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1.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(8): 1450-1455, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has a poor prognosis with minimal clinical and biochemical factors to guide management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of systemic inflammatory response in patients with recurrent ACC. METHODS: Patients who underwent resection for recurrent ACC were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and mean platelet volume were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (age at operation 52.2 ± 9.5 years) were identified. We observed a statistically significant shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with LMR less than 4 (41 ± 7.4 months vs 71 ± 12.3, P = .023) and male sex (26.6 ± 4.2 months vs 57.6 ± 9.5 months, P = .079), while time-to-recurrence (TTR) less than 12 months (40 ± 7.7 months vs 70.3 ± 13.1 months, P = .059) had a trend on univariate analysis for worse DSS. On multivariable analysis, LMR < 4 (hazard ratio [HR] 4.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-14.76; P = .027) and TTR less than 12 months (HR 2.77 95% CI: 1-7.62; P = .049) were found to be significantly associated with worse DSS. CONCLUSION: Preoperative LMR greater than 4 and TTR greater than 12 months are associated with longer DSS. Patients with LMR greater than 4 and TTR greater than 12 months may benefit from a more aggressive therapeutic approach and may require less frequent surveillance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Contagem de Linfócitos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108844, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600484

RESUMO

Using data from Schink et al. (2018), a large number of herbal extracts were assessed for their capacity to induce pro- and anti-inflammatory effects based on TLR4 expression normalized for cell viability in two immune cell models (i.e., HeLa-TLR4 transfected reporter cell line, and THP-1 monocytes) applying seven concentrations (0.01-3.0%). The analysis revealed that 70-80% of the extracts satisfying the a priori entry criteria also satisfied a priori evaluative criteria for hormetic concentration responses. These findings demonstrate that a large proportion of herbal extracts display hormetic dose responses in immune cells, indicating that hormetic mechanisms mediate pro- and anti-inflammatory processes and may provide a means to guide optimal dosing strategies. The identification of doses eliciting only anti-inflammatory therapeutic activity as well as the use of dose-variable herbal extracts in the treatment of inflammatory diseases will be challenging.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hormese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Linhagem Celular , Células HeLa , Humanos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7861-7878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576128

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Nanogels (NGs) are promising drug delivery tools but are typically limited to hydrophilic drugs. Many potential new drugs are hydrophobic. Our study systematically investigates amphiphilic NGs with varying hydrophobicity, but similar colloidal features to ensure comparability. The amphiphilic NGs used in this experiment consist of a hydrophilic polymer network with randomly distributed hydrophobic groups. For the synthesis we used a new synthetic platform approach. Their amphiphilic character allows the encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Importantly, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance determines drug loading and biological interactions. In particular, protein adsorption to NG surfaces is dependent on hydrophobicity and critically determines circulation time. Our study investigates how network hydrophobicity influences protein binding, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Methods: Biocompatibility of the NGs was examined by WST-1 assay in monocytic-like THP-1 cells. Serum protein corona formation was investigated using dynamic light scattering and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, cellular uptake was analyzed via flow cytometry. Results: All NGs were highly biocompatible. The protein binding patterns for the two most hydrophobic NGs were very similar to each other but clearly different from the hydrophilic ones. Overall, protein binding was increased with increasing hydrophobicity, resulting in increased cellular uptake. Conclusion: Our study supports the establishment of structure-property relationships and contributes to the accurate balance between maximum loading capacity with low protein binding, optimal biological half-life and good biocompatibility. This is an important step to derive design principles of amphiphilic NGs to be applied as drug delivery vehicles.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Endocitose , Géis/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanopartículas/química , Coroa de Proteína/química , Tensoativos/química , Adsorção , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Células THP-1
4.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 253-260, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507190

RESUMO

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope, via a key extracellular amino acid sequence, may simulate the functionality of native undecapeptide substance P (SP) acting through the host's neurokinin 1 (SP preferring) receptor (NK-1R). Human monocytes and macrophages express both NK-1Rs and SP. In HIV/AIDS the NK-1R may function as a chemokine-like G-protein coupled co-receptor that: 1) fuses to the outer envelope of HIV; 2) enables intracellular entry of the envelope-capsid-NK-1R complex; 3) co-opts immune defence via its physiological interaction with the SP-like envelope; 4) may contribute to resistance of CD4/chemokine entry inhibitor type drugs; 5) relaxes the blood-brain barrier to support entry of the HIV into the central nervous system, and 6) mediates most of the common clinical sequelae of HIV/AIDS (encephalopathy and AIDS dementia complex). The data support the idea that NK-1R antagonists could be useful to treat HIV/AIDS. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus; NK-1 receptor; NK-1 receptor antagonist; aprepitant; fusion protein; virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Receptores da Neurocinina-1 , Substância P , Proteínas Virais de Fusão , Dipeptídeos/genética , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/virologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/virologia , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/uso terapêutico , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/metabolismo , Substância P/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 235: 116817, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476309

RESUMO

AIMS: In the tumor microenvironment, dysregulated immune cells could promote tumor progression, invasion and metastasis, by establishing a symbiotic relationship with cancer cells. A pivotal role is played by monocyte recruitment and induction of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which provide immunosuppression and tumorigenesis. The effect of nemorosone, an antiproliferative phytocomponent present in Cuban Propolis, on TAM-induced tumor progression remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated the symbiotic relationship between monocytic leukemia THP-1 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, and the role of nemorosone in preventing TAM-induced tumor growth. MAIN METHODS: Macrophage differentiation induced by HepG2-conditioned medium was assessed by flow cytometry, analysis of secreted molecules and cytokine expression. The effect of nemorosone and/or conditioned THP-1-medium on HepG2 proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation, cells cycle and migration assays. KEY FINDINGS: HepG2 cells induced THP-1 recruitment and differentiation to macrophages. When compared with control THP-1 cells, differentiated THP-1 showed a significant increase of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression (P < 0.01), and slightly induced HepG2 cells growth. This effect was counteracted by nemorosone, which also significantly inhibited colony formation (P < 0.01) and migratory capacity of HepG2 cells, driving a high percentage of cells (80%) to the G0/G1 phase. SIGNIFICANCE: HepG2-conditioned medium is a suitable model for THP-1 modulation and differentiation. Moreover, nemorosone significantly inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells, both in presence and absence of the soluble factors secreted by TAMs. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of this natural compound in the HCC-TAM relationship.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Células THP-1
6.
Nat Immunol ; 20(9): 1161-1173, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406378

RESUMO

Induction of the transcription factor Irf8 in the common dendritic cell progenitor (CDP) is required for classical type 1 dendritic cell (cDC1) fate specification, but the mechanisms controlling this induction are unclear. In the present study Irf8 enhancers were identified via chromatin profiling of dendritic cells and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing was used to assess their roles in Irf8 regulation. An enhancer 32 kilobases (kb) downstream of the Irf8 transcriptional start site (+32-kb Irf8) that was active in mature cDC1s was required for the development of this lineage, but not for its specification. Instead, a +41-kb Irf8 enhancer, previously thought to be active only in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, was found to also be transiently accessible in cDC1 progenitors, and deleting this enhancer prevented the induction of Irf8 in CDPs and abolished cDC1 specification. Thus, cryptic activation of the +41-kb Irf8 enhancer in dendritic cell progenitors is responsible for cDC1 fate specification.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/citologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16793, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441851

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a chronic, progressive disease in which early diagnosis is very important. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported as new predictors in inflammatory and immune diseases including osteoporosis. No studies have reported the relationship between monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and osteoporosis patients.To investigated the ability of MLR to predict osteoporosis.Three hundred sixteen osteoporosis patients and 111 healthy control subjects were enrolled. Patients' laboratory and clinical characteristics were recorded. MLR, NLR, and PLR levels were calculated. The differences were compared and the diagnostic values of MLR were analyzed.There were 76 male and 105 female patients included, with a mean age of 56.57 ±â€Š9.95 years. The levels of MLR, NLR, and PLR in osteoporosis patients were all higher than those in healthy control subjects. The area under the curve of MLR was higher than those of NLR and PLR. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that T-score was affected by age and MLR. MLR was positively correlated with C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, red blood cell distribution width, age, sex, and inversely with hemoglobin. MLR and PLR levels were significantly higher in osteoporosis patients than in osteopenia patients (P < .05).The present study shows that MLR had a higher diagnostic value for osteoporosis. MLR may be a reliable, inexpensive, and novel potential predictor of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Linfócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/biossíntese , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3081, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300673

RESUMO

Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a first-line-treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The redox master regulator Nrf2, essential for redox balance, is a target of DMF, but its precise therapeutic mechanisms of action remain elusive. Here we show impact of DMF on circulating monocytes and T cells in a prospective longitudinal RRMS patient cohort. DMF increases the level of oxidized isoprostanes in peripheral blood. Other observed changes, including methylome and transcriptome profiles, occur in monocytes prior to T cells. Importantly, monocyte counts and monocytic ROS increase following DMF and distinguish patients with beneficial treatment-response from non-responders. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the ROS-generating NOX3 gene is associated with beneficial DMF treatment-response. Our data implicate monocyte-derived oxidative processes in autoimmune diseases and their treatment, and identify NOX3 genetic variant, monocyte counts and redox state as parameters potentially useful to inform clinical decisions on DMF therapy of RRMS.


Assuntos
Fumarato de Dimetilo/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Monócitos/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Adulto , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2961, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273197

RESUMO

Persistent inflammation is a hallmark of many human diseases, including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) and atherosclerosis. Here, we describe a dominant trigger of inflammation: human serum factor H-related protein FHR1. In vitro, this protein selectively binds to necrotic cells via its N-terminus; in addition, it binds near necrotic glomerular sites of AAV patients and necrotic areas in atherosclerotic plaques. FHR1, but not factor H, FHR2 or FHR3 strongly induces inflammasome NLRP3 in blood-derived human monocytes, which subsequently secrete IL-1ß, TNFα, IL-18 and IL-6. FHR1 triggers the phospholipase C-pathway via the G-protein coupled receptor EMR2 independent of complement. Moreover, FHR1 concentrations of AAV patients negatively correlate with glomerular filtration rates and associate with the levels of inflammation and progressive disease. These data highlight an unexpected role for FHR1 during sterile inflammation, may explain why FHR1-deficiency protects against certain diseases, and identifies potential targets for treatment of auto-inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/patologia , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Necrose , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Soro/metabolismo , Fosfolipases Tipo C/metabolismo
10.
Life Sci ; 231: 116570, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207307

RESUMO

AIMS: Systemic inflammation is a main hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis of CKD-associated systemic inflammation is unclear. Current study was designed to investigate the relationship between indoxyl sulphate (IS) and CKD-associated systemic inflammation along with the protective effects of Klotho in CKD. METHODS: IS serum levels from patients were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Serum Klotho, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured separately by ELISA and Real-Time PCR analysis. Monocytes were incubated with or without Klotho, while the expressions of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and NF-κB were analyzed through Western blot assay. Heterozygous kl/kl (kl/+) mice or WT mice were treated with 5/6 renal damage. Thereafter, the CKD mice were intraperitoneally injected with recombinant Klotho protein or PBS. KEY FINDINGS: It shows that in 286 CKD patients, the serum levels of inflammatory factors were positively related with IS, but negatively related with Klotho. Klotho significantly inhibited IS-induced RIG-I/NF-κB activation and productions of both IL-6 and TNF-α in cultured monocytes. In vivo, along with the increase of IS and decrease of Klotho in the serum, the activation of RIG-I/NF-κB signaling was observed in peripheral blood monocytes in both CKD mice and patients. Notably, higher levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were detected in kl+/- mice given CKD. Klotho administration has evidently attenuated RIG-I/NF-κB activation in monocytes and systemic inflammation in CKD mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that Klotho can suppress CKD-associated systemic inflammation through inhibiting IS-induced RIG-1/NF-κB activation and monocyte inflammatory factor release.


Assuntos
Proteína DEAD-box 58/sangue , Glucuronidase/farmacologia , Indicã/sangue , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Uremia/sangue , Adulto , Animais , Western Blotting , Feminino , Glucuronidase/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Uremia/patologia
11.
Radiat Res ; 192(2): 121-134, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161966

RESUMO

Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a common delayed effect of acute ionizing radiation exposure (DEARE) affecting diverse tissues including the heart, lungs, liver and skin, leading to reduced tissue function and increased morbidity. Monocytes, which may be classified into classical (CD14++, CD16-), intermediate (CD14++, CD16+) and non-classical (CD14+/low, CD16++) subtypes in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), and monocyte-derived macrophages may play an integral role in the pathogenesis of RIF. We tested the hypothesis that moderate to high levels of total-body exposure to radiation would alter monocyte polarization and produce phenotypes that could promote multi-organ fibrosis in a wellestablished NHP model of DEARE. Subjects were 16 young adult male rhesus macaques, ten of which were exposed to high-energy, 4 Gy X-ray total-body irradiation (TBI) and six that received sham irradiation (control). Total monocytes assessed by complete blood counts were 89% depleted in TBI animals by day 9 postirradiation (P < 0.05), but recovered by day 30 postirradiation and did not differ from control levels thereafter. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and sorted into classical, intermediate and non-classical subsets using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) prior to and at 6 months post-TBI. At 6 months postirradiation, monocyte polarization shifted towards lower classical (92% → 86%) and higher intermediate (7% → 12%) and non-classical monocyte subsets (0.6% → 2%) (all P < 0.05) in TBI animals compared to baseline. No change in monocyte subsets was observed in control animals. Transcriptional profiles in classical and intermediate monocyte subsets were assessed using RNAseq. Classical monocyte gene expression did not change significantly over time or differ cross-sectionally between TBI and control groups. In contrast, significant numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in intermediate monocyte comparisons between the TBI animals and all animals at baseline (304 DEGs), and in the TBI versus control animals at 6 months postirradiation (67 DEGs). Intermediate monocytes also differed between baseline and 6 months in control animals (147 DEGs). Pathway analysis was used to identify genes within significant canonical pathways, yielding 52 DEGs that were specific to irradiated intermediate monocytes. These DEGs and significant canonical pathways were associated with pro-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways that have been noted to induce M2 macrophage polarization. These findings support the hypothesis that TBI may alter monocyte programming and polarization towards a profibrotic phenotype, providing a novel target opportunity for therapies to inhibit or prevent RIF.


Assuntos
Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos da radiação , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos , Animais , Polaridade Celular/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos da radiação
12.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 459(1-2): 151-156, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172369

RESUMO

L-Cysteine (LC) is an essential precursor of GSH biosynthesis. GSH is a major physiological antioxidant, and its depletion increases oxidative stress. Diabetes is associated with lower blood levels of LC and GSH. The mechanisms leading to a decrease in LC in diabetes are not entirely known. This study reports a significant decrease in LC in human monocytes exposed to high glucose (HG) concentrations as well as in the blood of type 2 diabetic rats. Thus, a significant decrease in the level of LC in response to exposure to HG supports the assertion that uncontrolled hyperglycemia contributes to a reduction of blood levels of LC and GSH seen in diabetic patients. Increased requirement of LC to replace GSH needed to scavenge excess ROS generated by hyperglycemia can result in lower levels of LC and GSH. Animal and human studies report that LC supplementation improves GSH biosynthesis and is beneficial in lowering oxidative stress and insulin resistance. This suggests that hyperglycemia has a direct role in the impairment of LC and GSH homeostasis in diabetes.


Assuntos
Cisteína/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Monócitos/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Células U937
13.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(3): 649-656, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243722

RESUMO

Activated monocytes/macrophages that produce a cytokine storm play an important role in the pathogenesis of dengue. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by monocyte/macrophages that is increased during dengue. Ferritin is an acute-phase reactant and expressed by cells of the reticulo-endothelial system in response to infection by dengue virus. The aims of this study were to analyze the simultaneous expression of both IL-18 and ferritins in children infected by diverse serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and determine their association with dengue severity. In this regard, children with dengue (n = 25) and healthy controls with similar age and sex (n = 20) were analyzed for circulating ferritin and cytokines. Monocytes were isolated by Hystopaque gradient and co-cultured with DENV-2. IL-18 and ferritin contents in blood, and IL-18 in culture supernatants were determined by ELISA. Increased levels of ferritin and IL-18 (p < 0.0001) were observed in dengue patients, not associated to NS1expression or type of infection (primary or secondary). Highest values of both molecules (p < 0.001) were observed in dengue with warning signs and severe dengue. Differential effect on IL-18/ferritin production was observed associated to viral serotype infection. There were no correlations between ferritin vs. IL-18 production, ferritin vs. NS1 status, and IL-18 vs. NS1 status. Viral-infected monocyte cultures showed increased production of IL-18 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, increased circulating ferritin and IL-18 are expressed in children infected by different serotypes of DENV associated with dengue severity.


Assuntos
Dengue/sangue , Ferritinas/sangue , Interleucina-18/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/metabolismo , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Monócitos/metabolismo , Sorogrupo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2678, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213601

RESUMO

Myeloid cells contribute to tumor progression, but how the constellation of receptors they express regulates their functions within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is unclear. We demonstrate that Fcmr (Toso), the putative receptor for soluble IgM, modulates myeloid cell responses to cancer. In a syngeneic melanoma model, Fcmr ablation in myeloid cells suppressed tumor growth and extended mouse survival. Fcmr deficiency increased myeloid cell population density in this malignancy and enhanced anti-tumor immunity. Single-cell RNA sequencing of Fcmr-deficient tumor-associated mononuclear phagocytes revealed a unique subset with enhanced antigen processing/presenting properties. Conversely, Fcmr activity negatively regulated the activation and migratory capacity of myeloid cells in vivo, and T cell activation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro. Therapeutic targeting of Fcmr during oncogenesis decreased tumor growth when used as a single agent or in combination with anti-PD-1. Thus, Fcmr regulates myeloid cell activation within the TME and may be a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/mortalidade , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
15.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2097-2102, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243570

RESUMO

Nodal peripheral T cell lymphomas (nPTCL) present aggressive clinical course, and its heterogeneous nature and poor prognosis with current therapeutic strategies make it a target for the development of new prognostic markers. Thus, we investigated tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) according to the number of cells expressing CD68 in biopsies and the absolute monocyte count (AMC) in peripheral blood of 87 patients with nPTCL. The median overall survival (OS) was 3 years (95% CI 1.3-8.4 years) and estimate 5 years OS of 43.3% (95% CI 32.5-53.7%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.5 years (95% CI 0.8-2.6 years) with estimate 5 years PFS of 29.2% (95% CI 19.7-39.3%). The cutoff for AMC was 1.5 × 109/L and the median OS for patients with AMC ≥ 1.5 × 109/L was 0.83 years versus 3.7 years for those with AMC < 1.5 × 109/L (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.03-5.22, p = 0.035). The median PFS for patients with AMC ≥ 1.5 × 109/L was 0.50 years versus 1.5 years for those with AMC < 1.5 × 109/L (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.05-4.78, p = 0.031). CD68 was evaluated in 26/87 (29.8%) patients with a median expression of 34% and positivity cutoff of 43%. CD68 expression was not associated with OS or PFS either with AMC values. Our findings suggest that the AMC of ≥ 1.5 × 109/L at diagnosis in peripheral blood is associated with poor prognosis in nPTCL. Further investigations in a larger cohort are required to better validate our results.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/sangue , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/sangue , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/mortalidade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Immunogenetics ; 71(5-6): 407-420, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037384

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated invariant chain is a chaperone responsible for targeting the MHC class II dimer to the endocytic pathway, thus enabling the loading of exogenous antigens onto the MHC class II receptor. In the current study, in vivo and in vitro methods were used to investigate the regulation of the rainbow trout invariant chain proteins S25-7 and INVX, upon immune system activation. Whole rainbow trout and the macrophage/monocyte-like cell line RTS11 were treated with PMA at concentrations shown to induce IL-1ß transcripts and homotypic aggregation of RTS11. S25-7 transcript levels remained unchanged in the gill, spleen, and liver and were found to be significantly decreased in head kidney beginning 24 h post-stimulation. Meanwhile, INVX transcript levels remained unchanged in all tissues studied. Both S25-7 and INVX proteins were produced in gill and spleen tissues but their expression was unaffected by immune system stimulation. Surprisingly, neither INVX nor S25-7 protein was detected in the secondary immune organ, the head kidney. Analysis of RTS11 cultures demonstrated that both INVX and S25-7 transcript levels significantly increased at 96 h and 120 h following PMA stimulation before returning to control levels at 168 h. Meanwhile, at the protein level in RTS11, S25-7 remained unchanged while INVX had a significant decrease at 168 h post-stimulation. These results indicate that neither INVX nor S25-7 is upregulated upon immune system activation; thus, teleosts have evolved a system of immune regulation that is different than that found in mammals.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Imunomodulação/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunização , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Isoformas de Proteínas , Transcriptoma
17.
Phytother Res ; 33(7): 1805-1814, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094018

RESUMO

A previous report indicated that the flavonoid-rich extract of bergamot juice (BJe) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through the activation of SIRT1 in leukemic monocytes THP-1 exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we deeply investigate the mode of action of BJe, along with its major flavonoids on SIRT1 through cell-free, in silico, and in vitro experimental models. In the cell-free assay, all the tested compounds as well as the whole BJe inhibited the deacetylase activity of SIRT1. This finding was reinforced by the results of the in silico study. In THP-1 cells exposed to LPS, a reduction of SIRT1 activity was observed, effect that was reverted by the pre-incubation with either BJe or its major flavonoids. This effect was also observed at gene level. Employing an activator and an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK; AICAR and dorsomorphin, respectively), we discovered its involvement in the activation of SIRT1 elicited by BJe or its major flavonoids in whole cell. Our study indicates the dual role of BJe and its components, depending on the employed experimental model as well as reveals their mode of action on the AMPK/SIRT1 axis, suggesting their role as promising candidates in pathologies in which this axis is implied.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Citrus , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Células THP-1
18.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(18): 3667-3678, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062071

RESUMO

Cardiolipins (CLs) are tetra-acylated diphosphatidylglycerols found in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals. In healthy mammals, CLs are unsaturated, whereas saturated CLs are found in blood cells from Barth syndrome patients and in some Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we show that unsaturated but not saturated CLs block LPS-induced NF-κB activation, TNF-α and IP-10 secretion in human and murine macrophages, as well as LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1ß release in human blood mononuclear cells. Using HEK293 cells transfected with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its co-receptor Myeloid Differentiation 2 (MD2), we demonstrate that unsaturated CLs compete with LPS for binding TLR4/MD2 preventing its activation, whereas saturated CLs are TLR4/MD2 agonists. As a consequence, saturated CLs induce a pro-inflammatory response in macrophages characterized by TNF-α and IP-10 secretion, and activate the alternative NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in human blood-derived monocytes. Thus, we identify that double bonds discriminate between anti- and pro-inflammatory properties of tetra-acylated molecules, providing a rationale for the development of TLR4 activators and inhibitors for use as vaccine adjuvants or in the treatment of TLR4-related diseases.


Assuntos
Cardiolipinas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ligação Competitiva , Cardiolipinas/química , Cardiolipinas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/genética , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Immunity ; 50(6): 1453-1466.e4, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053503

RESUMO

In lymph nodes, subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) form an immunological barrier that monitors lymph drained from peripheral tissues. Upon infection, SSMs activate B and natural killer T (NKT) cells while secreting inflammatory mediators. Here, we investigated the mechanisms regulating development and homeostasis of SSMs. Embryonic SSMs originated from yolk sac hematopoiesis and were replaced by a postnatal wave of bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes that proliferated to establish the adult SSM network. The SSM network self-maintained by proliferation with minimal BM contribution. Upon pathogen-induced transient deletion, BM-derived cells contributed to restoring the SSM network. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were the main source of CSF-1 within the lymph node and conditional deletion of Csf1 in adult LECs decreased the network of SSMs and medullary sinus macrophages (MSMs). Thus, SSMs have a dual hematopoietic origin, and LECs are essential to the niche supporting these macrophages.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Comunicação Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Hematopoese/genética , Hematopoese/imunologia , Homeostase , Linfonodos/citologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Vasos Linfáticos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Saco Vitelino
20.
Nat Immunol ; 20(6): 687-700, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061528

RESUMO

Most tissue-resident macrophage populations develop during embryogenesis, self-renew in the steady state and expand during type 2 immunity. Whether shared mechanisms regulate the proliferation of macrophages in homeostasis and disease is unclear. Here we found that the transcription factor Bhlhe40 was required in a cell-intrinsic manner for the self-renewal and maintenance of large peritoneal macrophages (LPMs), but not that of other tissue-resident macrophages. Bhlhe40 was necessary for the proliferation, but not the polarization, of LPMs in response to the cytokine IL-4. During infection with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri, Bhlhe40 was required for cell cycling of LPMs. Bhlhe40 repressed the expression of genes encoding the transcription factors c-Maf and Mafb and directly promoted expression of transcripts encoding cell cycle-related proteins to enable the proliferation of LPMs. In LPMs, Bhlhe40 bound to genomic sites co-bound by the macrophage lineage-determining factor PU.1 and to unique sites, including Maf and loci encoding cell-cycle-related proteins. Our findings demonstrate a tissue-specific control mechanism that regulates the proliferation of resident macrophages in homeostasis and type 2 immunity.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/imunologia , Imunidade/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Imunofenotipagem , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Transcriptoma
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