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3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD010216, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are handheld electronic vaping devices which produce an aerosol formed by heating an e-liquid. Some people who smoke use ECs to stop or reduce smoking, but some organizations, advocacy groups and policymakers have discouraged this, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. People who smoke, healthcare providers and regulators want to know if ECs can help people quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. This is an update of a review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of using electronic cigarettes (ECs) to help people who smoke achieve long-term smoking abstinence. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to 1 February 2021, together with reference-checking and contact with study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and randomized cross-over trials in which people who smoke were randomized to an EC or control condition. We also included uncontrolled intervention studies in which all participants received an EC intervention. To be included, studies had to report abstinence from cigarettes at six months or longer and/or data on adverse events (AEs) or other markers of safety at one week or longer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our primary outcome measures were abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up, adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse events (SAEs). Secondary outcomes included changes in carbon monoxide, blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, lung function, and levels of known carcinogens/toxicants. We used a fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. For continuous outcomes, we calculated mean differences. Where appropriate, we pooled data from these studies in meta-analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We included 56 completed studies, representing 12,804 participants, of which 29 were RCTs. Six of the 56 included studies were new to this review update. Of the included studies, we rated five (all contributing to our main comparisons) at low risk of bias overall, 41 at high risk overall (including the 25 non-randomized studies), and the remainder at unclear risk. There was moderate-certainty evidence, limited by imprecision, that quit rates were higher in people randomized to nicotine EC than in those randomized to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (risk ratio (RR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25 to 2.27; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 1498 participants). In absolute terms, this might translate to an additional four successful quitters per 100 (95% CI 2 to 8). There was low-certainty evidence (limited by very serious imprecision) that the rate of occurrence of AEs was similar) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.19; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 485 participants). SAEs occurred rarely, with no evidence that their frequency differed between nicotine EC and NRT, but very serious imprecision led to low certainty in this finding (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.41: I2 = n/a; 2 studies, 727 participants). There was moderate-certainty evidence, again limited by imprecision, that quit rates were higher in people randomized to nicotine EC than to non-nicotine EC (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.81; I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 1057 participants). In absolute terms, this might again lead to an additional four successful quitters per 100 (95% CI 0 to 11). These trials mainly used older EC with relatively low nicotine delivery. There was moderate-certainty evidence of no difference in the rate of AEs between these groups (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.11; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 601 participants). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether rates of SAEs differed between groups, due to very serious imprecision (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.44; I2 = n/a; 4 studies, 494 participants). Compared to behavioral support only/no support, quit rates were higher for participants randomized to nicotine EC (RR 2.70, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.26; I2 = 0%; 5 studies, 2561 participants). In absolute terms this represents an increase of seven per 100 (95% CI 2 to 17). However, this finding was of very low certainty, due to issues with imprecision and risk of bias. There was no evidence that the rate of SAEs differed, but some evidence that non-serious AEs were more common in people randomized to nicotine EC (AEs: RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.32; I2 = 41%, low certainty; 4 studies, 765 participants; SAEs: RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.33 to 4.09; I2 = 5%; 6 studies, 1011 participants, very low certainty). Data from non-randomized studies were consistent with RCT data. The most commonly reported AEs were throat/mouth irritation, headache, cough, and nausea, which tended to dissipate with continued use. Very few studies reported data on other outcomes or comparisons and hence evidence for these is limited, with confidence intervals often encompassing clinically significant harm and benefit. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that ECs with nicotine increase quit rates compared to ECs without nicotine and compared to NRT. Evidence comparing nicotine EC with usual care/no treatment also suggests benefit, but is less certain. More studies are needed to confirm the size of effect, particularly when using modern EC products. Confidence intervals were for the most part wide for data on AEs, SAEs and other safety markers, though evidence indicated no difference in AEs between nicotine and non-nicotine ECs. Overall incidence of SAEs was low across all study arms. We did not detect any clear evidence of harm from nicotine EC, but longest follow-up was two years and the overall number of studies was small. The evidence is limited mainly by imprecision due to the small number of RCTs, often with low event rates. Further RCTs are underway. To ensure the review continues to provide up-to-date information, this review is now a living systematic review. We run searches monthly, with the review updated when relevant new evidence becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the review's current status.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina , Agonistas Nicotínicos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Viés , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Vaping
5.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(1): 89-96, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648038

RESUMO

The New York Bridge and Tunnel Commission began planning for a tunnel beneath the lower Hudson river to connect Manhattan to New Jersey in 1919. At 8,300 feet, it would be the longest tunnel for passenger vehicles in the world. A team of engineers and physiologists at the Yale University Bureau of Mines Experiment Station was tasked with calculating the ventilation requirements that would provide safety from exposure to automobile exhaust carbon monoxide (CO) while balancing the cost of providing ventilation. As the level of ambient CO which was comfortably tolerated was not precisely defined, they performed human exposures breathing from 100 to 1,000 ppm CO, first on themselves and subsequently on Yale medical students. Their findings continue to provide a basis for carbon monoxide alarm requirements a century later.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/prevenção & controle , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/história , Instalações de Transporte/história , Emissões de Veículos/envenenamento , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/história , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , História do Século XX , Humanos , New Jersey , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Valores de Referência , Rios , Ventilação/economia , Ventilação/métodos
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668116

RESUMO

Smoke inhalation poses a serious health threat to firefighters (FFs), with potential effects including respiratory and cardiac disorders. In this work, environmental and physiological data were collected from FFs, during experimental fires performed in 2015 and 2019. Extending a previous work, which allowed us to conclude that changes in heart rate (HR) were associated with alterations in the inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO), we performed a HR analysis according to different levels of CO exposure during firefighting based on data collected from three FFs. Based on HR collected and on CO occupational exposure standards (OES), we propose a classifier to identify CO exposure levels through the HR measured values. An ensemble of 100 bagged classification trees was used and the classification of CO levels obtained an overall accuracy of 91.9%. The classification can be performed in real-time and can be embedded in a decision fire-fighting support system. This classification of FF' exposure to critical CO levels, through minimally-invasive monitored HR, opens the possibility to identify hazardous situations, preventing and avoiding possible severe problems in FF' health due to inhaled pollutants. The obtained results also show the importance of future studies on the relevance and influence of the exposure and inhalation of pollutants on the FF' health, especially in what refers to hazardous levels of toxic air pollutants.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Bombeiros , Frequência Cardíaca , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Incêndios , Humanos , Fumaça/análise
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4532-4541, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788543

RESUMO

Nitrogen oxides (NOX) and methane impact air quality through the promotion of ozone formation, and methane is also a strong greenhouse gas. Despite the importance of these pollutants, emissions in urban areas are poorly quantified. We present measurements of NOX, CH4, CO, and CO2 made at Drexel University in Philadelphia along with NOX and CO observations at two roadside monitors. Because CO2 concentrations in the winter result almost entirely from combustion with negligible influence from photosynthesis and respiration, we are able to infer fleet-averaged fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for NOX and CO, similar in some ways to how EFs are determined from tunnel studies. Comparison of the inferred NOX and CO fuel-based EF to the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) suggests errors in NEI emissions of either NOX, CO, or both. From the measurements of CH4 and CO2, which are not emitted by the same sources, we infer the ratio of CH4 emissions (from leaks in the natural gas infrastructure) to CO2 emissions (from fossil fuel combustion) in Philadelphia. Comparison of the CH4/CO2 emission ratios to emission inventories from the Environmental Protection Agency suggests underestimates in CH4 emissions by almost a factor of 4. These results demonstrate the need for the addition of long-term observations of CH4 and CO2 to existing monitoring networks in urban areas to better constrain emissions and complement existing measurements of NOX and CO.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monóxido de Carbono , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metano/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Philadelphia
8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108570, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly used to biochemically verify smoking status. The CO cutoff and CO monitor brand may affect the probability of classifying smokers as abstinent, thus influencing conclusions about the efficacy of cessation trials. No systematic reviews have tested this hypothesis. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis examining whether the likelihood of smoking cessation classification varied due to CO cutoff and monitor brand. METHODS: Eligible studies (k = 122) longitudinally assessed CO-verified cessation in adult smokers in randomized trials. Primary meta-regressions separately assessed differences in quit classification likelihood due to continuous and categorical CO cutoffs (Low, 3-4 parts per million [ppm]; [SRNT] Recommended, 5-6 ppm; Moderate, 7-8 ppm; and High, 9-10 ppm); exploratory analyses compared likelihood outcomes between monitor brands: Bedfont and Vitalograph. RESULTS: The likelihood of quit classification increased 18% with each 1 ppm increase above the lowest cutoff (3 ppm). Odds of classification as quit significantly increased between each cutoff category and High: 261% increase from Low; 162% increase from Recommended; and 150% increase from Moderate. There were no differences in cessation classification between monitor brands. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, higher CO cutoffs were associated with greater likelihood of cessation classification. The lack of CO monitor brand differences may have been due to model-level variance not able to be followed up in the present dataset. Researchers are advised to report outcomes using a range of cutoffs-including the recommended range (5-6 ppm)-and the CO monitor brand/model used. Using higher CO cutoffs significantly increases likelihood of quit classification, possibly artificially elevating treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade , Fumantes , Fumar/terapia
9.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557262

RESUMO

The toxic gas carbon monoxide (CO) is fatal to human beings and it is hard to detect because of its colorless and odorless properties. Fortunately, the high surface-to-volume ratio of the gas makes two-dimensional (2D) materials good candidates for gas sensing. This article investigates CO sensing efficiency with a two-dimensional monolayer of gallium selenide (GaSe) via the vacancy defect and strain effect. According to the computational results, defective GaSe structures with a Se vacancy have a better performance in CO sensing than pristine ones. Moreover, the adsorption energy gradually increases with the scale of tensile strain in defective structures. The largest adsorption energy reached -1.5 eV and the largest charger transfer was about -0.77 e. Additionally, the CO gas molecule was deeply dragged into the GaSe surface. We conclude that the vacancy defect and strain effect transfer GaSe to a relatively unstable state and, therefore, enhance CO sensitivity. The adsorption rate can be controlled by adjusting the strain scale. This significant discovery makes the monolayer form of GaSe a promising candidate in CO sensing. Furthermore, it reveals the possibility of the application of CO adsorption, transportation, and releasement.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Gálio/química , Selênio/química , Adsorção , Monóxido de Carbono/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477714

RESUMO

Generally, larger cities are characterized by traffic congestion, which is associated with higher concentrations of pollution, including Carbon Monoxide (CO) pollution. However, this convention requires empirical support on the basis of accurate and reliable measurements. In addition, the assessment of the effect of CO on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), has yielded conflicting results. A majority of the (few) studies on the topic have shown that increases in CO concentration of up to about 10 parts per million (ppm) are associated with a decrease in stress and risk to health in subjects. Beyond the hypothesis postulating city size as a determinant of increased CO concentration, the hypothesis proposing a causal link between CO concentration and HRV balance also requires empirical support. This article compares CO concentrations in a large metropolis with those in a small town, analyzing the relationship between CO and the HRV responses of young women in terms of city size. Four different types of environments were compared, taking into account mediating variables. The study participants spent 35 min in selected environments (a city center, a residential environment, a park, and a home) wearing Polar devices to measure HRV, and portable devices to measure noise thermal load and CO. The average concentrations of CO in each environment were calculated, along with the time distribution of the CO concentration, and the regression slopes between the concentrations of CO and the ANS balance, as measured by the low frequency power/high frequency power ratio (LF/HF) expressed as an HRV index. The results show that, regardless of size, the cities measured were all characterized by low levels of CO, far below the maximal accepted threshold standards, and that urban residents were exposed to these concentrations for less than half of the daytime hours. Furthermore, in contrast to the common view, larger cities do not necessarily accumulate higher concentrations of CO compared to small cities, regardless of the level of transport congestion. This study confirms the findings of the majority of the other studies on the subject, which showed a decrease in stress (as measured by HRV) as a result of an increase in CO concentrations below 7 ppm. Finally, following the assessment of the differential contribution attributed to the different environmental factors, it appears that noise, thermal load, and congestion all contribute more to a higher level of HRV balance than CO. This finding highlights the importance of a multivariable approach to the study, and a remediation of the effect of environmental factors on stress in urban environments.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono , Ruído , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Cidades , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
11.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(2): 302-310, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448269

RESUMO

Drivers and passengers are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants while driving. While there are many studies to assess exposure to air pollutants penetrating into a vehicle cabin, little is known about how individual gas pollutants are behaving (e.g. accumulating, depositing, reacting etc.) in the cabin. This study investigated the characteristic behavior of CO, NO, NO2 and O3 in a vehicle cabin in the presence of a driver with static, pseudo dynamic and dynamic tests. We found in our experiments that CO and NO concentrations increased while O3 and NO2 concentrations decreased rapidly when cabin air was recirculated. A kinetic model, which contains 20 chemical reactions, could predict the static test results well. CO and NO accumulations in the cabin were due to exhalation from the driver and conversion of NO2 to NO upon deposition to surfaces may also play a role. Pseudo dynamic and dynamic test results showed similar results. During the fresh air mode CO, NO, and NO2 followed similar trends between the inside and outside of the cabin, while in cabin O3 concentrations were lower compared to outside concentrations due to reactions with the human and surface deposition. The Cabin Air Quality Index approached 0.8 and 0.4 for O3 during pseudo dynamic and dynamic tests, respectively. Accumulation of NO in the cabin was not obvious during the dynamic test due to a large variation of outside NO concentrations. We encourage auto manufacturers to develop control algorithms and devices to reduce a passenger's exposure to gaseous pollutants in vehicle cabins.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise
12.
J Environ Manage ; 282: 111917, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453625

RESUMO

This study investigated the engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel blends with combined Graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GNPs) and 10% v/v dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as fuel additives as well as analysed the tribological characteristics of those blends. 10% by volume DMC was mixed with 30% palm oil biodiesel blends with diesel. Three different concentrations (40, 80 and 120 ppm) of GNPs were added to these blends via the ultrasonication process to prepare the nanofuels. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactant was added to improve the stability of these blends. GNPs were characterised using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), while the viscosity of nanofuels was investigated by rheometer. UV-spectrometry was used to determine the stability of these nanoplatelets. A ratio of 1:4 GNP: SDS was found to produce maximum stability in biodiesel. Performance and emissions characteristics of these nanofuels have been investigated in a four-stroke compression ignition engine. The maximum reduction in BSFC of 5.05% and the maximum BTE of 22.80% was for B30GNP40DMC10 compared to all other tested blends. A reduction in HC (25%) and CO (4.41%) were observed for B30DMC10, while a reduction in NOx of 3.65% was observed for B30GNP40DMC10. The diesel-biodiesel fuel blends with the addition of GNP exhibited a promising reduction in the average coefficient of friction 15.05%, 8.68% and 3.61% for 120, 80 and 40 ppm concentrations compared to B30. Thus, combined GNP and DMC showed excellent potential for utilisation in diesel engine operation.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Emissões de Veículos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Formiatos , Gasolina , Grafite
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111884, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421716

RESUMO

Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) has been linked with mortality and morbidity. Little evidence is available regarding the relation between CO and years of life lost (YLL). Using data from 48 major cities in China from 2013 to 2017, we applied generalized additive models and random effects meta-analyses to explore the effects of CO on YLL from various diseases. Stratified analyses and meta-regression were performed to estimate potential effect modifications of demographic factors, regions, meteorological factors, co-pollutants, urbanization rate, economic level and health service level. Additional life gains due to avoidable YLL under certain scenario were also evaluated. Results indicated that a 1-mg/m³ increase of CO concentrations (lagged over 0-3 d), was associated with 2.08% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35%, 2.80%), 2.35% (95% CI: 1.39%, 3.30%), 1.47% (95% CI: -0.01%, 2.93%), 2.28% (95% CI: 1.09%, 3.47%), 2.42% (95% CI: 1.31%, 3.54%), 2.09% (95% CI: 0.47%, 3.72%) increments in daily YLL from non-accidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, coronary heart disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respectively. These associations were robust to the adjustment of co-pollutants and varied substantially by geography and demographic characteristics. Associations were stronger in the elder people (≥65 years), females, population with low education attainment, and lived in south region, than younger people, males, high educated populations and those lived in north region. Moreover, the harmful impact of increasing CO concentration could be attenuated by city-level characteristics, including the growth of urbanization rate, gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, number of hospital beds, doctors and hospitals. Finally, an estimated life of 0.081 (95% CI: -0.027, 0.190) years would be gained per deceased people if CO concentration could fall to 1 mg/m3. In conclusions, this nationwide analysis showed significant associations between short-term CO exposure and cause-specific YLL. The heterogeneity of both individual- and city-level characteristics should be considered for relevant intervention. These findings may have significant public health implications for the reduction of CO-attributed disease burden in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111590, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396113

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess possible effect of air quality improvements, we investigated the temporal change in hospital admissions for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) associated with pollutant concentrations. METHODS: We collected daily concentrations of particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5, PM10 and PMcoarse), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and admissions for AECOPD for 21 cities in Guangdong from 2013 to 2017. We examined the association of air pollution with AECOPD admissions using two-stage time-series analysis, and estimated the annual attributable fractions, numbers, and direct hospitalization costs of AECOPD admissions with principal component analysis. RESULTS: From 2013-2017, mean daily concentrations of SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 declined by nearly 40%, 30%, and 26% respectively. As the average daily 8 h O3 concentration increased considerably, the number of days exceeding WHO target (i.e.,100 µg/m³) increased from 103 in 2015-152 in 2017. For each interquartile range increase in pollutant concentration, the relative risks of AECOPD admission at lag 0-3 were 1.093 (95% CI 1.06-1.13) for PM2.5, 1.092 (95% CI 1.08-1.11) for O3, and 1.092 (95% CI 1.05-1.14) for SO2. Attributable fractions of AECOPD admission advanced by air pollution declined from 9.5% in 2013 to 4.9% in 2016, then increased to 6.0% in 2017. A similar declining trend was observed for direct AECOPD hospitalization costs. CONCLUSION: Declined attributable hospital admissions for AECOPD may be associated with the reduction in concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 in Guangdong, while O3 has emerged as an important risk factor. Summarizes the main finding of the work: Reduction in PM may result in declined attributable hospitalizations for AECOPD, while O3 has emerged as an important risk factor following an intervention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Hospitais , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143948, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321340

RESUMO

Various regions of California have experienced a large number of wildfires this year, at the same time the state has been experiencing a large number of cases of and deaths from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of wildfire allied pollutants, including particulate matter (PM-2.5 µm), carbon monoxide (CO), and Ozone (O3) with the dynamics of new daily cases and deaths due to SARS-COV 2 infection in 10 counties, which were affected by wildfire in California. The data on COVID-19 pertaining to daily new cases and deaths was recorded from Worldometer Web. The daily PM-2.5 µm, CO, and O3 concentrations were recorded from three metrological websites: BAAQMD- Air Quality Data; California Air Quality Index-AQI; and Environmental Protection Agency- EPA. The data recorded from the date of the appearance of first case of (SARS-CoV-2) in California region to the onset of wildfire, and from the onset of wildfire to September 22, 2020. After the wildfire, the PM2.5 concentration increased by 220.71%; O3 by 19.56%; and the CO concentration increased by 151.05%. After the wildfire, the numbers of cases and deaths due to COVID-19 both increased respectively by 56.9% and 148.2%. The California wildfire caused an increase in ambient concentrations of toxic pollutants which were temporally associated with an increase in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Humanos , Incidência , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
16.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(4): 478-491, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association between six air pollutants and COVID-19 infection in two main clusters, which accounted for 83% of total confirmed cases in Korea. METHODS: We collected the data on daily confirmed cases between February 24, 2020 and September 12, 2020. Data on six air pollutants (PM2.5 , PM10 , O3 , NO2 , CO and SO2 ) and four meteorological factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity and air pressure) were obtained on seven days prior to the research period. The generalised additive model and the distributed lag nonlinear model were applied to generate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations. Pooled estimates for clusters were obtained by applying a random-effects model. RESULTS: We found that NO2 concentration was positively associated with daily confirmed cases in both Seoul-Gyeonggi and Daegu-Gyeongbuk clusters, with RRs (95% CIs) of 1.22 (1.03-1.44) and 1.66 (1.25-2.19), respectively. However, SO2 concentration was observed to be associated with daily confirmed cases in the Seoul-Gyeonggi cluster only (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.54), whereas PM2.5 and CO concentrations were observed to be associated with daily confirmed cases in the Daegu-Gyeongbuk cluster only (RR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02-1.27 and RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.15-1.48, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our data found that NO2 concentration was positively associated with daily confirmed cases in both clusters, whereas the effect of PM2.5 , CO and SO2 on COVID-19 infection in two clusters was different.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , /transmissão , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
17.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 047105, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021205

RESUMO

The influence of breath sampling on exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and related pulmonary gas exchange parameters is investigated in a study with 32 healthy non-smokers. Mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and well-controlled online sampling is used to precisely measure mouth- and nose-exhaled CO expirograms at exhalation flow rates (EFRs) of 250, 120 and 60 ml s-1, and for 10 s of breath-holding followed by exhalation at 120 ml s-1. A trumpet model with axial diffusion is employed to fit simulated exhalation profiles to the experimental expirograms, which provides equilibrium airway and alveolar CO concentrations and the average lung diffusing capacity in addition to end-tidal concentrations. For all breathing maneuvers, excellent agreement is found between mouth- and nose-exhaled end-tidal CO (ETCO), and the individual values for ETCO and alveolar diffusing capacity are consistent across maneuvers. The eCO parameters clearly show a dependence on EFR, where the lung diffusing capacity increases with EFR, while ETCO slightly decreases. End-tidal CO is largely independent of ambient air CO and alveolar diffusing capacity. While airway CO is slightly higher than, and correlates strongly with, ambient air CO, and there is a weak correlation with ETCO, the results point to negligible endogenous airway CO production in healthy subjects. An EFR of around 120 ml s-1 can be recommended for clinical eCO measurements. The employed method provides means to measure variations in endogenous CO, which can improve the interpretation of exhaled CO concentrations and the diagnostic value of eCO tests in clinical studies. Clinical trial registration number: 2017/306-31.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Expiração , Manejo de Espécimes , Adulto , Feminino , Heme/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Boca , Nariz , Reologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 140915, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745847

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests air pollutants may harm the central nervous system, potentially impacting mental health. However, such impacts of air pollutants on mental health and the sub-populations most affected remain poorly understood, especially in California. We examined the relationship between short-term ambient carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and mental health-related emergency department (ED) visits in California from 2005 to 2013. Daily mean concentrations of the pollutants were acquired from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System Data Mart ground monitoring data. Moving averages of pollutant concentrations were linked to counts of ED visits obtained from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. Seven mental health outcomes, defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, were studied: all mental disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, homicide/inflicted injury, and suicide/self-harm. Monitor-level associations were estimated with quasi-Poisson regression models and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. CO and NO2 were found to be positively associated with ED visits due to homicide/inflicted injury, with the warm season (May-October) driving the CO association. An interquartile range (IQR) (0.28 ppm) increase in two-day average CO during the warm season was associated with a 3.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 4.84) elevation in risk of an ED visit due to homicide/inflicted injury (n = 122,749 ED visits). An IQR (10.79 ppb) increase in two-day average NO2 was associated with a 2.60% (95% CI: 1.17, 4.05) elevation in risk of an ED visit due to homicide/inflicted injury (n = 206,919 ED visits). Subgroup analyses indicated children, Hispanics, and males were particularly vulnerable. Except for an inverse relationship between NO2 and substance abuse, neither pollutant was robustly associated with visits due to other mental health morbidities. Our results suggest short-term elevations in CO and NO2 may promote violent behavior. Further investigation in other populations and ranges of air pollution exposure is warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Óxido Nítrico , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estados Unidos
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110923, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800210

RESUMO

Many studies have reported that exposure to ambient air pollution has adverse effects on health. However, there are little researches to explore the relationship between ambient air pollution and chronic sinusitis (CS). From January 1 2015 to December 31 2018, a time-series study were carried out to investigate the acute adverse roles of six criteria ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], inhalable particulate matter [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide [SO2], ozone [O3], and carbon monoxide [CO]) in hospital outpatients with CS in Xinxiang, China. Then, an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was utilized to analyzed the relationships. In total, 183,943 hospital outpatient cases of CS were identified during the study period. We found that a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO corresponded to 0.48% (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.74%), 0.33% (0.16-0.50%), 0.88% (0.13-1.62%), 1.98% (1.31-2.64%), and 0.05% (0.03-0.07%) increments, respectively, in CS outpatients on the current day. The young group (<15 years of age) was more susceptible than the adult or elderly groups. These results suggested that outdoor air pollutants might increase CS outpatient, especially among youth in Xinxiang. Precautions and protective measures should be strengthened to reduce the air pollution level in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Sinusite/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111035, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768746

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, with 11,669,259 positive cases and 539,906 deaths globally as of July 8, 2020. The objective of the present study was to determine whether meteorological parameters and air quality affect the transmission of COVID-19, analogous to SARS. We captured data from 29 provinces, including numbers of COVID-19 cases, meteorological parameters, air quality and population flow data, between Jan 21, 2020 and Apr 3, 2020. To evaluate the transmissibility of COVID-19, the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was calculated with the maximum likelihood "removal" method, which is based on chain-binomial model, and the association between COVID-19 and air pollutants or meteorological parameters was estimated by correlation analyses. The mean estimated value of R0 was 1.79 ± 0.31 in 29 provinces, ranging from 1.08 to 2.45. The correlation between R0 and the mean relative humidity was positive, with coefficient of 0.370. In provinces with high flow, indicators such as carbon monoxide (CO) and 24-h average concentration of carbon monoxide (CO_24 h) were positively correlated with R0, while nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 24-h average concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2_24 h) and daily maximum temperature were inversely correlated to R0, with coefficients of 0.644, 0.661, -0.636, -0.657, -0.645, respectively. In provinces with medium flow, only the weather factors were correlated with R0, including mean/maximum/minimum air pressure and mean wind speed, with coefficients of -0.697, -0.697, -0.697 and -0.841, respectively. There was no correlation with R0 and meteorological parameters or air pollutants in provinces with low flow. Our findings suggest that higher ambient CO concentration is a risk factor for increased transmissibility of the novel coronavirus, while higher temperature and air pressure, and efficient ventilation reduce its transmissibility. The effect of meteorological parameters and air pollutants varies in different regions, and requires that these issues be considered in future modeling disease transmissibility.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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