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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008469, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764759

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, which has rapidly spread around the globe thereby causing millions of infections. CHIKV is an enveloped virus belonging to the Togaviridae family and enters its host cell primarily via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Upon internalization, the endocytic vesicle containing the virus particle moves through the cell and delivers the virus to early endosomes where membrane fusion is observed. Thereafter, the nucleocapsid dissociates and the viral RNA is translated into proteins. In this study, we examined the importance of the microtubule network during the early steps of infection and dissected the intracellular trafficking behavior of CHIKV particles during cell entry. We observed two distinct CHIKV intracellular trafficking patterns prior to membrane hemifusion. Whereas half of the CHIKV virions remained static during cell entry and fused in the cell periphery, the other half showed fast-directed microtubule-dependent movement prior to delivery to Rab5-positive early endosomes and predominantly fused in the perinuclear region of the cell. Disruption of the microtubule network reduced the number of infected cells. At these conditions, membrane hemifusion activity was not affected yet fusion was restricted to the cell periphery. Furthermore, follow-up experiments revealed that disruption of the microtubule network impairs the delivery of the viral genome to the cell cytosol. We therefore hypothesize that microtubules may direct the particle to a cellular location that is beneficial for establishing infection or aids in nucleocapsid uncoating.


Assuntos
Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Genoma Viral , Microtúbulos/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Humanos , Nocodazol/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3765, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724196

RESUMO

Microtubules are dynamic tubulin polymers responsible for many cellular processes, including the capture and segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. In contrast to textbook models of tubulin self-assembly, we have recently demonstrated that microtubules elongate by addition of bent guanosine triphosphate tubulin to the tips of curving protofilaments. Here we explore this mechanism of microtubule growth using Brownian dynamics modeling and electron cryotomography. The previously described flaring shapes of growing microtubule tips are remarkably consistent under various assembly conditions, including different tubulin concentrations, the presence or absence of a polymerization catalyst or tubulin-binding drugs. Simulations indicate that development of substantial forces during microtubule growth and shortening requires a high activation energy barrier in lateral tubulin-tubulin interactions. Modeling offers a mechanism to explain kinetochore coupling to growing microtubule tips under assisting force, and it predicts a load-dependent acceleration of microtubule assembly, providing a role for the flared morphology of growing microtubule ends.


Assuntos
Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Animais , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Polimerização/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Tubulina (Proteína)/isolamento & purificação , Tubulina (Proteína)/ultraestrutura , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
3.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(2): 156-167, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591477

RESUMO

The natural product (+)-discodermolide (DDM) is a microtubule stabilizing agent and potent inducer of senescence. We refined the structure of DDM and evaluated the activity of novel congeners in triple negative breast and ovarian cancers, malignancies that typically succumb to taxane resistance. Previous structure-activity analyses identified the lactone and diene as moieties conferring anticancer activity, thus identifying priorities for the structural refinement studies described herein. Congeners possessing the monodiene with a simplified lactone had superior anticancer efficacy relative to taxol, particularly in resistant models. Specifically, one of these congeners, B2, demonstrated 1) improved pharmacologic properties, specifically increased maximum response achievable and area under the curve, and decreased EC50; 2) a uniform dose-response profile across genetically heterogeneous cancer cell lines relative to taxol or DDM; 3) reduced propensity for senescence induction relative to DDM; 4) superior long-term activity in cancer cells versus taxol or DDM; and 5) attenuation of metastatic characteristics in treated cancer cells. To contrast the binding of B2 versus DDM in tubulin, X-ray crystallography studies revealed a shift in the position of the lactone ring associated with removal of the C2-methyl and C3-hydroxyl. Thus, B2 may be more adaptable to changes in the taxane site relative to DDM that could account for its favorable properties. In conclusion, we have identified a DDM congener with broad range anticancer efficacy that also has decreased risk of inducing chemotherapy-mediated senescence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Here, we describe the anticancer activity of novel congeners of the tubulin-polymerizing molecule (+)-discodermolide. A lead molecule is identified that exhibits an improved dose-response profile in taxane-sensitive and taxane-resistant cancer cell models, diminished risk of chemotherapy-mediated senescence, and suppression of tumor cell invasion endpoints. X-ray crystallography studies identify subtle changes in the pose of binding to ß-tubulin that could account for the improved anticancer activity. These findings support continued preclinical development of discodermolide, particularly in the chemorefractory setting.


Assuntos
Alcanos/química , Carbamatos/química , Lactonas/síntese química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Pironas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Células A549 , Área Sob a Curva , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 200: 112332, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473523

RESUMO

Cancer invasion and metastasis are the leading causes of death. The process of metastasis or tumor cell dissemination is still much of a mystery. Emerging evidence has shown that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a vital role in the progression of malignant tumor including the inducing cell invasion and metastasis as well as promoting drug resistance. Vinorelbine is a traditional chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer and breast cancer by the selectivity to mitotic microtubules. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vinorelbine on three metastatic cancer cells including lung cancer (H1975), liver cancer (HepG2), and colon cancer (HCT116) cells through inhibition of metastatic abilities and EMT program. Vinorelbine inhibited the cancer cell proliferation by MTT and colony formation assays and inducing G2/M arrest and cell apoptosis via regulation of Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL. Vinorelbine decrease the migration and invasion ability of the cancer cells by wound healing assay and Tran swell test. The molecular mechanisms of vinorelbine suppressing the metastatic phenotypes of cancer cells through modulation of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin and transcription factors Snail, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our results demonstrated that vinorelbine inhibited the cancer cell metastasis through a reduction in metastatic mobility, such as migration, invasion, and the EMT. It provided the evidence that vinorelbine can be used alone or with other agents for treatment of metastatic lung cancer, liver cancer and colon cancer.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Vinorelbina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vinorelbina/uso terapêutico
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 197: 112308, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339853

RESUMO

A series of novel isocombretapyridines were designed and synthesized based on a lead compound isocombretastatin A-4 (isoCA-4) by replacing 3,4,5-trimethoxylphenyl with substituent pyridine nucleus. The MTT assay results showed that compound 20a possessed the most potent activities against all tested cell lines with IC50 values at nanomolar concentration ranges. Moreover, 20a inhibited tubulin polymerization at a micromolar level and also displayed potent anti-vascular activity in vitro. Further mechanistic studies were conducted to demonstrate that compound 20a could bind to the colchicine site of tubulin,and disrupte the cell microtubule networks, induce G2/M phase arrest, promote apoptosis and depolarize mitochondria of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, 20a exhibited more potent tumor growth inhibition activity with 68.7% tumor growth inhibition than that of isoCA-4 in H22 allograft mouse model without apparent toxicity. The present results suggested that compound 20a may serve as a promising potent microtubule-destabilizing agent candidate for the development of therapeutics to treat cancer.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/síntese química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
6.
J Med Chem ; 63(9): 4685-4700, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290657

RESUMO

Apcin is one of the few compounds that have been previously reported as a Cdc20 specific inhibitor, although Cdc20 is a very promising drug target. We reported here the design, synthesis, and biological evaluations of 2,2,2-trichloro-1-aryl carbamate derivatives as Cdc20 inhibitors. Among these derivatives, compound 9f was much more efficient than the positive compound apcin in inhibiting cancer cell growth, but it had approximately the same binding affinity with apcin in SPR assays. It is possible that another mechanism of action might exist. Further evidence demonstrated that compound 9f also inhibited tubulin polymerization, disorganized the microtubule network, and blocked the cell cycle at the M phase with changes in the expression of cyclins. Thus, it induced apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 and PARP. In addition, compound 9f inhibited cell migration and invasion in a concentration-dependent manner. These results provide guidance for developing the current series as potential new anticancer therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Proteínas Cdc20/antagonistas & inibidores , Diaminas/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbamatos/síntese química , Carbamatos/metabolismo , Proteínas Cdc20/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diaminas/síntese química , Diaminas/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo
7.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(2): 303-320, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chromosomal instability is a well-known factor in the progression of different types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Chromosomal instability results in severely rearranged karyotypes and aneuploidy. Tetraploidy constitutes an intermediate phase during the polyploidy/aneuploidy cascade in oncogenesis, and tetraploid cells are particularly resistant to chemotherapy. Whether inhibition of the mitotic protein polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) prevents the survival of tetraploid colon cancer cells is unknown. METHODS: Diploid and tetraploid cells were transfected with siPLK1 or treated with PLK1 inhibitor Bi2536 in combination with spindle poison. Cell toxicity was assessed via crystal violet staining and clonogenic assay. Flow cytometry assessment analyzed numerous cell apoptotic parameters and cell cycle phases. Synergistic activity between Bi2536 and paclitaxel, vincristine or colchicine was calculated using the CompuSyn software. RESULTS: Inhibition or abrogation of PLK1 prevented the survival of colon cancer cells, specifically tetraploid cells. The cell death induced by PLK inhibition was due to mitotic slippage, followed by the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. We further demonstrated that co-treatment of the tetraploid colon cancer cells with a PLK1 inhibitor and the microtubule polymerisation inhibitor vincristine or colchicine, but not the microtubule depolymerisation inhibitor paclitaxel, provoked a lethal synergistic effect. CONCLUSION: PLK1 inhibition together with microtubule-targeting chemicals, serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for targeting tetraploid cancer cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pteridinas/toxicidade , Tetraploidia , Antimitóticos/farmacologia , Antimitóticos/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colchicina/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Pteridinas/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Vincristina/farmacologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155790

RESUMO

Combretastatin-4 (CA-4) as a tubulin polymerization inhibitor draws extensive attentions. However, due to its weak stability of cis-olefin and poor metabolic stability, structure modifications on cis-configuration are being performed. In this work, we constructed a series of novel CA-4 analogues with linkers on olefin containing diphenylethanone, cis-locked dihydrofuran, α-substituted diphenylethanone, cyclobutane and cyclohexane on its cis-olefin. Cytotoxic activity of all analogues was measured by an SRB assay. Among them, compound 6b, a by-product in the preparation of diphenylethanone analogues, was found to be the most potent cytotoxic agents against HepG2 cells with IC50 values of less than 0.5 µM. The two isomers of 6b induced cellular apoptosis tested by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) double staining, arrested cells in the G2/M phase by PI staining analysis, and disrupted microtubule network by immunohistochemistry study in HepG2 cells. Moreover, 6b-(E) displayed a dose-dependent inhibition effect for tubulin assembly in in vitro tubulin polymerization assay. In addition, molecular docking studies showed that two isomers of 6b could bind efficiently at colchicine binding site of tubulin similar to CA-4.


Assuntos
Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Moduladores de Tubulina/química
9.
Cell Prolif ; 53(4): e12749, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given that autophagy inhibition is a feasible way to enhance sensitivity of cancer cells towards chemotherapeutic agents, identifying potent autophagy inhibitor has obvious clinical relevance. Here, we investigated ability of TN-16, a microtubule disrupting agent, on modulation of autophagic flux and its significance in promoting in vitro and in vivo cancer cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of TN-16 on cancer cell proliferation, cell division, autophagic process and apoptotic signalling was assessed by various biochemical (Western blot and SRB assay), morphological (TEM, SEM, confocal microscopy) and flowcytometric assays. In vivo anti-tumour efficacy of TN-16 was investigated in syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. RESULTS: TN-16 inhibited cancer cell proliferation by impairing late-stage autophagy and induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagic flux was demonstrated by accumulation of autophagy-specific substrate p62 and lack of additional LC3-II turnover in the presence of lysosomotropic agent. The effect was validated by confocal micrographs showing diminished autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Further studies revealed that TN-16-mediated inhibition of autophagic flux promotes apoptotic cell death. Consistent with in vitro data, results of our in vivo study revealed that TN-16-mediated tumour growth suppression is associated with blockade of autophagic flux and enhanced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data signify that TN-16 is a potent autophagy flux inhibitor and might be suitable for (pre-) clinical use as standard inhibitor of autophagy with anti-cancer activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pirrolidinonas/uso terapêutico , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Pirrolidinonas/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 323: 109074, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217108

RESUMO

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the common malignant tumors, and multidrug resistance (MDR) and tumor metastasis limit the anticancer effect of NSCLC. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new anticancer drug that can inhibit MDR and metastasis of NSCLC. In the present study, we found that 5-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-(4-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)piperazine-1-carbonyl)-2H-1,2,3- triazole (MAY) displayed strong cytotoxic effect on A549 and taxol-resistant A549 cells (A549/Taxol cells). We further discovered that MAY led to G2/M phase arrest by inhibiting microtubule polymerization in both cells. Then MAY caused apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway in A549 cells and through the extrinsic pathway in A549/Taxol cells. Interestingly, MAY was not a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which was highly expressed in A549/Taxol cells, and MAY inhibited the expression and efflux function of P-gp. Furthermore, MAY inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by targeting Twist1 in A549/Taxol cells. In summary, our results suggest that MAY induces apoptosis in A549 and A549/Taxol cells and inhibits EMT in A549/Taxol cells. These findings suggest that MAY could provide a promising method for the treatment of NSCLC, especially for the treatment of resistant NSCLC.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Células A549 , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/química , Polimerização , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/metabolismo
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 192: 112176, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120327

RESUMO

We have synthesized a series of 2-phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone derivatives substituted with one or more fluorine atoms on the quinolone backbone as well as on phenyl ring. The derivatives bearing more fluorine atoms were subjected to modification by nucleophilic substitutions by thiophenol, morpholine, and piperazine derivative. We have tested the prepared compounds in cytotoxic activity assay against cancer cell lines. Four derivatives exhibited micromolar values of IC50 against some of the cancer cell lines, and we have subjected them to cell cycle analysis on CCRF-CEM. Moreover, most active 7-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-6-(phenylthio)quinolin-4(1H)-one inhibits mitosis progression. Cell cycle analysis, in vitro tubulin polymerization assay, and tubulin imaging in cells indicated that the anticancer activity of thiophenol derivative is associated with its ability to inhibit microtubule formation.


Assuntos
Quinolonas/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HCT116 , Halogenação , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Polimerização/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolonas/síntese química , Quinolonas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/química
12.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(4): 460-470, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094658

RESUMO

Generation of pancreatic ß cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) holds promise as a cell replacement therapy for diabetes. In this study, we establish a link between the state of the actin cytoskeleton and the expression of pancreatic transcription factors that drive pancreatic lineage specification. Bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing demonstrated that different degrees of actin polymerization biased cells toward various endodermal lineages and that conditions favoring a polymerized cytoskeleton strongly inhibited neurogenin 3-induced endocrine differentiation. Using latrunculin A to depolymerize the cytoskeleton during endocrine induction, we developed a two-dimensional differentiation protocol for generating human pluripotent stem-cell-derived ß (SC-ß) cells with improved in vitro and in vivo function. SC-ß cells differentiated from four hPSC lines exhibited first- and second-phase dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of islet-sized aggregates of these cells rapidly reversed severe preexisting diabetes in mice at a rate close to that of human islets and maintained normoglycemia for at least 9 months.


Assuntos
Engenharia Celular/métodos , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem da Célula/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Células Cultivadas , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Endoderma/citologia , Endoderma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/transplante , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Tiazolidinas/farmacologia , Transativadores/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 525(2): 303-307, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089263

RESUMO

Microtubules are involved in celluar processes of movement, intracellular trafficking and mitosis, thus microtubule-targeting agents have been widely used in cancer therapy. Herein, we report isopenicin A, a novel meroterpenoid isolated from the plant endophytic fungus of Penicillium sp. sh18, as a novel microtubule binding molecule that efficiently depolymerizes microtubule polymerization to evoke G2/M cell cycle arrest and subsequent cell apoptosis, contributing to proliferation inhibition of human tumor cell lines. The discovery of isopenicin A provides a new chemotype for discovery and development of promising microtubule inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Polimerização/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
14.
Mar Drugs ; 18(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069904

RESUMO

Marine-derived microorganisms are a valuable source of novel bioactive natural products. Asperphenin A is a lipopeptidyl benzophenone metabolite isolated from large-scale cultivation of marine-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. The compound has shown potent antiproliferative activity against various cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of action remained to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated the antitumor activity and molecular mechanism of asperphenin A in human colon cancer cells for the first time. Asperphenin A inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells through G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis. We further discovered that asperphenin A can trigger microtubule disassembly. In addition to its effect on cell cycle, asperphenin A-induced reactive oxygen species. The compound suppressed the growth of tumors in a colon cancer xenograft model without any overt toxicity and exhibited a combination effect with irinotecan, a topoisomerase I inhibitor. Moreover, we identified the aryl ketone as a key component in the molecular structure responsible for the biological activity of asperphenin A using its synthetic derivatives. Collectively, this study has revealed the antiproliferative and antitumor mechanism of asperphenin A and suggested its possibility as a chemotherapeutic agent and lead compound with a novel structure.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/química , Benzofenonas/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Polimerização , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 189: 112050, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954879

RESUMO

A series of novel 1,4-diaryl-2-azetidinone analogues of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) have been designed, synthesised and evaluated in vitro for antiproliferative activity, antiapoptotic activity and inhibition of tubulin polymerisation. Glucuronidation of CA-4 by uridine 5-diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase enzymes (UGTs) has been identified as a mechanism of resistance in cancer cells. Potential sites of ring B glucuronate conjugation are removed by replacing the B ring meta-hydroxy substituent of selected series of ß-lactams with alternative substituents e.g. F, Cl, Br, I, CH3. The 3-phenyl-ß-lactam 11 and 3-hydroxy-ß-lactam 46 demonstrate improved activity over CA-4 in CA-4 resistant HT-29 colon cancer cells (IC50 = 9 nM and 3 nM respectively compared with IC50 = 4.16 µM for CA-4), while retaining potency in MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 17 nM and 22 nM respectively compared with IC50 = for 4 nM for CA-4). Compound 46 binds at the colchicine site of tubulin, and strongly inhibits tubulin assembly at micromolar concentrations comparable to CA-4. In addition, compound 46 induced mitotic arrest at low concentration in both cell lines MCF-7 and HT-29 together with downregulation of expression of antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and survivin in MCF-7 cells. These novel antiproliferative and antiapoptotic ß-lactams are potentially useful scaffolds in the development of tubulin-targeting agents for the treatment of breast cancers and chemoresistant colon cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Ligação Proteica , Estilbenos/química , Survivina/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , beta-Lactamas/síntese química , beta-Lactamas/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 189: 112041, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954880

RESUMO

A series of novel conjugates comprising tublin and IDO inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. Among them, HI5, composed of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) and (D)-1-methyltryptophan (D-MT) by a linker, exhibited the most potent antitumor activity, in particular with higher IC50 value (0.07 µM) than CA-4 (0.21 µM) against HeLa cancer cell line. Mechanism studies indicated that HI5 can inhibit tubulin polymerization and cell migration, cause G2/M phase arrest, concurrent induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial dependent apoptosis pathway and cause reactive oxidative stress generation in HeLa cells. Furthermore, HI5 can inhibit IDO expression and decrease kynurenine production, leading to stimulating T cells activation and proliferation to enhance antitumor immunity in vitro. Interestingly, HI5 can effectively limit the tumor growth in the HeLa xenograft mice models without causing significant loss of body weight. Consequently, such a conjugation can be a potent and safe immunochemotherapeutic method for improving cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 189: 112060, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958738

RESUMO

A series of forty-six 5,6-annulated 2-arylthieno [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones were prepared as potentially pleiotropic anticancer drugs with variance in the tubulin-binding trimethoxyphenyl motif at C-2 of a thieno [2,3-d]pyrimidine fragment, enlarged by additional rings of different size and substitution. By assessing their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells, their influence on the polymerization of neat tubulin and the dynamics of microtubule and F-actin cytoskeletons, and their vascular-disrupting and anti-angiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo, structure-activity relations were identified which suggest the 3-iodo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl substituted thienopyrimidine 2e as a promising anticancer drug candidate for further research. 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/síntese química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Proteína Quinase CDC2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/síntese química , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Suínos , Tiofenos/síntese química , Tiofenos/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra
18.
FEBS Lett ; 594(1): 199-204, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369682

RESUMO

Microtubules are composed of αß-tubulin heterodimers, and drugs that interfere with microtubule dynamics are used widely in cancer chemotherapy. Small synthetic molecules with an indole nucleus as a core structure have been identified as microtubule inhibitors and recognized as anticancer agents. However, structural information for the interactions between indole derivatives and tubulin is sparse. Here, we present the 2.55 Å crystal structure of tubulin in complex with the indole derivative D64131. We compare the binding modes of D64131, colchicine, and five other indole derivatives to tubulin. These results reveal the interactions between the indole derivatives and tubulin, explain previous results of structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies and, thus, provide insights into the development of new indole derivatives targeting the colchicine binding site.


Assuntos
Indóis/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Sítios de Ligação , Colchicina/química , Colchicina/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
19.
Invest New Drugs ; 38(1): 29-38, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887253

RESUMO

Through rational drug design, we previously identified an indenoprazole derivative, 2-(6-ethoxy-3-(3-ethoxyphenylamino)-1-methyl-1,4-dihydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-7-yloxy)acetamide (LL01), as a potent tubulin polymerization inhibitor targeting the tubulin colchicine binding site. In this study, we further demonstrated that LL01 was not a P-gp substrate. It potently inhibited the growth of a variety of tumor cells, including those with multidrug resistance, with GI50 values in the low nanomole ranges. In vitro liver microsome stability assay, LL01 was modest stable in the liver microsomes of human, mouse and rat, but was fast metabolized in dog. After single oral administration of LL01 at a dose of 10 mg/kg in SD male rats, LL01 showed acceptable PK properties with a mean bioavailability of 41%. In human HepG2 hepatoma xenograft, at the oral doses of 25 mg/kg/day and 12.5 mg/kg/day, LL01 inhibited the tumor growth by 61.27%, and 43.74%, respectively, which is much better than the positive drug sorafenib (29.45%; 30 mg/kg/day). Therefore, LL01 might be a potential drug candidate for further investigation for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Colchicina/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Med Chem ; 16(3): 340-349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several anti-tubulin agents were introduced for the cancer treatment so far. Despite successes in the treatment of cancer, these agents cause toxic side effects, including peripheral neuropathy. Comparing anti-tubulin agents, indibulin seemed to cause minimal peripheral neuropathy, but its poor aqueous solubility and other potential clinical problems have led to its remaining in a preclinical stage. METHODS: Herein, indibulin analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-cancer activity using MTT assay (on the MCF-7, T47-D, MDA-MB231 and NIH-3T3 cell lines), annexin V/PI staining assay, cell cycle analysis, anti-tubulin assay and caspase 3/7 activation assay. RESULTS: One of the compounds, 4a, showed good anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50: 7.5 µM) and low toxicity on a normal cell line (IC50 > 100 µM). All of the tested compounds showed lower cytotoxicity on normal cell line in comparison to reference compound, indibulin. In the annexin V/PI staining assay, induction of apoptosis in the MCF-7 cell line was observed. Cell cycle analysis illustrated an increasing proportion of cells in the sub-G-1 phase, consistent with an increasing proportion of apoptotic cells. No increase in G2/M cells was observed, consistent with the absence of anti-tubulin activity. A caspase 3/7 assay protocol showed that apoptosis induction by more potent compounds was due to activation of caspase 3. CONCLUSION: Newly synthesized compounds exerted acceptable anticancer activity and further investigation of current scaffold would be beneficial.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Acetamidas/síntese química , Aminopiridinas/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Pirróis/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química
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