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1.
South Med J ; 114(3): 144-149, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of hospitalized adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an academic medical center in the southern United States. METHODS: Retrospective, observational cohort study of all adult patients (18 years and older) consecutively admitted with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection between March 13 and April 25, 2020 at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. All of the patients either survived to hospital discharge or died during hospitalization. Demographics, body mass index, comorbidities, clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings were collected. Patient outcomes (need for invasive mechanical ventilation and in-hospital death) were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included, 53% of whom were women. Median age was 59 years (interquartile range 44-70) and 66% were younger than 65. Seventy-five percent identified themselves as Black, despite representing 58% of hospitalized patients at our institution in 2019. Common comorbid conditions included hypertension (68%), obesity (65%), and diabetes mellitus (31%). Frequent clinical manifestations included shortness of breath (76%), cough (75%), and fever (64%). Symptoms were present for a median of 7 days (interquartile range 4-7) on presentation. Twenty-four percent of patients required mechanical ventilation and, overall, 19% died (67% of those requiring mechanical ventilation). Eighty-four percent of those who died were Black. On multivariate analysis, ever smoking (odds ratio [OR] 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-28.6) and history of diabetes mellitus (OR 5.9, 95% CI 1.5-24.3) were associated with mortality, and those admitted from home were less likely to die (vs outside facility, OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.0-0.7). Neither age, sex, race, body mass index, insurance status, nor rural residence was independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds evidence that Black patients appear to be overrepresented in those hospitalized with and those who die from COVID-19, likely a manifestation of adverse social determinants of health. These findings should help guide preventive interventions targeting groups at higher risk of acquiring and developing severe COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , /terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112214, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711603

RESUMO

Age, growth, mortality, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roughtongue bass (Pronotogrammus martinicensis) were examined in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Fish (N = 1090) were collected from September 2014 to July 2015 from the Alabama Alps (54 km from the spill site) and Roughtongue Reef (111 km from the spill site). Sites were dominated by the 2010 year-class. Growth rates were significantly lower for fish from Alabama Alps compared to Roughtongue Reef (p < 0.001) and likely linked to proximity of the Mississippi River discharge. Mean total PAH ± SD was 50 ± 52.6 and ranged from 0 to 220 ppb. These PAH levels were below a 300-ppb minimum effect level and not significantly different between sites. The dominant 2010 year-class, low PAH levels, and similar growth rates to pre-spill measures indicated that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill had little effect on roughtongue bass.


Assuntos
Bass , Poluição por Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alabama , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Golfo do México , Mississippi , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112245, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721685

RESUMO

Commercial fishing is a fragile industry that is exposed to a multitude of stressors. Marine debris is known to be one of these stressors; however, the prevalence and impact is rarely assessed. Therefore, this analysis assessed the perceived encounter frequency and impacts of marine debris on commercial fishing through an end-of-the year survey of registered Mississippi commercial shrimpers. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of shrimpers indicated they encountered marine debris in 2018 with 85% encountering it frequently. The most common debris reported to be encountered was abandoned or derelict fishing gear (93% of shrimpers), primarily crab traps. Most shrimpers reported reduced catch (80%), lost fishing time (82%), and vessel repairs (75%) due to marine debris. Additionally, 93% of shrimpers categorized marine debris as destructive to their operations. These results indicate that marine debris does have significant direct impacts on the commercial shrimping industry in Mississippi and likely other regions.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Pesqueiros , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mississippi , Alimentos Marinhos
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112187, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639379

RESUMO

Millions of tons of plastic enter the environment every year, where much of it concentrates in environmental sinks such as tidal marshes. With prior studies documenting harm to marine fauna caused by this plastic pollution, the need to understand how this novel type of pollution affects estuarine fauna is great. Yet, research on the fate and uptake of plastic pollutants in estuarine ecosystems is sparse. Therefore, we quantified plastic prevalence and ingestion by two species of resident marsh bird, Clapper Rails (Rallus crepitans) and Seaside Sparrows (Ammospiza maritima), in coastal marsh ecosystems within Mississippi. We detected microplastics (plastics smaller than 5 mm) in 64% of marsh sediment samples, 83% of Clapper Rail and 69% of Seaside Sparrow proventriculus samples. Dominant types of microplastics detected in sediment and bird samples were fibers. This study provides the first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marsh birds and its distribution in coastal marshes within Mississippi.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Mississippi , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100961, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518318

RESUMO

Salmonella is one of the common foodborne bacteria, causing 80.3 million illnesses every year worldwide. This study was conducted to isolate and identify Salmonella enterica serovars from poultry samples responsible for causing foodborne poisoning in the Mississippi area, United States. A total of 55 S. enterica serovars-Enteritidis (6), Oranienburg (1), Schwarzengrund (8), Heidelberg (4), Kentucky (22), 4, [5], 12:i:- (1), Montevideo (2), Infantis (9), and multi serotypes (2)-were isolated from approximately 110 poultry samples. Through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, 8 to 13 bands were obtained. The profiles showed >90% similarity in strains within the same type. Consequently, PFGE could be a useful tool to determine chromosomal similarity (clonality of strains) that can be used to trace down epidemiologic sources and geographical origins of Salmonella.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/veterinária , Carne/microbiologia , Mississippi , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 74-88, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556183

RESUMO

Herein, we describe several newly-collected specimens of Neopolystoma cf. orbiculare from the urinary bladder of 2 alligator snapping turtles, Macrochelys temminckii (Troost in Harland, 1835) (Cryptodira: Chelydridae Gray, 1831) from Comet Lake (30°35'46.94″N, 88°36'3.12″W), Pascagoula River, Mississippi. Our specimens differed from all previous descriptions of N. orbiculare and its junior subjective synonyms by the combination of having intestinal ceca adorned with triangular pockets and that terminate dorsal to the haptor, distinctive hooklets each having a handle and guard of approximately equal length and having a much longer and curved blade, 16 genital coronet spines that each possess 1-2 flanges per spine, pre-testicular vaginal pores, and vaginal ducts that are anterior to the junction of the oviduct and genito-intestinal canal. Some of our specimens were enantiomorphic (4 and 3 had a dextral and sinistral ovary, respectively). Nucleotide sequences (large subunit ribosomal DNA [28S], small subunit ribosomal DNA [18S], and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene [COI]) for our specimens were most similar to GenBank sequences ascribed to N. orbiculare. Single-gene and concatenated phylogenetic analyses confirmed that NeopolystomaPrice, 1939 is polyphyletic and that our isolates share a recent common ancestor with those ascribed to N. orbiculare. This is the first record of a polystomatid from Mississippi, from the Pascagoula River, and from the alligator snapping turtle (and only the second species of Neopolystoma reported from any snapping turtle).


Assuntos
Platelmintos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Lagos/parasitologia , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Platelmintos/anatomia & histologia , Platelmintos/genética , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Rios/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Bexiga Urinária/parasitologia
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(3): 1566-1575, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432817

RESUMO

Demand for biofuel production driven by the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) has coincided with increased land in corn production and increasing nitrogen (N) loss to the Gulf of Mexico. Diversifying cropland with perennial energy crops (miscanthus and switchgrass) may reduce N loss and improve water quality. However, the extent of these benefits depends on the mix of biomass feedstocks (corn stover, perennials) incentivized by the RFS2 and the extent to which energy crops displace N-intensive row crops. We developed an integrated economic-biophysical model to quantify the water quality impacts of three potential policy scenarios that provided corn ethanol at levels before the RFS2 (RFS1 baseline); 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol (corn ethanol only); or 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol in addition to corn ethanol (corn + cellulosic ethanol). Our results showed that economically optimal locations for perennial energy crop production were distributed across idle cropland with lower intrinsic N loss than active cropland. We found stover removal incentivized by the RFS2 offset N loss benefits of perennial energy crops. This finding suggests that targeted incentives for N loss reduction are needed to supplement the RFS2 to induce displacement of N-intensive row crops with energy crops to reduce N losses.


Assuntos
Rios , Qualidade da Água , Biocombustíveis , Golfo do México , Mississippi , Padrões de Referência , Zea mays
10.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127967, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297026

RESUMO

Recently, the exposure of nanoplastics (NPs) in the environment has received extensive attention. Research concerning their fate and transport in the aquatic environment is very important and urgent. In this study, the influence of two sources of natural organic matter (NOM) on the behaviour of NPs were investigated in view of the complexity of NOM. Humic acid (HA), Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and Upper Mississippi River NOM (MRNOM) were chosen to represent pedogenic NOM, while bovine serum albumin (BSA) was on behalf of aquagenic NOM. The results showed that NOM could reduce the aggregation and sedimentation of NPs, exhibiting excellent stabilization effect. The stability effect was affected by the concentrations and the sources of NOMs. For pedogenic NOMs, the stabilization effect was caused by adsorption modes with different microscopic morphologies through specific functional groups, while it was induced by the mode of steric stabilization in the presence of BSA. Spectroscopic method and micromorphology study further provided a new insight into exploring the possible mechanism of the interaction between NPs and NOMs.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Microplásticos , Adsorção , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Mississippi , Rios
11.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 309-317, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351652

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine whether lethal means counseling and provision of cable locks prompt safe firearm storage relative to control among firearm-owning members of the Mississippi National Guard.Methods. This randomized controlled trial utilized a 2 × 2 factorial design (lethal means counseling vs control, provision of cable locks vs no cable locks). Follow-up assessments took place at 3 and 6 months after baseline. Data were collected (n = 232; 87.5% male; mean age = 35.01 years; 77.2% White) from February 2018 through July 2020.Results. Relative to control, lethal means counseling and provision of cable locks resulted in greater adoption of several safe storage methods over time. Lethal means counseling outperformed control (3 months: 55.0% vs 39.0%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.91). Cable locks outperformed control at 3 and 6 months on number of storage methods (1.41 vs 1.11; d = 0.29 and 1.34 vs 1.16; d = 0.15, respectively) and locking devices (59.8% vs 29.9%; OR = 3.49 and 58.4% vs 35.8%; OR = 2.52, respectively)Conclusions. Lethal means counseling and cable locks can result in sustained changes in firearm storage.Public Health Implications. The military may benefit from lethal means counseling, perhaps administering at point of entry.Trial Registration. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT03375099.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Aconselhamento/métodos , Armas de Fogo , Militares , Prevenção de Acidentes/instrumentação , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Armas de Fogo/normas , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi , Segurança/normas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339166

RESUMO

This study examined the association between the obesogenic factors and the risk of suffering from weight excess in school-based state programs regarding physical activity, physical education, nutrition standards, and nutrition education in preventing childhood obesity. Data were drawn from the 1999-2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in the State of Mississippi (N = 8862; grades 9-12). Logistic regression with year-fixed effects was performed to capture the influence of the legislation on teenage obesity, controlling for demographics and nutrition- and physical activity-related behaviors. The age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted mean of the body mass index had reduced since 2007 (year 1999: 23.52; year 2001: 23.53; year 2003: 23.76; year 2007: 24.26; year 2009: 24.29; and year 2011: 23.91). The legislation was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of being overweight (year 2007, odds ratio (OR) = 0.686; year 2009, OR = 0.739; and year 2011, OR = 0.760; all p < 0.01). Children who were more sedentary, more frequently fasted to lose weight, and were less physically active and likelier to be overweight (OR = 1.05, 1.37, and 0.97, respectively; all p < 0.05), as were African-American children (OR = 0.64; p < 0.05) and female students (OR = 1.59; p < 0.05). In conclusion, schools are among the most easily modifiable settings for preventing childhood obesity and reducing its prevalence, with the implementation of physical activity and nutritional policies.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1925-1929, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332298

RESUMO

As of December 14, 2020, children and adolescents aged <18 years have accounted for 10.2% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases reported in the United States.* Mitigation strategies to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, among persons of all ages, are important for pandemic control. Characterization of risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents can inform efforts by parents, school and program administrators, and public health officials to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To assess school, community, and close contact exposures associated with pediatric COVID-19, a case-control study was conducted to compare exposures reported by parents or guardians of children and adolescents aged <18 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing (case-patients) with exposures reported among those who received negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results (control participants). Among 397 children and adolescents investigated, in-person school or child care attendance ≤14 days before the SARS-CoV-2 test was reported for 62% of case-patients and 68% of control participants and was not associated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-1.3). Among 236 children aged ≥2 years who attended child care or school during the 2 weeks before SARS-CoV-2 testing, parents of 64% of case-patients and 76% of control participants reported that their child and all staff members wore masks inside the facility (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.8). In the 2 weeks preceding SARS-CoV-2 testing, case-patients were more likely to have had close contact with a person with known COVID-19 (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.0-5.0), have attended gatherings† with persons outside their household, including social functions (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.5) or activities with other children (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.3-8.4), or have had visitors in the home (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9) than were control participants. Close contacts with persons with COVID-19 and gatherings contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents. Consistent use of masks, social distancing, isolation of infected persons, and quarantine of those who are exposed to the virus continue to be important to prevent COVID-19 spread.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , /diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , /transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 304-313, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016428

RESUMO

Excess nitrogen (N) loading in the Mississippi River basin is a major water quality issue, encompassing large spatial scales and feedbacks between social and biophysical entities. Effective management depends on reductions in agricultural N loading, mainly from the Corn Belt region in the upper reaches of the basin. In this study, we evaluated the role of federal Nutrient Task Force policy on N management from 2000 to 2015. We analyzed trends in nitrate (NO3 - ) concentrations from monitoring data in 148 priority watersheds. We compared water quality trends with state nutrient reduction strategies, monitoring efforts, and land use. Of the 148 watersheds, 13 displayed a significant decrease in NO3 - concentrations, 24 displayed a significant increase, 51 displayed a nonsignificant trend, and 60 had insufficient data to analyze. We demonstrate that policy efforts on a large scale are slow to establish, but states and watersheds that showed signs of policy acting successfully could serve as examples for improved N management moving forward. Despite considerable variability, states with the most comprehensive strategies, evidenced by word count and presence of recommended elements, were almost exclusively located in the Corn Belt region. States with more thorough nutrient reduction strategies also tended to have a larger number of monitoring sites in priority watersheds (R = .42), demonstrating the potential for adaptive management. States with the most consistent improvements in NO3 - concentrations tended to have the most comprehensive policies, whereas variation in water quality trends was partly attributed to land use factors including slope and dominance of corn (Zea mays L.) and soy [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Rios , Agricultura , Mississippi , Qualidade da Água
15.
Zootaxa ; 4802(3): zootaxa.4802.3.1, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056041

RESUMO

While sampling for the Rusty Gravedigger, Lacunicambarus miltus, Taylor et al. (2011) found one or more potentially undescribed burrowing crayfish species in the genus Lacunicambarus inhabiting the area between the Pascagoula River and Mobile Bay in southern Alabama and Mississippi. Molecular analyses by Glon et al. (2018) confirmed that samples from this area were genetically distinct from other Lacunicambarus crayfishes. These findings prompted a dedicated sampling trip in January 2020. We used morphological and molecular analyses to investigate the specimens we collected and, based on our results, we describe two new crayfish species: the Lonesome Gravedigger, L. mobilensis sp. nov. and the Banded Mudbug, L. freudensteini sp. nov. Lacunicambarus mobilensis sp. nov. is sister to the Rusty Gravedigger, L. miltus, while L. freudensteini sp. nov. is sister to the Painted Devil Crayfish, L. ludovicianus. Both new species are currently known from a small number of sites in southern Alabama and Mississippi and may require conservation attention. In addition, we provide an updated key to Lacunicambarus crayfishes that includes these new species.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Alabama , Animais , Mississippi , Rios
16.
Water Res ; 186: 116355, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890809

RESUMO

Climate change can have substantial impacts on nitrogen runoff, which is a major cause of eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia in freshwaters and coastal regions. We examined responses of nitrate loading to climate change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) with an enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool with physically based Freeze-Thaw cycle representation (SWAT-FT), as compared with the original SWAT model that employs an empirical equation. Driven by future climate projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs) from 1960 to 2099 under the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP) 8.5 scenario, we analyzed changes in riverine nitrate loadings, as well as terrestrial surface and subsurface contributions of the UMRB in the 21st century relative to the baseline period of 1960-1999. By the end of the 21st century, the original SWAT model predicted about a 50% increase in riverine nitrate loadings which is nearly twice as much as that estimated by SWAT-FT (ca. 25%). Such a large difference in projected nitrate changes can potentially mislead mitigation strategies that aim to reduce nitrogen runoff from the UMRB. Further analysis shows that the difference between the original SWAT model and SWAT-FT led to substantial discrepancies in the spatial distribution of surface and subsurface nitrate loadings in the UMRB. In general, SWAT-FT predicted more nitrate leaching for northwestern parts of the UMRB which are more sensitive to freeze-thaw cycle, mainly because SWAT-FT simulated less frequent frozen soils. This study highlights the importance of using physically based freeze-thaw cycle representation in water quality modeling. Design of future nitrogen runoff reduction strategies should include careful assessment of effects that land management has on the freeze-thaw cycles to provide reliable projection of water quality under climate change.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Mississippi , Nitratos/análise , Qualidade da Água
18.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1466-1471, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816548

RESUMO

Objectives. To review the trends in pregnancy outcomes after Hurricane Katrina and assess effects of the disaster on research and public health related to pregnant women.Methods. We reexamined the 2004-2006 vital statistics data from Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, assessing what the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the population would have been under varying risk scenarios.Results. We saw a reduction in number of births as well as in low birth weight and preterm birth. If the number of births had stayed constant and the relative higher risk in the "missing" births had been between 17% and 100%, the storm would have been associated with an increased risk instead of a decrease. Because the relative decline in births was larger in Black women, the higher risk in the "missing" births required to create a significant increase associated with the storm was generally not as great as for White women.Conclusions. Higher exposure to Katrina may have produced a reduction in births among high-risk women in the region rather than increasing adverse outcomes among those who did give birth.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Resultado da Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Alabama/epidemiologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade/etnologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/etnologia , Saúde Pública
19.
Am J Nurs ; 120(8): 40-47, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732477

RESUMO

Racism left an indelible mark on Bernardine Lacey and her professional growth as a nurse, including roles as an educator, political advocate, researcher, clinician, and leader. This article uses oral history methods to detail, in Lacey's own words, experiences from her childhood and early in her education and career. Her story allows for an exploration of some of the difficult truths about racism, the culpable role of nursing in this history, and the impact of historical accounts on the profession's current inclusivity and diversity efforts.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , História da Enfermagem , Narração , Racismo , História do Século XX , Humanos , Mississippi , Escolas de Enfermagem
20.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611750

RESUMO

Since its detection in swine, influenza D virus (IDV) has been shown to be present in multiple animal hosts, and bovines have been identified as its natural reservoir. However, it remains unclear how IDVs emerge, evolve, spread, and maintain in bovine populations. Through multiple years of virological and serological surveillance in a single order-buyer cattle facility in Mississippi, we showed consistently high seroprevalence of IDVs in cattle and recovered a total of 32 IDV isolates from both healthy and sick animals, including those with antibodies against IDV. Genomic analyses of these isolates along with those isolated from other areas showed that active genetic reassortment occurred in IDV and that five reassortants were identified in the Mississippian facility. Two antigenic groups were identified through antigenic cartography analyses for these 32 isolates and representative IDVs from other areas. Remarkably, existing antibodies could not protect cattle from experimental reinfection with IDV. Additional phenotypic analyses demonstrated variations in growth dynamics and pathogenesis in mice between viruses independent of genomic constellation. In summary, this study suggests that, in addition to epidemiological factors, the ineffectiveness of preexisting immunity and cocirculation of a diverse viral genetic pool could facilitate its high prevalence in animal populations.IMPORTANCE Influenza D viruses (IDVs) are panzootic in multiple animal hosts, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Through multiple years of surveillance in the same order-buyer cattle facility, 32 IDV isolates were recovered from both healthy and sick animals, including those with evident antibodies against IDV. Active reassortment occurred in the cattle within this facility and in those across other areas, and multiple reassortants cocirculated in animals. These isolates are shown with a large extent of phenotypic diversity in replication efficiency and pathogenesis but little in antigenic properties. Animal experiments demonstrated that existing antibodies could not protect cattle from experimental reinfection with IDV. This study suggests that, in addition to epidemiological factors, limited protection from preexisting immunity against IDVs in cattle herds and cocirculation of a diverse viral genetic pool likely facilitate the high prevalence of IDVs in animal populations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Proteção Cruzada , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Vírus Reordenados/imunologia , Thogotovirus/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Fazendas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hospitais Veterinários , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Thogotovirus/classificação , Thogotovirus/genética , Thogotovirus/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral
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