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Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 187(2): 235-239, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982348


Mythical figures have been part of human cultural tradition for centuries, worldwide. Some of them were totally imaginary, others were likely inspired by individuals with malformation syndromes, while others are composites of parts of different species. Various artists have created works of art based on these mythical or hybrid beings, such as cyclops and chimeras. The plethora of representations of artworks in ancient, but also contemporary art (statues, paintings, illustrations, photographs, installations) is proof that they still continue to be a source of inspiration, although their rendering and interpretation have changed over time. Contemporary medical genetic knowledge has revealed the underlying pathogenesis and causative molecular basis of malformation syndromes and delineates the corresponding phenotypes. Today, many figures once viewed as mythical are reflected in living humans with medical diagnoses. Ancient terms that arose in mythology-cyclopia, chimera/ism, and others-live on in the medical literature.

Anormalidades Múltiplas , Holoprosencefalia , Quimerismo , Humanos , Mitologia
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 187(2): 261-264, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982865
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(3): 308-322, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977769


This paper examines the berserker, a frenzied warrior attested to in both the written and material sources of medieval Scandinavia, and elucidates the characteristics that define him. It critiques explanations for the phenomenon offered in the existing historiography and whether this can be explained as a psychiatric diagnosis. It concludes that the berserker cannot be simply defined as a culturally bound or other psychiatric syndrome, or accounted for by psychogenic drugs alone. Instead, it proposes that berserk frenzy constituted a transitory dissociative state shared among a small warband steeped in religious/spiritual ideology. In entering this state, the psyche of the berserker was reconstituted in an almost archetypal pattern. Further research is required into this phenomenon in other contexts, including modern conflicts.

Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade/história , Militares/história , Religião/história , Animais , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Mitologia/história , Psiquiatria/história , Religião e Psicologia , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 23: 100155, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006362


BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic and proliferation of misinformation regarding science highlights the importance of improving general science literacy. The continued preponderance of neuromyths among educators is of concern, especially in lower- and middle-income countries. METHOD: Using an adapted questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among teachers in a small island developing state in the Caribbean. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the sample were unable to recognise at least 50% of the myths. Regression analysis demonstrated that higher scores in brain knowledge and exposure to prior teacher-training increased belief in neuromyths. On the other hand, specific in-service training pertaining to educational neuroscience improved scores. CONCLUSION: Neuromyths are prevalent among teachers and appear to inform their teaching practice. Further research needs to be conducted to explore not just the prevalence of these myths but in what ways they may be impacting teaching and learning outcomes in the classroom.

Neurociência Cognitiva , Competência Profissional , Professores Escolares , COVID-19 , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Mitologia , Neurociências , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capacitação de Professores , Trinidad e Tobago
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 9, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469787


Goethe's studies of natural form have occupied generations of scholars and the discussion on the relationship between Goethe's thought and evolutionary theory has never ceased since Haeckel's claims in the late nineteenth century. In scholarship which has aimed to address the question of change in Goethe's concept of nature, the focus has been primarily on his scientific writings. Aiming for a comprehensive understanding of Goethe's thought on reproduction, this article sets out to contribute to the ongoing debate by focusing on his literary text The New Melusine, a story centred on a dwarf figure. Examining texts by naturalists such as Buffon, Humboldt, and Darwin, the article demonstrates how Goethe, in the speculative framework of a literary text, explores patterns of transformation by means of sexual reproduction which did not make it into his better known scientific writings on plant morphology and comparative anatomy. I argue that the Melusine story becomes for Goethe a space to consider a new understanding of reproduction, its transformative power, and biopolitical possibilities, while at the same time providing an opportunity to reflect critically on its consequences for the individual.

Mitologia/história , Reprodução , Romantismo/história , Ciência na Literatura/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Literatura Moderna/história
Enferm. glob ; 20(61): 98-109, ene. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201456


OBJETIVO: Describir las creencias y prácticas culturales relacionadas con la alimentación durante el embarazo y puerperio en mujeres adultas (mayores de 60 años) en dos culturas diferentes, aplicando el Modelo de Tradiciones de Salud. MÉTODO: Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo. Participaron 16 mujeres residentes durante su embarazo/parto/puerperio en un área rural de Braga (Portugal), o León (España). La técnica de recogida de información fue la entrevista semiestructurada. Se hizo un análisis de contenido, siguiendo el Modelo de Tradiciones de Salud. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron creencias y prácticas relacionadas con la alimentación, encaminadas a proteger, mantener y recuperar la salud de la madre/recién nacido, desde la esfera física/mental/espiritual (9 dimensiones interrelacionadas). CONCLUSIÓN: Se describieron creencias y prácticas alimentarias en embarazo/puerperio de mujeres mayores, constatando el papel de la cultura en las mismas. Se consideraron 9 dimensiones interrelacionadas, y el rol relevante de familiares/allegadas. Estos datos pueden ayudarnos a planificar acciones de salud maternal en la actualidad, participativas (familia/comunidad), corregir ciertas prácticas, y proporcionar cuidados congruentes con la cultura de las mujeres. Ello puede ayudar a transformar creencias, o valores y actitudes que incardinan una determinada forma cultural en la enfermería

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cultural beliefs and practices related to food during pregnancy and the puerperium in adult women (over 60 years old) in two different cultures by applying the Health Traditions Model. METHOD: A qualitative study was carried out with the participation of 16 women resident during their pregnancy / childbirth / puerperium in a rural area of Braga (Portugal), and León (Spain). The information collection technique was the semi-structured interview. A content analysis was made, following the Health Traditions Model. RESULTS: Beliefs and dietary practices related to feeding were identified, aimed at protecting, maintaining and recovering the health of the mother / newborn, from the physical / mental / spiritual sphere (9 interrelated dimensions). CONCLUSION: Eating beliefs and practices in pregnancy / puerperium of older women were described, confirming the role of culture in them. 9 interrelated dimensions were considered, as well as the relevant role of family / relatives. These data can help us plan for current, participatory (family / community) maternal health actions, correct certain practices, and provide care consistent with the culture of women. This can help transform beliefs, or values and attitudes that embody a certain cultural form in nursing

Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Nutrição Materna , Nutrição do Lactente , Transtornos Puerperais/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Modelos de Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Modelos de Enfermagem , Fatores Culturais , Comparação Transcultural , Mitologia
Am J Med ; 134(1): 3-4, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805232
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1045-1053, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151851


The eyes and the gaze participate in a major way in our non-verbal language, even before the verb appeared. From the Bible to contemporary language, through Greek mythology, theater, literature or spoken language, a multitude of expressions and proverbs present the eye, what it sees and what it symbolizes.

Aforismos e Provérbios como Assunto , Expressão Facial , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Cultura , Olho , Humanos , Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo/fisiologia , Mitologia , Observação , Preconceito/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Superstições , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(10): 660-662, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111850


Epilepsy is one of the most dreaded and terrifying human afflictions. One of the many names it has received was Sacred Disease, during Greek times. Heracles served as a source of the divine connotation that epilepsy received in ancient times, as he was one of the most important demigods in Greek mythology. However, several authors have attributed Heracles' actions to a seizure, including Hippocrates, who described the sacred disease on his "Corpus Hippocraticum." This paper reviewed some of the publications on the myth and content of the text of Hippocrates, in relation to the current knowledge of the disease.

Doença , Epilepsia , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Mitologia , Convulsões
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(10): 660-662, Oct. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131682


ABSTRACT Epilepsy is one of the most dreaded and terrifying human afflictions. One of the many names it has received was Sacred Disease, during Greek times. Heracles served as a source of the divine connotation that epilepsy received in ancient times, as he was one of the most important demigods in Greek mythology. However, several authors have attributed Heracles' actions to a seizure, including Hippocrates, who described the sacred disease on his "Corpus Hippocraticum." This paper reviewed some of the publications on the myth and content of the text of Hippocrates, in relation to the current knowledge of the disease.

RESUMEN La epilepsia es una de las enfermedades más temidas y terroríficas de la humanidad. Durante el periodo griego, recibió uno de sus muchos nombres, el de enfermedad sagrada. Hércules sirvió como una de las fuentes para la connotación divina que la epilepsia recibió en tiempos antiguos, debido a que fue uno de los semidioses más importantes de la mitología griega. Sin embargo, muchos autores atribuyeron las acciones de Hércules a convulsiones, incluyendo Hipócrates, quien describió la enfermedad sagrada en su "Corpus Hippocraticum". Este artículo revisa algunas de las publicaciones sobre el mito y el contenido del texto de Hipócrates, en relación al conocimiento actual de la enfermedad.

Humanos , Masculino , Doença , Epilepsia , Convulsões , História Antiga , Mitologia
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 20: 100135, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917307


The objective of this study was to evaluate brain knowledge and the prevalence of neuromyths among teachers in Morocco. We aimed also predicting factors that may improve teachers' brain knowledge and widespread of neuromyths. An online questionnaire was sent to a large population of Moroccan teachers. The questionnaire contains 32 questions, 20 of them are designed to assess teachers' knowledge about the brain and the remaining 12 questions are neuromyths. The mean score of brain knowledge was (64.34% (SD = 27.9%)) and the mean score of neuromyths was (66.56% (SD= 25.73%)). Besides, 50% of teachers were unable to correctly answer seven out of the 20 brain knowledge questions. Moreover, half of the teachers believed in 9 out of the 12 neuromyths. Knowledge about the brain was the foremost predictor of neuromyths. The study disclosed a real lack of brain knowledge with a widespread of neuromyths among teachers in Morocco.

Pessoal de Educação/educação , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Encéfalo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Mitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capacitação de Professores
Violence Against Women ; 26(14): 1817-1822, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869734


The poems selected here explore the hidden side of some of the most popular fairy tales. Girls become women guided by myths that define their passive role, their submission to violent behavior by men in their lives, be they fathers, husbands, or lovers. These poems look at a girl's fantasies from a different perspective: that a woman's life becomes the work of demystifying the myths that dominated her childhood to create a newly informed and subversive version of the myth.

Folclore , Papel de Gênero , Violência de Gênero , Aprendizagem , Mitologia , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poesia como Assunto , Violência , Mulheres
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(3): 29-30, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120516


Zeus is known as the king of the gods and god of the sky. His attributes are lightning and thunder and he is often depicted about to hurl them. According to Greek mythology, Zeus molested the titan Metis and decided to swallow her when she was pregnant, which resulted in an excruciating headache, only relieved after a craniotomy performed using Hephaestus' axe. The result of this procedure was the birth of Athena, Zeus' daughter. We conducted a combined analysis of some writings such as the classical mythological poem Theogony by Hesiod, and some other books that examine and retell myths and legends of ancient Greece, with medical papers on this topic, trying to characterize Zeus' headache. Would it be possible to fit Zeus' headache into the group of thunderclap headaches?

Zeus é conhecido como rei dos deuses e deus dos céus. Tem como atributos os raios e os trovões e é frequentemente representado prestes a lançá-los. De acordo com a mitologia grega, Zeus molestou a titã Métis e resolveu engoli-la grávida, o que resultou em uma cefaleia excruciante, apenas aliviada após uma craniotomia realizada por meio do machado de Hefesto. O fruto deste procedimento foi Atena, filha de Zeus. Realizamos uma análise combinada utilizando escritos mitológicos clássicos como o poema Teogonia de Hesíodo, além de outros livros sobre mitologia e artigos médicos que tratam deste tema, para tentar caracterizar a cefaleia de Zeus. Seria possível enquadrar a cefaleia de Zeus no grupo das cefaleias em trovoada?

Humanos , Craniotomia/história , Cefaleia , Mitologia , Craniotomia/métodos , Transtornos da Cefaleia , Grécia Antiga
Presse Med ; 49(4): 104050, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768613


Since 2002, it has been unclear whether epidural analgesia (EA) could safe through a lower back tattoo. Theoretical risks of pigment tissue coring have led to precautionary measures and misconception that EA should be excluded. We reviewed chronologically the 18 years of medical literature summarizing the so-called risks of EA through lower back tattoo in parturient women. To date, no convincing complication has been ever reported after an EA through a tattoo. We hope this review will bring a closure to a 18-year-old "non-issue" that has poisoned and stressed unnecessarily a generation of parturient.

Analgesia Epidural , Tatuagem , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgesia Epidural/história , Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mitologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/história , Gravidez , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Tatuagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(9): 75, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798352

Fertilidade , Mitologia