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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068508

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating condition shortening the lifespan of young men. DMD patients suffer from age-related dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) that leads to heart failure. Several molecular mechanisms leading to cardiomyocyte death in DMD have been described. However, the pathological progression of DMD-associated DCM remains unclear. In skeletal muscle, a dramatic decrease in stem cells, so-called satellite cells, has been shown in DMD patients. Whether similar dysfunction occurs with cardiac muscle cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPCs) in DMD remains to be explored. We hypothesized that the number of CVPCs decreases in the dystrophin-deficient heart with age and disease state, contributing to DCM progression. We used the dystrophin-deficient mouse model (mdx) to investigate age-dependent CVPC properties. Using quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, speckle tracking echocardiography, and immunofluorescence, we revealed that young mdx mice exhibit elevated CVPCs. We observed a rapid age-related CVPC depletion, coinciding with the progressive onset of cardiac dysfunction. Moreover, mdx CVPCs displayed increased DNA damage, suggesting impaired cardiac muscle homeostasis. Overall, our results identify the early recruitment of CVPCs in dystrophic hearts and their fast depletion with ageing. This latter depletion may participate in the fibrosis development and the acceleration onset of the cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Distrofina/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Dano ao DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Distrofina/deficiência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/patologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068557

RESUMO

Depression is a prominent complex psychiatric disorder, usually complicated through expression of comorbid conditions, with chronic pain being among the most prevalent. This comorbidity is consistently associated with a poor prognosis and has been shown to negatively impact patient outcomes. With a global rise in this condition presenting itself, the importance of discovering long-term, effective, and affordable treatments is crucial. Electroacupuncture has demonstrated renowned success in its use for the treatment of pain and is a widely recognized therapy in clinical practice for the treatment of various psychosomatic disorders, most notably depression. Our study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Acid-Saline (AS) inducing states of chronic pain and depression comorbidity in the cerebellum, using the ST36 acupoint as the therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, the role of TRPV1 was relatedly explored through the use of TRPV1-/- mice (KO). The results indicated significant differences in the four behavioral tests used to characterize pain and depression states in mice. The AS and AS + SHAM group showed significant differences when compared to the Control and AS + EA groups in the von Frey and Hargreaves's tests, as well as the Open-Field and Forced Swimming tests. This evidence was further substantiated in the protein levels observed in immunoblotting, with significant differences between the AS and AS + SHAM groups when compared to the AS + EA and AS + KO groups being identified. In addition, immunofluorescence visibly served to corroborate the quantitative outcomes. Conclusively these findings suggest that AS-induced chronic pain and depression comorbidity elicits changes in the cerebellum lobules VI, VII, VIII, which are ameliorated through the use of EA at ST36 via its action on TRPV1 and related molecular pathways. The action of TRPV1 is not singular in CPDC, which would suggest other potential targets such as acid-sensing ion channel subtype 3 (ASIC3) or voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) that could be explored in future studies.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/genética , Dor Crônica/genética , Depressão/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Ácidos/toxicidade , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/efeitos da radiação , Dor Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Dor Crônica/complicações , Dor Crônica/terapia , Comorbidade , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroacupuntura , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Solução Salina/toxicidade , Natação
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068707

RESUMO

BDNF plays a pivotal role in neuroplasticity events, vulnerability and resilience to stress-related disorders, being decreased in depressive patients and increased after antidepressant treatment. BDNF was found to be reduced in patients carrying the human polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR). The serotonin knockout rat (SERT-/-) is one of the animal models used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of depression in humans. They present decreased BDNF levels, and anxiety- and depression-like behavior. To investigate whether upregulating BDNF would ameliorate the phenotype of SERT-/- rats, we overexpressed BDNF locally into the ventral hippocampus and submitted the animals to behavioral testing. The results showed that BDNF overexpression in the vHIP of SERT-/- rats promoted higher sucrose preference and sucrose intake; on the first day of the sucrose consumption test it decreased immobility time in the forced swim test and increased the time spent in the center of a novel environment. Furthermore, BDNF overexpression altered social behavior in SERT-/- rats, which presented increased passive contact with test partner and decreased solitary behavior. Finally, it promoted decrease in plasma corticosterone levels 60 min after restraint stress. In conclusion, modulation of BDNF IV levels in the vHIP of SERT-/- rats led to a positive behavioral outcome placing BDNF upregulation in the vHIP as a potential target to new therapeutic approaches to improve depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Corticosterona/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ratos , Serotonina/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/patologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068733

RESUMO

Wound infections are considered a major cause for wound-associated morbidity. There is a high demand for alternative, robust, and affordable methods that can provide relatable and reproducible results when testing topical treatments, both in research and in the pharmaceutical industry. Here we present an ex vivo wound infection model using porcine skin and a burn wounding method, allowing for the efficacy evaluation of topical antimicrobial formulations. Utilizing this model, we demonstrate the potential of topical treatments after infecting the wounds with clinically significant bacteria, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. We show that the method is compatible with several analytical tools used to analyze infection and antimicrobial effects. Both bacterial strains successfully infected the wound surface, as well as deeper regions of the tissue. Quantification of viable bacteria on the wound surface and in the tissue, longitudinal measurements of bioluminescence, fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to confirm the effects of antibacterial treatments. Furthermore, we show that biofilms are formed on the wound surface, indicating that the demonstrated method mirrors typical in vivo infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Queimaduras/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Suínos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/patologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071707

RESUMO

Cardiac connexins (Cxs) are proteins responsible for proper heart function. They form gap junctions that mediate electrical and chemical signalling throughout the cardiac system, and thus enable a synchronized contraction. Connexins can also individually participate in many signal transduction pathways, interacting with intracellular proteins at various cellular compartments. Altered connexin expression and localization have been described in diseased myocardium and the aim of this study is to assess the involvement of Cx43, Cx26, and some related molecules in ponatinib-induced cardiac toxicity. Ponatinib is a new multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been successfully used against human malignancies, but its cardiotoxicity remains worrisome. Therefore, understanding its signaling mechanism is important to adopt potential anti cardiac damage strategies. Our experiments were performed on hearts from male and female mice treated with ponatinib and with ponatinib plus siRNA-Notch1 by using immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and proteomic analyses. The altered cardiac function and the change in Cxs expression observed in mice after ponatinib treatment, were results dependent on the Notch1 pathway and sex. Females showed a lower susceptibility to ponatinib than males. The downmodulation of cardiac Cx43, Cx26 and miR-122, high pS368-Cx43 phosphorylation, cell viability and survival activation could represent some of the female adaptative/compensatory reactions to ponatinib cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Conexina 26 , Conexina 43 , Imidazóis , Piridazinas , Fatores Sexuais , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Conexina 26/efeitos dos fármacos , Conexina 26/metabolismo , Conexina 43/efeitos dos fármacos , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteômica , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073710

RESUMO

Cortical circuit dysfunction is thought to be an underlying mechanism of schizophrenia (SZ) pathophysiology with normalization of aberrant circuit activity proposed as a biomarker for antipsychotic efficacy. Cannabidiol (CBD) shows potential as an adjunctive antipsychotic therapy; however, potential sex effects in these drug interactions remain unknown. In the present study, we sought to elucidate sex effects of CBD coadministration with the atypical antipsychotic iloperidone (ILO) on the activity of primary cortical neuron cultures derived from the rat methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model used for the study of SZ. Spontaneous network activity measurements were obtained using a multielectrode array at baseline and following administration of CBD or ILO alone, or combined. At baseline, MAM male neurons displayed increased bursting activity whereas MAM female neurons exhibited no difference in bursting activity compared to sex-matched controls. CBD administered alone showed a rapid but transient increase in neuronal activity in the MAM networks, an effect more pronounced in females. Furthermore, ILO had an additive effect on CBD-induced elevations in activity in the MAM male neurons. In the MAM female neurons, CBD or ILO administration resulted in time-dependent elevations in neuronal activity, but the short-term CBD-induced increases in activity were lost when CBD and ILO were combined. Our findings indicate that CBD induces rapid increases in cortical neuronal activity, with sex-specific drug interactions upon ILO coadministration. This suggests that sex should be a consideration when implementing adjunct therapy for treatment of SZ.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/farmacologia , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3386, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099644

RESUMO

During early pregnancy in the mouse, nidatory estrogen (E2) stimulates endometrial receptivity by activating a network of signaling pathways that is not yet fully characterized. Here, we report that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) control endometrial receptivity via a conserved activin receptor type 2 A (ACVR2A) and SMAD1/5 signaling pathway. Mice were generated to contain single or double conditional deletion of SMAD1/5 and ACVR2A/ACVR2B receptors using progesterone receptor (PR)-cre. Female mice with SMAD1/5 deletion display endometrial defects that result in the development of cystic endometrial glands, a hyperproliferative endometrial epithelium during the window of implantation, and impaired apicobasal transformation that prevents embryo implantation and leads to infertility. Analysis of Acvr2a-PRcre and Acvr2b-PRcre pregnant mice determined that BMP signaling occurs via ACVR2A and that ACVR2B is dispensable during embryo implantation. Therefore, BMPs signal through a conserved endometrial ACVR2A/SMAD1/5 pathway that promotes endometrial receptivity during embryo implantation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Implantação do Embrião , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/genética , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína Smad1/análise , Proteína Smad1/genética , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad5/análise , Proteína Smad5/genética , Proteína Smad5/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3392, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099666

RESUMO

Cells infected with pathogens can contribute to clearing infections by releasing signals that instruct neighbouring cells to mount a pro-inflammatory cytokine response, or by other mechanisms that reduce bystander cells' susceptibility to infection. Here, we show the opposite effect: epithelial cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium secrete host factors that facilitate the infection of bystander cells. We find that the endoplasmic reticulum stress response is activated in both infected and bystander cells, and this leads to activation of JNK pathway, downregulation of transcription factor E2F1, and consequent reprogramming of microRNA expression in a time-dependent manner. These changes are not elicited by infection with other bacterial pathogens, such as Shigella flexneri or Listeria monocytogenes. Remarkably, the protein HMGB1 present in the secretome of Salmonella-infected cells is responsible for the activation of the IRE1 branch of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in non-infected, neighbouring cells. Furthermore, E2F1 downregulation and the associated microRNA alterations promote Salmonella replication within infected cells and prime bystander cells for more efficient infection.


Assuntos
Efeito Espectador/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Animais , Efeito Espectador/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Shigella flexneri/imunologia , Suínos
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3385, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099679

RESUMO

Obesity is the key driver of peripheral insulin resistance, one of the key features of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In insulin-resistant individuals, the expansion of beta-cell mass is able to delay or even prevent the onset of overt T2D. Here, we report that beta-arrestin-1 (barr1), an intracellular protein known to regulate signaling through G protein-coupled receptors, is essential for beta-cell replication and function in insulin-resistant mice maintained on an obesogenic diet. Specifically, insulin-resistant beta-cell-specific barr1 knockout mice display marked reductions in beta-cell mass and the rate of beta-cell proliferation, associated with pronounced impairments in glucose homeostasis. Mechanistic studies suggest that the observed metabolic deficits are due to reduced Pdx1 expression levels caused by beta-cell barr1 deficiency. These findings indicate that strategies aimed at enhancing barr1 activity and/or expression in beta-cells may prove useful to restore proper glucose homeostasis in T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , beta-Arrestina 1/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Transativadores/metabolismo , beta-Arrestina 1/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3416, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099706

RESUMO

APOE and Trem2 are major genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but how they affect microglia response to Aß remains unclear. Here we report an APOE isoform-specific phospholipid signature with correlation between human APOEε3/3 and APOEε4/4 AD brain and lipoproteins from astrocyte conditioned media of APOE3 and APOE4 mice. Using preclinical AD mouse models, we show that APOE3 lipoproteins, unlike APOE4, induce faster microglial migration towards injected Aß, facilitate Aß uptake, and ameliorate Aß effects on cognition. Bulk and single-cell RNA-seq demonstrate that, compared to APOE4, cortical infusion of APOE3 lipoproteins upregulates a higher proportion of genes linked to an activated microglia response, and this trend is augmented by TREM2 deficiency. In vitro, lack of TREM2 decreases Aß uptake by APOE4-treated microglia only, suggesting TREM2-APOE interaction. Our study elucidates phenotypic and transcriptional differences in microglial response to Aß mediated by APOE3 or APOE4 lipoproteins in preclinical models of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Apolipoproteína E3/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E4/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteína E3/administração & dosagem , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/administração & dosagem , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Encéfalo/citologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Presenilina-1/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3377, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099716

RESUMO

Animal models of human diseases are classically fed purified diets that contain casein as the unique protein source. We show that provision of a mixed protein source mirroring that found in the western diet exacerbates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by potentiating hepatic mTORC1/S6K1 signaling as compared to casein alone. These effects involve alterations in gut microbiota as shown by fecal microbiota transplantation studies. The detrimental impact of the mixed protein source is also linked with early changes in microbial production of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and elevated plasma and hepatic acylcarnitines, indicative of aberrant mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We further show that the BCFA, isobutyric and isovaleric acid, increase glucose production and activate mTORC1/S6K1 in hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrate that alteration of dietary protein source exerts a rapid and robust impact on gut microbiota and BCFA with significant consequences for the development of obesity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/etiologia , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Vida Livre de Germes , Gluconeogênese , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3414, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099731

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients have a 5-year survival rate of only 8% largely due to late diagnosis and insufficient therapeutic options. Neutrophils are among the most abundant immune cell type within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME), and are associated with a poor clinical prognosis. However, despite recent advances in understanding neutrophil biology in cancer, therapies targeting tumor-associated neutrophils are lacking. Here, we demonstrate, using pre-clinical mouse models of PDAC, that lorlatinib attenuates PDAC progression by suppressing neutrophil development and mobilization, and by modulating tumor-promoting neutrophil functions within the TME. When combined, lorlatinib also improves the response to anti-PD-1 blockade resulting in more activated CD8 + T cells in PDAC tumors. In summary, this study identifies an effect of lorlatinib in modulating tumor-associated neutrophils, and demonstrates the potential of lorlatinib to treat PDAC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3460, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103491

RESUMO

Lack or dysfunction of the lymphatics leads to secondary lymphedema formation that seriously reduces the function of the affected organs and results in degradation of quality of life. Currently, there is no definitive treatment option for lymphedema. Here, we utilized nucleoside-modified mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) encoding murine Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C (VEGFC) to stimulate lymphatic growth and function and reduce experimental lymphedema in mouse models. We demonstrated that administration of a single low-dose of VEGFC mRNA-LNPs induced durable, organ-specific lymphatic growth and formation of a functional lymphatic network. Importantly, VEGFC mRNA-LNP treatment reversed experimental lymphedema by restoring lymphatic function without inducing any obvious adverse events. Collectively, we present a novel application of the nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP platform, describe a model for identifying the organ-specific physiological and pathophysiological roles of the lymphatics, and propose an efficient and safe treatment option that may serve as a novel therapeutic tool to reduce lymphedema.


Assuntos
Linfangiogênese/genética , Vasos Linfáticos/patologia , Linfedema/patologia , Nucleosídeos/metabolismo , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxina Diftérica/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções Intradérmicas , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/química , Vasos Linfáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Poli C/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(12): 2561-2569, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104087

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a global challenge to human health. Upon viral infection, host cells initiate the innate antiviral response, which primarily involves type I interferons (I-IFNs), to enable rapid elimination of the invading virus. Previous studies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection limits the expression of I-IFNs in vitro and in vivo, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we performed data mining and longitudinal data analysis using SARS-CoV-2-infected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and ferrets, and the results confirmed the strong inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the induction of I-IFNs. Moreover, we identified genes that are negatively correlated with IFNB1 expression in vitro and in vivo based on Pearson correlation analysis. We found that SARS-CoV-2 activates numerous intrinsic pathways, such as the circadian rhythm, phosphatidylinositol signaling system, peroxisome, and TNF signaling pathways, to inhibit I-IFNs. These intrinsic inhibitory pathways jointly facilitate the successful immune evasion of SARS-CoV-2. Our study elucidates the underlying mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades the host innate antiviral response in vitro and in vivo, providing theoretical evidence for targeting these immune evasion-associated pathways to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Brônquios/citologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais , Furões , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/imunologia , RNA-Seq , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
15.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21713, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105201

RESUMO

Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) manifests lung pathology. In this study, efforts were made to check the infectivity of a local SARS-CoV-2 isolate in a self-limiting and non-lethal hamster model and evaluate the differential expression of lung proteins during acute infection and convalescence. The findings of this study confirm the infectivity of this isolate in vivo. Analysis of clinical parameters and tissue samples show the pathophysiological manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection similar to that reported earlier in COVID-19 patients and hamsters infected with other isolates. However, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a common histopathological feature of human COVID-19 was only occasionally noticed. The lung-associated pathological changes were very prominent on the 4th day post-infection (dpi), mostly resolved by 14 dpi. Here, we carried out the quantitative proteomic analysis of the lung tissues from SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters on day 4 and day 14 post-infection. This resulted in the identification of 1585 proteins of which 68 proteins were significantly altered between both the infected groups. Pathway analysis revealed complement and coagulation cascade, platelet activation, ferroptosis, and focal adhesion as the top enriched pathways. In addition, we also identified altered expression of two pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins (Sftpd and Sftpb), known for their protective role in lung function. Together, these findings will aid in understanding the mechanism(s) involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and progression of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/biossíntese , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065933

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotine-derived molecules which exert acute neurotoxic effects over the insect central nervous system by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, these receptors are also present in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system, where the effects of neonicotinoids are faintly known. In mammals, cholinergic synapses are crucial for the control of vascular tone, blood pressure and skeletal muscle contraction. We therefore hypothesized that neonicotinoids could affect cholinergic networks in mammals and sought to highlight functional consequences of acute intoxication in rats with sub-lethal concentrations of the highly used acetamiprid (ACE) and clothianidin (CLO). In this view, we characterized their electrophysiological effects on rat α3ß4 nAChRs, knowing that it is predominantly expressed in ganglia of the vegetative nervous system and the adrenal medulla, which initiates catecholamine secretion. Both molecules exhibited a weak agonist effect on α3ß4 receptors. Accordingly, their influence on epinephrine secretion from rat adrenal glands was also weak at 100 µM, but it was stronger at 500 µM. Challenging ACE or CLO together with nicotine (NIC) ended up with paradoxical effects on secretion. In addition, we measured the rat arterial blood pressure (ABP) in vivo by arterial catheterization. As expected, NIC induced a significant increase in ABP. ACE and CLO did not affect the ABP in the same conditions. However, simultaneous exposure of rats to both NIC and ACE/CLO promoted an increase of ABP and induced a biphasic response. Modeling the interaction of ACE or CLO on α3ß4 nAChR is consistent with a binding site located in the agonist pocket of the receptor. We present a transversal experimental approach of mammal intoxication with neonicotinoids at different scales, including in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo and in silico. It paves the way of the acute and chronic toxicity for this class of insecticides on mammalian organisms.


Assuntos
Epinefrina/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nicotina/toxicidade , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Medula Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Agonismo Parcial de Drogas , Gânglios/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068392

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of death in the western world. Despite advancements in interventional revascularization technologies, many patients are not candidates for them due to comorbidities or lack of local resources. Non-invasive approaches to accelerate revascularization within ischemic tissues through angiogenesis by providing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in protein or gene form has been effective in animal models but not in humans likely due to its short half-life and systemic toxicity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PR1P, a small VEGF binding peptide that we developed, which stabilizes and upregulates endogenous VEGF, could be used to improve outcome from MI in rodents. To test this hypothesis, we induced MI in mice and rats via left coronary artery ligation and then treated animals with every other day intraperitoneal PR1P or scrambled peptide for 14 days. Hemodynamic monitoring and echocardiography in mice and echocardiography in rats at 14 days showed PR1P significantly improved multiple functional markers of heart function, including stroke volume and cardiac output. Furthermore, molecular biology and histological analyses of tissue samples showed that systemic PR1P targeted, stabilized and upregulated endogenous VEGF within ischemic myocardium. We conclude that PR1P is a potential non-invasive candidate therapeutic for MI.


Assuntos
Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Isquemia/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Isquemia/metabolismo , Isquemia/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069029

RESUMO

The relationship between the two most prominent neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), extracellular amyloid-ß (Aß) deposits and intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), remains at present not fully understood. A large body of evidence places Aß upstream in the cascade of pathological events, triggering NFTs formation and the subsequent neuron loss. Extracellular Aß deposits were indeed causative of an increased tau phosphorylation and accumulation in several transgenic models but the contribution of soluble Aß peptides is still controversial. Among the different Aß variants, the N-terminally truncated peptide Aß4-42 is among the most abundant. To understand whether soluble Aß4-42 peptides impact the onset or extent of tau pathology, we have crossed the homozygous Tg4-42 mouse model of AD, exclusively expressing Aß4-42 peptides, with the PS19 (P301S) tau transgenic model. Behavioral assessment showed that the resulting double-transgenic line presented a partial worsening of motor performance and spatial memory deficits in the aged group. While an increased loss of distal CA1 pyramidal neurons was detected in young mice, no significant alterations in hippocampal tau phosphorylation were observed in immunohistochemical analyses.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos Motores/etiologia , Mutação , Proteínas tau/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transtornos Motores/metabolismo , Transtornos Motores/patologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3184, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075040

RESUMO

During spermatogenesis, meiosis is accompanied by a robust alteration in gene expression and chromatin status. However, it remains elusive how the meiotic transcriptional program is established to ensure completion of meiotic prophase. Here, we identify a protein complex that consists of germ-cell-specific zinc-finger protein ZFP541 and its interactor KCTD19 as the key transcriptional regulators in mouse meiotic prophase progression. Our genetic study shows that ZFP541 and KCTD19 are co-expressed from pachytene onward and play an essential role in the completion of the meiotic prophase program in the testis. Furthermore, our ChIP-seq and transcriptome analyses identify that ZFP541 binds to and suppresses a broad range of genes whose function is associated with biological processes of transcriptional regulation and covalent chromatin modification. The present study demonstrates that a germ-cell specific complex that contains ZFP541 and KCTD19 promotes the progression of meiotic prophase towards completion in male mice, and triggers the reconstruction of the transcriptional network and chromatin organization leading to post-meiotic development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Estágio Paquíteno/genética , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/metabolismo , Espermátides/citologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , RNA-Seq , Espermátides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
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