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1.
Sci Immunol ; 5(51)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943497

RESUMO

COVID-19 pathogenesis is associated with an exaggerated immune response. However, the specific cellular mediators and inflammatory components driving diverse clinical disease outcomes remain poorly understood. We undertook longitudinal immune profiling on both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of hospitalized patients during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Here, we report key immune signatures present shortly after hospital admission that were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Immune signatures were related to shifts in neutrophil to T cell ratio, elevated serum IL-6, MCP-1 and IP-10, and most strikingly, modulation of CD14+ monocyte phenotype and function. Modified features of CD14+ monocytes included poor induction of the prostaglandin-producing enzyme, COX-2, as well as enhanced expression of the cell cycle marker Ki-67. Longitudinal analysis revealed reversion of some immune features back to the healthy median level in patients with a good eventual outcome. These findings identify previously unappreciated alterations in the innate immune compartment of COVID-19 patients and lend support to the idea that therapeutic strategies targeting release of myeloid cells from bone marrow should be considered in this disease. Moreover, they demonstrate that features of an exaggerated immune response are present early after hospital admission suggesting immune-modulating therapies would be most beneficial at early timepoints.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Monócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4596, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929083

RESUMO

Earlier studies indicate that either the canonical or non-canonical pathways of inflammasome activation have a limited role on malaria pathogenesis. Here, we report that caspase-8 is a central mediator of systemic inflammation, septic shock in the Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice and the P. berghei-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). Importantly, our results indicate that the combined deficiencies of caspases-8/1/11 or caspase-8/gasdermin-D (GSDM-D) renders mice impaired to produce both TNFα and IL-1ß and highly resistant to lethality in these models, disclosing a complementary, but independent role of caspase-8 and caspases-1/11/GSDM-D in the pathogenesis of malaria. Further, we find that monocytes from malaria patients express active caspases-1, -4 and -8 suggesting that these inflammatory caspases may also play a role in the pathogenesis of human disease.


Assuntos
Caspase 8/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Malária Cerebral/enzimologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Malária Cerebral/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium chabaudi/fisiologia , Baço/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
3.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 573-582, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933609

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and peripheral blood CD14 +CD16 + monocytes in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD), and to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis in CHD by analyzing the correlation between infection, inflammation, and CHD, to provide a basis for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of the disease. Methods: In total, 192 patients with CHD were divided into three groups: latent CHD, angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction. HCMV-IgM and -IgG antibodies were assessed using ELISA; CD14 +CD16 + monocytes were counted using a five-type automated hematology analyzer; mononuclear cells were assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting; and an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, lipoprotein, hs-CRp and Hcy. Results: The positive rates of HCMV-IgM and -IgG were significantly higher in the CHD groups than in the control group. HCMV infection affects lipid metabolism to promote immune and inflammatory responses. Conclusion: HCMV infection has a specific correlation with the occurrence and development of CHD. The expression of CD14 +CD16 + mononuclear cells in the CHD group was increased accordingly and correlated with acute HCMV infection. Thus, HCMV antibody as well as peripheral blood CD14 +CD16 + mononuclear cells can be used to monitor the occurrence and development of CHD.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Angina Pectoris/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/etiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/virologia
4.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102964, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861199

RESUMO

Mononuclear phagocytes are a widely distributed family of cells contributing to innate and adaptive immunity. Circulating monocytes and tissue macrophages participate in all stages of SARS COVID-19. They contribute to comorbidities predisposing to clinical infection, virus resistance and dissemination, and to host factors that determine disease severity, recovery and sequelae. Assays are available to detect viral infection and antibody responses, but no adequate tests have been developed to measure the activation level of monocytes and tissue macrophages, and the risk of progression to a fatal hyperinflammatory syndrome. Blood monocytes provide a window on the systemic immune response, from production to tissue recruitment, reflecting the impact of infection on the host. Ready availability of blood makes it possible to monitor severity and the risk of potentially lethal complications, by developing tests to assess the status of monocyte activation and its potential for further inflammatory dysregulation after recruitment to tissues and during recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804985

RESUMO

A strain of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 (KW3110), activates M2 macrophages with anti-inflammatory reactions and mitigates aging-related chronic inflammation and blue-light exposure-induced retinal inflammation in mice. However, the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of KW3110 remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of KW3110 using both mouse and human immune cells and evaluated the suppressive effect of KW3110 on the inflammatory reactions of the cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (LPS/ATP). KW3110 treatment induced anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production in the supernatants of murine macrophage-like cells, J774A.1, and suppressed IL-1ß production in the supernatants of LPS/ATP-stimulated cells. The influence of KW3110 on the production of these cytokines was inhibited by pre-treatment with phagocytosis blocker or transfection with siRNAs for IL-10 signaling components. KW3110 treatment also suppressed activation of caspase-1, an active component of inflammasome complexes, in LPS/ATP-stimulated J774A.1 cells, and its effect was inhibited by transfection with siRNAs for IL-10 signaling components. In addition to the effects of KW3110 on J774A.1 cells, KW3110 treatment induced IL-10 production in the supernatants of human monocytes, and KW3110 or IL-10 treatment suppressed caspase-1 activation and IL-1ß production in the supernatants of LPS/ATP-stimulated cells. These results suggest that KW3110 suppresses LPS/ATP stimulation-induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1ß production by promoting IL-10 production in mouse and human immune cells. Our findings reveal a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of LAB and the effect of KW3110 on caspase-1 activation is expected to contribute to constructing future preventive strategies for inflammation-related disorders using food ingredients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/terapia , Lactobacillus paracasei/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237030, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810141

RESUMO

Curative therapeutic options for a number of immunological disorders remain to be established, and approaches for identifying drug candidates are relatively limited. Furthermore, phenotypic screening methods using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived immune cells or hematopoietic cells need improvement. In the present study, using immortalized monocytic cell lines derived from iPSCs, we developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) system to detect compounds that inhibit IL-1ß secretion and NLRP3 inflammasome activation from activated macrophages. The iPSCs were generated from a patient with neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) as a model of a constitutively activated NLRP3 inflammasome. HTS of 4,825 compounds including FDA-approved drugs and compounds with known bioactivity identified 7 compounds as predominantly IL-1ß inhibitors. Since these compounds are known inflammasome inhibitors or derivatives of, these results prove the validity of our HTS system, which can be a versatile platform for identifying drug candidates for immunological disorders associated with monocytic lineage cells.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/imunologia , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/fisiologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4243, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843625

RESUMO

Increased extracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]ex) trigger activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in monocytes through calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). To prevent extraosseous calcification in vivo, the serum protein fetuin-A stabilizes calcium and phosphate into 70-100 nm-sized colloidal calciprotein particles (CPPs). Here we show that monocytes engulf CPPs via macropinocytosis, and this process is strictly dependent on CaSR signaling triggered by increases in [Ca2+]ex. Enhanced macropinocytosis of CPPs results in increased lysosomal activity, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and IL-1ß release. Monocytes in the context of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit increased CPP uptake and IL-1ß release in response to CaSR signaling. CaSR expression in these monocytes and local [Ca2+] in afflicted joints are increased, probably contributing to this enhanced response. We propose that CaSR-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to inflammatory arthritis and systemic inflammation not only in RA, but possibly also in other inflammatory conditions. Inhibition of CaSR-mediated CPP uptake might be a therapeutic approach to treating RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Animais , Calcinose , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/deficiência , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Pinocitose , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1 , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/metabolismo
8.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108337, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707214

RESUMO

Charcot neuroarthropathy is a chronic, progressive condition of the skeletal system that affects some patients with diabetic neuropathy. It results in progressive destruction of bones of the foot and disorganisation of pedal joints and ligaments. Effective prevention and treatment for Charcot neuroarthropathy remain a challenge. Currently, there are no reliable repeatable markers to identify patients with diabetes who are at higher risk of developing Charcot neuroarthropathy. The pathogenesis underlying the development of Charcot neuroarthropathy also remains unclear. In this review, we provide an overview of the history, prevalence, symptoms, risk factors, diagnostics and treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy. We also discuss the potential for OPG and RANKL gene variants to act as predictive markers for the development of Charcot neuroarthropathy. Finally, we summarise the latest research on the role of monocyte-to-osteoclast differentiation in the development of acute Charcot neuroarthropathy.


Assuntos
Artropatia Neurogênica/sangue , Pé/fisiopatologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Artropatia Neurogênica/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Doença Crônica , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19507-19516, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723814

RESUMO

Previous analysis of postentry events revealed that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) displays a unique, extended nuclear translocation pattern in monocytes. We determined that c-Src signaling through pentamer engagement of integrins is required upon HCMV entry to avoid sorting of the virus into late endosomes and subsequent degradation. To follow up on this previous study, we designed experiments to investigate how HCMV-induced signaling through the other major axis-the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase-regulates viral postentry events. Here we show that HCMV induces chronic and functional EGFR signaling that is distinct to the virus as compared to the natural EGFR ligand: EGF. This chronic EGFR kinase activity in infected monocytes is required for the proper subcellular localization of the viral particle during trafficking events, as well as for promoting translocation of viral DNA into the host nucleus. Our data indicate that HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) binds to EGFR at the monocyte surface, the virus and EGFR are internalized together, and gB remains bound to EGFR throughout viral postentry events until de-envelopment to promote the chronic EGFR kinase activity required for viral trafficking and nuclear translocation. These data highlight how initial EGFR signaling via viral binding is necessary for entry, but not sufficient to promote each viral trafficking event. HCMV appears to manipulate the EGFR kinase postentry, via gB-EGFR interaction, to be active at the critical points throughout the trafficking process that leads to nuclear translocation and productive infection of peripheral blood monocytes.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Monócitos/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/virologia , Células Cultivadas , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Endossomos/metabolismo , Endossomos/virologia , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Rede trans-Golgi/metabolismo , Rede trans-Golgi/virologia
10.
Life Sci ; 257: 118102, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687918

RESUMO

The COVID-19-, SARS- and MERS-related coronaviruses share many genomic and structural similarities. However, the SARS-CoV-2 is less pathogenic than SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Despite some differences in the cytokine patterns, it seems that the cytokine storm plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-, SARS- and MERS. Monocytes and macrophages may be infected by SARS-CoV-2 through ACE2-dependent and ACE2-independent pathways. SARS-CoV-2 can effectively suppress the anti-viral IFN response in monocytes and macrophages. Since macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) act as antigen presenting cells (APCs), the infection of these cells by SARS-CoV-2 impairs the adaptive immune responses against the virus. Upon infection, monocytes migrate to the tissues where they become infected resident macrophages, allowing viruses to spread through all organs and tissues. The SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes and macrophages can produce large amounts of numerous types of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to local tissue inflammation and a dangerous systemic inflammatory response called cytokine storm. Both local tissue inflammation and the cytokine storm play a fundamental role in the development of COVID-19-related complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is a main cause of death in COVID-19 patients. Here, we describe the monocytes and macrophage responses during severe coronavirus infections, while highlighting potential therapeutic interventions to attenuate macrophage-related inflammatory reactions in possible approaches for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Quimiocinas , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4681-4685, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The functions of macrophages change in response to environmental factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) is involved in macrophage activation and tissue repair when administered dermally. LPSp-activated macrophages may be useful for restoring and maintaining homeostasis of the skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phorbol myristate acetate-treated human monocytes (THP-1 cells) were activated with LPSp. The medium of LPSp-activated THP-1 cells was added to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF cells). After 24 h, the expression of hyaluronan (HA) synthase (HAS)2, hyaluronidase (HYAL)1, and tropoelastin in NHDF cells was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The expression of HAS2 and tropoelastin was significantly increased, but that of HYAL1 was significantly decreased. It was demonstrated that the abilities of HA and elastin synthesis in NHDF cells increased through LPSp-activated THP-1 cells. CONCLUSION: LPSp-activated macrophages may be useful for enhancing the abilities of HA and elastin synthesis in fibroblasts, subsequently improving dysfunction and reducing various age-related disorders.


Assuntos
Elastina/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pantoea/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1
13.
Cell Metab ; 32(3): 437-446.e5, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697943

RESUMO

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF-1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicólise , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17820-17831, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661174

RESUMO

The discovery of atrial secretory granules and the natriuretic peptides stored in them identified the atrium as an endocrine organ. Although neither atrial nor brain natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP) is amidated, the major membrane protein in atrial granules is peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an enzyme essential for amidated peptide biosynthesis. Mice lacking cardiomyocyte PAM (Pam Myh6-cKO/cKO) are viable, but a gene dosage-dependent drop in atrial ANP and BNP content occurred. Ultrastructural analysis of adult Pam Myh6-cKO/cKO atria revealed a 13-fold drop in the number of secretory granules. When primary cultures of Pam 0-Cre-cKO/cKO atrial myocytes (no Cre recombinase, PAM floxed) were transduced with Cre-GFP lentivirus, PAM protein levels dropped, followed by a decline in ANP precursor (proANP) levels. Expression of exogenous PAM in Pam Myh6-cKO/cKO atrial myocytes produced a dose-dependent rescue of proANP content; strikingly, this response did not require the monooxygenase activity of PAM. Unlike many prohormones, atrial proANP is stored intact. A threefold increase in the basal rate of proANP secretion by Pam Myh6-cKO/cKO myocytes was a major contributor to its reduced levels. While proANP secretion was increased following treatment of control cultures with drugs that block the activation of Golgi-localized Arf proteins and COPI vesicle formation, proANP secretion by Pam Myh6-cKO/cKO myocytes was unaffected. In cells lacking secretory granules, expression of exogenous PAM led to the accumulation of fluorescently tagged proANP in the cis-Golgi region. Our data indicate that COPI vesicle-mediated recycling of PAM from the cis-Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum plays an essential role in the biogenesis of proANP containing atrial granules.


Assuntos
Amidina-Liases/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Amidina-Liases/genética , Animais , Fator Natriurético Atrial/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/ultraestrutura , Expressão Gênica , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/ultraestrutura , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Monócitos/metabolismo , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/ultraestrutura
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3459, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651360

RESUMO

Hepatic amebiasis, predominantly occurring in men, is a focal destruction of the liver due to the invading protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. Classical monocytes as well as testosterone are identified to have important functions for the development of hepatic amebiasis in mice, but a link between testosterone and monocytes has not been identified. Here we show that testosterone treatment induces proinflammatory responses in human and mouse classical monocytes. When treated with 5α-dihydrotestosterone, a strong androgen receptor ligand, human classical monocytes increase CXCL1 production in the presence of Entamoeba histolytica antigens. Moreover, plasma testosterone levels of individuals undergoing transgender procedure correlate positively with the TNF and CXCL1 secretion from their cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Finally, testosterone substitution of castrated male mice increases the frequency of TNF/CXCL1-producing classical monocytes during hepatic amebiasis, supporting the hypothesis that the effects of androgens may contribute to an increased risk of developing monocyte-mediated pathologies.


Assuntos
Androgênios/farmacologia , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Entamoeba histolytica/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3327, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620863

RESUMO

Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by insufficient glucocerebrosidase activity. Its hallmark manifestations are attributed to infiltration and inflammation by macrophages. Current therapies for Gaucher disease include life-long intravenous administration of recombinant glucocerebrosidase and orally-available glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors. An alternative approach is to engineer the patient's own hematopoietic system to restore glucocerebrosidase expression, thereby replacing the affected cells, and constituting a potential one-time therapy for this disease. Here, we report an efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based approach that targets glucocerebrosidase expression cassettes with a monocyte/macrophage-specific element to the CCR5 safe-harbor locus in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The targeted cells generate glucocerebrosidase-expressing macrophages and maintain long-term repopulation and multi-lineage differentiation potential with serial transplantation. The combination of a safe-harbor and a lineage-specific promoter establishes a universal correction strategy and circumvents potential toxicity of ectopic glucocerebrosidase in the stem cells. Furthermore, it constitutes an adaptable platform for other lysosomal enzyme deficiencies.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Glucosilceramidase/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/enzimologia , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Monócitos/enzimologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Doença de Gaucher/genética , Doença de Gaucher/terapia , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Células HEK293 , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Monócitos/metabolismo , Transplante Autólogo
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20888, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629679

RESUMO

This study aims to identify prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in early miscarriages. A total of 260 pregnant women with vaginal spotting were recruited from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Kyung Hee Medical Center from January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2018. Venous samples were obtained from the women for measurements of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and NLR. All the patients were in < 14 gestational weeks of their pregnancy. Eighty-four patients were excluded because of incomplete data, loss of follow-up, and serious medical diseases. We enrolled 176 women for analysis and divided them into two groups. Group 1 included 104 women with threatened abortion; and group 2, 72 women with missed abortion. A significant difference in NLR was found between the groups (p = 0.001; P < .01). The multivariate analysis also revealed that NLR was the only prognostic factor of early miscarriage (odd ratio [OR], 0.732; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.612-0.881, P = .001). The area under the Receiver-operating characteristic of NLR for distinguishing between the missed and threatened abortion groups was 0.792, and the best cutoff value was 5.72 (P < .05).


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/sangue , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Adulto , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Blood ; 136(11): 1330-1341, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678428

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emergent pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since its emergence, the novel coronavirus has rapidly achieved pandemic proportions causing remarkably increased morbidity and mortality around the world. A hypercoagulability state has been reported as a major pathologic event in COVID-19, and thromboembolic complications listed among life-threatening complications of the disease. Platelets are chief effector cells of hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. However, the participation of platelets in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains elusive. This report demonstrates that increased platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation are observed in severe COVID-19 patients, but not in patients presenting mild COVID-19 syndrome. In addition, exposure to plasma from severe COVID-19 patients increased the activation of control platelets ex vivo. In our cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit, platelet-monocyte interaction was strongly associated with tissue factor (TF) expression by the monocytes. Platelet activation and monocyte TF expression were associated with markers of coagulation exacerbation as fibrinogen and D-dimers, and were increased in patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or patients who evolved with in-hospital mortality. Finally, platelets from severe COVID-19 patients were able to induce TF expression ex vivo in monocytes from healthy volunteers, a phenomenon that was inhibited by platelet P-selectin neutralization or integrin αIIb/ß3 blocking with the aggregation inhibitor abciximab. Altogether, these data shed light on new pathological mechanisms involving platelet activation and platelet-dependent monocyte TF expression, which were associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/patologia , Plaquetas/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Monócitos/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/imunologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/metabolismo , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/virologia , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Pandemias , Ativação Plaquetária , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614928

RESUMO

Interruption of the programmed death 1 (PD-1) / programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is an established and effective therapeutic strategy in human oncology and holds promise for veterinary oncology. We report the generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for canine PD-1 and PD-L1. Antibodies were initially assessed for their capacity to block the binding of recombinant canine PD-1 to recombinant canine PD-L1 and then ranked based on efficiency of binding as judged by flow cytometry. Selected antibodies were capable of detecting PD-1 and PD-L1 on canine tissues by flow cytometry and Western blot. Anti-PD-L1 worked for immunocytochemistry and anti-PD-1 worked for immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded canine tissues, suggesting the usage of this antibody with archived tissues. Additionally, anti-PD-L1 (JC071) revealed significantly increased PD-L1 expression on canine monocytes after stimulation with peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide. Together, these antibodies display specificity for the natural canine ligand using a variety of potential diagnostic applications. Importantly, multiple PD-L1-specific antibodies amplified IFN-γ production in a canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) concanavlin A (Con A) stimulation assay, demonstrating functional activity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Cães , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/farmacologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 56-64, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621954

RESUMO

The comet assay has been extensively used in biomonitoring studies. To avoid intra-experimental variability, the incorporation of assay controls in each work session for data normalization has been suggested by some authors but has never been thoroughly analyzed. The aim of this study was to address the impact of data normalization in the results of a biomonitoring study using different normalization models. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 140 healthy individuals were analyzed using the alkaline and FPG-modified version of the comet assay across seven different work sessions. In addition to negative standards, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and Ro 19-8022 plus light treated PBMC, were also included in the assay as positive standards. To verify the impact of data normalization, some demographic, lifestyle and environmental exposure-related variables were selected. Significant associations with independent study variables were observed using normalized comet endpoints, as opposed to raw data. After normalization, levels of DNA strand breaks were significantly higher among males and older individuals (>71 years), while net FPG-sensitive sites were positively related to smoking habits and environmental exposures (i.e. air pollution and bottled water consumption). This study highlights how the normalization strategies can influence the statistical results of a human biomonitoring study and lead to different data interpretations.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaio Cometa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Demografia , Determinação de Ponto Final , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Luz , Masculino , Metanossulfonato de Metila/toxicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Sexuais
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