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1.
Gut ; 69(2): 365-379, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly developed in fibrotic/cirrhotic liver, exhibits relatively low responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. As myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) is pivotal for immunosuppression, we investigated its role and regulation in the fibrotic microenvironment with an aim of developing mechanism-based combination immunotherapy. DESIGN: Functional significance of MDSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry using two orthotopic HCC models in fibrotic liver setting via carbon tetrachloride or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet and verified by clinical specimens. Mechanistic studies were conducted in human hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture systems and fibrotic-HCC patient-derived MDSCs. The efficacy of single or combined therapy with anti-programmed death-1-ligand-1 (anti-PD-L1) and a clinically trialled BET bromodomain inhibitor i-BET762 was determined. RESULTS: Accumulation of monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs), but not polymorphonuclear MDSCs, in fibrotic livers significantly correlated with reduced tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and increased tumorigenicity in both mouse models. In human HCCs, the tumour-surrounding fibrotic livers were markedly enriched with M-MDSC, with its surrogate marker CD33 significantly associated with aggressive tumour phenotypes and poor survival rates. Mechanistically, activated HSCs induced monocyte-intrinsic p38 MAPK signalling to trigger enhancer reprogramming for M-MDSC development and immunosuppression. Treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor abrogated HSC-M-MDSC crosstalk to prevent HCC growth. Concomitant with patient-derived M-MDSC suppression by i-BET762, combined treatment with anti-PD-L1 synergistically enhanced TILs, resulting in tumour eradication and prolonged survival in the fibrotic-HCC mouse model. CONCLUSION: Our results signify how non-tumour-intrinsic properties in the desmoplastic microenvironment can be exploited to reinstate immunosurveillance, providing readily translatable combination strategies to empower HCC immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Reprogramação Celular/imunologia , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Ciclopropanos/uso terapêutico , Células Estreladas do Fígado/imunologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/terapia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia
2.
Immunology ; 159(1): 63-74, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573680

RESUMO

Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) generated from peripheral blood monocytes are widely used to model human macrophages for in vitro studies. However, the possible impact of different isolation methods on the resulting MDM phenotype is poorly described. We aimed to investigate the effects of three commonly used monocyte isolation techniques on the resulting MDM phenotype. Plastic adhesion, negative selection, and CD14pos selection were compared. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated by 5-day culture with macrophage and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors. We investigated monocyte and MDM yields, purity, viability, and cell phenotype. CD14pos selection resulted in highest monocyte yield (19·8 × 106 cells, equivalent to 70% of total) and purity (98·7%), compared with negative selection (17·7 × 106 cells, 61% of total, 85·0% purity), and plastic adhesion (6·1 × 106 cells, 12·9% of total, 44·2% purity). Negatively selected monocytes were highly contaminated with platelets. Expression of CD163 and CD14 were significantly lower on CD14pos selection and plastic adhesion monocytes, compared with untouched peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After maturation, CD14pos selection also resulted in the highest MDM purity (98·2%) compared with negative selection (94·5%) and plastic adhesion (66·1%). Furthermore, MDMs from plastic adhesion were M1-skewed (CD80high  HLA-DRhigh  CD163low ), whereas negative selection MDMs were M2-skewed (CD80low  HLA-DRlow  CD163high ). Choice of monocyte isolation method not only significantly affects yield and purity, but also impacts resulting phenotype of cultured MDMs. These differences may partly be explained by the presence of contaminating cells when using plastic adherence or negative selection. Careful considerations of monocyte isolation methods are important for designing in vitro assays on MDMs.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Separação Celular/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Monócitos/fisiologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Adesão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Immunology ; 159(1): 88-95, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606902

RESUMO

Severe sepsis is often accompanied by a transient immune paralysis, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to secondary infections and poor clinical outcomes. The functional impairment of antigen-presenting cells is considered to be a major hallmark of this septic immunosuppression, with reduced HLA-DR expression on circulating monocytes serving as predictor of mortality. Unconventional lymphocytes like γδ T-cells have the potential to restore immune defects in a variety of pathologies including cancer, but their use to rescue sepsis-induced immunosuppression has not been investigated. Our own previous work showed that Vγ9/Vδ2+ γδ T-cells are potent activators of monocytes from healthy volunteers in vitro, and in individuals with osteoporosis after first-time administration of the anti-bone resorption drug zoledronate in vivo. We show here that zoledronate readily induces upregulation of HLA-DR, CD40 and CD64 on monocytes from both healthy controls and sepsis patients, which could be abrogated by neutralising the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the cultures. In healthy controls, the upregulation of HLA-DR on monocytes was proportional to the baseline percentage of Vγ9/Vδ2 T-cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell population. Of note, a proportion of sepsis patients studied here did not show a demonstrable response to zoledronate, predominantly patients with microbiologically confirmed bloodstream infections, compared with sepsis patients with more localised infections marked by negative blood cultures. Taken together, our results suggest that zoledronate can, at least in some individuals, rescue immunosuppressed monocytes during acute sepsis and thus may help improve clinical outcomes during severe infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Zoledrônico/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 439-447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880888

RESUMO

Salmonella infection is most common in patients with infected aortic aneurysm, especially in Asia. When the aortic wall is heavily atherosclerotic, the intima is vulnerable to invasion by Salmonella, leading to the development of infected aortic aneurysm. By using THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells to mimic atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of three Salmonella enterica serotypes - Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Choleraesuis - in foam cell autophagy and inflammasome formation. Herein, we provide possible pathogenesis of Salmonella-associated infected aortic aneurysms. Three S. enterica serotypes with or without virulence plasmid were studied. Through Western blotting, we investigated cell autophagy induction and inflammasome formation in Salmonella-infected THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, detected CD36 expression after Salmonella infection through flow cytometry, and measured interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-α levels through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 0.5 h after infection, plasmid-bearing S. Enteritidis OU7130 induced the highest foam cell autophagy - significantly higher than that induced by plasmid-less OU7067. However, plasmid-bearing S. Choleraesuis induced less foam cell autophagy than did its plasmid-less strain. In foam cells, plasmid-less Salmonella infection (particularly S. Choleraesuis OU7266 infection) led to higher CD36 expression than did plasmid-bearing strains infection. OU7130 and OU7266 infection induced the highest IL-1ß secretion. OU7067-infected foam cells secreted the highest IL-12p35 level. Plasmid-bearing S. Typhimurium OU5045 induced a higher IFN-α level than did other Salmonella serotypes. Salmonella serotypes are correlated with foam cell autophagy and IL-1ß secretion. Salmonella may affect the course of foam cells formation, or even aortic aneurysm, through autophagy.Salmonella infection is most common in patients with infected aortic aneurysm, especially in Asia. When the aortic wall is heavily atherosclerotic, the intima is vulnerable to invasion by Salmonella, leading to the development of infected aortic aneurysm. By using THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells to mimic atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of three Salmonella enterica serotypes ­ Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Choleraesuis ­ in foam cell autophagy and inflammasome formation. Herein, we provide possible pathogenesis of Salmonella-associated infected aortic aneurysms. Three S. enterica serotypes with or without virulence plasmid were studied. Through Western blotting, we investigated cell autophagy induction and inflammasome formation in Salmonella-infected THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, detected CD36 expression after Salmonella infection through flow cytometry, and measured interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-α levels through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 0.5 h after infection, plasmid-bearing S. Enteritidis OU7130 induced the highest foam cell autophagy ­ significantly higher than that induced by plasmid-less OU7067. However, plasmid-bearing S. Choleraesuis induced less foam cell autophagy than did its plasmid-less strain. In foam cells, plasmid-less Salmonella infection (particularly S. Choleraesuis OU7266 infection) led to higher CD36 expression than did plasmid-bearing strains infection. OU7130 and OU7266 infection induced the highest IL-1ß secretion. OU7067-infected foam cells secreted the highest IL-12p35 level. Plasmid-bearing S. Typhimurium OU5045 induced a higher IFN-α level than did other Salmonella serotypes. Salmonella serotypes are correlated with foam cell autophagy and IL-1ß secretion. Salmonella may affect the course of foam cells formation, or even aortic aneurysm, through autophagy.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Animais , Aneurisma Aórtico/genética , Aneurisma Aórtico/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-1/genética , Antígeno Ki-1/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Sorogrupo , Virulência
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1006, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monocytes are the predominant innate immune cells at the early stage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection as the host defense against intracellular pathogens. Understanding the profile of different monocyte subpopulations and the dynamics of monocyte-related biomarkers may be useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of tuberculosis. METHODS: We enrolled 129 individuals comprising patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) (n = 39), tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) (n = 28), malignant pleural effusion (MPE) (n = 21), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) (n = 20), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 21). Surface expression of CD14, CD16, and CD163 on monocytes was detected using flow cytometry. In addition, soluble CD163 (sCD163) was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Higher frequency of CD14+CD16+ (15.7% vs 7.8%, P < 0.0001) and CD14-CD16+ (5.3% vs 2.5%, P = 0.0011) monocytes and a decreased percentage of CD14+CD16- (51.0% vs 70.4%, P = 0.0110) cells was observed in PTB patients than in HCs. Moreover, PTB patients displayed a higher frequency of CD163+ cells in CD16+ monocytes than those in the HC group (40.4% vs 11.3%, P < 0.0001). The level of sCD163 was elevated in TBP patients and was higher in pleural effusion than in plasma (2116.0 ng/ml vs 1236.0 ng/ml, P < 0.0001). sCD163 levels in pleural effusion and plasma could be used to distinguish TBP from MPE patients (cut-off values: 1950.0 and 934.7 ng/ml, respectively; AUCs: 0.8418 and 0.8136, respectively). Importantly, plasma sCD163 levels in TBP patients decreased significantly after anti-TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Higher expression of membrane and soluble CD163 in active tuberculosis patients might provide insights regarding the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, and sCD163 may be a novel biomarker to distinguish TBP from MPE and to predict disease severity.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/análise , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/análise , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/sangue , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Receptores de Superfície Celular/sangue , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/patologia , Tuberculose Pleural/imunologia , Tuberculose Pleural/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 986, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection gained public health concern after the 2015 outbreak in Brazil, when microcephaly rates increased in babies born from infected mothers. It was demonstrated that ZIKV causes a congenital Zika virus syndrome, including various alterations in the development of the central nervous system. Although the infection of cells from the nervous system has been well documented, less is known in respect of ZIKV ability to infect immune cells. Herein, we investigated if peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), freshly-isolated from healthy donors, could be infected by ZIKV. METHODS: PBMCs from healthy donors were isolated and cultured in medium with ZIKV strain Rio-U1 (MOI = 0.1). Infection was analyzed by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. RESULTS: We detected the ZIKV RNA in PBMCs from all donors by RT-qPCR analysis. The detection of viral antigens by flow cytometry revealed that PBMC from more than 50% the donors were infected by ZIKV, with CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3-CD19+ B cells and CD3+CD8+ T cells being, respectively, the most frequently infected subpopulations, followed by CD14+ monocytes. Additionally, we observed high variability in PBMC infection rates among different donors, either by numbers or type infected cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise the hypothesis that PBMCs can act as a reservoir of the virus, which may facilitate viral dissemination to different organs, including immune-privileged sites.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos CD19/genética , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Brasil , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4779, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636267

RESUMO

Hyperinflammatory syndromes are life-threatening disorders caused by overzealous immune cell activation and cytokine release, often resulting from defects in negative feedback mechanisms. In the quintessential hyperinflammatory syndrome familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), inborn errors of cytotoxicity result in effector cell accumulation, immune dysregulation and, if untreated, tissue damage and death. Here, we describe a human case with a homozygous nonsense R688* RC3H1 mutation suffering from hyperinflammation, presenting as relapsing HLH. RC3H1 encodes Roquin-1, a posttranscriptional repressor of immune-regulatory proteins such as ICOS, OX40 and TNF. Comparing the R688* variant with the murine M199R variant reveals a phenotypic resemblance, both in immune cell activation, hypercytokinemia and disease development. Mechanistically, R688* Roquin-1 fails to localize to P-bodies and interact with the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, impeding mRNA decay and dysregulating cytokine production. The results from this unique case suggest that impaired Roquin-1 function provokes hyperinflammation by a failure to quench immune activation.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Códon sem Sentido , Consanguinidade , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Eosinofilia/genética , Eosinofilia/imunologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/genética , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/imunologia , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/metabolismo , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptores OX40/genética , Receptores OX40/imunologia , Receptores OX40/metabolismo , Recidiva , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(11): 1891-1899, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628525

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults and overall survival remains poor. Chemotherapy is the standard of care for intensive induction therapy. Patients who achieve a complete remission require post-remission therapies to prevent relapse. There is no standard of care for patients with minimal residual disease (MRD), and stem cell transplantation is a salvage therapy. Considering the AML genetic heterogeneity and the leukemia immune-suppressive properties, novel cellular immune therapies to effectively harness immunological responses to prevent relapse are needed. We developed a novel modality of immune therapy consisting of monocytes reprogrammed with lentiviral vectors expressing GM-CSF, IFN-α and antigens. Preclinical studies in humanized mice showed that the reprogrammed monocytes self-differentiated into highly viable induced dendritic cells (iDCs) in vivo which migrated effectively to lymph nodes, producing remarkable effects in the de novo regeneration of T and B cell responses. For the first-in-man clinical trial, the patient's monocytes will be transduced with an integrase-defective tricistronic lentiviral vector expressing GM-CSF, IFN-α and a truncated WT1 antigen. For transplanted patients, pre-clinical development of iDCs co-expressing cytomegalovirus antigens is ongoing. To simplify the product chain for a de-centralized supply model, we are currently exploring a closed automated system for a short two-day manufacturing of iDCs. A phase I clinical trial study is in preparation for immune therapy of AML patients with MRD. The proposed cell therapy can fill an important gap in the current and foreseeable future immunotherapies of AML.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Imunoterapia , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Monócitos/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão , Transplante de Células-Tronco
9.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570561

RESUMO

Theileria parva is the causative agent of East Coast fever (ECF), a tick-borne disease that kills over a million cattle each year in sub-Saharan Africa. Immune protection against T. parva involves a CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response to parasite-infected cells. However, there is currently a paucity of knowledge regarding the role played by innate immune cells in ECF pathogenesis and T. parva control. Here, we demonstrate an increase in intermediate monocytes (CD14++ CD16+) with a concomitant decrease in the classical (CD14++ CD16-) and nonclassical (CD14+ CD16+) subsets at 12 days postinfection (dpi) during lethal infection but not during nonlethal T. parva infection. Ex vivo analyses of monocytes demonstrated upregulation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA and increased nitric oxide production during T. parva lethal infection compared to nonlethal infection at 10 dpi. Interestingly, no significant differences in peripheral blood parasite loads were observed between lethally and nonlethally infected animals at 12 dpi. In vitro stimulation with T. parva schizont-infected cells or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in significant upregulation of IL-1ß production by monocytes from lethally infected cattle compared to those from nonlethally infected animals. Strikingly, monocytes from lethally infected animals produced significant amounts of IL-10 mRNA after stimulation with T. parva schizont-infected cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that T. parva infection leads to alterations in the molecular and functional phenotypes of bovine monocytes. Importantly, since these changes primarily occur in lethal infection, they can serve as biomarkers for ECF progression and severity, thereby aiding in the standardization of protection assessment for T. parva candidate vaccines.


Assuntos
Monócitos/imunologia , Theileria parva/imunologia , Theileriose/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Carga Parasitária , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
10.
Mol Immunol ; 114: 591-599, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536880

RESUMO

Human CD63 has been reported to play a role either as an inhibitor or as a co-stimulator of T- cell responses, although the mechanism of this is unclear. In this study, an anti-human CD63 monoclonal antibody (mAb) COS3A was used to monitor the role of CD63 in T-cell activation. MAb COS3A could inhibit CD3-mediated T-cell proliferation and CD25 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), used as a study model, but the suppressive effect was not observed when purified T-cells were used instead of PBMCs. The inhibitory phenomenon was associated with downregulation of IL-2 and IFN-γ by T-cells, but upregulation of IL-10 by monocytes. Neutralizing IL-10 with anti-IL-10 mAb improved the T-cell response, indicating the role of IL-10 in T-cell suppression. In this study, monocytes were demonstrated to play a role in impeding T-cell activation by the anti-CD63 mAb COS3A. This is the first evidence that anti-CD63 mAb induces IL-10 secretion by monocytes, which later play a role in T-cell hypo-responsiveness.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tetraspanina 30/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária
11.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548327

RESUMO

Upon microbial infection, host immune cells recognize bacterial cell envelope components through cognate receptors. Although bacterial cell envelope components function as innate immune molecules, the role of the physical state of the bacterial cell envelope (i.e., particulate versus soluble) in host immune activation has not been clearly defined. Here, using two different forms of the staphylococcal cell envelope of Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and USA300 LAC strains, we provide biochemical and immunological evidence that the particulate state is required for the effective activation of host innate immune responses. In a murine model of peritoneal infection, the particulate form of the staphylococcal cell envelope (PCE) induced the production of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), the chemotactic cytokines for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively, resulting in a strong influx of the phagocytes into the peritoneal cavity. In contrast, compared with PCE, the soluble form of cell envelope (SCE), which was derived from PCE by treatment with cell wall-hydrolyzing enzymes, showed minimal activity. PCE also induced the secretion of calprotectin (myeloid-related protein 8/14 [MRP8/14] complex), a phagocyte-derived antimicrobial protein, into the peritoneal cavity at a much higher level than did SCE. The injected PCE particles were phagocytosed by the infiltrated neutrophils and monocytes and then delivered to mediastinal draining lymph nodes. More importantly, intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected PCE efficiently protected mice from S. aureus infection, which was abolished by the depletion of either monocytes/macrophages or neutrophils. This study demonstrated that the physical state of bacterial cells is a critical factor for efficient host immune activation and the protection of hosts from staphylococcal infections.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fagocitose/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
12.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491851

RESUMO

PD1n-3 DPA belongs to the protectin family of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. The protectins are endogenously formed mediators that display potent anti-inflammatory properties and pro-resolving bioactivities and have attracted interest in drug discovery. However, few studies have been reported of the secondary metabolism of the protectins. To investigate the metabolic formation of the putative C22 mono-hydroxylated product, coined 22-OH-PD1n-3 DPA, a stereoselective synthesis was performed. LC/MS-MS data of synthetic 22-OH-PD1n-3 DPA matched the data for the biosynthetic formed product. Cellular studies revealed that 22-OH-PD1n-3 DPA is formed from n-3 docosapentaenoic acid in human serum, and we confirmed that 22-OH-PD1n-3 DPA is a secondary metabolite produced by ω-oxidation of PD1n-3 DPA in human neutrophils and in human monocytes. The results reported are of interest for enabling future structure-activity relationship studies and provide useful molecular insight of the metabolism of the protectin class of specialized pro-resolving mediators.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Vias Biossintéticas , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/biossíntese , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/síntese química , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 127, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burkholderia mallei (Bm) is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen causing highly-fatal glanders in solipeds and humans. The ability of Bm to thrive intracellularly is thought to be related to exploitation of host immune response-related genes and pathways. Relatively little is known of the molecular strategies employed by this pathogen to modulate these pathways and evade intracellular killing. This manuscript seeks to fill gaps in the understanding of the interface between Bm and innate immunity by examining gene expression changes during infection of host monocytes. METHODS: The transcriptome of Bm-infected human Mono Mac-6 (MM6) monocytes was profiled on Affymetrix Human Transcriptome GeneChips 2.0. Gene expression changes in Bm-infected monocytes were compared to those of Burkholderia thailandensis (Bt)-infected monocytes and to uninfected monocytes. The resulting dataset was normalized using Robust Multichip Average and subjected to statistical analyses employing a univariate F test with a random variance model. Differentially expressed genes significant at p < 0.001 were subjected to leave-one-out cross-validation studies and 1st and 3rd nearest neighbor prediction model. Significant probe sets were used to populate human pathways in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, with statistical significance determined by Fisher's exact test or z-score. RESULTS: The Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR) pathway was represented among significantly enriched immune response-related human canonical pathways, with evidence of upregulation across both infections. Among members of this pathway, pentraxin-3 was significantly upregulated by Bm- or Bt-infected monocytes. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) was demonstrated to bind to both Bt and Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), but not Bm. Subsequent assays did not identify a role for PTX3 in potentiating complement-mediated lysis of Bt or in enhancing phagocytosis or replication of Bt in human monocytes. CONCLUSION: We report on the novel binding of PTX3 to Bt and Bp, with lack of interaction with Bm, suggesting that a possible evasive mechanism by Bm warrants further exploration. We determined that (1) PTX3 may not play a role in activating the lytic pathway of complement in different bacterial species and that (2) the opsonophagocytic properties of PTX3 should be investigated in different primary or immortalized cell lines representing host phagocytes, given lack of binding of PTX3 to MM6 monocytes.


Assuntos
Burkholderia/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/microbiologia , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Burkholderia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Viabilidade Microbiana , Proteínas Opsonizantes/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Ligação Proteica , Regulação para Cima/genética
14.
Immunity ; 51(3): 573-589.e8, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474513

RESUMO

Human mononuclear phagocytes comprise phenotypically and functionally overlapping subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, but the extent of their heterogeneity and distinct markers for subset identification remains elusive. By integrating high-dimensional single-cell protein and RNA expression data, we identified distinct markers to delineate monocytes from conventional DC2 (cDC2s). Using CD88 and CD89 for monocytes and HLA-DQ and FcεRIα for cDC2s allowed for their specific identification in blood and tissues. We also showed that cDC2s could be subdivided into phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets based on CD5, CD163, and CD14 expression, including a distinct subset of circulating inflammatory CD5-CD163+CD14+ cells related to previously defined DC3s. These inflammatory DC3s were expanded in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and correlated with disease activity. These findings further unravel the heterogeneity of DC subpopulations in health and disease and may pave the way for the identification of specific DC subset-targeting therapies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Análise de Célula Única
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9268-9284, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400902

RESUMO

Neutrophils are principal host innate immune cell responders to mastitis infections. Thus, therapies have been developed that target neutrophil expansion. This includes the neutrophil-stimulating cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (gCSF). Pegylated gCSF (PEG-gCSF; Imrestor, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce the natural incidence of mastitis in periparturient cows in commercial settings and reduce severity of disease against experimental mastitis challenge. Pegylated gCSF stimulates neutrophil expansion but also induces changes in monocyte and lymphocyte circulating numbers, surface protein expression changes, or both. We hypothesized that PEG-gCSF modulates surface expression of monocytes and neutrophils and facilitates their migration to the mammary gland. We challenged 8 mid-lactation Holsteins with approximately 150 cfu of Staphylococcus aureus (Newbould 305) in a single quarter via intramammary infusion. All animals developed chronic infections as assessed by bacteria counts and somatic cell counts (SCC). Ten to 16 wk postchallenge, 4 of the animals were treated with 2 subcutaneous injections of PEG-gCSF 7 d apart. Complete blood counts, SCC, bacterial counts, milk yield, feed intake, neutrophils extracellular trap analysis, and flow cytometric analyses of milk and blood samples were performed at indicated time points for 14 d after the first PEG-gCSF injection. The PEG-gCSF-treated cows had significantly increased numbers of blood neutrophils and lymphocytes compared with control cows. Flow cytometric analyses revealed increased surface expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) on neutrophils and macrophages in milk but not in blood of treated cows. Neutrophils isolated from blood of PEG-gCSF-treated cows had decreased surface expression of CD62L (L-selectin) in blood, consistent with cell activation. Surprisingly, CD62L cell surface expression was increased on neutrophils and macrophages sourced from milk from treated animals compared with cells isolated from controls. The PEG-gCSF-treated cows did not clear the S. aureus infection, nor did they significantly differ in SCC from controls. These findings provide evidence that PEG-gCSF therapy modifies cell surface expression of neutrophils and monocytes. However, although surface MPO+ cells accumulate in the mammary gland, the lack of bacterial control from these milk-derived cells suggests an incomplete role for PEG-gCSF treatment against chronic S. aureus infection and possibly chronic mammary infections in general.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Imunofenotipagem/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Leite/citologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Selectina L/sangue , Lactação , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastite Bovina/sangue , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Leite/imunologia , Leite/microbiologia , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 38(5): 369-378, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411573

RESUMO

CD33 is a myeloid-associated marker and belongs to the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectin (Siglec) family. Such types of receptors are highly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia, which could be used in its treatment. CD33 shows high variability in its expression levels with still unknown reasons. Here, we investigated the CD33 expression of monocytes in human blood samples processed at different temperatures and in dependence on their phagocytic activity against opsonized Escherichia coli. The samples were stained by fluorescently labelled anti-human CD14 to specify the monocyte population, anti-human CD33 antibodies to evaluate CD33 expression and analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In blood samples kept at 37°C or first pre-chilled at 0°C with subsequent warming up to 37°C, the percentage of CD33-positive monocytes as well as their relative fluorescence intensity was up-regulated compared to samples kept constantly at 0°C. After exposure to E. coli the CD33 relative fluorescence intensity of the monocytes activated at 37°C was 3 to 4 times higher than that of those cells kept inactive at 0°C. Microscopic analysis showed internalisation of CD33 due to its enhanced expression on the surface followed by engulfment of E. coli.


Assuntos
Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/análise
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007923, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449558

RESUMO

IL-1ß is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that promotes immunity and host defense, and its dysregulation is associated with immune pathology. Toxoplasma gondii infection of myeloid cells triggers the production and release of IL-1ß; however, the mechanisms regulating this pathway, particularly in human immune cells, are incompletely understood. We have identified a novel pathway of T. gondii induction of IL-1ß via a Syk-CARD9-NF-κB signaling axis in primary human peripheral blood monocytes. Syk was rapidly phosphorylated during T. gondii infection of primary monocytes, and inhibiting Syk with the pharmacological inhibitors R406 or entospletinib, or genetic ablation of Syk in THP-1 cells, reduced IL-1ß release. Inhibition of Syk in primary cells or deletion of Syk in THP-1 cells decreased parasite-induced IL-1ß transcripts and the production of pro-IL-1ß. Furthermore, inhibition of PKCδ, CARD9/MALT-1 and IKK reduced p65 phosphorylation and pro-IL-1ß production in T. gondii-infected primary monocytes, and genetic knockout of PKCδ or CARD9 in THP-1 cells also reduced pro-IL-1ß protein levels and IL-1ß release during T. gondii infection, indicating that Syk functions upstream of this NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway for IL-1ß transcriptional activation. IL-1ß release from T. gondii-infected primary human monocytes required the NLRP3-caspase-1 inflammasome, but interestingly, was independent of gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage and pyroptosis. Moreover, GSDMD knockout THP-1 cells released comparable amounts of IL-1ß to wild-type THP-1 cells after T. gondii infection. Taken together, our data indicate that T. gondii induces a Syk-CARD9/MALT-1-NF-κB signaling pathway and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome for the release of IL-1ß in a cell death- and GSDMD-independent manner. This research expands our understanding of the molecular basis for human innate immune regulation of inflammation and host defense during parasite infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Quinase Syk/metabolismo , Toxoplasmose/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Inflamassomos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/microbiologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Quinase Syk/genética , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/microbiologia
18.
Blood ; 134(14): 1119-1131, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434703

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) with complex lipid and/or protein reactivities cause complement-dependent thrombosis and pregnancy complications. Although cross-reactivities with coagulation regulatory proteins contribute to the risk for developing thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, the majority of pathogenic aPLs retain reactivity with membrane lipid components and rapidly induce reactive oxygen species-dependent proinflammatory signaling and tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activation. Here, we show that lipid-reactive aPLs activate a common species-conserved TF signaling pathway. aPLs dissociate an inhibited TF coagulation initiation complex on the cell surface of monocytes, thereby liberating factor Xa for thrombin generation and protease activated receptor 1/2 heterodimer signaling. In addition to proteolytic signaling, aPLs promote complement- and protein disulfide isomerase-dependent TF-integrin ß1 trafficking that translocates aPLs and NADPH oxidase to the endosome. Cell surface TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) synthesized by monocytes is required for TF inhibition, and disabling TFPI prevents aPL signaling, indicating a paradoxical prothrombotic role for TFPI. Myeloid cell-specific TFPI inactivation has no effect on models of arterial or venous thrombus development, but remarkably prevents experimental aPL-induced thrombosis in mice. Thus, the physiological control of TF primes monocytes for rapid aPL pathogenic signaling and thrombosis amplification in an unexpected crosstalk between complement activation and coagulation signaling.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Tromboplastina/imunologia , Trombose/imunologia , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/patologia
19.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 9782594, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467936

RESUMO

Monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population distinguished into three subsets with distinctive phenotypic and functional properties: "classical" (CD14++CD16-), "intermediate" (CD14++CD16+), and "nonclassical" (CD14+CD16++). Monocyte subsets play a pivotal role in many inflammatory systemic diseases including atherosclerosis (ATS). Only a low number of studies evaluated monocyte behavior in patients affected by cardiovascular diseases, and data about their role in acute aortic dissection (AAD) are lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate CD14++CD16-, CD14++CD16+, and CD14+CD16++ cells in patients with Stanford-A AAD and in patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS). Methods. 20 patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS group), 17 patients with Stanford-A AAD (AAD group), and 17 subjects with traditional cardiovascular risk factors (RF group) were enrolled. Monocyte subset frequency was determined by flow cytometry. Results. Classical monocytes were significantly increased in the AAD group versus CAS and RF groups, whereas intermediate monocytes were significantly decreased in the AAD group versus CAS and RF groups. Conclusions. Results of this study identify in AAD patients a peculiar monocyte array that can partly explain depletion of T CD4+ lymphocyte subpopulations observed in patients affected by AAD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/imunologia , Estenose das Carótidas/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/sangue , Estenose das Carótidas/sangue , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/análise , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/classificação , Receptores de IgG/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 215: 109884, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420066

RESUMO

Many vaccines against childhood diseases are administered early after birth, but vaccine development studies frequently test efficacy in adult rather than in neonatal animal models. In countries with endemic tuberculosis (TB), Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is administered as part of the neonatal vaccine regimen because it prevents against the disseminated form of TB in children, although it has variable efficacy against pulmonary TB. Several promising new vaccines against TB are currently being tested in adult animal models. Here we evaluated neonatal piglets as an animal model to test vaccine efficacy. For this purpose, minipigs were vaccinated or not with BCG 48 h after birth and their immune response followed longitudinally until adolescence. We characterized the memory and activation phenotype of T cells, cytokine profile, and monocyte activation in response to BCG stimulation from 4 weeks of age into adolescence- age of 24 weeks. Immunological responses in vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were further monitored upon infection with a low dose exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain HN878 via the aerosol route. Comparing the immunological response elicited by BCG vaccination in minipigs vs similar studies in infants, suggest that minipigs have the potential to serve as an effective neonatal animal model for vaccine development.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Porco Miniatura/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Suínos , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle
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