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1.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199338

RESUMO

The fecal metabolome in early life has seldom been studied. We investigated its evolution in pre-term babies during their first weeks of life. Multiple (n = 152) stool samples were studied from 51 babies, all <32 weeks gestation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Data were interpreted using Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution System (AMDIS) with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference library. Statistical analysis was based on linear mixed modelling, the number of VOCs increased over time; a rise was mainly observed between day 5 and day 10. The shift at day 5 was associated with products of branched-chain fatty acids. Prior to this, the metabolome was dominated by aldehydes and acetic acid. Caesarean delivery showed a modest association with molecules of fungal origin. This study shows how the metabolome changes in early life in pre-term babies. The shift in the metabolome 5 days after delivery coincides with the establishment of enteral feeding and the transition from meconium to feces. Great diversity of metabolites was associated with being fed greater volumes of milk.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrição Enteral , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Microextração em Fase Sólida
2.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 41, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis is a statistical method to synthesize evidence from a number of independent studies, including those from clinical studies with binary outcomes. In practice, when there are zero events in one or both groups, it may cause statistical problems in the subsequent analysis. METHODS: In this paper, by considering the relative risk as the effect size, we conduct a comparative study that consists of four continuity correction methods and another state-of-the-art method without the continuity correction, namely the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). To further advance the literature, we also introduce a new method of the continuity correction for estimating the relative risk. RESULTS: From the simulation studies, the new method performs well in terms of mean squared error when there are few studies. In contrast, the generalized linear mixed model performs the best when the number of studies is large. In addition, by reanalyzing recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) data, it is evident that the double-zero-event studies impact the estimate of the mean effect size. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend the new method to handle the zero-event studies when there are few studies in a meta-analysis, or instead use the GLMM when the number of studies is large. The double-zero-event studies may be informative, and so we suggest not excluding them.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Análise de Dados , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Humanos , Modelos Lineares
3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204893

RESUMO

Good nutritional support is crucial for the immune system to fight against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, in the context of a pandemic with a highly transmissible coronavirus, implementation of nutrition practice may be difficult. A multicenter electronic survey involving 62 dieticians was conducted, in order to understand barriers associated with dieticians' adherence to nutrition guidelines for hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Indonesia. 69% of dieticians felt under stress when performing nutrition care, and 90% took supplements to boost their own immunity against the coronavirus. The concerns related to clinical practice included a lack of clear guidelines (74%), a lack of access to medical records (55%), inadequate experience or knowledge (48%), and a lack of self-efficacy/confidence (29%) in performing nutritional care. Half (52%) of the dieticians had performed nutrition education/counseling, 47% had monitored a patient's body weight, and 76% had monitored a patient's dietary intake. An adjusted linear regression showed that guideline adherence independently predicted the dieticians' nutrition care behaviors of nutrition counselling (ß: 0.24 (0.002, 0.08); p = 0.04), and monitoring of body weight (ß: 0.43 (0.04, 0.11); p = 0.001) and dietary intake (ß: 0.47(0.03, 0.10); p = 0.001) of COVID-19 patients. Overall, adherence to COVID-19 nutrition guidelines is associated with better nutritional management behaviors in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitalização , Estado Nutricional , Nutricionistas , Pandemias , Assistência ao Paciente , Peso Corporal , Competência Clínica , Aconselhamento , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Estresse Ocupacional , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoeficácia
4.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207320

RESUMO

We evaluated mycophenolic acid (MPA) limited sampling strategies (LSSs) established using multiple linear regression (MLR) in children with nephrotic syndrome treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). MLR-LSS is an easy-to-determine approach of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). We assessed the practicability of different LSSs for the estimation of MPA exposure as well as the optimal time points for MPA TDM. The literature search returned 29 studies dated 1998-2020. We applied 53 LSSs (n = 48 for MPA, n = 5 for free MPA [fMPA]) to predict the area under the time-concentration curve (AUCpred) in 24 children with nephrotic syndrome, for whom we previously determined MPA and fMPA concentrations, and compare the results with the determined AUC (AUCtotal). Nine equations met the requirements for bias and precision ±15%. The MPA AUC in children with nephrotic syndrome was predicted the best by four time-point LSSs developed for renal transplant recipients. Out of five LSSs evaluated for fMPA, none fulfilled the ±15% criteria for bias and precision probably due to very high percentage of bound MPA (99.64%). MPA LSS for children with nephrotic syndrome should include blood samples collected 1 h, 2 h and near the second MPA maximum concentration. MPA concentrations determined with the high performance liquid chromatography after multiplying by 1.175 may be used in LSSs based on MPA concentrations determined with the immunoassay technique. MPA LSS may facilitate TDM in the case of MMF, however, more studies on fMPA LSS are required for children with nephrotic syndrome.


Assuntos
Ácido Micofenólico/metabolismo , Síndrome Nefrótica/metabolismo , Adolescente , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208085

RESUMO

The validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in migrants is questionable, as sociodemographic factors and the migration process may influence performance. Our aim was to evaluate possible predictors (age, education, sex, depression, and migration) of MoCA results in Turkish migrants and Germans living in Germany. Linear regression models were conducted with a German (n = 419), a Turkish (n = 133), and an overall sample. All predictor analyses reached statistical significance. For the German sample, age, sex, education, and depression were significant predictors, whereas education was the only predictor for Turkish migrants. For the overall sample, having no migration background and higher education were significant predictors. Migration background and education had an impact on MoCA performance in a sample of German and Turkish individuals living in Germany. Thus, culture-specific normative data for the MoCA are needed, and the development of culture-sensitive cognitive screening tools is encouraged.


Assuntos
Depressão , Depressão/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
6.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 173, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of the minimum clinical important difference (MCID) can make it easier for researchers or doctors to judge the significance of research results and the effect of intervention measures, and improve the evaluation system of efficacy. This paper is aimed to calculate the MCID based on anchor and to develop MCID for esophageal cancer scale (QLICP-ES). METHODS: The item Q29 (How do you evaluate your overall health in the past week with 7 grades answers from 1 very poor to 7 excellent)of EORTC QLQ-C30 was used as the subjective anchor to calculate the score difference between each domain at discharge and admission. MCID was established according to two standards, "one grade difference"(A) and "at least one grade difference"(B), and developed by three methods: anchor-based method, ROC curve method and multiple linear regression models. In terms of anchor-based method, the mean of the absolute value of the difference before and after treatments is MCID. The point with the best sensitivity and specificity-Yorden index at the ROC curve is MCID for ROC curve method. In contrast, the predicted mean value based on a multiple linear regression model and the parameters of each factor is MCID. RESULTS: Most of the correlation coefficients of Q29 and various domains of the QLICP-ES were higher than 0.30. The rank of MCID values determined by different methods and standards were as follows: standard B > standard A, anchor-based method > ROC curve method > multiple linear regression models. The recommended MCID values of physical domain, psychological domain, social domain, common symptom and side-effects domain, the specific domain and the overall of the QLICP-ES were 7.8, 9.7, 4.7, 3.6, 4.3, 2.3 and 2.9, respectively. CONCLUSION: Different methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and also different definitions and standards can be adopted according to research purposes and methods. A lot of different MCID values were presented in this paper so that it can be easy and convenient to select by users.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(3): 6596, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Face masks are widely recommended as a COVID-19 prevention strategy. State mask mandates have generally reduced the spread of the disease, but decisions to wear a mask depend on many factors. Recent increases in case rates in rural areas following initial outbreaks in more densely populated areas highlight the need to focus on prevention and education. Messaging about disease risk has faced challenges in rural areas in the past. While surges in cases within some communities are likely an impetus for behavior change, rising case rates likely explain only part of mask-wearing decisions. The current study examined the relationship between county-level indicators of rurality and mask wearing in the USA. METHODS: National data from the New York Times' COVID-19 cross-sectional mask survey was used to identify the percentage of a county's residents who reported always/frequently wearing a mask (2-14 July 2020). The New York Times' COVID-19 data repository was used to calculate county-level daily case rates for the 2 weeks preceding the mask survey (15 June - 1 July 2020), and defined county rurality using the Index of Relative Rurality (n=3103 counties). Multivariate linear regression was used to predict mask wearing across levels of rurality. The model was adjusted for daily case rates and other relevant county-level confounders, including county-level indicators of age, race/ethnicity, gender, political partisanship, income inequality, and whether each county was subject to a statewide mask mandate. RESULTS: Large clusters of counties with high rurality and low mask wearing were observed in the Midwest, upper Midwest, and mountainous West. Holding daily case rates and other county characteristics constant, the predicted probability of wearing a mask decreased significantly as counties became more rural (β=-0.560; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Upticks in COVID-19 cases and deaths in rural areas are expected to continue, and localized outbreaks will likely occur indefinitely. The present findings highlight the need to better understand the mechanisms underlying perceptions of COVID-19 risk in rural areas. Dissemination of scientifically correct and consistent information is critical during national emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Máscaras/tendências , População Rural/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 551-562, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264702

RESUMO

Though popular across many audiences, engagement with a service dog has undergone limited empirical evaluation as a complementary or alternative treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study took advantage of a service dog training intervention underway in a Department of Veterans Affairs residential PTSD treatment program to perform a within-subjects comparison of a range of phenotypic markers. The present report considers negative and positive affect, assessed throughout the day, contrasting weeks when participants were or were not accompanied by their service dog. Fifty-four veterans were studied for 2-6 weeks. Negative and positive affect were sampled five times per day using items from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Participants also wore a single-patch ECG/activity recorder and slept on beds recording sleep actigraphically. Linear mixed effects regression was employed to estimate the effect of the presence of service dog on momentary affect in the context of other presumable influences. Missing data were managed using methods applicable to random and nonrandom missingness. In this sample, the presence of a service dog was associated with reduced negative and increased positive affect, with both effects diminishing over time. Only negative affect was associated with time in residential treatment, and only positive affect was associated with concurrent heart rate, activity, and the interaction of activity and prior-night actigraphic sleep efficiency. These results concur with prior reports of reduced PTSD symptomology in association with the presence of a service dog, and with the distinct neurocircuitries underlying defensive and appetitive emotion and motivation. Limitations derive from the artificial environment and brief duration of study. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais/métodos , Tratamento Domiciliar/métodos , Animais de Trabalho , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Animais , Cães , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300377

RESUMO

Sensor technology has enabled the development of portable low-cost monitoring kits that might supplement many applications in conventional monitoring stations. Despite the sensitivity of electrochemical gas sensors to environmental change, they are increasingly important in monitoring polluted microenvironments. The performance of a compact diffusion-based Personal Exposure Kit (PEK) was assessed for real-time gaseous pollutant measurement (CO, O3, and NO2) under typical environmental conditions encountered in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. A dynamic baseline tracking method and a range of calibration protocols to address system performance were explored under practical scenarios to assess the performance of the PEK in reducing the impact of rapid changes in the ambient environment in personal exposure assessment applications. The results show that the accuracy and stability of the ppb level gas measurement is enhanced even in heterogeneous environments, thus avoiding the need for data post-processing with mathematical algorithms, such as multi-linear regression. This establishes the potential for use in personal exposure monitoring, which has been difficult in the past, and for reporting more accurate and reliable data in real-time to support personal exposure assessment and portable air quality monitoring applications.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hong Kong , Modelos Lineares
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300395

RESUMO

In this article, the authors propose two models for BLDC motor winding temperature estimation using machine learning methods. For the purposes of the research, measurements were made for over 160 h of motor operation, and then, they were preprocessed. The algorithms of linear regression, ElasticNet, stochastic gradient descent regressor, support vector machines, decision trees, and AdaBoost were used for predictive modeling. The ability of the models to generalize was achieved by hyperparameter tuning with the use of cross-validation. The conducted research led to promising results of the winding temperature estimation accuracy. In the case of sensorless temperature prediction (model 1), the mean absolute percentage error MAPE was below 4.5% and the coefficient of determination R2 was above 0.909. In addition, the extension of the model with the temperature measurement on the casing (model 2) allowed reducing the error value to about 1% and increasing R2 to 0.990. The results obtained for the first proposed model show that the overheating protection of the motor can be ensured without direct temperature measurement. In addition, the introduction of a simple casing temperature measurement system allows for an estimation with accuracy suitable for compensating the motor output torque changes related to temperature.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Algoritmos , Modelos Lineares , Temperatura
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(8): 3904-3912, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309277

RESUMO

To evaluate the pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface soil of the core urban area of Lanzhou, 62 topsoil samples were collected from the area. The soil samples were analyzed for the content of 16 priority PAHs, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistical methods were used to characterize contamination by PAHs. An absolute principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) model was applied to determine the sources of PAHs in the soil samples, and the accuracy of the model results was verified. Finally, the main influence regions of each source were determined with a geo-statistical method. The results showed that the contents of Σ16 PAHs in the surface soils of Lanzhou ranged from 1069 to 7377 µg ·kg-1, with an average of 2423 µg ·kg-1. High molecular weight PAHs (4-6 rings) were dominant, accounting for 72.81% of the Σ16 PAHs. Verification results of the APCS-MLR model showed that the measured values were in good correspondence with the predicted values, which indicated that the model had good applicability for source apportionment of soil PAHs in the study area. The main sources of PAHs in Lanzhou were traffic emissions (35.42%), petroleum emissions (29.88%), and a mixture of coal and biomass combustion (33.91%). The sources were greatly affected by human activities, and high values were mainly distributed in traffic-intensive and industrial areas. The results indicated that the sources of soil PAHs were complex and influenced by anthropogenic activities in the study area. Stringent control measures should be placed on the sources and areas of influence that contribute to soil PAHs to reduce the emissions and the level of soil pollution resulting from PAHs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200669

RESUMO

The omnidirectional camera, having the advantage of broadening the field of view, realizes 360° imaging in the horizontal direction. Due to light reflection from the mirror surface, the collinearity relation is altered and the imaged scene has severe nonlinear distortions. This makes it more difficult to estimate the pose of the omnidirectional camera. To solve this problem, we derive the mapping from omnidirectional camera to traditional camera and propose an omnidirectional camera linear imaging model. Based on the linear imaging model, we improve the EPnP algorithm to calculate the omnidirectional camera pose. To validate the proposed solution, we conducted simulations and physical experiments. Results show that the algorithm has a good performance in resisting noise.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Modelos Lineares
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200594

RESUMO

In this case-control, cross-sectional, observational study, we evaluated circulating trimethylamine n-oxide (TMAO) levels, a gut-derived metabolite associated with inflammation and cardiometabolic risk, in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a highly disabling inflammatory skin disease associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In this study, we enrolled 35 naive-treatment patients with HS and 35 controls, matched for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). HS Sartorius score was 49.0 (33.0-75.0), while according to the Harley system 12 and 23 patients presented grade 1 and grade 2 severity, respectively. HS patients had a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) (p = 0.002), lower phase angle (PhA) (p < 0.001), and higher circulating TMAO levels (p < 0.001) than the control group. HS patients with grade 2 rather than grade 1 of Harley grade severity showed a higher BMI (p = 0.007), waist circumference (p = 0.016), total energy intake (p = 0.005), and lower PhA (p < 0.001) and adherence to the MD (p = 0.003). Of interest, patients with Hurley grade 2 of severity exhibited higher circulating TMAO levels (p < 0.001) compared to grade 1. Circulating TMAO levels showed a positive correlation with HS Sartorius score even after adjustment for confounding covariates, including BMI, waist circumference, adherence to the MD, total energy intake, and PhA (r = 0.570, p = 0.001). Using a linear regression model, circulating TMAO levels and PhA were the main predictors of the clinical severity of HS.


Assuntos
Hidradenite Supurativa/sangue , Hidradenite Supurativa/patologia , Metilaminas/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201855

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the effects of dietary acid load (DAL) and IGF1 and IL6 gene polymorphisms and their potential diet-gene interactions on metabolic traits. A total of 211 community-dwelling postmenopausal women were recruited. DAL was estimated using potential renal acid load (PRAL). Blood was drawn for biochemical parameters and DNA was extracted and Agena® MassARRAY was used for genotyping analysis to identify the signalling of IGF1 (rs35767 and rs7136446) and IL6 (rs1800796) polymorphisms. Interactions between diet and genetic polymorphisms were assessed using regression analysis. The result showed that DAL was positively associated with fasting blood glucose (FBG) (ß = 0.147, p < 0.05) and there was significant interaction effect between DAL and IL6 with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (ß = 0.19, p = 0.041). In conclusion, these findings did not support the interaction effects between DAL and IGF1 and IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs35767, rs7136446, and rs1800796) on metabolic traits, except for SBP. Besides, higher DAL was associated with higher FBG, allowing us to postulate that high DAL is a potential risk factor for diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácidos/metabolismo , Dieta , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208914

RESUMO

Based on several randomized clinical trials, it has been suggested that baseline glucose homeostasis interacts with the influence of diet composition on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. In this secondary analysis of the YoYo study, a study investigating predictors of weight loss maintenance, we tested the hypothesis that (self-selected) dietary carbohydrate and/or fibre intake interact with the glucose homeostasis parameters for weight loss maintenance. Sixty-one overweight or obese individuals lost around 10 kg of body weight on an energy-restricted diet and were then followed for 9 months. During this period, participants were advised to maintain their body weight and eat a healthy diet without further recommendations on calorie intake or diet composition. Contrary to our hypothesis, carbohydrate intake showed no positive association with weight regain after weight loss, and no interaction with baseline fasting glucose concentration was found. There was a non-significant negative association between fibre intake and weight regain (B = -0.274, standard error (SE) 0.158, p = 0.090), but again, no interaction with fasting plasma glucose was found. In conclusion, the data from the YoYo study do not support a role for baseline glucose homeostasis in determining the association between self-reported carbohydrate and/or fibre intake and weight regain after weight loss.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Redutora , Homeostase , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases with pathophysiology strongly linked to aging. A range of circulatory metabolic biomarkers such as inflammatory adipokines have been associated with MetS; however, the diagnostic power of these markers as MetS risk correlates in elderly has yet to be elucidated. This cross-sectional study investigated the diagnostic power of circulatory metabolic biomarkers as MetS risk correlates in older adults. METHODS: Hundred community dwelling older adults (mean age: 68.7 years) were recruited in a study, where their blood pressure, body composition and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) were measured; and their fasting capillary and venous blood were collected. The components of the MetS; and the serum concentrations of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-I (PAI-I), Leptin, Adiponectin, Resistin, Cystatin-C, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), insulin and ferritin were measured within the laboratory, and the HOMA1-IR and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) were calculated. RESULTS: Apart from other markers which were related with some cardiometabolic (CM) risk, after Bonferroni correction insulin had significant association with all components of Mets and AIP. These associations also remained significant in multivariate regression. The multivariate odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI)) showed a statistically significant association between IL-6 (OR: 1.32 (1.06-1.64)), TNF-α (OR: 1.37 (1.02-1.84)), Resistin (OR: 1.27 (1.04-1.54)) and CRP (OR: 1.29 (1.09-1.54)) with MetS risk; however, these associations were not found when the model was adjusted for age, dietary intake and adiposity. In unadjusted models, insulin was consistently statistically associated with at least two CM risk factors (OR: 1.33 (1.16-1.53)) and MetS risk (OR: 1.24 (1.12-1.37)) and in adjusted models it was found to be associated with at least two CM risk factors and MetS risk (OR: 1.87 (1.24-2.83) and OR: 1.25 (1.09-1.43)) respectively. Area under curve (AUC) for receiver operating characteristics (ROC) demonstrated a good discriminatory diagnostics power of insulin with AUC: 0.775 (0.683-0.866) and 0.785 by cross validation and bootstrapping samples for at least two CM risk factors and AUC: 0.773 (0.653-0.893) and 0.783 by cross validation and bootstrapping samples for MetS risk. This was superior to all other AUC reported from the ROC analysis of other biomarkers. Area under precision-recall curve for insulin was also superior to all other markers (0.839 and 0.586 for at least two CM risk factors and MetS, respectively). CONCLUSION: Fasting serum insulin concentration was statistically linked with MetS and its risk, and this link is stronger than all other biomarkers. Our ROC analysis confirmed the discriminatory diagnostic power of insulin as CM and MetS risk correlate in older adults.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Vida Independente , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254391, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252143

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Health professionals are among the frontline of COVID-19 pandemic exposure and identified as a priority target group that need to receive COVID-19 vaccines. However, intention to receive vaccine is still matters the extent of COVID-19 vaccinations among health professionals. This study aimed to assess intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine and the factors that will determine their intention among health professionals working at public hospitals of Illu Aba Bora and Buno Bedelle zone hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was applied to assess the intention to receive COVID-19 vaccines among health professionals working in public health hospitals of Illu Aba Bora and Buno Bedelle zone hospitals. Self-administered questionnaire were used for assessing intention to receive COVID-19 Vaccine. Multiple linear regressions were performed to identify factors associated with intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine with p-value< 0.05 as cutoff point for statistical significance at 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULT: In this study, almost half of respondents 217(53.1% [95.0%: CI 49.3-58.9]) of study participants scored above the mean. Attitude (ß = 0.54, 95% CI: [0.49, 0.63], p<0.01), knowledge (ß = 0.27, 95% CI: [0.21, 0.35], p<0.01, perception (ß = 0.43, 95% CI: [0.39, 0.56], p = 0.02 and age (ß = 0.64, 95% CI: [0.51, 0.72], p<0.01 were variables associated with intention to receive vaccine against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study result indicated that the overall magnitude of intention to receive COVID-19 is low. increasing attitudes, knowledge and perception among health professionals related to COVID-19 vaccine will helps to increase the overall intention to receive vaccine against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Vacinação , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26216, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115005

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There is debate on the role of estrogens in modulating the risk for atherosclerosis in women. Our purpose was to investigate whether the size of the estrogenic impact was independently associated with variation of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy late postmenopausal women. The levels of circulating estrogens have been used in previous studies but the influence of SNPs of the estrogen receptors (ER) α and ß have not been investigated.We performed a crossed-sectional study of 91 women in a university hospital. We used a double approach in which, in addition to the measurement of estradiol levels by ultrasensitive methods, genetic variants (SNPs) associated with differing expression of the ER α and ß genes were assessed. Multivariable analysis was used to examine the association of candidate factors with the value of IMT and plaque detection at both the carotid wall and the sinus.A genotype combination translating reduced gene expression of the ERß was directly associated with IMT at both the carotid wall (P = .001) and the sinus (P = .002). Other predictors of IMT were the levels of glucose, positively associated with IMT at both the carotid wall (P < .001) and the sinus (P = .001), age positively associated with IMT at the sinus (P = .003), and levels of vitamin D, positively associated with IMT at the carotid wall (P = .04).Poorer estrogenic impact, as concordant with a SNP variant imposing reduced expression of the ERß, was directly associated with IMT at both the carotid wall and the sinus. Glucose level, vitamin D only for the carotid wall, and age only for the sinus, also emerged as independent factors in the IMT variance.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/análise , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea/instrumentação , Estudos Transversais , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/sangue , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia/métodos
19.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 125, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on primary care in Germany regarding the number of consultations, the prevalence of specific reasons for consultation presented by the patients, and the frequency of specific services performed by the GP. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal observational study based on standardised GP interviews in a quota sampling design comparing the time before the COVID-19 pandemic (12 June 2015 to 27 April 2017) with the time during lockdown (21 April to 14 July 2020). The sample included GPs in urban and rural areas 120 km around Hamburg, Germany, and was stratified by region type and administrative districts. Differences in the consultation numbers were analysed by multivariate linear regressions in mixed models adjusted for random effects on the levels of the administrative districts and GP practices. RESULTS: One hundred ten GPs participated in the follow-up, corresponding to 52.1% of the baseline. Primary care practices in 32 of the 37 selected administrative districts (86.5%) could be represented in both assessments. At baseline, GPs reported 199.6 ± 96.9 consultations per week, which was significantly reduced during COVID-19 lockdown by 49.0% to 101.8 ± 67.6 consultations per week (p < 0.001). During lockdown, the frequency of five reasons for consultation (-43.0% to -31.5%) and eleven services (-56.6% to -33.5%) had significantly decreased. The multilevel, multivariable analyses showed an average reduction of 94.6 consultations per week (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a dramatic reduction of the number of consultations in primary care. This effect was independent of age, sex and specialty of the GP and independent of the practice location in urban or rural areas. Consultations for complaints like low back pain, gastrointestinal complaints, vertigo or fatigue and services like house calls/calls at nursing homes, wound treatments, pain therapy or screening examinations for the early detection of chronic diseases were particularly affected.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Clínicos Gerais , Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Alemanha , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Casas de Saúde , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067774

RESUMO

The EAT-Lancet Commission has proposed a planetary health diet. We propose the development of the Planetary Health Diet Index (PHDI) based on this proposed reference diet. We used baseline dietary data obtained through a 114-item FFQ from 14,779 participants of the Longitudinal Study on Adult Health, a multicenter cohort study conducted in Brazil. The PHDI has 16 components and a score from 0 to 150 points. Validation and reliability analyses were performed, including principal component analyses, association with selected nutrients, differences in means between groups (for example, smokers vs. non-smokers), correlations between components and total energy intake, Cronbach's alpha, item-item correlations, and linear regression analysis between PHDI with carbon footprint and overall dietary quality. The mean PHDI was 60.4 (95% CI 60.2:60.5). The PHDI had six dimensions, was associated in an expected direction with the selected nutrients and was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in smokers (59.0) than in non-smokers (60.6). Cronbach's alpha value was 0.51. All correlations between components were low, as well as between components and PHDI with total energy intake. After adjustment for age and sex, the PHDI score remained associated (p < 0.001) with a higher overall dietary quality and lower carbon footprint. Thus, we confirmed the PHDI validity and reliability.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Pegada de Carbono/normas , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
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