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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(2): 182-188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite relatively consistent findings regarding the number of personality pathology domains, differences in domain structure remain. Recently the proposed ICD-11 domains were partially validated in a sample of patients with major depression producing five domains: Detached, Anankastic, Negative Emotional, Antisocial and Borderline. The aim of our study was to attempt to cross-validate these findings in a sample of patients primarily diagnosed with personality disorder (PD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II PD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied on fifty seven DSM PD symptoms selected to represent the five proposed domains. RESULTS: SCID II data were collected from a total of 223 subjects. The EFA extracted five factors. The first factor labeled as borderline-internalizing constituted of borderline together with avoidant and dependent items, the second, labeled as disinhibited/ borderline externalizing, incorporated narcissistic and histrionic items. The other three separate factors in our study labeled as antisocial, anankastic and detached, were less robust. CONCLUSIONS: In our study five personality pathology domains were partly replicated. The most robust findings support the existence of the two factors, borderline-internalizing and disinhibited/borderline externalizing. However, the EFA was performed on a relatively low prevalence symptoms distribution, particularly for antisocial and schizoid factors.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vaccinations for infectious diseases are opposed despite their achievement, and this opposition has recently been revealed in Korea. However, research in Korea has not been vigorous. The authors studied why some Korean parents hesitate to vaccinate their children by applying the health belief model. METHODS: Parents who hesitate to vaccinate and parents who do not were surveyed in alternative education preschools and elementary schools. They were classified into four types of hesitancy and statistically compared. RESULTS: Among the 129 subjects, 43 vaccinated without hesitancy, 20 vaccinated on time with hesitancy, 32 vaccinated with a deliberate delay of one month or longer, and 34 did not vaccinate. Vaccination increased with an increase in the awareness that severe outcomes can occur when unvaccinated. Concerns about adverse reactions from vaccinations or direct/indirect experiences affected refusal. Furthermore, perceptions of the lack of meaningfulness of vaccinations, distrust of policy and safety management, influence of leaders or activists in joined organizations, and experts of Korean traditional or alternative medicine affected refusal. Explanations by doctors, text messages and mails from institutions, and concerns about disadvantages caused by not complying with government policies increased vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for vaccine hesitancy and acceptance were similar to the results of international research. Health authorities and professionals should communicate sufficiently and appropriately with hesitant parents and find ways to rationally resolve social conflicts. However, this sample was small and there is little Korean research, so more in-depth and diverse researchs are needed.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Nervenarzt ; 90(7): 700-704, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165211

RESUMO

The Wedding model is a recovery-orientated treatment model that was implemented in 2010 as part of a complex change project in the Department of Psychiatry of the Charité at the St. Hedwig Hospital (PUK-SHK). According to this model, all ward structures were changed in order to promote transparency, participation, trialogue and multiprofessional work. A strong focus was also laid on therapeutic attitudes and the opening of acute psychiatric wards. The relevance of the Wedding model as a possible tool to implement a recovery-orientated, person-centered approach of care and its possible role in the reduction of coercion are the subject of this article.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Modelos Psicológicos , Psiquiatria , Coerção , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria , Psiquiatria/métodos , Psiquiatria/normas
4.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 40: 2-9, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an explanatory model, built on an ecological basis, and examine the relational effects of multilevel factors on screening behaviour among South Asian immigrant women. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, exploratory correlational study using path analysis. 776 South Asian immigrant women were recruited from community in Hong Kong. A self-administered survey with eight sections covering socio-demographics, recommendations received from others, previous screening experience, knowledge of the disease and screening, attitudes and perceptions, level of acculturation, cultural barriers to screening and perception of cancer fatalism was used to collect data. Path analysis was done to test the hypothesised model. FINDINGS: The final model obtained an acceptable model fit with x2/df = 2.52, RMSEA = 0.044, CFI = 0.95 and TLI = 0.93. A total of 15 factors, ranging from intra-personal to community level, were identified as being associated with South Asian immigrant women's cervical cancer screening behaviour. Three factors at the community level (language use, modesty and crisis orientation) had an inter-relationship with three intra-personal factors (perceived barriers to screening, cancer fatalism and perceived benefits of screening) and hence affected screening uptake. CONCLUSIONS: South Asian women's cervical cancer screening behaviour is affected by multi-level factors. Efforts should be made to change the current health-promoting strategies and attract more involvement from appropriate stakeholders, incorporating cultural and socio-environmental components in future interventions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hong Kong , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2648, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201322

RESUMO

Polarization affects many forms of social organization. A key issue focuses on which affective relationships are prone to change and how their change relates to performance. In this study, we analyze a financial institutional over a two-year period that employed 66 day traders, focusing on links between changes in affective relations and trading performance. Traders' affective relations were inferred from their IMs (>2 million messages) and trading performance was measured from profit and loss statements (>1 million trades). Here, we find that triads of relationships, the building blocks of larger social structures, have a propensity towards affective balance, but one unbalanced configuration resists change. Further, balance is positively related to performance. Traders with balanced networks have the "hot hand", showing streaks of high performance. Research implications focus on how changes in polarization relate to performance and polarized states can depolarize.


Assuntos
Comércio , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Assunção de Riscos , Rede Social , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Mensagem de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1007-1019, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213787

RESUMO

Background: Historically, influential models and theories of health behavior employed in aging research view human behavior as determined by conscious processes that involve intentional motives and beliefs. We examine the evolution, strengths, and weaknesses of this approach; then offer a contemporary definition of the mind, provide support for it, and discuss the implications it has for the design of behavioral interventions in research on aging. Methods: A narrative review was conducted. Results: Traditionally, models and theories used to either predict or change health behaviors in aging have not viewed the mind as encompassing embodied and relational processes nor have they given adequate attention to multi-level, in-the-moment determinants of health behavior. Discussion: Future theory and research in aging would benefit from a broader integrative model of health behavior. The effects of adverse life experience and changes in biological systems with aging and chronic disease on health behavior warrant increased attention.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
7.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(1): 39-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038484

RESUMO

In the present study, we tested the ability of our computational model of the filled­space illusion to account for data collected in experiments with stimuli comprising single­dot distractors. In three sets of experiments, we investigated this illusory effect as a function of distance between the distractor and lateral terminator of the reference spatial interval of the three­dot stimulus. We found that the model calculations properly predicted all of the observed changes in magnitude of the illusion for stimuli with a single distracting dot placed both within and outside the interval, as well as, for stimuli with two distractors arranged symmetrically relative to the lateral terminator. To additionally test the model, in a fourth set of experiments we performed psychophysical examination of the conventional Oppel­Kundt stimulus with a different number of equally spaced dots subdividing the filled part. Adequate correspondence between the computational and experimental data supports our assumptions concerning the origin of the filled­space illusion.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Ilusões Ópticas/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Enquadramento (Psicologia) , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 646, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ghana has reached an advanced stage of nutrition transition, contributing to an increase in nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, particularly amongst urban women. Community involvement is an important factor in the success of efforts to promote healthy eating. The readiness of populations to accept a range of interventions needs to be understood before appropriate interventions can be implemented. Therefore, this study assessed how ready urban communities are to improve diets of women of reproductive age in Ghana. METHODS: Using the Community Readiness Model (CRM), in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 key informants from various sectors in low income communities across two cities in Ghana: Accra and Ho. The CRM consists of 36 open questions addressing five readiness dimensions (community knowledge of efforts, leadership, community climate, knowledge of the issue and resources). Interviews were scored using the CRM protocol with a maximum of 9 points per dimension (from 1 = no awareness to 9 = high level of community ownership). Thematic analysis was undertaken to gain insights of community factors that could affect the implementation of interventions to improve diets. RESULTS: The mean community readiness scores indicated that both communities were in the "vague awareness stage" (3.35 ± 0.54 (Accra) and 3.94 ± 0.41 (Ho)). CRM scores across the five dimensions ranged from 2.65-4.38/9, ranging from denial/resistance to pre-planning. In both communities, the mean readiness score for 'knowledge of the issue' was the highest of all dimensions (4.10 ± 1.61 (Accra); 4.38 ± 1.81 (Ho)), but was still only at the pre-planning phase. The lowest scores were found for community knowledge of efforts (denial/resistance; 2.65 ± 2.49 (Accra)) and resources (vague awareness; 3.35 ± 1.03 (Ho)). The lack of knowledge of the consequences of unhealthy diets, misconceptions of the issue partly from low education, as well as challenges faced from a lack of resources to initiate/sustain programmes explained the low readiness. CONCLUSIONS: Despite recognising that unhealthy diets are a public health issue in these urban Ghanaian communities, it is not seen as a priority. The low community readiness ratings highlight the need to increase awareness of the issue prior to intervening to improve diets.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Dieta/normas , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Áreas de Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 643, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification of stroke symptoms and rapid access to the emergency services increases an individual's chance of receiving thrombolytic therapy and reduces the likelihood of infirmity. The UK's national stroke campaign 'Act FAST' was developed to increase public awareness of stroke symptoms and highlighted the importance of rapid response by contacting emergency services. No study to date has assessed if and how people who experienced or witnessed stroke in line with the campaigns' symptoms of the FAST acronym (i.e., facial weakness, arm weakness, slurred speech, and time) may use this FAST in their response. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 13 stroke patients and witnesses were conducted. Interviews were theory-guided based on the Common Sense Self-Regulation Model, to understand the appraisal process of the onset of stroke symptoms and how this impacted on participants' ability to apply their knowledge of the FAST campaign. RESULTS: The majority of patients (n = 8/13) failed to correctly identify stroke and reported no impact of the campaign on their stroke recognition and response. Inability to identify stroke, perceiving symptoms to lack severity and lack of control contributed to a delay in seeking medical attention. CONCLUSION: Stroke witnesses and patients predominantly fail to identify stroke which suggest a lack of FAST application when it matters. Inaccurate risk perceptions and lack of physical control both play central roles in influencing the formation of illness representation not associated with an appropriate emergency response.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reino Unido
10.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 43, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major trauma patients-such as patients who have experienced road injury, high-impact falls or violence-require complex, intense and rapid resuscitation from a multidisciplinary team of clinicians. These 'flash teams' must form quickly and function effectively, often having never met before. There is evidence that multidisciplinary teamwork training improves the performance of the trauma team in simulation. However, the translation of learnt resuscitation teamwork skills from simulation into clinical practice has had modest and variable effects. This paper outlines a method for developing an intervention designed to translate the teaching from a simulated training environment into clinical practice using the theoretical domains framework, behaviour change wheel and behaviour change techniques as the theoretical and empirical basis for the process. METHODS: The data used to inform the intervention development process were collected during an implementation evaluation study of the trauma team training programme at the busiest level 1 trauma centre in Sydney, Australia. A detailed barrier and enabler assessment were conducted using qualitative and quantitative data. The theoretical domains framework was used to integrate the results. Implementation interventions were selected using the behaviour change wheel. RESULTS: Twenty-three facilitators and 19 barriers were identified to influence the implementation of trauma team training in the clinical setting. The facilitators and barriers corresponded to all 14 domains of the theoretical domains framework. Seven intervention functions and four policy categories of the behavioural change wheel were selected to address the target behaviours, and a multimodal relaunch of the revised trauma team training programme was developed. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a framework for deductively employing the theoretical domains framework, behaviour change wheel and behaviour change techniques to assess and develop intervention strategies to improve the functioning of trauma resuscitation teams.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Traumatologia/educação , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Treinamento por Simulação , Centros de Traumatologia
11.
Public Health ; 171: 41-49, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using the Andersen behavioral model, we examined the complex relationships among geographic access to care, financial disadvantage, patient-centered care factors, and access to care outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of the US civilian non-institutionalized population. METHODS: Our analytic sample included 15,787 US adults aged 18 years or older who had health insurance coverage for a full year in Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2014-2015. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the associations among usual source of care, travel time to provider, financial disadvantage, patient-centered care factors (perceived interaction with health provider, shared decision-making, and value of health care), and access to care (perceived access to care and unmet need of health services). RESULTS: Our analysis showed that patient-centered care factors were associated with improved perceived access to care (ß = 0.03 to 0.56, P = .002) and reduced unmet needs of health care (ß = -0.03 to -0.17, P = .03 to < .001). Although longer travel time to provider and having financial disadvantage of paying medical bills had negative effects on access to care outcomes, these associations were mediated by patient-centered care quality factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that better patient-centered care factors are associated with enhanced patient access to care. Efforts that focus on improving patient experience could be an effective approach along with coverage expansion to enhance access to quality care.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(1): 2-17, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948684

RESUMO

This paper presents an integrative model of personality and personality disorder which incorporates psychoanalytic concepts with modern neuroscience. In addition, a dynamic, personalized, and context - and time-sensitive diagnosis of personality disorder is introduced. The authors cogently argue that all clinical variants of personality disorder share the same common deficit: fragmented basic units of experience at the nonconscious core of the mind (aka "partial object relations"). The fragmentation propagates through mental faculties (thought, motivation, emotion), as they self-organize into subsystems of personality, e.g., one's sense of self, identity, character, moral values, rendering them polarized into extreme and thus adaptively suboptimal. The syndrome of personality disorder arises as a nonconscious compensatory maneuver of the fragmented mind to organize itself through a defensive but unrealistic self-image (e.g., narcissistic, schizoid, antisocial, etc.), giving rise to a host of unique symptoms. Symptomatic pharmacotherapy of personality disorder is best organized around four empirically derived domains of symptoms, shared by all variants to a variable degree: i) mood and anxiety dysregulation; ii) impulsivity, aggression, and behavior dyscontrol; iii) emotional disinterest and detachment; and iv) cognitive distortions and brief reactive psychoses. Pharmacotherapy targeting the above domains is nonspecific, as medications affect multiple domains simultaneously. Modest empirical evidence and considerable clinical benefits continue to support the use of medications in the overall symptomatic treatment of personality disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtornos da Personalidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Modelos Psicológicos , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/tratamento farmacológico , Psicoterapia
13.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(4): 371-381, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958013

RESUMO

Sexual minority (SM) young adults, such as those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), have well documented smoking disparities compared to heterosexual young adults. However, no studies have simultaneously tested the role of three risk factors (depressive symptoms, recalling tobacco marketing in bars, and cigarette-related social norms) to explain SM tobacco use disparities. Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to explore if the association between SM identity and past 30-day cigarette smoking one year later was mediated by these three risk factors. Starting in fall 2015, three surveys were administered every 6 months to 3,972 young adult college students. Surveys assessed SM identity, depressive symptoms, tobacco marketing in bars, normative perceptions of cigarettes, and tobacco use behaviors. Greater depressive symptoms, recalling more tobacco marketing in bars, and more accepting cigarette-related social norms were each hypothesized to explain a unique portion of the association between SM identity and subsequent cigarette use. SM young adults reported higher prevalence of cigarette use, depressive symptom scores reflecting elevated risk for major depressive disorder, and more accepting cigarette-related social norms than their heterosexual peers. Results indicated that only cigarette-related social norms mediated the association between SM identity and subsequent past 30-day smoking, while controlling for depressive symptoms, recalling tobacco marketing in bars, sociodemographic factors, and previous tobacco use. Findings reflect a need for tailored tobacco control messaging that shift the more accepting cigarette-related norms of SM young adults, as doing so may ultimately lead to decreased smoking for this high-risk subgroup. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing , Modelos Psicológicos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(4): 360-370, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985165

RESUMO

Cross-sectional studies have shown that both stressors and personality vulnerability are risk factors for adolescent problematic Internet use (PIU). However, little is known about how both categories of factors in combination may contribute to the longitudinal development of PIU among adolescents. The aims of this study were to document the developmental pattern of PIU among adolescents and to examine how stressful life events and the Big Five personality traits jointly affect the development of PIU. We tested three competing models: the additive, diathesis-stress, and social push models. A total of 1,365 adolescents participated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that PIU among adolescents increased over the 3-year period. After controlling for demographics and the Big Five personality traits, stressful life events (a time-varying predictor) were positively correlated with the initial level of, and the rate of change in, PIU. After controlling for demographics and stressful life events, four of the time-invariant Big Five personality dimensions had a significant effect on the initial level of PIU. Low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness, high Openness, and high Neuroticism were positively associated with high initial PIU. In addition, Extraversion was negatively associated with and Conscientiousness was positively associated with the rate of change in PIU. The interaction effect between the personality and stressors was not significant. Therefore, the data provided support for the additive model, indicating that stressful life events and personality dimensions each make a unique contribution to PIU and that both should be considered in the prevention of adolescent PIU. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
15.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 45(2): 242-256, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945928

RESUMO

Rescorla (2000) devised the compound test procedure as a means of comparing changes in associative strength when cues with different training histories are conditioned in compound. It was specifically intended to dissociate changes in learning from changes in performance, and thereby, permit inferences about learning independently of assumptions regarding how learning translates into performance. In an elegant series of studies, Rescorla (2000, 2001) used this procedure to show that cues conditioned in compound undergo unequal associative change such that the poorer predictor of the outcome undergoes greater change rather than the equal change predicted by theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) that rely on a common error term. Rescorla explained the data from the compound test procedure by proposing that associative change is calculated using a combination of two error terms, a common error term that carries the predictions of all cues present on a trial and an individual term that carries the prediction of any cue in isolation. This article is in two parts. The first used simulations to show that a theory, such as Rescorla-Wagner, which just relies on a common error term, can explain the compound test data if the function that translates learning into performance is double-sigmoidal across the full range of associative strength (i.e., from inhibition through to excitation). The second part likewise used simulations to show that a theory, such as the comparator theory (Miller & Matzel, 1988), which does not invoke a common error term, can also explain the compound test data. Thus, a common error term is sufficient to explain the compound test data, but it is not necessary. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Inibição (Psicologia) , Modelos Psicológicos , Animais , Humanos
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006915, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973880

RESUMO

We present 10 tips for building effective lessons that are grounded in empirical research on pedagogy and cognitive psychology and that we have found to be practically useful in both classroom and free-range settings.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Ensino , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Linguística , Modelos Educacionais , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Estimulação Luminosa , Estudantes/psicologia
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006713, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995214

RESUMO

Agents living in volatile environments must be able to detect changes in contingencies while refraining to adapt to unexpected events that are caused by noise. In Reinforcement Learning (RL) frameworks, this requires learning rates that adapt to past reliability of the model. The observation that behavioural flexibility in animals tends to decrease following prolonged training in stable environment provides experimental evidence for such adaptive learning rates. However, in classical RL models, learning rate is either fixed or scheduled and can thus not adapt dynamically to environmental changes. Here, we propose a new Bayesian learning model, using variational inference, that achieves adaptive change detection by the use of Stabilized Forgetting, updating its current belief based on a mixture of fixed, initial priors and previous posterior beliefs. The weight given to these two sources is optimized alongside the other parameters, allowing the model to adapt dynamically to changes in environmental volatility and to unexpected observations. This approach is used to implement the "critic" of an actor-critic RL model, while the actor samples the resulting value distributions to choose which action to undertake. We show that our model can emulate different adaptation strategies to contingency changes, depending on its prior assumptions of environmental stability, and that model parameters can be fit to real data with high accuracy. The model also exhibits trade-offs between flexibility and computational costs that mirror those observed in real data. Overall, the proposed method provides a general framework to study learning flexibility and decision making in RL contexts.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Aprendizagem , Adaptação Psicológica , Algoritmos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Reforço (Psicologia) , Recompensa
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006465, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998675

RESUMO

Optimal Bayesian models have been highly successful in describing human performance on perceptual decision-making tasks, such as cue combination and visual search. However, recent studies have argued that these models are often overly flexible and therefore lack explanatory power. Moreover, there are indications that neural computation is inherently imprecise, which makes it implausible that humans would perform optimally on any non-trivial task. Here, we reconsider human performance on a visual-search task by using an approach that constrains model flexibility and tests for computational imperfections. Subjects performed a target detection task in which targets and distractors were tilted ellipses with orientations drawn from Gaussian distributions with different means. We varied the amount of overlap between these distributions to create multiple levels of external uncertainty. We also varied the level of sensory noise, by testing subjects under both short and unlimited display times. On average, empirical performance-measured as d'-fell 18.1% short of optimal performance. We found no evidence that the magnitude of this suboptimality was affected by the level of internal or external uncertainty. The data were well accounted for by a Bayesian model with imperfections in its computations. This "imperfect Bayesian" model convincingly outperformed the "flawless Bayesian" model as well as all ten heuristic models that we tested. These results suggest that perception is founded on Bayesian principles, but with suboptimalities in the implementation of these principles. The view of perception as imperfect Bayesian inference can provide a middle ground between traditional Bayesian and anti-Bayesian views.


Assuntos
Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Biologia Computacional , Tomada de Decisões , Teoria da Decisão , Discriminação (Psicologia) , Heurística , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Incerteza
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1808, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000712

RESUMO

Previous studies of strategic social interaction in game theory have predominantly used games with clearly-defined turns and limited choices. Yet, most real-world social behaviors involve dynamic, coevolving decisions by interacting agents, which poses challenges for creating tractable models of behavior. Here, using a game in which humans competed against both real and artificial opponents, we show that it is possible to quantify the instantaneous dynamic coupling between agents. Adopting a reinforcement learning approach, we use Gaussian Processes to model the policy and value functions of participants as a function of both game state and opponent identity. We found that higher-scoring participants timed their final change in direction to moments when the opponent's counter-strategy was weaker, while lower-scoring participants less precisely timed their final moves. This approach offers a natural set of metrics for facilitating analysis at multiple timescales and suggests new classes of experimental paradigms for assessing behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Teoria do Jogo , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição Normal , Reforço (Psicologia) , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(4): 601-618, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973259

RESUMO

All experimenters know that human and animal subjects do not respond uniformly to experimental treatments. Yet theories and findings in experimental psychology either ignore this causal effect heterogeneity or treat it as uninteresting error. This is the case even when data are available to examine effect heterogeneity directly, in within-subjects designs where experimental effects can be examined subject by subject. Using data from four repeated-measures experiments, we show that effect heterogeneity can be modeled readily, that its discovery presents exciting opportunities for theory and methods, and that allowing for it in study designs is good research practice. This evidence suggests that experimenters should work from the assumption that causal effects are heterogeneous. Such a working assumption will be of particular benefit, given the increasing diversity of subject populations in psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia Experimental , Humanos
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