Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 81.878
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998207

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its associated governmental recommendations and restrictions have influenced many aspects of human life, including exercise and mental health. This study aims to explore the influence of COVID-19 on exercise behavior and its impact on mood states, as well as predict changes in exercise behavior during a similar future pandemic in Taiwan. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 7 April and 13 May 2020 (n = 1114). Data on exercise behavior pre and during the pandemic and mood states were collected. A cumulative link model was used to predict changes in exercise frequency during a similar future pandemic by exercise frequency during the pandemic. A linear model was used to predict the influence of exercise frequency before and during the pandemic on mood states during the pandemic. A total of 71.2%, 67.3%, and 58.3% of respondents maintained their exercise intensity, frequency, and duration, respectively, during the pandemic. Frequent exercisers are more likely to maintain their exercise frequency during a similar pandemic (p < 0.001). Higher exercise frequencies during the pandemic were associated with better mood states (p < 0.05). Moreover, the effects of prepandemic exercise frequency on mood states are moderated by changes in exercise frequency during the pandemic (p < 0.05). Additionally, maintenance of exercise frequency during a pandemic specifically for frequent exercisers are recommended to preserve mood states. These results may provide evidence for health policies on exercise promotion and mental health before and during a future pandemic.


Assuntos
Afeto , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 700, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in China at the end of 2019 and it has since spread in few months all over the World. Italy was one of the first Western countries who faced the health emergency and is one of the countries most severely affected by the pandemic. The diffusion of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy has followed a peculiar spatial pattern, however the attention of the scientific community has so far focussed almost exclusively on the prediction of the evolution of the disease over time. METHODS: Official freely available data about the number of infected at the finest possible level of spatial areal aggregation (Italian provinces) are used to model the spatio-temporal distribution of COVID-19 infections at local level. An endemic-epidemic time-series mixed-effects generalized linear model for areal disease counts has been implemented to understand and predict spatio-temporal diffusion of the phenomenon. RESULTS: Three subcomponents characterize the fitted model. The first describes the transmission of the illness within provinces; the second accounts for the transmission between nearby provinces; the third is related to the evolution of the disease over time. At the local level, the provinces first concerned by containment measures are those that are not affected by the effects of spatial neighbours. On the other hand, the component accounting for the spatial interaction with surrounding areas is prevalent for provinces that are strongly involved by contagions. Moreover, the proposed model provides good forecasts for the number of infections at local level while controlling for delayed reporting. CONCLUSIONS: A strong evidence is found that strict control measures implemented in some provinces efficiently break contagions and limit the spread to nearby areas. While containment policies may potentially be more effective if planned considering the peculiarities of local territories, the effective and homogeneous enforcement of control measures at national level is needed to prevent the disease control being delayed or missed as a whole. This may also apply at international level where, as it is for the European Union or the United States, the internal border checks among states have largely been abolished.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Geografia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4605, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929073

RESUMO

From starlight to sunlight, adaptation alters retinal output, changing both the signal and noise among populations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we determine how these light level-dependent changes impact decoding of retinal output, testing the importance of accounting for RGC noise correlations to optimally read out retinal activity. We find that at moonlight conditions, correlated noise is greater and assuming independent noise severely diminishes decoding performance. In fact, assuming independence among a local population of RGCs produces worse decoding than using a single RGC, demonstrating a failure of population codes when correlated noise is substantial and ignored. We generalize these results with a simple model to determine what conditions dictate this failure of population processing. This work elucidates the circumstances in which accounting for noise correlations is necessary to take advantage of population-level codes and shows that sensory adaptation can strongly impact decoding requirements on downstream brain areas.


Assuntos
Retina/fisiologia , Adaptação Ocular/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Luz , Modelos Lineares , Visão Noturna/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Ratos Long-Evans , Retina/efeitos da radiação , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos da radiação
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239174, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 frequently require mechanical ventilation. Knowledge of laboratory tests associated with the prolonged need for mechanical ventilation may guide resource allocation. We hypothesized that an elevated plasma procalcitonin level (>0.1 ng/ml) would be associated with the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to any of our health system's hospitals between March 9th-April 20th, 2020 and required invasive mechanical ventilation, were eligible for this observational cohort study. Demographics, comorbidities, components of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and procalcitonin levels on admission were obtained from the electronic health record. The primary outcome was the duration of mechanical ventilation; secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality and time to intubation. Outcomes were assessed within the first 28 days of admission. Baseline demographics and comorbidities were summarized by descriptive statistics. Univariate comparisons were made using Pearson's chi-square test for binary outcomes and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous outcomes. A multiple linear regression was fitted to assess the association between procalcitonin levels and the duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Patients with an initial procalcitonin level >0.1 ng/ml required a significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation than patients with a level of ≤0.1 ng/ml (p = 0.021) in the univariate analysis. There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality or time to intubation between the two groups. After adjusted analysis using multivariable linear regression, the duration of mechanical ventilation was, on average, 5.6 (p = 0.016) days longer in patients with an initial procalcitonin level >0.1 ng/ml. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of 93 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, we found an association between an initial plasma procalcitonin level >0.1 ng/ml and the duration of mechanical ventilation. These findings may help to identify patients at risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation upon admission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Alocação de Recursos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento
5.
Phys Biol ; 17(6): 065005, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966241

RESUMO

Error analysis and data visualization of positive COVID-19 cases in 27 countries have been performed up to August 8, 2020. This survey generally observes a progression from early exponential growth transitioning to an intermediate power-law growth phase, as recently suggested by Ziff and Ziff. The occurrence of logistic growth after the power-law phase with lockdowns or social distancing may be described as an effect of avoidance. A visualization of the power-law growth exponent over short time windows is qualitatively similar to the Bhatia visualization for pandemic progression. Visualizations like these can indicate the onset of second waves and may influence social policy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores de Tempo
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2020485, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897373

RESUMO

Importance: A stay-at-home social distancing mandate is a key nonpharmacological measure to reduce the transmission rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), but a high rate of adherence is needed. Objective: To examine the association between the rate of human mobility changes and the rate of confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used daily travel distance and home dwell time derived from millions of anonymous mobile phone location data from March 11 to April 10, 2020, provided by the Descartes Labs and SafeGraph to quantify the degree to which social distancing mandates were followed in the 50 US states and District of Columbia and the association of mobility changes with rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Exposure: State-level stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the association of state-specific rates of COVID-19 confirmed cases with the change rates of median travel distance and median home dwell time of anonymous mobile phone users. The increase rates are measured by the exponent in curve fitting of the COVID-19 cumulative confirmed cases, while the mobility change (increase or decrease) rates were measured by the slope coefficient in curve fitting of median travel distance and median home dwell time for each state. Results: Data from more than 45 million anonymous mobile phone devices were analyzed. The correlation between the COVID-19 increase rate and travel distance decrease rate was -0.586 (95% CI, -0.742 to -0.370) and the correlation between COVID-19 increase rate and home dwell time increase rate was 0.526 (95% CI, 0.293 to 0.700). Increases in state-specific doubling time of total cases ranged from 1.0 to 6.9 days (median [interquartile range], 2.7 [2.3-3.3] days) before stay-at-home orders were enacted to 3.7 to 30.3 days (median [interquartile range], 6.0 [4.8-7.1] days) after stay-at-home social distancing orders were put in place, consistent with pandemic modeling results. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that stay-at-home social distancing mandates, when they were followed by measurable mobility changes, were associated with reduction in COVID-19 spread. These results come at a particularly critical period when US states are beginning to relax social distancing policies and reopen their economies. These findings support the efficacy of social distancing and could help inform future implementation of social distancing policies should they need to be reinstated during later periods of COVID-19 reemergence.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911718

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence and potential risk factors of feline coronavirus (FCoV) shedding. Four consecutive fecal samples of 179 cats from 37 German breeding catteries were analyzed for FCoV ribonucleic acid (RNA) by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Prevalence of shedding was calculated using different numbers of fecal samples per cat (1-4) and different sampling intervals (5-28 days). Information on potential risk factors for FCoV shedding was obtained by a questionnaire. Risk factor analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Most cats (137/179, 76.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 69.8-82.2) shed FCoV at least at once. None of the tested 37 catteries was free of FCoV. Prevalence calculated including all four (76.5%, 95% CI 69.8-82.2) or the last three (73.7%, 95% CI 66.8-79.7) samples per cat was significantly higher than the prevalence calculated with only the last sample (61.5%, 95% CI 54.2-68.3; p = 0.0029 and 0.0175, respectively). Young age was significantly associated with FCoV shedding while the other factors were not. For identification of FCoV shedders in multi-cat households, at least three fecal samples per cat should be analyzed. Young age is the most important risk factor for FCoV shedding.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Abrigo para Animais , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21767, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871897

RESUMO

Risk factors such as smoking and sugar intake threaten the health of human being at an individual national level as well as at a global level. The globalization affect health indirectly through macro and micro-level factors. This study aimed to identify the global trend of dental caries according to countries national income level, and to examine the role of globalization, health services, obesity, and sugar consumption on dental caries. Data for 160 countries were collected for the time period of the 1990s to 2010s. The final sample included 46 countries with complete data (21 high income countries (HIC) and 25 middle and low income countries (MLIC)). The main dependent variable was the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index of 12-year-olds as an indicator of dental caries. Globalization was a main independent variable which was measured by economic growth, urbanization and economic freedom. Other independent variables were health services, obesity and sugar consumption. The data were analyzed first using repeated measures analysis of variance to compare dental caries trends in HIC and MLIC. Then, using multiple linear regression and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the relationships between globalization, health services, obesity, sugar consumption, and dental caries were examined. The results of PLS-SEM revealed that globalization was associated with lower DMFT in HIC. The global dental caries trend had a declined pattern, but this pattern has been attenuated in MLIC after the new millennium. There is a need for policy change and regulations on sugar trade especially in MLIC to diminish the adverse consequences of globalization, and to improve population dental health.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Criança , Açúcares da Dieta , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Lineares , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Urbanização
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1308-1312, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867441

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the prospective association between consumption pattern of sugar-sweetened beverages and childhood periodontal health. Methods: This study was based on a 4-year longitudinal cohort of children from Bengbu, Anhui province. Pattern of sugar-sweetened beverages was determined by group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) through annual child-reported questionnaire. Association between sugar-sweetened beverages pattern with plague index and gingivitis was explored through multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results: A total of 997 children including 418 boys and 579 girls were included in this study, with an average age of (11.00±0.70) years at the final wave. Four consumption patterns on sugar-sweetened beverages were identified by GBTM: persistent low group (80.70%), gradually decreasing group (12.40%), decreasing after increasing group (2.20%) and gradually increasing group (4.70%). Compared with the persistent low group (1.08±0.70), the Plague index among gradually increasing group (1.73±0.80) was significantly higher (t=4.00, P<0.001). The prevalence of gingivitis was significantly higher among children in the gradually increasing group (12.80%) than that in the persistent low group (3.00%) (χ(2)=12.40, P<0.001). After controlling for related confounders, results suggested that Plague index increased by 0.58 (95%CI: 0.27-0.89) and 0.38 (95%CI: 0.03-0.73) in the gradually increasing group and "decreasing follow the increase" group, respectively when compared with the persistent low group. The risk for gingivitis was 4.42 times (95%CI: 1.65-12.20, P=0.003) higher in the gradually increasing group. Conclusion: Our data suggested that children with higher sugar-sweetened beverages consumption during the transition period from childhood to adolescence were under higher risk for periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780767

RESUMO

A new generalized linear mixed quantile model for panel data is proposed. This proposed approach applies GEE with smoothed estimating functions, which leads to asymptotically equivalent estimation of the regression coefficients. Random effects are predicted by using the best linear unbiased predictors (BLUP) based on the Tweedie exponential dispersion distributions which cover a wide range of distributions, including those widely used ones, such as the normal distribution, Poisson distribution and gamma distribution. A Taylor expansion of the quantile estimating function is used to linearize the random effects in the quantile process. The parameter estimation is based on the Newton-Raphson iteration method. Our proposed quantile mixed model gives consistent estimates that have asymptotic normal distributions. Simulation studies are carried out to investigate the small sample performance of the proposed approach. As an illustration, the proposed method is applied to analyze the epilepsy data.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Modelos Lineares , Simulação por Computador , Distribuição Normal
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764785

RESUMO

This study's objective was to estimate the temporal trends of leprosy according to sex and age groups, as well as to estimate and predict the progression of the disease in a hyperendemic city located in the northeast of Brazil. This ecological time-series study was conducted in Imperatriz, Maranhão, Brazil. Leprosy cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 were included. Detection rates stratified by sex and age groups were estimated. The study of temporal trends was accomplished using the Seasonal-Trend Decomposition method and temporal modeling of detection rates using linear seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model according to Box and Jenkins method. Trend forecasts were performed for the 2017-2020 period. A total of 3,212 cases of leprosy were identified, the average incidence among men aged between 30 and 59 years old was 201.55/100,000 inhabitants and among women in the same age group was 135.28/100,000 inhabitants. Detection rates in total and by sex presented a downward trend, though rates stratified according to sex and age presented a growing trend among men aged less than 15 years old and among women aged 60 years old or over. The final models selected in the time-series analysis show the forecasts of total detection rates and rates for men and women presented a downward trend for the 2017-2020 period. Even though the forecasts show a downward trend in Imperatriz, the city is unlikely to meet a significant decrease of the disease burden by 2020.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões/métodos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237495, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low levels of physical activity (PA) and high levels of physical inactivity (PI) are associated with higher mortality and cardiovascular diseases. Higher age is associated with a decrease of PA, only 2.4-29% of ≥60 year-olds achieve the PA times recommended by WHO. The aim of this study was to identify levels of and determinants for moderate PA, overall PA and PI in a sample of individuals aged ≥65 years. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from an intervention-study aiming to increase PA and decrease PI by automatically generated feedback letters to objectively measured PA and PI. Recruitment was multimodal including re-contacting participants of previous studies and advertisements in regional public buses and newspapers. At baseline, participants wore an accelerometer over a period of 7 consecutive days. PA was categorized using cut-points suggested by Freedsoon 1998 in light, moderate and vigorous physical intensity as well as physical inactivity. Potential determinants (self-efficacy, education) were measured by questionnaires or in a physical examination (BMI). Multiple linear regression models were fitted to identify determinants for PA and PI. RESULTS: N = 199 persons (mean age 71.0 years (SD 4.9), 59.3% female) participated in the study. The weekly amount of overall PA for men was on average 1,821 minutes (SD 479.1), for women on average 1,929 minutes (SD 448.8). 79.7% of the women and 72.8% of the men achieved the WHO recommendation of 30 minutes moderate PA/day at baseline. The time of PI during the observation time period of 7 days was on average 4,057 minutes in men and 3,973 minutes in women. In males, age was found to be a significant negative determinant for overall PA (p = 0.002) and for moderate PA (p<0.001). Higher education was positively associated with higher levels of overall PA (p = 0.013) and moderate PA (p = 0.06) in men. BMI was a significant negative determinant for overall PA both in men (p = 0.039) and women (p = 0.032) as well as for moderate PA for women (p = 0.009). Only in women, not in men, self-efficacy was to be a significant positive determinant for overall PA (p = 0.020) as well as negatively associated with PI (p = 0.006). DISCUSSION: The participants of our study showed high levels of PA. This is likely due to selection bias in this convenience sample. However, also levels of PI are very high and those correspond with average levels in the German population. The determinants for higher PA and lower PI differed between males and females. Thus, strategies for improving PA and decrease PI are likely different with respect to sex and should take individual factors (e.g. age, BMI) into account. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00010410 Date: 17 May 2017.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Escolaridade , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Autoeficácia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790735

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that nutrition and muscle strength were associated with functional recovery in patients with hip fracture. However, the impact of heart failure on the improvement of activity of daily living (ADL) in patients with hip fracture have not been fully investigated. The purpose was investigating the effect of heart failure on the ADL improvement by rehabilitation in patients with hip fracture. A total of 116 patients with hip fracture discharged from our convalescent rehabilitation ward were studied. Heart failure was assessed based on plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels on admission. ADL was assessed based on rehabilitation effectiveness (REs), which was calculated using the FIM instrument. Clinical, demographic, and nutritional variables were measured. Multiple regression analysis was performed with REs as the dependent variable; variables showing significant correlation with REs in univariate analyses were selected as independent variables. Based on plasma BNP levels, we assigned 39 patients to a Low group: 22 (17-25) median (interquartile) pg/mL, 39 to a Middle group: 52 (42-65) pg/mL, and 38 to a High group: 138 (93-209) pg/mL. REs, handgrip strength, Hb, albumin, and GNRI were higher and age was younger in the Low group than High group (each p < 0.01, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (p < 0.05), sex (p < 0.05), handgrip strength (p < 0.01), FOIS at admission (p < 0.01), rehabilitation time per day (p < 0.01), and BNP (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with REs. The effect of rehabilitation on ADL improvement was significantly blunted in the High group compared to the Low group. In conclusion, these results suggest that heart failure assessed based on plasma BNP levels negatively impacts improvements in ADL achieved through rehabilitation in patients with hip fracture.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Fraturas do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Força da Mão , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/reabilitação , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817705

RESUMO

A higher levodopa dose is a strong risk factor for levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, levodopa dose can change during long-term medication. We explored the relationship between levodopa dose and time to onset of LID using longitudinal multicenter data. Medical records of 150 patients who were diagnosed with de novo PD and treated with levodopa until onset of LID were collected. Levodopa dose were assessed as the dose at 6 months from levodopa initiation and rate of dose increase between 6 months and onset of LID. The groups with earlier LID onset had higher levodopa and levodopa-equivalent dose at the first 6 months of treatment and rapid increase in both levodopa and levodopa-equivalent dose. Multivariable linear regression models revealed that female sex, severe motor symptom at levodopa initiation, and higher rate of increase in both levodopa and levodopa-equivalent dose were significantly associated with early onset of LID. The present results demonstrated that rapid increase in levodopa dose or levodopa-equivalent dose is associated with early onset of LID.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853208

RESUMO

Paclitaxel as a microtubule-stabilizing agent is widely used for the treatment of a vast range of cancers. Corylus avellana cell suspension culture (CSC) is a promising strategy for paclitaxel production. Elicitation of paclitaxel biosynthesis pathway is a key approach for improving its production in cell culture. However, optimization of this process is time-consuming and costly. Modeling of paclitaxel elicitation process can be helpful to predict the optimal condition for its high production in cell culture. The objective of this study was modeling and forecasting paclitaxel biosynthesis in C. avellana cell culture responding cell extract (CE), culture filtrate (CF) and cell wall (CW) derived from endophytic fungus, either individually or combined treatment with methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MBCD), based on four input variables including concentration levels of fungal elicitors and MBCD, elicitor adding day and CSC harvesting time, using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multiple regression methods. The results displayed a higher accuracy of ANFIS models (0.94-0.97) as compared to regression models (0.16-0.54). The great accordance between the predicted and observed values of paclitaxel biosynthesis for both training and testing subsets support excellent performance of developed ANFIS models. Optimization process of developed ANFIS models with genetic algorithm (GA) showed that optimal MBCD (47.65 mM) and CW (2.77% (v/v)) concentration levels, elicitor adding day (16) and CSC harvesting time (139 h and 41 min after elicitation) can lead to highest paclitaxel biosynthesis (427.92 µg l-1). The validation experiment showed that ANFIS-GA method can be a promising tool for selecting the optimal conditions for maximum paclitaxel biosynthesis, as a case study.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Corylus/química , Paclitaxel/biossíntese , Algoritmos , Corylus/metabolismo , Fungos/química , Fungos/metabolismo , Modelos Lineares , Células Vegetais/química , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764762

RESUMO

Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) are a valuable animal model used in biomedical research. Like many animals, ferrets undergo significant variation in body weight seasonally, affected by photoperiod, and these variations complicate the use weight as an indicator of health status. To overcome this requires a better understanding of these seasonal weight changes. We provide a normative weight data set for the female ferret accounting for seasonal changes, and also investigate the effect of fluid regulation on weight change. Female ferrets (n = 39) underwent behavioural testing from May 2017 to August 2019 and were weighed daily, while housed in an animal care facility with controlled light exposure. In the winter (October to March), animals experienced 10 hours of light and 14 hours of dark, while in summer (March to October), this contingency was reversed. Individual animals varied in their body weight from approximately 700 to 1200 g. However, weights fluctuated with light cycle, with animals losing weight in summer, and gaining weight in winter such that they fluctuated between approximately 80% and 120% of their long-term average. Ferrets were weighed as part of their health assessment while experiencing water regulation for behavioural training. Water regulation superimposed additional weight changes on these seasonal fluctuations, with weight loss during the 5-day water regulation period being greater in summer than winter. Analysing the data with a Generalised Linear Model confirmed that the percentage decrease in weight per week was relatively constant throughout the summer months, while the percentage increase in body weight per week in winter decreased through the season. Finally, we noted that the timing of oestrus was reliably triggered by the increase in day length in spring. These data establish a normative benchmark for seasonal weight variation in female ferrets that can be incorporated into the health assessment of an animal's condition.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Furões/anatomia & histologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais de Laboratório/anatomia & histologia , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Furões/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Fotoperíodo , Valores de Referência , Estações do Ano
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e20955, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has potentially had a negative impact on the mental health and well-being of individuals and families. Anxiety levels and risk factors within particular populations are poorly described. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate confidence, understanding, trust, concerns, and levels of anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population and assess risk factors for increased anxiety. METHODS: We launched a cross-sectional online survey of a large Russian population between April 6 and 15, 2020, using multiple social media platforms. A set of questions targeted confidence, understanding, trust, and concerns in respondents. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to measure anxiety. Multiple linear regressions were used to model predictors of COVID-19-related anxiety. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 23,756 out of 53,966 (44.0% response rate) unique visitors; of which, 21,364 were residing in 62 areas of Russia. State Anxiety Scale (S-Anxiety) scores were higher than Trait Anxiety Scale scores across all regions of Russia (median S-Anxiety score 52, IQR 44-60), exceeding published norms. Time spent following news on COVID-19 was strongly associated with an increased S-Anxiety adjusted for baseline anxiety level. One to two hours spent reading COVID-19 news was associated with a 5.46 (95% CI 5.03-5.90) point difference, 2-3 hours with a 7.06 (95% CI 6.37-7.74) point difference, and more than three hours with an 8.65 (95% CI 7.82-9.47) point difference, all compared to less than 30 minutes per day. Job loss during the pandemic was another important factor associated with higher S-Anxiety scores (3.95, 95% CI 3.31-4.58). Despite survey respondents reporting high confidence in information regarding COVID-19 as well as an understanding of health care guidance, they reported low overall trust in state and local authorities, and perception of country readiness. CONCLUSIONS: Among Russian respondents from multiple social media platforms, there was evidence of higher levels of state anxiety associated with recent job loss and increased news consumption, as well as lower than expected trust in government agencies. These findings can help inform the development of key public health messages to help reduce anxiety and raise perceived trust in governmental response to this current national emergency. Using a similar methodology, comparative surveys are ongoing in other national populations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790737

RESUMO

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter synthesized by the amino acid tryptophan, that has the potential to impact the behaviour and activity of dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplemental tryptophan and a 12-week incremental training regimen on the voluntary activity and behaviour of client-owned Siberian Huskies. Sixteen dogs were blocked for age, BW and sex and then randomly allocated to either the control or treatment group. Both groups were fed the same dry extruded diet; however, the treatment group were supplemented with tryptophan to achieve a tryptophan: large neutral amino acid ratio of 0.075:1. Once a week, a 5-minute video recording was taken immediately pre- and post- exercise to evaluate dogs' behaviours. Activity monitors were used to record voluntary activity on both training and rest days. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between training week and time spent performing each behaviour. Additionally, a repeated measure mixed model was used to test differences between diet groups and training week for both behavioural and activity count data. The time spent performing agonistic behaviours prior to exercise was negatively associated with week for treatment dogs (ß = -0.32, 95% CI [-0.55, -0.10], P < 0.05) and no change was observed for control dogs (ß = -0.13, 95% CI [-0.41, 0.15], P > 0.10). Treatment did not have any effect on activity levels (P > 0.10). For all dogs, locomotive behaviours decreased prior to exercise as weeks progressed (P < 0.05), while run day voluntary activity depended on the distance run that day (P < 0.05). These data suggest that sled dogs experience an exercise-induced reduction in voluntary locomotion in response to both single bouts and repetitive bouts of exercise. Additionally, tryptophan supplementation may decrease agonistic behaviours, without having any effect on voluntary activity.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cães/psicologia , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Treino Aeróbico/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Serotonina/biossíntese , Serotonina/fisiologia , Esportes na Neve , Fatores de Tempo , Triptofano/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804928

RESUMO

We studied avian development in 49 to 153 species of temperate and tropical New World passerine birds to determine how growth rates, and incubation and nestling periods, varied in relation to other life-history traits. We collected growth data and generated unbiased mass and tarsus growth rate estimates (mass n = 92 species, tarsus n = 49 species), and measured incubation period (n = 151) and nestling period (n = 153), which we analyzed with respect to region, egg mass, adult mass, clutch size, parental care type, nest type, daily nest predation rate (DMR), and nest height. We investigated covariation of life-history and natural-history attributes with the four development traits after controlling for phylogeny. Species in our lowland tropical sample grew 20% (incubation period), 25% (mass growth rate), and 26% (tarsus growth rate) more slowly than in our temperate sample. Nestling period did not vary with respect to latitude, which suggests that tropical songbirds fledge in a less well-developed state than temperate species. Suboscine species typically exhibited slower embryonic and post-embryonic growth than oscine passerines regardless of their breeding region. This pattern of slow development in tropical species could reflect phylogenetic effects based on unknown physiological attributes. Time-dependent nest mortality was unrelated to nestling mass growth rate, tarsus growth rate, and incubation period, but was significantly associated with nestling period. This suggests that nest predation, the predominant cause of nest loss in songbirds, does not exert strong selection on physiologically constrained traits, such as embryonic and post-embryonic growth, among our samples of temperate and lowland tropical songbird species. Nestling period, which is evolutionarily more labile than growth rate, was significantly shorter in birds exposed to higher rates of nest loss and nesting at lower heights, among other traits. Differences in life-history variation across latitudes provide insight into how unique ecological characteristics of each region influence physiological processes of passerines, and thus, how they can shape the evolution of life histories. While development traits clearly vary with respect to latitude, trait distributions overlap broadly. Life-history and natural history associations differ for each development trait, which suggests that unique selective pressures or constraints influence the evolution of each trait.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Clima , Tamanho da Ninhada , Análise Discriminante , Ecossistema , Feminino , Traços de História de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Michigan , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Oregon , Panamá , Filogenia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Aves Canoras/classificação , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tarso Animal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804976

RESUMO

Molecular markers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) represent an accessible means of exploring the pathobiology of Huntington's disease (HD) in vivo. The endo-lysosomal/autophagy system is dysfunctional in HD, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis and representing a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Several endo-lysosomal proteins have shown promise as biomarkers in other neurodegenerative diseases; however, they have yet to be fully explored in HD. We performed parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis (PRM-MS) of multiple endo-lysosomal proteins in the CSF of 60 HD mutation carriers and 20 healthy controls. Using generalised linear models controlling for age and CAG, none of the 18 proteins measured displayed significant differences in concentration between HD patients and controls. This was affirmed by principal component analysis, in which no significant difference across disease stage was found in any of the three components representing lysosomal hydrolases, binding/transfer proteins and innate immune system/peripheral proteins. However, several proteins were associated with measures of disease severity and cognition: most notably amyloid precursor protein, which displayed strong correlations with composite Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, UHDRS Total Functional Capacity, UHDRS Total Motor Score, Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Stroop Word Reading. We conclude that although endo-lysosomal proteins are unlikely to have value as disease state CSF biomarkers for Huntington's disease, several proteins demonstrate associations with clinical severity, thus warranting further, targeted exploration and validation in larger, longitudinal samples.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto , Idoso , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Endossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Ativadora de G(M2)/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/psicologia , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA