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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 346-348, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030450

RESUMO

The scientific and clinical interest in children with mentally ill parents increased in the last years. Those children belong to a high risk population so that prevention is urgently indicated. Due to genetic influences and partly to an impairment of the parent-child interaction because of the parent's illness there exists a higher risk for child abuse. They show a three to five time increased risk to develop mental problems which require treatment over the course of their lives. They show abnormalities in social, cognitive and emotional areas. Untreated mental disorders and associated behavioral problems in children often chronify and lead to permanent impairment of the emotional, social and also intellectual development. Early detection and treatment are indicated and of high relevance.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Risco
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1453, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines the relationships between childhood food allergy and parental unhealthy food choices for their children across attitudes towards childhood obesity as mediators and parental gender, income and education as potential moderators. METHODS: We surveyed parents with at least one child between the ages of 6 and 12 living in Canada and the United States. We received 483 valid responses that were analysed using structural equation modelling approach with bootstrapping to test the hypothetical path model and its invariance across the moderators. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that pressure to eat fully mediated the effects of childhood food allergy and restriction on parental unhealthy food choices for their children. Finally, we found that parental gender moderated the relationship between childhood food allergy and the pressure to eat. CONCLUSIONS: The paper contributes to the literature on food allergies among children and the marginalisation of families with allergies. Our explorative model is a first of its kind and offers a fresh perspective on complex relationships between variables under consideration. Although our data collection took place prior to Covid-19 outbreak, this paper bears yet particular significance as it casts light on how families with allergies should be part of the priority groups to have access to food supply during crisis periods.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Pflege ; 33(5): 319-328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996864

RESUMO

The process of medication self-management: a model revision based on a qualitative secondary analysis Abstract. Background: For safe and effective use of medication, specific skills are required which are inherent in the concept of medication self-management. In order to provide adequate counseling, it is important for registered nurses, physicians and pharmacists to know how medication self-management works in everyday life for the people affected. This process was presented in 2013 in a first conceptual model by Bailey et al. Aim: The purpose of this study was to enhance the empirical foundation of the existing model and to gain an in-depth theoretical understanding of the process of medication self-management. METHOD: A qualitative secondary analysis was conducted based on data from a semi-standardized survey (n = 395) of people in Austria, who regularly take medicine. The data were analysed according to the structuring content analysis. RESULTS: The extended model shows a new kind of logic. While the steps "fill", "take", "monitor" and "react" are always conducted one after the other, "integrate" and "maintain" form components that are mutually dependent and start after successfully completing the first four steps. "Understand" is a component that influences all steps. The whole process is influenced by personal, socio-economic, disease and medication-related factors, by supportive systems and by the overall health care system. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present study, the drug self-management process is a complex, multi-layered and iterative one. In the context of counselling, it is important to focus on "understanding" at every step.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Autogestão/psicologia , Áustria , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 220-231, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192058

RESUMO

La violencia filio-parental es un fenómeno de marcada prevalencia con consecuencias negativas a nivel individual, familiar y social. El objetivo de este estudio de alcance fue identificar los factores explicativos y la fundamentación teórica del fenómeno. Se revisaron estudios en inglés y español desde el año 2000, de las bases: Web of Science, Scopus, PsycIN-FO, ERIC y Dialnet Plus, identificando 57 estudios relevantes. Se encontraron como factores explicativos recurrentes: la monoparentalidad, la cohesión, el estrés y disciplina familiar, el historial de violencia, problemas escolares, trastornos clínicos y la relación con iguales violentos. Se destaca la concurrencia con la violencia escolar, entre hermanos y en las relaciones de noviazgo. Los fundamentos teóricos utilizados se pueden clasificar en psicológicos, comunicacionales, criminológicos, sociológicos y modelos integrativos más amplios (Ecosistémicos, Fenomenológicos y Constructivistas). La revisión realizada no arrojó datos sobre patrones de interacción, estrategias de afrontamiento y percepciones sociales alrededor de la VFP que puedan influir en las familias implicadas en estas situaciones


Child-to-parent violence is a phenomenon with a fairly high prevalence rate and negative consequences at an individual, family and so-cial level. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the theoretical frameworks and explanatory factors for this phenomenon. The review comprised studies written in English and Spanish since the year 2000, from the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, ERIC and Dialnet Plus. A total of 57 relevant studies were identified. The recurrent explanatory factors were: single parenthood, cohesion, stress, family discipline, history of violence, problems at school, clinical disorders and violent peer relationships. The concurrence of school, sibling and dating violence was particularly noteworthy. The theoretical frameworks referred to can be grouped into psychological, communicational, criminological, sociological and broader integrative models (Ecosystemic, Phenomenological and Constructivist). No data was found on interaction patterns, coping strategies or social perceptions of CPV which may influence families immersed in these kinds of situations


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Pai-Filho , Violência/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adaptação Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Agressão/psicologia
5.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 254-261, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192062

RESUMO

The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms. The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs


La existencia de esquemas maladaptativos tempranos (EMTs) es el concepto central de Schema Therapy (ST). Varios estudios han demostrado que los EMS están involucrados en muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. El Young Schema Questionnaire es una medida de autoinforme desarrollada para evaluar los 18 EMTs y tiene versiones de forma larga (YSQ-L) y forma corta (YSQ-S). Actualmente se encuentra en su tercera versión (YSQ-S3). Hasta donde tenemos conocimiento, este es el primer estudio que tiene como objetivo validar la versión italiana del YSQ-S3 de acuerdo con la nueva organización propuesta de EMTs en cuatro dominios. Una muestra no clínica de 1372 estudiantes italianos participó en esta investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) se realizó para examinar la estructura latente del YSQ-S3, incluidas las estructuras de primer y segundo orden. Se calcularon la omega coeficiente de McDonald y la correlación interclase para evaluar la consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest. Las correlaciones entre el YSQ-S3 y la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo se calcularon para medir la validez de constructo. El omega de McDonald de casi todos los EMTs fue superior a 0.7, lo que indicó una buena confiabilidad interna, y la confiabilidad test-retest fue excelente. CFA apoya la nueva organización propuesta de EMS en cuatro dominios. Con respecto a la validez concurrente, cada esquema en el YSQ-S3 estaba altamente correlacionado con la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo. El nuevo modelo de cuatro dominios del YSQ-S3 ha demostrado que puede ser una herramienta útil y válida para los médicos e investigadores en la medición del autoinforme de los EMTs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autorrelato/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 262-270, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192063

RESUMO

Many previous studies have discussed the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. living environment) on academic achievement of children from western China. The present study focused on four non-cognitive factors, self-educational aspiration, self-efficacy, instrumental motivation, and anxiety, which could affect mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms how these four non-cognitive factors affected mathematics achievement. 5774 primary school students from 4th and 5th grade in western China participated in this study. A moderated chained mediation model was constructed. The results showed that self-educational aspiration could positively predict mathematics achievement. However, instrumental motivation and anxiety formed chained mediation between self-educational aspiration and mathematics achievement, and negatively predicted mathematics achievement. Besides, self-efficacy played a moderated role in the relationship between self-educational aspiration and anxiety


Muchos estudios previos han discutido la influencia de factores extrínsecos (por ejemplo, entorno vital) en el logro académico de los niños de China occidental. El presente estudio se centró en cuatro factores no cognitivos, la aspiración autoeducativa, la autoeficacia, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad, los cuales podrían afectar el logro matemático. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar los mecanismos por los cuales estos cuatro factores no cognitivos afectaron el logro matemático. Un total de 5774 estudiantes de primaria de 4º y 5º grado en el oeste de China participaron en este estudio. Se construyó un modelo de mediación encadenado moderado. Los resultados mostraron que la aspiración autoeducativa podría predecir positivamente el logro matemático. Sin embargo, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad formaron una mediación encadenada entre la aspiración autoeducativa y el logro matemático, y predijeron negativamente el logro matemático. Además, la autoeficacia desempeñó un papel moderado en la relación entre la aspiración autoeducativa y la ansiedad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Autoeficácia , Modelos Psicológicos , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Aspirações Psicológicas , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sucesso Acadêmico
7.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 340-347, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192071

RESUMO

This study's goal is the validation of the Portuguese version of the Basic Need Satisfaction General Scale (BNSG-S: Sousa, Pais Ribeiro, Palmeira, Teixeira, & Silva, 2012) in a sample of Portuguese older people, and analyze through a structural equations model the effect of the Portuguese elderly individuals' global perception about the satisfaction of basic psychological needs on subjective well-being. Two samples of Portuguese elderly people aged between 60 and 90 years old were considered in this study. The results reveal that only Model 3 of the BNSG-S (3 factors, 11 items) showed good results of adjustment to the data (Χ2103,16, df=41, SRMR=.05, TLI=.90, CFI=.93, RMSEA=.07, 90% CI=.05-.08). In the second part of the study, we verified that satisfaction of basic psychological needs has a positive effect on subjective well-being in Portuguese elderly people. In the presence of this evidence, we concluded that the Portuguese version of the BNSG-S can be used as a means to evaluate the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of the older population and their satisfaction has a positive effect on subjective well-being in the Portuguese older population


El objetivo de este estudio es la validación de la versión en portugués de la Escala General de Satisfacción de Necesidades Básicas (BNSG-S) en una muestra de personas mayores portuguesas, y analizar mediante el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, el efecto de la percepción global de los ancianos portugueses sobre la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas en el bienestar subjetivo. En este estudio se emplearon dos muestras de ancianos portugueses de entre 60 y 90 años de edad. Los resultados revelan que solo el Modelo 3 del BNSG-S (tres factores, 11 ítems) mostró buenos resultados de ajuste a los datos ((Χ2 = 103.16, df = 41, SRMR = .05, TLI = .90, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .07, 90% CI = .05-.08). En la segunda parte del estudio verificamos que la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas tiene un efecto positivo en el bienestar subjetivo en los ancianos portugueses. En presencia de esta evidencia, llegamos a la conclusión de que la versión portuguesa del BNSG-S puede utilizarse como un medio para evaluar la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas de la población de mayor edad y su satisfacción tiene un efecto positivo sobre el bienestar subjetivo en la población portuguesa de más edad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Idoso/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Satisfação Pessoal , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Portugal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Modelos Psicológicos
9.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(10): 546-553, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nurse work characteristics, resiliency, and burnout on retention, and patient quality and safety. BACKGROUND: With an ongoing nursing shortage, maintaining qualified nursing staff is critical. We explored the direct and indirect effects of practice environment, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on retention, and perceived quality and safety. METHODS: Responses from 507 RNs were collected via an anonymous online survey. Theorized relationships were explored via path analysis and invariance testing. RESULTS: Positive practice environment and favorable work characteristics lowered burnout and improved outcomes. The indirect effects of work characteristics and burnout were dependent upon individual level of resilience. Social capital minimized the effects of burnout for participants reporting below-average resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Leader support was critical in shaping positive perception of the practice environment. A nurse leader's visibility and actions impact intent to stay. Results of this study may inform healthcare systems struggling to retain a robust, engaged nursing workforce.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Modelos Psicológicos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Resiliência Psicológica , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008149, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903264

RESUMO

Learning and generalization in spatial domains is often thought to rely on a "cognitive map", representing relationships between spatial locations. Recent research suggests that this same neural machinery is also recruited for reasoning about more abstract, conceptual forms of knowledge. Yet, to what extent do spatial and conceptual reasoning share common computational principles, and what are the implications for behavior? Using a within-subject design we studied how participants used spatial or conceptual distances to generalize and search for correlated rewards in successive multi-armed bandit tasks. Participant behavior indicated sensitivity to both spatial and conceptual distance, and was best captured using a Bayesian model of generalization that formalized distance-dependent generalization and uncertainty-guided exploration as a Gaussian Process regression with a radial basis function kernel. The same Gaussian Process model best captured human search decisions and judgments in both domains, and could simulate realistic learning curves, where we found equivalent levels of generalization in spatial and conceptual tasks. At the same time, we also find characteristic differences between domains. Relative to the spatial domain, participants showed reduced levels of uncertainty-directed exploration and increased levels of random exploration in the conceptual domain. Participants also displayed a one-directional transfer effect, where experience in the spatial task boosted performance in the conceptual task, but not vice versa. While confidence judgments indicated that participants were sensitive to the uncertainty of their knowledge in both tasks, they did not or could not leverage their estimates of uncertainty to guide exploration in the conceptual task. These results support the notion that value-guided learning and generalization recruit cognitive-map dependent computational mechanisms in spatial and conceptual domains. Yet both behavioral and model-based analyses suggest domain specific differences in how these representations map onto actions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Incerteza
11.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(10): 713-727, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social distancing is a key behavior to minimize COVID-19 infections. Identification of potentially modifiable determinants of social distancing behavior may provide essential evidence to inform social distancing behavioral interventions. PURPOSE: The current study applied an integrated social cognition model to identify the determinants of social distancing behavior, and the processes involved, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In a prospective correlational survey study, samples of Australian (N = 365) and U.S. (N = 440) residents completed online self-report measures of social cognition constructs (attitude, subjective norm, moral norm, anticipated regret, and perceived behavioral control [PBC]), intention, action planning, habit, and past behavior with respect to social distancing behavior at an initial occasion. Follow-up measures of habit and social distancing behavior were taken 1 week later. RESULTS: Structural equation models indicated that subjective norm, moral norm, and PBC were consistent predictors of intention in both samples. Intention, action planning, and habit at follow-up were consistent predictors of social distancing behavior in both samples. Action planning did not have consistent effects mediating or moderating the intention-behavior relationship. Inclusion of past behavior in the model attenuated effects among constructs, although the effects of the determinants of intention and behavior remained. CONCLUSIONS: Current findings highlight the importance of subjective norm, moral obligation, and PBC as determinants of social distancing intention and intention and habit as behavioral determinants. Future research on long-range predictors of social distancing behavior and reciprocal effects in the integrated model is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Intenção , Modelos Psicológicos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
12.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(315): 17-19, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951690

RESUMO

The representation that parents have of their child has an impact on their child's future. Similarly, what the therapist understands of his patient has an impact on the therapeutic process. Through the presentation of clinical situations put into perspective with theoretical elements, it is possible to propose a model of understanding of these effects via the concept of anticipatory illusion.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Ilusões/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Pais/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is high risk of contamination with COVID-19 virus during routine dental procedures and infection control is crucial. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with Covid-19 preventive behaviors among oral health care providers using an extended parallel process model (EPPM). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, short text message invite surveys were sent to 870 oral health care providers in west part of Iran. Data were collected through validated self-report EPPM questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Fishers exact tests were used for data analysis. RESULTS: In total, 300 completed questionnaires were received and the mean age of respondents was 29.89 ± 11.17 years (range: 20-75 years). Among the study population, 284 (94.67%) perceived the threat of infection highly. Washing hands frequently with water and soap and use of hand sanitizer was reported by 93.33%, of participants. Age (P = 0.010), sex (P = 0.002) and occupation field (P = 0.010) were significantly associated with danger control responses. Data identified that those oral health care providers that were on the danger control response adopted preventive behaviors more strictly than those on fear control response. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed how degrees of perceived threat and perceived efficacy influenced oral health providers' willingness to perform recommended health behaviors. These findings can assist public health agencies in developing educational programs specifically designed for promoting preventive behaviors among oral health providers in pandemic situations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência Odontológica , Odontólogos/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Higienistas Dentários/psicologia , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(9): 931-943, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852985

RESUMO

We investigate the psychological recovery process of full-time employees during the 2-week period at the onset of the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Past research suggests that recovery processes start after stressors abate and can take months or years to unfold. In contrast, we build on autonomy restoration theory to suggest that recovery of impaired autonomy starts immediately even as a stressor is ongoing. Using growth curve modeling, we examined the temporal trajectories of two manifestations of impaired autonomy-powerlessness and (lack of) authenticity-to test whether recovery began as the pandemic unfolded. We tested our predictions using a unique experience-sampling dataset collected over a 2-week period beginning on the Monday after COVID-19 was declared a "global pandemic" by the World Health Organization and a "national emergency" by the U.S. Government (March 16-27, 2020). Results suggest that autonomy restoration was activated even as the pandemic worsened. Employees reported decreasing powerlessness and increasing authenticity during this period, despite their subjective stress-levels not improving. Further, the trajectories of recovery for both powerlessness and authenticity were steeper for employees higher (vs. lower) in neuroticism, a personality characteristic central to stress reactions. Importantly, these patterns do not emerge in a second experience-sampling study collected prior to the COVID-19 crisis (September 9-20, 2019), highlighting how the pandemic initially threatened employee autonomy, but also how employees began to recover their sense of autonomy almost immediately. The present research provides novel insights into employee well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic and suggests that psychological recovery can begin during a stressful experience. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232030, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745104

RESUMO

The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) assesses Thwarted Belongingness (TB) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PB), two predictors of suicidal thoughts. Up to now, the use of item response theory (IRT) for the evaluation of the INQ has been restricted to a single study with clinically depressed and suicidal youth. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the two INQ-15-subscales TB and PB were now evaluated in a general population sample (N = 2508) and a clinical adult population sample (N = 185) using IRT, specifically the Rasch model (RM) and the graphical log-linear Rasch model (GLLRM). Of special interest was whether the INQ-subscales displayed differential item functioning (DIF) across the two different samples and how well the subscales were targeted to the two sample populations. For the clinical sample, fit to a GLLRM could be established for the PB-subscale and fit to a RM was established for a five-item version of the TB-subscale. In contrast, for the general population sample fit to a GLLRM could only be achieved for the PB-subscale. Overall, there was strong evidence of local dependence (LD) across items and of some age- and gender-related DIF. Both subscales exhibited massive DIF related to the sample, indicating that they don't work the same across the general population and clinical sample. As expected, targeting of both INQ-subscales was much better for the clinical population. Further investigations of the INQ-15 under the Rasch approach in a large clinical population are recommended to determine and optimize the scale performance.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790729

RESUMO

Classical value-based decision theories state that economic choices are solely based on the value of available options. Experimental evidence suggests, however, that individuals' choices are biased towards default options, prompted by the framing of decisions. Although the effects of default options created by exogenous framing-such as how choice options are displayed-are well-documented, little is known about the potential effects and properties of endogenous framing, that is, originating from an individual's internal state. In this study, we investigated the existence and properties of endogenous default options in a task involving choices between risky lotteries. By manipulating and examining the effects of three experimental features-time pressure, time spent on task and relative choice proportion towards a specific option-, we reveal and dissociate two features of endogenous default options which bias individuals' choices: a natural tendency to prefer certain types of options (natural default), and the tendency to implicitly learn a default option from past choices (learned default). Additional analyses suggest that while the natural default may bias the standard choice process towards an option category, the learned default effects may be attributable to a second independent choice process. Overall, these investigations provide a first experimental evidence of how individuals build and apply diverse endogenous default options in economic decision-making and how this biases their choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Teoria da Decisão , Modelos Econômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3857, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737317

RESUMO

It is becoming widely appreciated that human perceptual decision making is suboptimal but the nature and origins of this suboptimality remain poorly understood. Most past research has employed tasks with two stimulus categories, but such designs cannot fully capture the limitations inherent in naturalistic perceptual decisions where choices are rarely between only two alternatives. We conduct four experiments with tasks involving multiple alternatives and use computational modeling to determine the decision-level representation on which the perceptual decisions are based. The results from all four experiments point to the existence of robust suboptimality such that most of the information in the sensory representation is lost during the transformation to a decision-level representation. These results reveal severe limits in the quality of decision-level representations for multiple alternatives and have strong implications about perceptual decision making in naturalistic settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1007920, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780741

RESUMO

Standard neuroeconomic decision theory assumes that choice is based on a value comparison process, independent from how information about alternative options is collected. Here, we investigate the opposite intuition that preferences are dynamically shaped as options are sampled, through iterative covert pairwise comparisons. Our model builds on two lines of research, one suggesting that a natural frame of comparison for the brain is between default and alternative options, the other suggesting that comparisons spread preferences between options. We therefore assumed that during sequential option sampling, people would 1) covertly compare every new alternative to the current best and 2) update their values such that the winning (losing) option receives a positive (negative) bonus. We confronted this "covert pairwise comparison" model to models derived from standard decision theory and from known memory effects. Our model provided the best account of human choice behavior in a novel task where participants (n = 92 in total) had to browse through a sequence of items (food, music or movie) of variable length and ultimately select their favorite option. Consistently, the order of option presentation, which was manipulated by design, had a significant influence on the eventual choice: the best option was more likely to be chosen when it came earlier in the sequence, because it won more covert comparisons (hence a greater total bonus). Our study provides a mechanistic understanding of how the option sampling process shapes economic preference, which should be integrated into decision theory.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Comportamento do Consumidor , Teoria da Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Psicofísica , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3885, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753599

RESUMO

Humans routinely engage in many distinct interactions in parallel. Team members collaborate on several concurrent projects, and even whole nations interact with each other across a variety of issues, including trade, climate change and security. Yet the existing theory of direct reciprocity studies isolated repeated games. Such models cannot account for strategic attempts to use the vested interests in one game as a leverage to enforce cooperation in another. Here we introduce a general framework of multichannel games. Individuals interact with each other over multiple channels; each channel is a repeated game. Strategic choices in one channel can affect decisions in another. With analytical equilibrium calculations for the donation game and evolutionary simulations for several other games we show that such linkage facilitates cooperation. Our results suggest that previous studies tend to underestimate the human potential for reciprocity. When several interactions occur in parallel, people often learn to coordinate their behavior across games to maximize cooperation in each of them.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Modelos Psicológicos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Dilema do Prisioneiro
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3854, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782263

RESUMO

The synchronization of human networks is essential for our civilization and understanding its dynamics is important to many aspects of our lives. Human ensembles were investigated, but in noisy environments and with limited control over the network parameters which govern the network dynamics. Specifically, research has focused predominantly on all-to-all coupling, whereas current social networks and human interactions are often based on complex coupling configurations. Here, we study the synchronization between violin players in complex networks with full and accurate control over the network connectivity, coupling strength, and delay. We show that the players can tune their playing period and delete connections by ignoring frustrating signals, to find a stable solution. These additional degrees of freedom enable new strategies and yield better solutions than are possible within current models such as the Kuramoto model. Our results may influence numerous fields, including traffic management, epidemic control, and stock market dynamics.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social , Rede Social , Feminino , Frustração , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica não Linear
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