7" E). Shrubs grow at a distance of 1 x 3 m. Plants are rejuvenated every year in spring and irrigated by drip. The experiment was carried out in a random block design (4 fertilizer treatments x 5 replications x 6 bushes). The experiment assessed the effect of fertilization on yield, berry mass, fruit setting, leaf surface and physicochemical parameters of fruit. Based on the conducted research, it was proved that the applied fertilization technologies had a significant impact on the size and quality of the yield of "Bluecrop" highbush blueberry. Particularly noteworthy is the fertilization technology with biostimulation (treatment T4), which has a positive effect on the yield, fruit mass, percentage of setting and firmness of the berries. Analysis of the issue in the light of the results of the conducted research shows that the use of biostimulated products has an important impact on the intensification of production while maintaining good quality of fruits. Through research, the positive effect of fertilization programs with biostimulation (treatment T4) on the most important production parameters of blueberry fruit from the producer's point of view has been proven.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/fisiologia , Fertilização , Fertilizantes , Frutas , Polônia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271417, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862486

RESUMO

Although insecticide formulations and spray rates are optimized to achieve lethal exposure, there are many factors in agricultural settings that can reduce the effective exposure of insect pests. These include weather patterns, timing of application, chemical degradation/volatilization, plant structural complexity, and resistant populations. While sub-lethal exposure to insecticides can still have negative impacts on pest populations, they can also lead to stimulatory, or hormetic, responses that can increase the fitness of surviving insects. Sub-lethal concentrations may also produce increased tolerance in the offspring of surviving adults through transgenerational effects. Sub-lethal effects are pertinent for the invasive fruit pest, spotted-wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), because its small size, diurnal movement patterns, and utilization of hosts with complex plant structures, such as caneberries and blueberries, make effective insecticide applications tenuous. In this study, we measured spotted-wing Drosophila survivorship, reproductive performance, and offspring tolerance in flies exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly-used insecticides (zeta-cypermethrin, spinetoram, and pyrethrin). We found some evidence for hormesis, with survival effects being sex- and concentration-dependent for all insecticides. Males were far more susceptible to insecticides than females, which in some cases exhibited higher eclosion success and reproductive rates when exposed to sub-lethal doses. We did not observe significant transgenerational effects at sub-lethal concentrations, despite trends of increased offspring viability for zeta-cypermethrin and spinetoram. More research, however, is needed to fully understand the role that sub-lethal effects may play in pest population dynamics, insecticide efficacy, and the development of genetic resistance.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Himenópteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Drosophila , Feminino , Hormese , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino
17.
Food Res Int ; 158: 111468, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840196

RESUMO

Flavor is among the most important traits valued by consumers of fresh fruits. Human perception of flavor occurs primarily through two main sensory inputs, taste and aroma. Through retronasal olfaction, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the fruit are able to produce the sensation of aroma which when combined with gustatory inputs from the tongue together underly our perception of the thousands of flavors we experience throughout our lives. In blueberry, breeders have observed that some genotypes possess berries with unique 'floral' and 'sweet' flavor and aroma notes. The potential impact these characteristics might have on consumer acceptability is largely unknown and represents an opportunity to better understand how aroma attributes affect the perception of blueberry flavor. In this study, we dissected the main components of blueberry aroma and associated it with consumer predilections by pairing metabolomics with sensory analysis. Our contribution in this study is four-fold: (i) first, we differentiated genotypes with floral and sweet aroma notes and confirmed that such characteristics are preferred by consumers; (ii) at the chemical level, we showed that a group of eight terpenoid volatiles (p-cymene, myrtenal, linalool, L-carvenol, geranyl acetone, geranyl acetate, D-limonene and ß-myrcene) constitute the primary metabolic group associated with these aroma sensations; (iii) we demonstrated that aromatic genotypes can be classified using metabolomics; and finally, (iv) we combined pedigree and metabolomic information and showed the importance of metabolomic data for flavor-assisted selection. Our findings open new avenues to explore the phenomenon of flavor in blueberries and also allow us to present an emerging view about flavor and provide a detailed blueprint of how this targeted trait could be addressed in fruit and vegetable breeding.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Odorantes , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Paladar , Terpenos
18.
Food Res Int ; 158: 111519, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840227

RESUMO

Berries come from hundreds of different species of plants spread around the world. Blackberries, blueberries and raspberries, for instance, are popular berries that have attracted attention for providing several benefits to human health. Wild berries from the Melastomataceae family are commonly encountered in the Amazon, although these small blue fruits are poorly consumed. Although domesticated fruits give better monetary profits, the consumption of wild fruits is a desirable option to afford income and/or food to communities at the same time as keep the Amazon region preserved. Aiming the divulgation of the nutritional potential of these plants, this paper describes the study of six species of Amazonian blueberries, five of them from the Clidemia genus and one from the Tococa genus, in regard to their nutritional and chemical composition and antioxidant activity (AA). The levels of moisture, ash, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, and the total caloric values obtained for the Amazonian blueberries were comparable to other common edible berries. Although the six species are similar in terms of nutritional composition, their anthocyanin profiles and contents are quite peculiar. Two non-methylated anthocyanins, cyanidin and delphinidin, which bound to a variable number of sugars, characterized the berries of the genera Clidemia and Tococa. Clidemia japurensis, Clidemia hirta and Tococa bullifera were rich in tri-glycosylated anthocyanins, although differences are notable between them. Clidemia pustulata and Clidemia capitellata were characterized by the prevalence of mono-glycosylated anthocyanins, and Clidemia rubra showed a unique profile with mono- and di-glycosylated homologous as the main anthocyanins. In addition to their different chemical profiles, the concentrations of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds varied a lot among the six species studied. The species C. rubra had the highest total concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Therefore, this study showed that the blueberries analyzed have potential to be better explored, which we suggest doing in a sustainable way, aiming at the preservation of the Amazon's biodiversity.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Melastomataceae , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Humanos , Fenóis/química
19.
Environ Entomol ; 51(4): 772-779, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834241

RESUMO

Surface wax and other cellular building blocks play an important role in preserving fruit integrity from biotic and abiotic adversities. Huge energy expenses are made by plants to place these protective compounds onto the epidermal cuticle. Sprayable plant and fruit coatings have been developed to protect plant tissues from environmental stresses, pathogens, and arthropods. The aim of this study was to determine if an experimental cuticle supplement containing waxes can affect fruit quality parameters such as firmness and size of various crops. Cherry, blueberry, and winegrape plants treated with the cuticle supplement showed significant increases in berry firmness ranging from 4.6 to 11.6%. No quality benefits were however observed on blackberry. Cuticle supplement applications did not significantly affect berry size. Laboratory trials resulted in a 54% mean reduction in a model pest insect i.e., Drosophila suzukii egg laying on blueberry. Short-duration field trials over 72 ±â€…2 to 96 ±â€…2 h on commercial-standard blueberry bushes resulted in 50-93.4% reductions of D. suzukii damage. Longer-term field trials on cherry and blueberry challenged with egg-laying D. suzukii showed reductions of damage ranging from 45 to 95%, up to 30 d after initial cuticle supplement applications. These results indicate that the cuticle supplement significantly alters berry firmness and reduces D. suzukii damage under commercial production conditions. One factor that may contribute to this reduction includes improved fruit quality parameters. The current work serves to expand integrated pest management options to control D. suzukii populations in commercial field settings.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Drosophila , Frutas , Animais , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Rubus
20.
Food Microbiol ; 106: 104040, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690443

RESUMO

Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the gray mold, is a filamentous fungus that infects blueberries and can cause important production losses in postharvest storage. Considering that the use of synthetic fungicides is not allowed on blueberries in postharvest conditions, alternative and natural strategies are needed to control gray mold. The objective of this work was to evaluate the capability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Trichoderma atroviride IC-11 to control B. cinerea growth in blueberries after harvest. These VOCs inhibited almost completely B. cinerea growth in vitro. The most abundant volatile compound was 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PP). In vitro assays with pure 6PP confirmed its antifungal activity. The incidence of gray mold was evaluated in blueberries inoculated with B. cinerea and exposed to volatiles of T. atroviride IC-11. Gray mold incidence among those stored in air at 20 °C for 14 days was 100%, while the incidence among the volatile-treated fruit was 17%. Gray mold incidence among those stored in air at 4 °C for 31 days was 82%, while the incidence among the volatile-treated fruit was 11%. T. atroviride IC-11 VOCs inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The binding of VOCs to the surface of hyphae caused their vacuolation and deterioration. Selective cytotoxicity of 6PP on B. cinerea was observed but not on human intestinal cells at specific concentrations that controlled gray mold. The postharvest mycofumigation of blueberries with T. atroviride IC-11 VOCs is a promising approach to protect these fruits from gray mold.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/microbiologia , Botrytis , Humanos , Hypocreales , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
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