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1.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1248-1255, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564141

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to conduct the largest low contact stress (LCS) retrieval study to elucidate the failure mechanisms of the Porocoat and Duofix femoral component. The latter design was voluntarily recalled by the manufacturer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uncemented LCS explants were divided into three groups: Duofix, Porocoat, and mixed. Demographics, polyethylene wear, tissue ingrowth, and metallurgical analyses were performed. RESULTS: In 104 implants, a decrease in the odds of loosening and an increase in metallosis and tissue staining in the Duofix group relative to Porocoat group was detected (p = 0.028). There was an increased presence of embedded metallic debris in the Duofix group (p < 0.001). Decreased tissue ingrowth was associated with the Duofix surface (p < 0.001). The attached beads had reduced microhardness, indicative of adverse thermal processing, which resulted in bead shedding, particulate debris, and metallosis. CONCLUSION: Hydroxyapatite coating of the LCS femoral component produced unexpected results and led to its recall. The root cause was likely a combination of retained alumina grit and a reduction in bead microhardness (mechanical strength) resulting in increased particle debris, metallosis, and early revision. The Duofix LCS femoral component was not equivalent to the Porocoat version despite its approval through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 510(k) equivalance approval process. Regulation of the introduction of modified existing devices needs to be improved and the Duofix LCS should have been considered to be a new device for which equivalence had not been demonstrated at the point of introduction. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1248-1255.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese , Estresse Mecânico , Idoso , Austrália , Intervalos de Confiança , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Desenho de Prótese
2.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1307-1312, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564143

RESUMO

AIMS: In order to determine whether and for whom serial radiological evaluation is necessary in one-part proximal humerus fractures, we set out to describe the clinical history and predictors of secondary displacement in patients sustaining these injuries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2014 and April 2016, all patients with an isolated, nonoperatively treated one-part proximal humerus fracture were prospectively followed up. Clinical and radiological evaluation took place at less than two, six, 12, and 52 weeks. Fracture configuration, bone quality, and comminution were determined on the initial radiographs. Fracture healing, secondary displacement, and treatment changes were recorded during follow-up. RESULTS: In 100 patients (59 female, 41 male; mean age 57 years), 91 of the fractures (91%) remained stable. In five of nine patients (55%) with secondary displacement, surgery was recommended. Comminution, present in 23 patients (23%), was identified as a predictor of secondary displacement (p < 0.001). Patients' age, sex, fracture configuration, and bone quality were not associated with secondary displacement (p ≥ 0.438). Nonoperative treatment resulted in a mean absolute Constant score (CS) of 80 (49 to 98), relative CS of 101% (63% to 138%), median subjective shoulder value of 95% (interquartile range (IQR) 90% to 100%), and median EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire score of 0.89 (IQR 0.80 to 1.00) with bone union in all cases at one-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Radiological re-evaluation was only necessary in patients presenting with comminution and may be redundant for 77% of patients with one-part proximal humerus fractures. Nonoperative treatment of one-part proximal humerus fractures remains the mainstay of treatment with a low rate of secondary surgery, a high union rate, and good clinical results. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1307-1312.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Radiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Fraturas do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia/métodos , Fraturas do Ombro/terapia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565114

RESUMO

Introduction: The proportion of antenatal attendants in Ghana who had at least four antenatal visits increased from 78% in 2008 to 87% in 2014. However, it is not known whether these visits followed the recommended timing of focused antenatal clinic attendance in Ghana. We sought to assess the adherence to the clinic schedule and its determinants in the Accra Metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with postpartum women. Multiple logistic regression was used in the analysis of determinants of adherence to the recommended timing of clinic attendance. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among 446 focused antenatal care clinic attendants, 378 (84.8%) had four or more visits. Among these, 101 (26.7%) adhered to the recommended clinic schedule. Women who adhered were more likely to have had education up to Junior High School [AOR=3.31, 95%CI (1.03-10.61)] or Senior High School [AOR=4.47, 95%CI (1.14-17.51)], or have history of abortion [(AOR=3.36, 95%CI (1.69-7.96)]. For every week increase in gestational age at booking at the antenatal clinic, respondents were 34% less likely to complete all four antenatal visits at the recommended times. [(AOR=0.66, 95% (0.60-0.73)]. Conclusion: Majority of women receiving focused antenatal care in the Accra Metropolis have four or more visits but only about a quarter of them adhered to the recommended clinic schedule. Having high school education, history of abortion and early initiation of antenatal care were predictors of adherence to clinic schedule. Women should be educated on early initiation of antenatal care to enhance adherence.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565116

RESUMO

Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and cause of death among women globally. Mortality due to breast cancer was higher in lower (LMICs) and middle-income countries than high income countries (HICs) mostly due to lack of timely detection and treatment. There was limited evidence related to breast cancer screening practice among women in Eastern Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess breast cancer screening practice and its associated factors among women in this area. Methods: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study design was conducted among 422 randomly selected women in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia using systematic sampling. Data were collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between the dependent and independent variables. Results: The overall breast cancer screening practice among women was 6.9%. Women with the age of 26 years and above were 2.3 times more likely to have breast cancer screening practice as compared to women with age of 20-25 years (AOR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.7), and women who had good knowledge on breast cancer risk factors were 3.4 times more likely to had breast cancer screening as compared to their counterpart (AOR=3.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 9.4). The women who had ever heard about breast cancer screening were 2.8 times more likely to have breast cancer screening as compared to those who had never heard about breast cancer screening (AOR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 6.5). Conclusion: The overall breast cancer screening practice was very low among women in the study area. Age and women's knowledge towards breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer screening information were identified as important factors for breast cancer screening practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565146

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries. Management of AGE consumes medical resources, including antibiotics and intra-venous fluids, but factors affecting resource utilization in the management of AGE are under-studied. We hope to identify clinical predictors of resource utilization in AGE. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients 1-60 months of age admitted to a tertiary hospital in Northern Ghana between January 2013 and December 2014 with an admitting diagnosis of AGE. We collected data on patient demographics, presenting symptoms, and subsequent management. Our primary outcome was prolonged hospital length of stay, defined as >4 days. Secondary outcomes included other measures of resource utilization, such as use of antibiotics, antimalarials and intravenous fluids. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared between groups with Pearson chi square test for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression modeling for each outcome included all variables found to be significant in the bivariate analysis. Results: We reviewed charts for 473 patients admitted for AGE during this timeframe. 264 (56%) were male, median age was 12 months. 448 (95%) received antibiotics, 396 (84%) received antimalarials and 365 (77.2%) received intravenous fluids. 167 (35.3%) had prolonged LOS >4 days. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, clinical features associated with prolonged LOS included fever duration (OR 2.87, 95% CI 2.28-3.61 per 1-day increase), mild (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.12-5.08) or moderate (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.57-6.21) dehydration (compared to none) and symptom duration (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27 per 1-day increase). Conclusion: Dehydration and duration of symptoms prior to presentation predict prolonged hospital LOS in young children with AGE in Northern Ghana.


Assuntos
Desidratação/terapia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190004, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Travestis and transgender women resort to the use of hormones for body modification. Due to restrictions in the access to health services, self-medication is frequent. The aim of this study was to describe the self-reported prevalence of hormones used by travestis and transgender women in the Federal District. Method: This is a cross-sectional study with Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices questionnaire (KAP) along with travestis and transgender women over 18 years in the FD. Prevalence was calculated using the RDS-II estimator. Logistic models were used to investigate the associated factors. A total of 201 volunteers participated. RESULTS: There was a young sample (median age of 24 years). The overall prevalence of continuous use of hormones was 64.5%. The most used formulation was the combination of estrogen and progesterone (86.2%) by injectable (75.1%) and oral (66%) administration. Most participants (84%) got the hormones without a prescription. Guidance on the use of these hormones came from their peers in 41% of the cases. We observed that the continuous use of hormones is associated with race, income and age, as well as the search for guidance of healthcare professionals, which is also associated with schooling. DISCUSSION: The reality of the process of hormone use by these people in the quest for femininity is reflected in high rates of self-medication. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the visibility of the need to improve the access conditions of these people to health services.


Assuntos
Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Travestismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Travestismo/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High level of HIV/AIDS knowledge is required for an effective adoption of preventive strategies. OBJECTIVE: To assess HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men (MSM) in 12 Brazilian cities. METHODS: Respondent-Driven Sampling method was used for recruitment. HIV/AIDS knowledge was assessed by Item Response Theory. Difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated, and the knowledge score was categorized in three levels: high, medium, and low. Logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Among 4,176 MSM, the proportion of high level of knowledge was 23.7%. The following variables were positively associated with high knowledge (p < 0.05): age 25+ years old, 12+ years of schooling, white skin color, having health insurance, having suffered discrimination due to sexual orientation, having had a syphilis test, and having received educational material in the previous 12 months. Exchanging sex for money was negatively associated. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of only 23.7% of high HIV/AIDS knowledge was low. We should note that the only potential source of knowledge acquisition associated with high level of knowledge was receiving educational materials. Our study indicates the need for expansion of public prevention policies focused on MSM and with more effective communication strategies, including the development of knowledge that involves motivation and abilities for a safer behavior.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(3): 337-344, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical evaluation of the midface including the paranasal and upper lip regions is highly subjective and complex. Traditional and 3-dimensional cephalometrics were not developed with the clinical appearance of these midfacial areas in mind and are therefore inappropriate surrogates for the clinical appearance of the midface, making them unsuitable as aids in diagnosing dentofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate traditional as well as newly defined landmarks and measurements and their correlation with clinical appearance of the midface. METHODS: Fifty-two subjects who underwent full-field cone-beam computed tomography were recruited for this study. A single examiner assessed each subject's midfacial region (paranasal and upper lip), and a second examiner obtained traditional and newly defined cephalometric measurements for each subject. Both examiners were blinded to each other's data throughout the study. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the correlations of the traditional and novel cephalometric measurements with clinical midfacial findings. The impact of the soft tissue thickness in the paranasal region was also analyzed. The performance of any classification derived from statistically significant variables was analyzed with the use of micro-F scores and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Both traditional (SNA) and newly defined measurements (SNANS, SNPR, SNNP, SNh) had no statistically significant correlation with clinical paranasal diagnosis. However, in the absence of upper lip procumbency or protrusion, SNNP and SNh had statistically significant correlations with clinical paranasal diagnosis (P = 0.047 and P = 0.003, respectively). For upper lip analysis, both traditional (SNA) and newly defined measurements (SNCEJ) had strong correlations with clinical upper lip diagnosis (P < 0.001). All statistically significant cephalometric variables had good intra- and interobserver reliability (correlation coefficients ≥0.972 and ≥ 0.968, respectively) except SNA, which had a low interobserver reliability (correlation coefficient 0.739). Fitted models for paranasal and upper lip analyses showed low micro-F scores, indicating low precision and recall. However, AUC values of 0.7019 and 0.6362 for the paranasal and upper lip analysis, respectively, suggest improved performance of the model when properly trained with a larger sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Newly defined measurements SNh and SNNP correlated with clinical paranasal diagnosis only in the absence of upper lip procumbency and protrusion. SNA and SNCEJ were strongly correlated with clinical upper lip diagnosis. However, fitted models based on this study sample yielded low micro-F scores, making the fitted models currently unsuitable for anything besides correlation with clinical findings. A larger sample size will be necessary to further clarify the potential roles of these measurements, especially given the reasonable AUC values. The findings of this study demonstrate the highly subjective and relative nature of midfacial diagnosis and the importance of clinical judgment despite the potential utility of some traditional and new measurements.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefalometria/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/estatística & dados numéricos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(3): 355-364, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work was to analyze data of patients with failed or delayed eruption of first and second permanent molars, to assess the effectiveness of the treatment methods used. METHODS: Epidemiologic and clinical data of 125 patients (mean age 14.08 ± 4.04 years) with 197 affected molars (30 first and 167 second molars) were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment outcome was known in 161 molars after patient drop-out (20 patients with 36 molars). The cases were categorized into 8 groups according to the choice of treatment: orthodontic uprighting, surgical-orthodontic uprighting, surgical uprighting, surgical repositioning, surgical exposure, first or second molar extraction, third molar extraction, or removal of pathologic conditions. RESULTS: The overall treatment outcome was positive in 141 molars (87.6%). It was positive in all cases treated with orthodontic uprighting (7 molars), surgical exposure (10 molars), surgical uprighting (38 molars), and surgical repositioning (8 molars), but it was significantly lower for surgical-orthodontic uprighting (34/48 molars, 70.8%). The positive outcome was significantly lower for inclusion (52/68 molars, 76.5%) than for early-diagnosed condition (11/11 molars, 100%) and retention (78/82 molars, 95.1%), and for total bone crown coverage (21/28 molars, 75.0%) than for osteomucosal or mucosal crown coverage (120/133 molars, 90.2%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that an early diagnosis results in a better outcome regardless of the treatment used, with the number of cases with a positive outcome being higher in younger patients.


Assuntos
Dente Molar/patologia , Anormalidades Dentárias , Erupção Dentária , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos , Dente Impactado/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dente Impactado/diagnóstico , Dente Impactado/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 1006-1009, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484270

RESUMO

Logistic regression has been recognized as a commonly used method in epidemiological studies. However, in practice, many people only consider 'data' rather than 'study design' as important issue when working on the analysis, which may easily lead to some misleading results and conclusions. Based on the purpose of observational research during the design of the study, this paper discusses the specific ideas in logistic regression analysis, and provides references for the practical application when logistic regression method is used.


Assuntos
Métodos Epidemiológicos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Humanos , Observação , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the presence of common mental disorders among adults, according to different income strata. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 2,584 participants from the Pró-Saúde Study (2006), residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Common Mental Disorders were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to green areas was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index, in buffers with radiuses between 100 and 1,500 meters around the residence. We used the mean and maximum normalized difference vegetation index categorized into quartiles. The study population was divided into three subgroups, according to the income: low, intermediate, and high. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models. The models were adjusted by sex and age, with and without inclusion of physical activity practice. RESULTS: The proportion of common mental disorders was 30% and 39% among men and women, respectively. The results of the adjusted models showed an inverse association between the presence of green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the occurrence of common mental disorders, in the buffer of 200 meters in the intermediate-income group and in the buffers of 400 and 1,500 meters in the low-income group. The odds ratio ranged from 0.52 (buffer of 1,500 meters) to 0.68 (buffer of 200 meters). The association found was independent of physical activity practice. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence found suggests the existence of a beneficial effect of urban green areas on the mental health of lower-income individuals. These findings can help in understanding how the urban environment can affect the mental health of the population.


Assuntos
Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the temporal trend, identify the factors related and elaborate a predictive model for unfavorable treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with all cases diagnosed with MDR-TB between the years 2006 and 2015 in the state of São Paulo. The data were collected from the state system of TB cases notifications (TB-WEB). The temporal trend analyzes of treatment outcomes was performed through the Prais-Winsten analysis. In order to verify the factors related to the unfavorable outcomes, abandonment, death with basic cause TB and treatment failure, the binary logistic regression was used. Pictorial representations of the factors related to treatment outcome and their prognostic capacity through the nomogram were elaborated. RESULTS: Both abandonment and death have a constant temporal tendency, whereas the failure showed it as decreasing. Regarding the risk factors for such outcomes, using illicit drugs doubled the odds for abandonment and death. Besides that, being diagnosed in emergency units or during hospitalizations was a risk factor for death. On the contrary, having previous multidrug-resistant treatments reduced the odds for the analyzed outcomes by 33%. The nomogram presented a predictive model with 65% accuracy for dropouts, 70% for deaths and 80% for failure. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of the current model of care is an essential factor for the prevention of unfavorable outcomes. Through predictive models, as presented in this study, it is possible to develop patient-centered actions, considering their risk factors and increasing the chances for cure.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Nomogramas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 127, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558926

RESUMO

Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important predictor of newborn survival and development. Given its pathophysiology, malaria is presumed to be one of the risk factors for low birth weight. This study aims to determine the association between malaria in pregnant women (PW) and LBW (weight < 2500 g). Methods: We conducted a case-control analytical study based on the administration of a questionnaire and an observation chart. We calculated the crude odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted odds ratio to determine this association. Logistic regression was applied to recognize the variables which act as determinants of the issue under discussion. Results: This study involved 156 women (78 cases and 78 controls). The prevalence of LBW was 12.32% (105/852); 41.02% (64/156) of women had had malaria during pregnancy and 42.14% of parturients had received three doses of IPT (intermittent preventive treatment). A significant association between malaria and LBW emerged. Crude odds ratio= 3.75 [P = 0.0001 (p < 0.05)] and adjusted OR = 2.82 [P = 0.01 (p < 0.05)] were calculated taking into account the various confusion factors. Conclusion: Malaria during pregnancy is a factor increasing the risk of LBW. Efforts should be made to improve IPT coverage and the use of long lasting impregnated mosquito nets in order to prevent malaria during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Peso ao Nascer , Malária/complicações , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Camarões , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558934

RESUMO

Introduction: The rate of sexually transmitted infection's, including HIV has increased in recent years in Ethiopia. Many adolescents and young people still do not protect themselves against unintended pregnancies and STIs. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the predictors of risky sexual behavior among pre-college students in Adama Town, Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross-sectional study was employed. In this study 364 students were recruited from all pre-college schools in Adama town, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and independent variables. Results: The mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (± 2.72SD). Social media usage for sexual activity and having multiple sexual partners were observed among students. About 7% of students used social media for watching pornography. The odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher among social media users compared to the nonusers AOR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.13,3.12). Risky sexual behaviour was almost 4 times more likely among night club goers AOR = 4.294 (95% CI: 2.033, 9.073). Peer pressure and substance abuse were also a significant predictor for risky sexual behavior AOR = 6.97 (95% CI: 4.24, 9.69). Conclusion: Social media use, peer pressure, substance abuse, and night club going were found to be significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour among pre-college students. Thus, schools need to establish and strengthen reproductive health clubs to be able to equip students with required skills and knowledge about sexuality. Parents should be aware of the dynamic behavioral change of their children, listen and attend to their needs.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Parceiros Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489078

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypertension, among diabetic patients, is a worldwide public-health challenge and a leading modifiable risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases. The main purpose of this study was to identify determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients. Methods: Data were collected from January to March 2018 using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Data collectors and supervisors were trained before the period of data collection. The questionnaire was pretested on 5% of the sample at Suhul hospital. Bivariable logistic regression was employed to examine the crude associations between the outcome variable and determinant variables. This was followed by multivariable analysis to examine the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients by selecting variables which had p value ≤0.2 in the bivariable analysis. Results: The age range of the respondents was 18-80 years, with the median age of 51.56±14.92 years. Not attending diabetes mellitus education sessions (AOR=2.61, 95% CI (1.12,6.1), duration since diagnosis with diabetes (AOR=8.52; 95% CI (1.97, 36.84), poor glycemic control (AOR=22.99, 95CI (5.92,89.28), overweight (AOR=4.84, 95%CI (1.42,16.51), and non-adherence to diabetes medication (AOR=4.66, 95% CI (2.22,9.79), diet (AOR=9.70,95% CI (3.34,28.22), exercise (AOR= 5.47, 95% CI (2.35,12.75), and self-monitoring blood glucose (AOR=6.62, 95% CI (3.16, 13.86) were found to be the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients. Conclusion: This research concludes that longer duration with diabetes, nonattendance of diabetes education sessions, poor glycemic control, and not-adherence to antidiabetic medications, diet, exercise and self-monitoring blood glucose were found to be the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489081

RESUMO

Introduction: Foot deformities and amputations are parameters that have been studied as risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration (DFU). However, inclusion of "foot deformities" and "amputations" in a single, broad variable and with reference to the severity of these deformities, may better characterize subjects who are prone to develop DFU. Methods: The objective of the study was the examination of amputative and non-amputative foot deformities severity as risk factor for DFU in relation with the other established risk factors. A cross-sectional and case-control study was conducted from October 2005 to November 2016. One hundred and thirty-four subjects with type 1 and 2 diabetes, with and without active foot ulcers, participated. A structured quantitative interview guide was used. Univariate logistic regression analysis for the literature's established risk factors was performed, as well as for two versions of the "amputative and non-amputative foot deformities severity" variable. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis (MLRA) for three models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were carried out. Results: From the MLRA, only PAD (peripheral arterial disease) was significant (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.17-10.82, P=0.025 and OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.02-10.08, P=0.033). Concerning the ROC curve analysis of the models, the one with the three categories amputative and non-amputative foot deformities severity variable, had the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.763, P<0.001). Conclusion: A united variable for lower extremity amputations and other foot deformities with reference to their severity, could be more helpful to the clinicians in identifying patients with diabetes at risk for foot ulceration.


Assuntos
Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Deformidades do Pé/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Pé Diabético/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Projetos Piloto , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e090, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531553

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on gingival inflammation in a representative sample of 1,650 adults from Santiago (Chile), Porto Alegre (Brazil), and Tucumán (Argentina). A questionnaire was administered to participants to gather demographic and behavioral characteristics, including smoking habits. The participants were clinically examined to obtain gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI), and calculus presence values. Gingival inflammation was defined as a mean GI > 0.5. Heavy smokers presented significantly lower levels of gingival inflammation, as reflected by both GI and GBI, than both light and moderate smokers, despite their having increased amounts of plaque and calculus. Being 50 years old or older [odds ratio (OR), 1.93], a VPI ≥ 30% (OR, 28.1), and self-reported diabetes (OR, 2.79) were positively associated with detection of gingival inflammation. In conclusion, the occurrence of clinically detectable gingival inflammation was lower in heavy smokers than light and moderate smokers. Older age, diabetes, and visible plaque emerged as risk indicators of gingivitis. Plaque and gingival indices are significantly associated regardless of the smoking status.


Assuntos
Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17098, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517837

RESUMO

Lung cancer has become the leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. In addition to genetic risk factors and smoking, the metabolic risk factors remain to be elusive.To evaluate the associations between obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and pulmonary adenocarcinoma in patients with lung cancer.Consecutive operation-proven lung cancer patients with assessment of metabolic disorders and liver ultrasound in 2009 and 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. T-test and multivariate logistic regression were applied to evaluate the contribution of individual factors to lung adenocarcinoma, as well as the synergistic effects between these factors.Among 3664 lung cancer patients with ultrasound examination, 2844 cases were enrolled for further analysis. Of them, 1053 (37.0%) were females, 1242 (43.7%) were cigarette smokers, 1658 (58.3%) were diagnosed as lung adenocarcinoma, 744 (26.2%) had obesity, and 614 (21.6%) had NAFLD. Proportion of female gender, nonsmoker, obesity, NAFLD, and serum lipid levels in patients with adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those in other subtypes of lung cancer, and in 2013 than in 2009 (all P < .01). NAFLD and obesity were shown as independent factors and positively associated with pulmonary adenocarcinoma, along with female gender and nonsmoking, higher serum levels of cholesterol. NAFLD and other contributing factors exhibited no synergistic effects on adenocarcinoma.Obesity and NAFLD might increase the risk for pulmonary adenocarcinoma, especially in nonsmoking females, and underscore the need for further study into carcinogenic mechanisms and preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16926, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464929

RESUMO

The femoral neck-preserving ratio is crucial in arthroplasty with a collum femoris-preserving (CFP) stem. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationships between the neck-preserving ratio and the short-term radiologic and clinical outcomes of patients who underwent total-hip arthroplasty (THA) with a CFP stem.The data of 325 hips from January 2015 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic and radiologic data before and after surgery were obtained from patients. The neck-preserving ratio was defined as the ratio of the preserved femoral neck length to the preoperative femoral neck length. Correlations between the neck-preserving ratio and the radiologic and clinical outcomes of patients were analyzed.The mean neck-preserving ratio was 66.38 ±â€Š6.91% in the current study. We divided patients into 3 groups according to the neck-preserving ratio: group A (neck-preserving ratio ≤60.00%), group B (60.00% < neck-preserving ratio < 70.00%), group C (neck-preserving ratio ≥70.00%). Radiologic features, including the neck-shaft angle ratio (0.96 ±â€Š0.05), canal fill ratio (0.64 ±â€Š0.07), anterior-posterior offset ratio (1.04 ±â€Š0.10), and lateral offset ratio (2.55 ±â€Š1.56) (ratios of the postoperative values to the preoperative values), and the prevalence of complications was significantly different among the groups (χ = 21.173, P < .001). In the correlation analysis, we found a moderate negative correlation between the neck-preserving ratio and neck-shaft angle ratio (r = -0.308, P < .001) and a slight positive correlation of the neck-preserving ratio with the anterior-posterior offset ratio (r = 0.415, P < .001) and the lateral offset ratio (r = 0.164, P = .003). In the linear regression analyses, the neck-preserving ratio was significantly linearly correlated with the neck-shaft angle ratio (B = -0.232, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.311 to -0.154, P < .001), anterior-posterior offset ratio (B = 0.589, 95% CI = 0.447-0.730, P < .001), and lateral offset ratio (B = 3.693, 95% CI = 1.256-6.131, P = .003). However, there was no significant linear correlation between the neck-preserving ratio and the canal fill ratio (B = 0.073, 95% CI = -0.033 to 0.180, P = .174). Logistic regression analyses also showed that a sufficient neck-preserving ratio was a protective factor for periprosthetic femoral fractures (odds ratio [OR] = 0.924, 95% CI = 0.859-0.994, P = .035), dislocations (OR = 0.892, 95% CI = 0.796-0.999, P = .048), and thigh pain (OR = 0.886, 95% CI = 0.818-0.960, P = .003).For CFP stems, an insufficient neck-preserving ratio is significantly correlated with poor radiologic and clinical outcomes. Therefore, surgeons should be cognizant to preserve a sufficient femoral neck length during surgery to improve the outcomes for patients undergoing THA with CFP stems.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Colo do Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Desenho de Prótese/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Comorbidade , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e7, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368316

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to gain better insight into factors associated with the capture-related mortality rate in cheetahs. A link to an online questionnaire was sent to zoo and wildlife veterinarians through the Species Survival Plan Programme and European Endangered Species Programme coordinators and via the 'Wildlife VetNet' Google group forum. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions relating to the veterinarians' country of residence and experience, the medicine combinations used, standard monitoring procedures, capture-related complications and mortalities experienced in this species under different capture conditions. In addition, necropsy data from the national wildlife disease database of the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa were examined for cases where anaesthetic death was listed as the cause of death in cheetahs. A total of 75 veterinarians completed the survey, with 38 from African countries and a combined total of 37 from Europe, the United States (US) and Asia. Of these, 24% (n = 18/75) had experienced at least one capture-associated cheetah mortality, with almost all of the fatalities (29/30) reported by veterinarians working in Africa. A lack of anaesthetic monitoring and the absence of supplemental oxygen were shown to be significant risk factors for mortality. Hyperthermia, likely to be associated with capture stress, was the most common reported complication (35%). The results suggest that free-ranging rather than habituated captive cheetahs are particularly at risk of dying during immobilisation and transport. The capture-related fatalities in this species do not appear to be associated with either the veterinarian's level of clinical experience or the immobilisation agents used.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Anestésicos Dissociativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/veterinária , Mortalidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Autopsia/veterinária , Bases de Dados Factuais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/métodos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tranquilizantes/efeitos adversos , Médicos Veterinários
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