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1.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110516, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250922

RESUMO

Regime shifts - persistent changes in the structure and function of an ecosystem - are well-documented for some ecosystems and have informed research and management of these ecosystems. In floodplain-river ecosystems, there is growing interest from restoration practitioners in ecological resilience, yet regime shifts remain poorly understood in these ecosystems. To understand how regime shifts may apply to floodplain-river ecosystems, we synthesize our understanding of ecosystem dynamics using an alternate regimes conceptual framework. We present three plausible sets of alternate regimes relevant to natural resource management interests within the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois River. These alternate regimes include: 1) a clear water and abundant vegetation regime vs. a turbid water and sparse vegetation regime in lentic, off-channel areas, 2) a diverse native fish community regime vs. an invasive-dominated fish community regime, and 3) a regime characterized by a diverse and dynamic mosaic of floodplain vegetation types vs. one characterized as a persistent invasive wet meadow monoculture. For each set of potential alternate regimes, we review available literature to synthesize known or hypothesized feedback mechanisms that reinforce regimes, controlling variables that drive regime transitions, and current restoration pathways. Our conceptual models provide preliminary support for the existence of alternate regimes in floodplain-river ecosystems. Quantitatively testing hypotheses contained within the conceptual model are important next steps in evaluating the model. Ultimately, the synthesis and evaluation of alternate regimes can inform the utility of resilience concepts in restoration and management on the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois River and improve our understanding of ecosystem dynamics in other large, heavily managed floodplain-river ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Peixes , Illinois , Espécies Introduzidas , Mississippi , Água
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 138: 121-131, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162610

RESUMO

The presence and quantity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was surveyed using TaqMan real-time PCR to assess the extent of the virus in Mississippi Sound, USA. A total of 3577 wild decapods comprising 11 species was collected between November 2012 and August 2015: WSSV was present in 10 of the 11 species. Prevalence ranged from 5.1% in Uca rapax to 38.8% in U. spinicarpa. Viral load ranged from 1.8 to 7.3 log10 copies of WSSV µg-1 total DNA. Two Gulf species, Palaemonetes pugio and U. panacea, were injected with a series of doses of a virulent WSSV isolate from China to determine relative susceptibility and virulence because continuing translocation of highly pathogenic isolates of WSSV poses risk to native species. Survival was 0-65% for P. pugio and 5-60% for U. panacea. Median survival time was lower for P. pugio than U. panacea at all doses. Mean (±SD) lethal load was 9.0 ± 8.9 log copies of WSSV µg-1 total DNA in P. pugio and 8.2 ± 8.3 in U. panacea. Mean viral load in survivors was higher in U. panacea than in P. pugio (5.8 ± 6.1 vs. 3.2 ± 3.0 log copies of WSSV µg-1 total DNA); mean viral load was lower in wild individuals of those species (2.9 ± 3.2 for P. pugio and 4.9 ± 5.0 for U. panacea). U. panacea is potentially more tolerant of WSSV than P. pugio and may serve as an important reservoir host in the community.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Palaemonidae , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1 , Animais , China , Mississippi
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101563

RESUMO

Piscivorous avian species are the main source of catfish depredation at aquaculture facilities in Mississippi, resulting in the economic loss of millions of dollars every year. Most notable of these avian species are the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and great egret (A. alba). Understanding why these species select specific ponds can increase management efficiency directed at avian dispersal and provide insight into their decision making with respect to foraging behavior. We collected species presence data on catfish ponds by flying 35 surveys from October through April of 2015-2017, during which an average of 973 catfish ponds were observed each year. We collected data associated with each pond's physical surroundings and contents and used occupancy modeling to determine their influence on avian occupancy probability. We also collected data associated with stocking practices and catfish health on a subset of ponds, and constructed resource selection functions to model their influence on avian presence. Pond area was positively related to occupancy probability of each species. Cormorant occupancy increased as pond distance from forest cover and activity centers, such as workshops and offices, increased. Distance to nearest activity center was positively related to egret occupancy, while distance to nearest forested area was negative. Ponds containing diseased catfish had an increased probability of use by both herons and egrets. In general, cormorants and egrets showed greater probability of use on the periphery of pond clusters. The abundance of catfish was positively related to cormorant and heron presence. Specific pond contents and characteristics influenced presence of each avian species in different ways, including fish species cultured, production methods, pond systems, and fish types. Many pond selection relationships were species-specific, illustrating inherent differences in their foraging ecology. Consequently, specific management actions aimed to reduce avian presence will depend on the targeted species.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Peixes-Gato , Mississippi , Tanques , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(1): 1-6, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944854

RESUMO

Mississippi has one of the highest rates of HIV in the United States, but has low pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake, particularly among black men who have sex with men (MSM) and women. From November 2018 to May 2019, patients at high risk of HIV who tested negative for HIV at a nonclinical testing center in Jackson, Mississippi, were referred to an on-site clinical pharmacist for same-day PrEP initiation. The pharmacist evaluated patients for medical contraindications to PrEP, but no baseline labs were obtained. The pharmacist provided a PrEP prescription and scheduled a clinical appointment for patients within 6 weeks, at which time they were evaluated by a clinician and completed baseline labs. The pharmacist evaluated 69 patients for PrEP; 57% were MSM, 77% were black, and 65% were uninsured. All patients received a PrEP prescription; 83% received the prescription the same day and 97% received it within 5 days. Fifty-three (77%) of 69 clients filled the prescription; 87% of whom filled it within 1 week. Only 23 (43%) of 53 clients who filled their prescription attended their initial clinical appointment within 6 weeks of obtaining PrEP. There were no differences in PrEP initiation or retention by patient sex/gender. This pilot program suggests that an on-site pharmacist working in a nonclinical testing center in the southern United States can successfully initiate PrEP among predominately low-income black MSM. Future efforts should seek to better integrate laboratory testing into this demedicalized model of PrEP and to improve retention in care.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Mississippi , Projetos Piloto , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/organização & administração , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(6): 2987-2992, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964842

RESUMO

Seasonal animal movement among disparate habitats is a fundamental mechanism by which energy, nutrients, and biomass are transported across ecotones. A dramatic example of such exchange is the annual emergence of mayfly swarms from freshwater benthic habitats, but their characterization at macroscales has remained impossible. We analyzed radar observations of mayfly emergence flights to quantify long-term changes in annual biomass transport along the Upper Mississippi River and Western Lake Erie Basin. A single emergence event can produce 87.9 billion mayflies, releasing 3,078.6 tons of biomass into the airspace over several hours, but in recent years, production across both waterways has declined by over 50%. As a primary prey source in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, these declines will impact higher trophic levels and environmental nutrient cycling.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ephemeroptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Biomassa , Ephemeroptera/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mississippi , Dinâmica Populacional
6.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(1): 69-82, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927705

RESUMO

With only six recognised genera, the family Clinostomidae Lühe, 1901 remains a global research interest of parasitologists and ecologists. Recent efforts have focused on providing molecular data to investigate species diversity, elucidate life-cycles, and make inferences on the group's evolutionary history. Of the clinostomid genera, the monotypic Ithyoclinostomum Witenberg, 1926 has remained more enigmatic compared to the commonly encountered Clinostomum Leidy, 1856. Recent morphological and molecular evidence from metacercariae suggests a second Ithyoclinostomum species may exist in freshwater cichlids in Central America and Mexico. In a recent survey of great blue herons Ardea herodias L. from commercial catfish production farms in Mississippi, USA, two specimens of an abnormally large (> 20 mm) clinostomid were encountered in the oesophagus of a single bird. These specimens were identified as an Ithyoclinostomum sp. morphologically distinct from the only nominal species Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum (Diesing, 1850). Using morphological and molecular data these adult specimens were confirmed as conspecific with the larval metacercariae previously described from Central America and Mexico and represent the novel species, Ithyoclinostomum yamagutii n. sp.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Esôfago/parasitologia , Mississippi , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
11.
Zootaxa ; 4695(2): zootaxa.4695.2.6, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719357

RESUMO

Krysko et al. (2016a) used analyses of DNA sequence data to reveal two genetic lineages of Drymarchon couperi. The Atlantic lineage contained specimens from southeastern Georgia and eastern peninsular Florida, and the Gulf Coast lineage contained specimens from western and southern peninsular Florida as well as western Florida, southern Alabama, and southern Mississippi. In a second paper Krysko et al. (2016b) analyzed morphological variation of the two lineages, which allowed them to restrict D. couperi to the Atlantic lineage and to describe the Gulf Coast lineage as a new species, Drymarchon kolpobasileus. This taxonomic discovery was remarkable for such a large, wide-ranging species and was notable for its impact on conservation. Because of population declines, particularly in western Florida, southern Alabama, and southern Mississippi, D. couperi (sensu lato) was listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act (United States Fish and Wildlife Service 1978, 2008) and repatriation of the species to areas where it had been extirpated was listed as a priority conservation goal (United States Fish and Wildlife Service 1982, 2008). Such repatriation efforts were attempted in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, starting in 1977 (Speake et al. 1987), but failed to create viable populations, likely because too few snakes were released at too many sites (Guyer et al. 2019; Folt et al. 2019a). A second attempt at repatriation was started in 2010 and concentrated on release of snakes at a single site in Alabama (Stiles et al. 2013). However, Krysko et al. (2016a) criticized this repatriation effort because it appeared to involve release of D. couperi (sensu stricto) into the geographic region occupied by D. kolpobasileus (as diagnosed in Krysko et al. 2016b).


Assuntos
Colubridae , Alabama , Animais , Florida , Georgia , Mississippi , South Carolina , Estados Unidos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684143

RESUMO

Exposure to natural disasters like hurricanes negatively impacts the mental and physical health of populations, and evacuation is an important step taken to prevent these adverse health events. This study uses data from a large representative sample of U.S. Gulf Coast residents to explore the determinants of hurricane evacuation. In December 2017, data were collected from 3030 residents of the U.S. Gulf Coast, including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida-2557 of whom reported being impacted during the 2017 hurricane season. Bivariate analyses were conducted using prevalence differences and tested for statistical significance with chi-square tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with hurricane evacuation. One-third of the respondents (919 of 2557; 35.9%) evacuated from a hurricane that impacted the U.S. Gulf Coast in 2017. The determinants of hurricane evacuation in this population were: residing in a mobile home, higher perception of storm surge risk, higher perception of wind risk, self-sufficiency, carrying flood insurance, and reliance on media and family for evacuation decisions. These findings may be relevant for reducing the adverse health effects of hurricanes by improving emergency planning and evacuation in this highly vulnerable region.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alabama , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Louisiana , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi , Análise Multivariada , Texas , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 1029-1037, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589664

RESUMO

Coal mining can be deleterious to the soil physical and chemical makeup, but also to the soil microbial community. Effectively, the removal of nearly all organic matter from the upper soil horizons reduces the effectiveness of any soil to support vegetation, and up until recently, microbial community parameters were not considered in the successful reclamation of overburden. Thus, our study proposes to measure the uncultivated bacterial community using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) high-throughput sequencing in a chronosequence of reclaimed overburden in Mississippi. The study sites comprised samplings of pasture and wooded reclamation sites consisting of 1 to 13 yr post reclamation time, as well as reference sites. Overall, the primary driver of bacterial community dynamics was vegetative cover, although time also influenced dynamics. Richness estimations for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed that recently reclaimed (∼1 yr) and Pasture sites were more OTU rich with levels of >1400 compared with reference site levels of ∼1000. Diversity levels also followed a similar trend. Community structure typically differed between time points and vegetative cover; however, membership was similar between sites and reference, indicating that new communities still shared some membership from the previous community. Overall, physicochemical properties trended toward more positive for soil health as time progressed, but bacterial community recovery was still not structurally recovered, although richness and diversity values exceeded reference. Overall, this study demonstrated that mine reclamation using pasture and/or wood restoration can reestablish the bacterial community to approximate reference conditions, but vegetation is still the dominating environmental factor dictating microbial community.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Carvão Mineral , Mississippi , RNA Ribossômico 16S
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 200-207, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590776

RESUMO

A community-based participatory research was utilized to address the coastal community's concern regarding Deepwater Horizon oil contamination of seafood. Therefore, we analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), major toxic constituents of crude oil, in the seafood collected from gulf coast (Louisiana, Alabama and Mississippi) during December 2011-February 2014. PAHs were extracted from edible part of shrimp, oysters, and crabs by the QuEChERS/dsPE procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total PAHs data were further analyzed using the General Linear Mixed Model procedure of the SAS (Version 9.3, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) statistical software. Brown shrimp showed statistically significant differences in PAHs levels with respect to time and locations while white shrimp showed differences at various time points. PAHs levels in oyster and crab samples were not statistically different at the Type I error of 0.05. Overall, the PAHs levels are far below FDA levels of concern for human consumption.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alabama , Animais , Braquiúros/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Louisiana , Mississippi , Ostreidae/química , Penaeidae/química , Poluição por Petróleo/análise
15.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1025-1027, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638518

RESUMO

From 1991 to 2013, Mississippi was without liver transplant services. In 2013, a new liver transplant program was established at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. Here, we describe our experience with the first 150 transplants over a 4.5-year period. This study is a review of 147 patients who underwent the first 150 liver transplants at the University of Mississippi Medical Center between March 5, 2013, and January 4, 2018. There were no exclusion criteria for this study. Donor, recipient, and outcome variables were analyzed. Recipients were 46% female and 74% white. Age at the time of transplant was 57 [IQR 49-63]. BMI at transplant was 30 [IQR 25-35]. Thirty per cent of transplants were for alcoholic cirrhosis, 25% non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, 24% hepatitis C, and 12% cholestatic. Mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) at the time of transplant was 20 [95% confidence interval 19-21] and MELD-Na was 22 [95% confidence interval 20-23]. One-year patient- and graft survival were 89% and 87%, respectively, which were as expected based on Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipient reports after risk adjustment. The data published here verifies it is possible to establish a new liver transplant center in an underserved area previously lacking comprehensive liver care and to achieve results similar to other high-volume centers across the country.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Transplante de Fígado , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colestase/cirurgia , Fígado Gorduroso/cirurgia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Hepatite C/cirurgia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Reoperação
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110527, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543478

RESUMO

Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, oil residues were found in all five Gulf states of the United States (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida). However, only a small amount was found in Texas, leading to speculation that it may have arrived there via ship through bilge water instead of naturally via currents. We report on a numerical modeling effort to simulate surface drifters during and after the DWH spill to demonstrate that surface water parcels - and therefore oil carried by those parcels - could reasonably have reached Texas waters at the appropriate time and location from known oiled locations without human interference. We additionally give context for the conditions in 2010 through a study of summer connectivity with the Galveston Bay coastline, which shows that in some years oil from the DWH pipe likely would not have reached Texas.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Alabama , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Golfo do México , Hidrodinâmica , Louisiana , Mississippi , Texas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390821

RESUMO

Background and Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential independent and interactive effects of handedness and grip strength on episodic memory function, and whether biological sex moderated these relationships. Materials and Methods: 162 young adults (Mage = 20.7 years) completed a series of memory assessments including a subjective memory complaint evaluation and several objective measures of memory. Handedness (i.e., left-hand dominant, inconsistent handedness (ICH), and right-hand dominant) was evaluated using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Handgrip strength was determined from a handgrip dynamometer. Results: When compared to ICH individuals, retrospective memory scores were statistically significantly worse for left-handed (p = 0.02) and right-handed (p = 0.03) individuals. Higher grip strength was statistically significantly associated with fewer retrospective memory complaints (b = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.19, p = 0.04). Conclusions: The present study provides some suggestive evidence that ICH (inconsistent handedness) and greater grip strength are associated with fewer retrospective memory complaints. However, we did not observe any evidence of an interaction effect of handedness and grip strength on memory, and similarly, biological sex did not interact with these parameters to influence memory.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mississippi , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 380, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine heartworm disease is a potentially fatal disease for which treatment is financially burdensome for many pet owners. Prevention is strongly advocated by the veterinary community along with routine testing for infection during annual wellness examinations. Despite the availability of efficacious chemoprophylaxis, recent reports have suggested that the incidence of heartworm disease in domestic dogs is increasing. RESULTS: Using data from tests for heartworm infection in the USA from January 2012 through September 2018, a Bayesian spatio-temporal binomial regression model was used to estimate the regional and local temporal trends of heartworm infection prevalence. The area with the largest increase in regional prevalence was found in the Lower Mississippi River Valley. Regional prevalence increased throughout the southeastern states and northward into Illinois and Indiana. Local (county-level) prevalence varied across the USA, with increasing prevalence occurring along most of the Atlantic coast, central United States, and western states. Clusters of decreasing prevalence were present along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (a historically endemic area), Oklahoma and Kansas, and Florida. CONCLUSIONS: Canine heartworm infection prevalence is increasing in much of the USA, both regionally and locally, despite veterinarian recommendations on prevention and testing. Additional steps should be taken to protect dogs, cats and ferrets. Further work is needed to identify the driving factors of the locally decreasing prevalence present along the Mississippi Alluvial plain, Florida, and other areas.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite accumulating research demonstrating that acute exercise may enhance memory function, very little research has evaluated whether acute exercise can effectuate intentional directed forgetting (DF), an adaptative strategy to facilitate subsequent memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled intervention was employed. Participants were randomized into one of three groups, including: (1) exercise plus DF (Ex + DF), (2) DF (directed forgetting) only (DF) and (3) R (remember) only (R). The acute bout of exercise included 15 min of high-intensity treadmill exercise. The memory assessment involved the presentation of two-word lists. After encoding the first word list, participants were either instructed to forget all of those words (DF) or to remember them. Following this, participants encoded the second word list. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant main effect for list F(1, 57) = 12.27, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.18, but no main effect for group F(2, 57) = 1.32, p = 0.27, η2p = 0.04, or list by group interaction, F(2, 57) = 2.89, p = 0.06, η2p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a directed forgetting effect in that cueing an individual to forget a previously encoded list of items facilitates memory performance on a subsequent list of items. However, we failed to demonstrate any beneficial effect of acute exercise in facilitating directed forgetting. These findings are discussed in the context of directed forgetting theories, particularly the attention inhibition mechanism, as well as the timing of the acute bout of exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Mississippi , Adulto Jovem
20.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 242-250, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317363

RESUMO

HIV-related stigma is prevalent in the US Deep South; however, information regarding the types of stigma and their effects on HIV-related outcomes is limited. This study examined the prevalence of different forms of stigma and the association of stigma with medication and medical visit adherence in the Deep South. Survey participants included 201 individuals living with HIV recruited from Infectious Diseases Clinics (ID) and AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) in four Deep South states. Study participants reported high levels of experienced, perceived, and internalized stigma. Multivariable analysis revealed that internalized stigma and recent stigmatizing experiences were significantly associated with poorer HIV medication adherence. Internalized stigma was also associated with having missed an HIV medical care visit in the last 6 months. These findings suggest the need to identify and develop effective interventions to address internalized HIV-related stigma and to address community HIV stigma to improve outcomes for individuals living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estigma Social , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alabama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi/epidemiologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Apoio Social , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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