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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 221-232, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202546

RESUMO

This study examined the mediator role of use of emotion (UoE) component of the emotional intelligence Scale in the relationship between extraversion (EX) and conscientiousness within the Big Five personality factors, and the dimensions of working excessively (WE) and working compulsively of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale. Along with this aim, da-ta were collected from healthcare staff, most of who were nurses, working at private hospitals serving in Istanbul. The findings indicated that WE had a non-significant direct effect on EX (β = −0.358; p > . 05), while the indirect effect of WE on EX through UoE was significant (β = 0.147; p < .05). This study reveals that UoE acts as a full mediator in the effect of WE on EX


Este estudio examinó el papel mediador del componente de uso de la emoción (UoE), de la Escala de inteligencia emocional, en la relación entre extraversión (EX) y conciencia dentro de los Cinco Grandes factores de personalidad, y las dimensiones de trabajar en exceso (WE) y trabajar compulsivamente de la Escala holandesa de adicción al trabajo. Junto con este objetivo, se recopilaron datos del personal sanitario, en su mayoría enfermeras, que trabajaba en hospitales privados que prestan servicios en Estambul. Los hallazgos indicaron que WE tuvo un efecto directo no significativo sobre EX (β = −0.358; p > .05), mientras que el efecto indirecto de WE sobre EX a través de UoE fue significativo (β = 0.147; p < .05). Este estudio revela que UoE actúa como un mediador completo en el efecto de WE sobre EX


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Personalidade , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Emoções , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Classes Latentes , Análise Fatorial , Inteligência Emocional , Testes Psicológicos , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Extroversão Psicológica
2.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 627-642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410739

RESUMO

Anti-Asian racism has spiked since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, creating compounded threats to Asian Americans' psychological wellbeing on top of other pandemic stressors (e.g., fears of infection, financial insecurity, or quarantine isolation). COVID-19 anti-Asian racism signifies the relevance of race and racism during public health crises and highlights the importance of examining the psychological impacts of racialized stress and avenues for resilience during a pandemic. This article describes a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of rechanneling the experience of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism toward resilience. Specifically, the proposed model identifies a tripartite process of collective psychosocial resilience, comprised of (a) critical consciousness of discrimination as a common fate, (b) critical consciousness-informed racial/ethnic identity, and (c) advocacy, for empowering Asian Americans and protecting them against the harmful effects of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism during and beyond the pandemic. Theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the proposed tripartite process for cultivating resilience against COVID-19 anti-Asian racism are delineated. Practice implications and future research directions, as informed and revealed by the conceptual model, are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , COVID-19 , Pandemias , Racismo , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Racismo/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256041, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407127

RESUMO

Despite the severe psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, some individuals do not develop high levels of psychological distress and can be termed resilient. Using the ecological resilience model, we examined factors promoting or hindering resilience in the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 1034 participants (49.9±16.2 years; females 51.2%) from Italian general population, 70% displayed resilient outcomes and 30% reported moderate-severe anxiety and/or depression. A binary regression model revealed that factors promoting resilience were mostly psychological (e.g., trait resilience, conscientiousness) together with social distancing. Conversely, factors hindering resilience included COVID-19-anxiety, COVID-19-related PTSD symptoms, intolerance of uncertainty, loneliness, living with children, higher education, and living in regions where the virus was starting to spread. In conclusion, the ecological resilience model in the COVID-19 pandemic explained 64% of the variance and identified factors promoting or hindering resilient outcomes. Critically, these findings can inform psychological interventions supporting individuals by strengthening factors associated with resilience.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Distanciamento Físico , Fatores de Risco
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411112

RESUMO

Social scientists and psychologists take interest in understanding how people express emotions and sentiments when dealing with catastrophic events such as natural disasters, political unrest, and terrorism. The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophic event that has raised a number of psychological issues such as depression given abrupt social changes and lack of employment. Advancements of deep learning-based language models have been promising for sentiment analysis with data from social networks such as Twitter. Given the situation with COVID-19 pandemic, different countries had different peaks where rise and fall of new cases affected lock-downs which directly affected the economy and employment. During the rise of COVID-19 cases with stricter lock-downs, people have been expressing their sentiments in social media. This can provide a deep understanding of human psychology during catastrophic events. In this paper, we present a framework that employs deep learning-based language models via long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks for sentiment analysis during the rise of novel COVID-19 cases in India. The framework features LSTM language model with a global vector embedding and state-of-art BERT language model. We review the sentiments expressed for selective months in 2020 which covers the major peak of novel cases in India. Our framework utilises multi-label sentiment classification where more than one sentiment can be expressed at once. Our results indicate that the majority of the tweets have been positive with high levels of optimism during the rise of the novel COVID-19 cases and the number of tweets significantly lowered towards the peak. We find that the optimistic, annoyed and joking tweets mostly dominate the monthly tweets with much lower portion of negative sentiments. The predictions generally indicate that although the majority have been optimistic, a significant group of population has been annoyed towards the way the pandemic was handled by the authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aprendizado Profundo , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Mídias Sociais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4714, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354071

RESUMO

Although the contents of working memory can be decoded from visual cortex activity, these representations may play a limited role if they are not robust to distraction. We used model-based fMRI to estimate the impact of distracting visual tasks on working memory representations in several visual field maps in visual and frontoparietal association cortex. Here, we show distraction causes the fidelity of working memory representations to briefly dip when both the memorandum and distractor are jointly encoded by the population activities. Distraction induces small biases in memory errors which can be predicted by biases in neural decoding in early visual cortex, but not other regions. Although distraction briefly disrupts working memory representations, the widespread redundancy with which working memory information is encoded may protect against catastrophic loss. In early visual cortex, the neural representation of information in working memory and behavioral performance are intertwined, solidifying its importance in visual memory.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413212

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that vaccination hesitancy is too high in many countries to sustainably contain COVID-19. Using a factorial survey experiment administered to 20,500 online respondents in Germany, we assess the effectiveness of three strategies to increase vaccine uptake, namely, providing freedoms, financial remuneration, and vaccination at local doctors. Our results suggest that all three strategies can increase vaccination uptake on the order of two to three percentage points (PP) overall and five PP among the undecided. The combined effects could be as high as 13 PP for this group. The returns from different strategies vary across age groups, however, with older cohorts more responsive to local access and younger cohorts most responsive to enhanced freedoms for vaccinated citizens.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Vacinação em Massa/psicologia , Motivação/ética , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108815, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339843

RESUMO

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most prevalent of all head injuries. Microglia play an essential role in homeostasis and diseases of the central nervous system. We hypothesize that microglia may play a beneficial or detrimental role in TBI depending on their state of activation and duration. In this study, we evaluated whether TBI results in a spatiotemporal change in microglia phenotype and whether it affects sensory-motor or learning and memory functions in male C57BL/6 mice. We used a panel of neurological and behavioral tests and a multi-color flow cytometry-based data analysis followed by unsupervised clustering to evaluate isolated microglia from injured brain tissue. We characterized several microglial phenotypes and their association with cognitive deficits. TBI results in a spatiotemporal increase in activated microglia that correlated negatively with spatial learning and memory at 35 days post-injury. These observations could define therapeutic windows and accelerate translational research to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/classificação , Microglia/patologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
8.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(8): 384-389, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343046

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased workload demands for many NHS staff including those working in the community. Nurse managers can make a difference by being authentic leaders, nurturing a supportive organisation where the workload is managed participatively and self-kindness is legitimate. Unfortunately some staff may experience burnout and this article presents a personal management plan to address the symptoms of burnout and aid recovery, although it cannot promote a total recovery if the cause of the symptoms remains unaddressed.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Enfermeiros de Saúde Comunitária/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Humanos , Liderança , Modelos Psicológicos , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Carga de Trabalho
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Covid-19 pandemic is hitting societies hard, and people living in disadvantaged circumstances are among the most affected. We investigate the combined effects of the Covid-19 crisis and living in a deprived neighbourhood on two dimensions of subjective well-being: hedonic (i.e. mental health) and evaluative (i.e. life satisfaction) subjective well-being. METHODS: We use longitudinal data from the Understanding Society UK panel. We combine data gathered in the main survey between 2015 and 2019 with very recent data from the Covid-19 online survey between April and July 2020. Leveraging a sample of nearly 9,600 English individuals, we first run a set of cross-sectional OLS regressions to analyse changes over time in the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and subjective well-being. Then, as our main model of interest, we use a fixed effect difference-in-differences model to provide more robust evidence. RESULTS: Since the beginning of the crisis, both levels of hedonic and evaluative well-being have decreased as a result of the pandemic and lockdown. However, for those living in more deprived neighbourhoods the level of hedonic well-being decreased more than for those living in better areas. We found no such difference for evaluative well-being. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of reducing neighbourhood inequalities as the spatial clustering of disadvantages has increased by the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 73, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood adversities pose deleterious consequences on health and well-being, but limited studies explore whether unique patterns of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) impact the mental health of emerging adults and the mediating role of current stressful events (CSEs). This study examined classes of ACEs and how they relate to CSEs, psychological distress, and subjective well-being among Eritrean College undergraduates. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on ACEs, CSEs, symptoms of psychological distress, and subjective well-being were collected from a national sample of college students (N = 507). We identified ACE patterns using latent class analysis and further examined whether CSEs mediated the effects of ACE classes on psychological distress and subjective well-being. RESULTS: 86.4% of the sample experienced at least one ACE. Collective violence, domestic violence, and physical abuse were the most common ACEs. Three subgroups, low ACEs (66.3%), household violence (19.1%), and multiple ACEs (14.6%) were identified. We found that relative to low ACEs, household violence (ß = 0.142, 95% CI 0.046, 0.248) and multiple ACEs (ß = 0.501, 95% CI 0.357, 0.666) indirectly influenced psychological distress through CSEs, and CSEs mediated the relationships between household violence (ß = -0.096, 95% CI -0.176, -0.033), multiple ACEs (ß = -0.338, 95% CI -0.498, -0.210), and subjective well-being. However, there were nonsignificant relative direct effects of ACE patterns on both psychological distress and subjective well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing multiple ACEs and household violence in conjunction with CSEs significantly predict psychological distress and subjective well-being. Contextual interventions for the early identification of ACEs and the management of CSEs may play a crucial role in the prevention of mental health problems.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/classificação , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 5582297, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222136

RESUMO

Background: Gaps in coordination and transitions of care for liver cirrhosis contribute to high rates of hospital readmissions and inadequate quality of care. Understanding the differences in the mental models held by specialty and primary care physicians may help to identify the root causes of problems in the coordination of cirrhosis care. Aim: To compare and identify differences in the mental models of cirrhosis care held by primary and specialty care physicians and nurse practitioners that may be addressed to improve coordination and transitions. Methods: Cross-sectional formal elicitation of mental models using Cognitive Task Analysis. Purposive and chain-referral sampling to select family physicians (n = 8), specialists (n = 9), and cirrhosis-dedicated nurse practitioners (n = 2) across Alberta. Results: Family physicians do not maintain rich mental models of cirrhosis care. They see cirrhosis patients relatively infrequently, rebuilding their mental models when required (knowledge on demand). They have reactive and patient-need-focused, rather than proactive and system-of-care, mental models. Specialists' mental models are rich but vary widely between patient-centered and task-centered and in the degree to which they incorporate responsibility for addressing system gaps. Nurse practitioners hold patient-centered mental models like specialists but take responsibility for addressing gaps in the system. Conclusions: Improving the coordination of cirrhosis care will require infrastructure to design care pathways and work processes that will support family physicians' knowledge-on-demand needs, facilitate primary care-specialist relationships, and deliberately work toward building a shared mental model of responsibilities for addressing medical care and social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Especialização , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Modelos Psicológicos
12.
Psicothema ; 33(3): 423-432, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several biopsychosocial variables could play an important role as risk and protective factors of mental health, COVID-19 outbreak studies among older people have seldom focused on protective factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze how older adults' personal strengths predict their well-being and emotional distress. METHOD: 783 Spanish people aged 60 and over completed a survey that included sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health, direct or indirect infection by COVID-19, resilience, gratitude, experiential avoidance, family functioning, emotional distress and well-being. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was performed. SEM invariance was also used to analyze whether there were differences between older people affected by COVID-19 and those not affected. RESULTS: The best model supports the mediation effect of resilience, gratitude and experiential avoidance on older people's well-being and emotional distress. Whether participants or relatives had been infected by the virus or not did not affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: Variables used as criteria in older adults are related to well-being and emotional distress, but only indirectly and mediated by resilience, gratitude and experiential avoidance. This confirms the importance of considering psychological strengths in older people's well-being. Interventions focused on these personal resources should be considered.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , COVID-19/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Fatores de Proteção , Angústia Psicológica , Isolamento Social/psicologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4440, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290236

RESUMO

Reinforcement learning is a fundamental mechanism displayed by many species. However, adaptive behaviour depends not only on learning about actions and outcomes that affect ourselves, but also those that affect others. Using computational reinforcement learning models, we tested whether young (age 18-36) and older (age 60-80, total n = 152) adults learn to gain rewards for themselves, another person (prosocial), or neither individual (control). Detailed model comparison showed that a model with separate learning rates for each recipient best explained behaviour. Young adults learned faster when their actions benefitted themselves, compared to others. Compared to young adults, older adults showed reduced self-relevant learning rates but preserved prosocial learning. Moreover, levels of subclinical self-reported psychopathic traits (including lack of concern for others) were lower in older adults and the core affective-interpersonal component of this measure negatively correlated with prosocial learning. These findings suggest learning to benefit others is preserved across the lifespan with implications for reinforcement learning and theories of healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 680316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295871

RESUMO

Implementation science is concerned with the study of adoption, implementation and maintenance of evidence-based interventions and use of implementation strategies to facilitate translation into practice. Ways to conceptualize and overcome challenges to implementing evidence-based practice may enhance the field of implementation science. The concept of mental models may be one way to view such challenges and to guide selection, use, and adaptation of implementation strategies to deliver evidence-based interventions. A mental model is an interrelated set of beliefs that shape how a person forms expectations for the future and understands the way the world works. Mental models can shape how an individual thinks about or understands how something or someone does, can, or should function in the world. Mental models may be sparse or detailed, may be shared among actors in implementation or not, and may be substantially tacit, that is, of limited accessibility to introspection. Actors' mental models can determine what information they are willing to accept and what changes they are willing to consider. We review the concepts of mental models and illustrate how they pertain to implementation of an example intervention, shared decision making. We then describe and illustrate potential methods for eliciting and analyzing mental models. Understanding the mental models of various actors in implementation can provide crucial information for understanding, anticipating, and overcoming implementation challenges. Successful implementation often requires changing actors' mental models or the way in which interventions or implementation strategies are presented or implemented. Accurate elicitation and understanding can guide strategies for doing so.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Ciência da Implementação , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
15.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 597-608, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Affect regulation models of drinking state that affect motivates and reinforces drinking. Few studies have been able to elucidate the timing of these associations in natural settings. We tested positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) as predictors of drinking behavior, both prior to and during drinking episodes, and whether drinking predicted changes in affect during episodes. METHOD: Two hundred twenty-two regularly drinking young adults (21-29 years, 84% undergraduates), completed an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol for five consecutive 24-hr periods stretching across 6 days (Wednesday-Monday). Participants provided PA and NA reports three times daily and every half hour during drinking episodes. Alcohol consumption reports were provided each morning and every half hour during drinking episodes. RESULTS: Multi-level models showed that greater pre-drinking PA predicted higher odds of drinking, but not number of drinks consumed. Pre-drinking NA did not predict same day odds of drinking or drinks consumed. Episode-level results revealed different associations for PA and NA with drinking. Current PA did not predict drinks consumed over the next half hour; however, increased drinking was associated with greater increases in PA over the next half hour. Higher NA predicted fewer drinks consumed in the next half hour and higher odds of the end of a drinking episode; however, increased drinking was not associated with changes in NA. CONCLUSIONS: PA increased following drinking during episodes. Our results suggest that a focus on PA prior to episodes and a focus on NA during episodes may interrupt processes leading to heavy drinking, and may therefore aid prevention efforts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(4): 346-364, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180700

RESUMO

Even though memory performance is a commonly researched aspect of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a coherent and unified explanation of the role of specific cognitive factors has remained elusive. To address this, the present meta-analysis examined the predictive validity of Harkin and Kessler's (2011b) executive function, binding complexity, and memory load (EBL) Classification System concerning affected versus unaffected memory performance in OCD. We employed a multilevel meta-analytic approach (Viechtbauer, 2010) to accommodate the interdependent nature of the EBL model and interdependency of effect sizes (305 effect sizes from 144 studies, including 4,424 OCD patients). Results revealed that the EBL model predicted memory performance; that is, as EBL demand increases, those with OCD performed progressively worse on memory tasks. Executive function was the driving mechanism behind the EBL's impact on OCD memory performance, as it negated binding complexity, memory load, and visual or verbal task differences. Comparisons of subtask effect sizes were also generally in accord with the cognitive parameters of the EBL taxonomy. We conclude that standardized coding of tasks along individual cognitive dimensions and multilevel meta-analyses provides a new approach to examine multidimensional models of memory and cognitive performance in OCD and other disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Análise Multinível
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3657, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188023

RESUMO

Attentional lapses occur commonly and are associated with mind wandering, where focus is turned to thoughts unrelated to ongoing tasks and environmental demands, or mind blanking, where the stream of consciousness itself comes to a halt. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying attentional lapses, we studied the behaviour, subjective experience and neural activity of healthy participants performing a task. Random interruptions prompted participants to indicate their mental states as task-focused, mind-wandering or mind-blanking. Using high-density electroencephalography, we report here that spatially and temporally localized slow waves, a pattern of neural activity characteristic of the transition toward sleep, accompany behavioural markers of lapses and preceded reports of mind wandering and mind blanking. The location of slow waves could distinguish between sluggish and impulsive behaviours, and between mind wandering and mind blanking. Our results suggest attentional lapses share a common physiological origin: the emergence of local sleep-like activity within the awake brain.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sono de Ondas Lentas/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Vigília/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143832

RESUMO

This study examines the evolution of Schwartz's Basic Human Values during the COVID-19 outbreak, and their relationships with perceived threat, compliance with movement restrictions and social distancing. An online questionnaire was administered to a heterogeneous sample of French citizens (N = 1025) during the first French lockdown related to the outbreak. Results revealed a significant evolution of values; the conservation value was higher during the outbreak than usual, and both self-enhancement and openness-to-change values were lower during the COVID-19 outbreak than usual. Conservation and perceived threat during the outbreak were robustly and positively related to both compliance with movement restrictions and social distancing. Conservation during the outbreak emerged as a significant partial mediator of the relationship between perceived threat and outcomes (i.e., compliance with movement restrictions and social distancing). Implications of these results for the malleability of values and the COVID-19 modelling are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Appl Ergon ; 96: 103509, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157478

RESUMO

Care transitions that occur across healthcare system boundaries represent a unique challenge for maintaining high quality care and patient safety, as these systems are typically not aligned to perform the care transition process. We explored healthcare professionals' mental models of older adults' transitions between the emergency department (ED) and skilled nursing facility (SNF). We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with ED and SNF healthcare professionals and identified three themes: 1) ED and SNF healthcare professionals had misaligned mental models regarding communication processes and tools used during care transitions, 2) ED and SNF healthcare professionals had misaligned mental models regarding healthcare system capability, and 3) Misalignments led to individual and organizational consequences. Overall, we found that SNF and ED healthcare professionals are part of the same process but have different perceptions of the process. Future work must take steps to redesign and realign these distinct work systems such that those involved conceptualize themselves as part of a joint process.


Assuntos
Transferência de Pacientes , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem , Idoso , Atenção à Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3567, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117236

RESUMO

Humans typically consider altruism a moral good and condition their social behavior on the moral reputations of others. Indirect reciprocity explains how social norms and reputations support cooperation: individuals cooperate with others who are considered good. Indirect reciprocity works when an institution monitors and publicly broadcasts moral reputations. Here we develop a theory of adherence to public monitoring in societies where individuals are, at first, independently responsible for evaluating the reputations of their peers. Using a mathematical model, we show that adherence to an institution of moral assessment can evolve and promote cooperation under four different social norms, including norms that previous studies found to perform poorly. We determine how an institution's size and its degree of tolerance towards anti-social behavior affect the rate of cooperation. Public monitoring serves to eliminate disagreements about reputations, which increases cooperation and payoffs, so that adherence evolves by social contagion and remains robust against displacement.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , Altruísmo , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Evolução Social , Valores Sociais
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