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1.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412605

RESUMO

Most intoxications caused by inhalation are due to carbon monoxide (CO). Usually the reasons are fires in buildings from which people cannot escape quickly enough, open fire places or carbon monoxide emissions from combustion plants. In Germany, there are more than 4000 intoxications and over 600 fatalities resulting from CO poisining every year. Although there is a general awareness of the risks associated with CO, the specific risks and especially methods of protection are not sufficiently known.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono , Fogo , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Gases , Alemanha , Humanos
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111884, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421716

RESUMO

Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) has been linked with mortality and morbidity. Little evidence is available regarding the relation between CO and years of life lost (YLL). Using data from 48 major cities in China from 2013 to 2017, we applied generalized additive models and random effects meta-analyses to explore the effects of CO on YLL from various diseases. Stratified analyses and meta-regression were performed to estimate potential effect modifications of demographic factors, regions, meteorological factors, co-pollutants, urbanization rate, economic level and health service level. Additional life gains due to avoidable YLL under certain scenario were also evaluated. Results indicated that a 1-mg/m³ increase of CO concentrations (lagged over 0-3 d), was associated with 2.08% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35%, 2.80%), 2.35% (95% CI: 1.39%, 3.30%), 1.47% (95% CI: -0.01%, 2.93%), 2.28% (95% CI: 1.09%, 3.47%), 2.42% (95% CI: 1.31%, 3.54%), 2.09% (95% CI: 0.47%, 3.72%) increments in daily YLL from non-accidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, coronary heart disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respectively. These associations were robust to the adjustment of co-pollutants and varied substantially by geography and demographic characteristics. Associations were stronger in the elder people (≥65 years), females, population with low education attainment, and lived in south region, than younger people, males, high educated populations and those lived in north region. Moreover, the harmful impact of increasing CO concentration could be attenuated by city-level characteristics, including the growth of urbanization rate, gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, number of hospital beds, doctors and hospitals. Finally, an estimated life of 0.081 (95% CI: -0.027, 0.190) years would be gained per deceased people if CO concentration could fall to 1 mg/m3. In conclusions, this nationwide analysis showed significant associations between short-term CO exposure and cause-specific YLL. The heterogeneity of both individual- and city-level characteristics should be considered for relevant intervention. These findings may have significant public health implications for the reduction of CO-attributed disease burden in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 278-282, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although COVID-19 is known to be caused by human-to-human transmission, it remains largely unclear whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological parameters could promote its transmission. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to study whether air quality index (AQI), four ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO) and five meteorological variables (daily temperature, highest temperature, lowest temperature, temperature difference and sunshine duration) could increase COVID-19 incidence in Wuhan and XiaoGan between Jan 26th to Feb 29th in 2020. RESULTS: First, a significant correlation was found between COVID-19 incidence and AQI in both Wuhan (R2=0.13, p<0.05) and XiaoGan (R2=0.223, p<0.01). Specifically, among four pollutants, COVID-19 incidence was prominently correlated with PM2.5 and NO2 in both cities. In Wuhan, the tightest correlation was observed between NO2 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.329, p<0.01). In XiaoGan, in addition to the PM2.5 (R2=0.117, p<0.01) and NO2 (R2=0.015, p<0.05), a notable correlation was also observed between the PM10 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.105, p<0.05). Moreover, temperature is the only meteorological parameter that constantly correlated well with COVID-19 incidence in both Wuhan and XiaoGan, but in an inverse correlation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AQI, PM2.5, NO2, and temperature are four variables that could promote the sustained transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Betacoronavirus , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079287

RESUMO

To assist interpretation of a study in rural Pakistan on the use of biomass for cooking and the risk of coronary heart disease, we continuously monitored airborne concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) for up to 48 h in the kitchens of households randomly selected from the parent study. Satisfactory data on PM2.5 and CO respectively were obtained for 16 and 17 households using biomass, and 19 and 17 using natural gas. Linear regression analysis indicated that in comparison with kitchens using natural gas, daily average PM2.5 concentrations were substantially higher in kitchens that used biomass in either a chimney stove (mean difference 611, 95% CI: 359, 863 µg/m3) or traditional three-stone stove (mean difference 389, 95% CI: 231, 548 µg/m3). Daily average concentrations of CO were significantly increased when biomass was used in a traditional stove (mean difference from natural gas 3.7, 95% CI: 0.8, 6.7 ppm), but not when it was used in a chimney stove (mean difference -0.8, 95% CI: -4.8, 3.2 ppm). Any impact of smoking by household members was smaller than that of using biomass, and not clearly discernible. In the population studied, cooking with biomass as compared with natural gas should serve as a good proxy for higher personal exposure to PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biomassa , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Gás Natural , Material Particulado/análise , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Paquistão , População Rural
5.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 111: 104582, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953227

RESUMO

The ISO standard 13571 estimates the time to the compromised tenability of people in enclosed fires. This is understood as the time which must be available for the structural design to pass an evacuation, or an escape paradigm for the evacuation of burning buildings. As with all emergency response planning values, such once-in-a-lifetime events cannot readily be validated side-by-side. Consequently, risk assessors must refer to animal-based reference data fitting the scenario of concern closely. The analysis detailed in this paper used the concentration × time (Cxt)-matrix of point of departures (PODs) from rats acutely exposed to carbon monoxide (CO), which is amongst the most abundant toxic fire gases. The objective of the analysis was to clarify whether the time- and effect-adjusted nonlethal threshold concentration LCt01 × 1/3 from acute rat inhalation studies is suited to model thresholds characterizing any 'impairment of escape' in humans. Modeled outcomes are compared with published reference data from human volunteers exposed at the similar C × t's of CO at 800 ppm × 1-h and 100 ppm × 8-h. These exposure durations match the maximum escape duration of 1-h considered in the ISO standard 13571 and standards enforcing occupational exposure limits of 8-h duration. The reference PODs indicative of 'impairment of escape' in healthy adults relied on C × t's below those eliciting any loss of motor function or psychoneurological functions. The comparison of the LCt01 × 1/3 based modeled outcomes from rats match favorably with the effect-based PODs from humans. Consistent with published evidence from humans, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) saturation-a biomarker of exposure rather than of effect-failed to reliably predict effect-based outcomes. Unlike the LCt01 × 1/3 threshold approach, the COHb-based median approach used by ISO TS 13571 is inconsistent with human evidence and both over- and under-estimates the CO-related potency for causing incapacitation at non-toxic and critically-toxic C × 's, respectively. In summary, it seems timely that the ISO TS 13571 standard pays attention to scientific progress in relevant toxicity information and refinements to scientific methods shown to adequately predict human risks.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carboxihemoglobina/efeitos adversos , Fogo , Algoritmos , Animais , Monóxido de Carbono/normas , Carboxihemoglobina/normas , Humanos , Papio , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 35(1): 79-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149758

RESUMO

This study aims to examine the correlations between air pollution and dynamic stroke mortality, which is defined as the daily real-time number of deaths from stroke. Death data were obtained from daily medical records of 7230 incidents from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the Longquanyi District of China from 2016 to 2017. Air pollution data were obtained from environmental monitoring stations in the Longquanyi District. Time series analysis using generalized additive Poisson regression models was applied, and single-pollutant and two-pollutant adjusted models were utilized. Furthermore, categories based on gender, age, and meteorological factors were considered in the analysis. The results indicated that PM2.5, PM10, O3 , and CO had significant effects on dynamic stroke mortality, which were stronger for older people and during the cold season. This study helps hospital managers, patients, and governments seeking to prevent and control the effects of air pollution on the risks of stroke.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(2): 280-287, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relative to non-waterpipe (WP) smokers, WP smokers are more than twice as likely to use alcohol and frequently consume alcohol before or during smoking sessions. Co-use of alcohol and WP may result in greater toxicant exposure compared to WP smoking alone. To date, no study systematically has investigated the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on WP smoking topography, exposure to tobacco-related toxicants, or abuse liability. METHODS: Dyads of current WP smokers and drinkers (N = 42; age = 21-32 years) completed two in-laboratory ad libitum smoking sessions (≤2 hours) following 12-hour nicotine abstinence in a double-blind, randomized crossover design in which they consumed a placebo versus active drink (sustained breath alcohol concentration = .08). Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and plasma nicotine concentration were assessed. Questionnaires assessed smoking experience and smoking urge. Smoking topography was measured continuously throughout each smoking session. RESULTS: The alcohol session was associated with increased inhaled volume, flow rate, and WP session duration compared to placebo. Compared to placebo, participants reported a more positive overall smoking experience following the alcohol session and greater smoking urges pre- and post-smoking session. Although both sessions resulted in significant increases in eCO and plasma nicotine, no significant differences emerged in eCO or nicotine exposure between the active and placebo sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Co-use of alcohol and WP may contribute to the maintenance of WP smoking through enhanced smoking experiences, increased urge to smoke, and significant exposure to addictive nicotine. Regulations may be necessary to limit the sale of alcohol in WP smoking lounges and reduce exposure to secondhand smoke. IMPLICATIONS: The findings suggest co-use of alcohol and WP tobacco likely maintain WP use and dependence by enhancing the smoking experience and increasing urges to smoke. These findings have implications for regulations aimed at limiting co-use of alcohol and WP tobacco in WP lounges and limiting exposure to secondhand smoke. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03096860.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Nicotina/sangue , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/sangue , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1366, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported the impact of air pollution on cardiovascular disease (CVD), but few of these studies were conducted in severe haze-fog areas. The present study focuses on the impact of different air pollutant concentrations on daily CVD outpatient visits in a severe haze-fog city. METHODS: Data regarding daily air pollutants and outpatient visits for CVD in 2013 were collected, and the association between six pollutants and CVD outpatient visits was explored using the least squares mean (LSmeans) and logistic regression. Adjustments were made for days of the week, months, air temperature and relative humidity. RESULTS: The daily CVD outpatient visits for particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) in the 90th-quantile group were increased by 30.01, 29.42, 17.68, 14.98, 29.34%, and - 19.87%, respectively, compared to those in the <10th-quantile group. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the increase in daily CVD outpatient visits in PM10 300- and 500-µg/m3, PM2.5 100- and 300-µg/m3 and CO 3-mg/m3 groups were 2.538 (1.070-6.020), 7.781 (1.681-36.024), 3.298 (1.559-6.976), 8.72 (1.523-49.934), and 5.808 (1.016-33.217), respectively, and their corresponding attributable risk percentages (AR%) were 60.6, 87.15, 69.68, 88.53 and 82.78%, respectively. The strongest associations for PM10, PM2.5 and CO were found only in lag 0 and lag 1. The ORs for the increase in CVD outpatient visits per increase in different units of the six pollutants were also analysed. CONCLUSIONS: All five air pollutants except O3 were positively associated with the increase in daily CVD outpatient visits in lag 0. The high concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and CO heightened not only the percentage but also the risk of increased daily CVD outpatient visits. PM10, PM2.5 and CO may be the main factors of CVD outpatient visits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547235

RESUMO

Since the 2000s, air pollution has generally continued to decrease in the U.S. To investigate preterm birth (PTB) risk associated with air pollutants in two consecutive pregnancies, we estimated exposures using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models linked to the NICHD Consecutive Pregnancy Study. Electronic medical records for delivery admissions were available for 50,005 women with singleton births in 20 Utah-based hospitals between 2002-2010. We categorized whole pregnancy average exposures as high (>75th percentile), moderate (25-75) and low (<25). Modified Poisson regression estimated second pregnancy PTB risk associated with persistent high and moderate exposure, and increasing or decreasing exposure, compared to persistent low exposure. Analyses were adjusted for prior PTB, interpregnancy interval and demographic and clinical characteristics. Second pregnancy PTB risk was increased when exposure stayed high for sulfur dioxide (32%), ozone (17%), nitrogen oxides (24%), nitrogen dioxide (43%), carbon monoxide (31%) and for particles < 10 microns (29%) versus consistently low exposure. PTB risk tended to increase to a lesser extent for repeated PTB (19-21%) than for women without a prior PTB (22-79%) when exposure increased or stayed high. Area-level changes in air pollution exposure appear to have important consequences in consecutive pregnancies with increasing exposure associated with higher risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Utah
10.
J Perinat Med ; 47(7): 780-784, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421045

RESUMO

Background Smoking during pregnancy still exists in daily life but the effect on the newborn in the early stage of life is still unclear. This study investigates the normal reference range of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in umbilical cord blood gas (UBG). Methods A single center retrospective cross-sectional cohort study was performed with 1172 cases. We analyzed HbCO values in umbilical cord blood, maternal smoking, birth weight percentiles, duration of amenorrhea and maternal admission duration prior to delivery. Results HbCO levels in newborns range from 0 to 7.7% with a mean of 0.6% (standard deviation 0.6). Newborns from women who smoked during pregnancy have a significant higher HbCO value compared to newborns from women who did not smoke. Birth weight is negatively correlated with HbCO (P = 0.001). Conclusion Our results show the normal reference range in this study is 0-1.2% for HbCO in the umbilical blood of newborns. Smoking prior to delivery leads to a higher HbCO value in the UBG sample of the newborn, a lower birth weight and may be potential harmful.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Sangue Fetal/química , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/sangue , Gestantes/psicologia , Fumar , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia
11.
Physiol Rep ; 7(13): e14149, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264386

RESUMO

A decreased lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is considered to reflect losses of alveolar membrane diffusive conductance for CO (DMCO ), due to interstitial lung disease, and/or pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC ), due to vasculopathy. However, standard DLCO does not allow separate DMCO from VC . Lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO ) is considered to be more sensitive to decrement of alveolar membrane diffusive conductance than DLCO . Standard DLCO and DLNO were compared in 96 SSc subjects with or without lung restriction. Data showed that DLNO was reduced in 22% of subjects with normal lung volumes and DLCO , whereas DLCO was normal in 30% of those with decreased DLNO . In 30 subjects with available computed tomography of the chest, both DLCO and DLNO were negatively correlated with the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. However, DLNO but not DLCO was always reduced in subjects with ≥ 5% fibrosis, and also decreased in some subjects with < 5% fibrosis. DMCO and VC partitioning and Doppler ultrasound-determined systolic pulmonary artery pressure could not explain individual differences in DLCO and DLNO . DLNO may be of clinical value in SSc because it is more sensitive to DMCO loss than standard DLCO , even in nonrestricted subjects without fibrosis, whereas DLCO partitioning into its subcomponents does not provide information on whether diffusion limitation is primarily due to vascular or interstitial lung disease in individual subjects. Moreover, decreased DLCO in the absence of lung restriction does not allow to suspect pulmonary arterial hypertension without fibrosis.


Assuntos
Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar/métodos , Fibrose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nítrico/efeitos adversos , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 1: S76-S81, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) accounts for a large number of emergency department visits worldwide and is fatal in many cases. In surviving patients, neurological sequelae (NS) attributable to cerebral hypoxia are the most devastating outcome, but reliable predictors are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to identify predictors of NS in patients with COP and evaluate their effects. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, we identified patients with COP in a medical center in Southern Taiwan between January 2005 and December 2014. Cases were patients with NS, and controls were patients without NS. We obtained information on potential predictors of NS from medical records and evaluated their association with NS, including demographic characteristics, exposure source, suicide attempts, duration of exposure (by tertile), histories, symptoms, signs, laboratory data, treatment, and the length of hospital stay. RESULTS: We included 371 patients with COP. Of them, 93 developed NS, and their mean ages (41.4 ± 14.7 years vs. 39.7 ± 14.2 years) and proportions of males (59.1% vs. 58.6%) were similar to those in the 298 controls. Multivariate logistic regression showed that a history of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval = 1.0, 4.5) and a longer duration of carbon monoxide exposure (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 2.8; the longest tertile [>5 hours] vs. the other two tertiles [≤5 hours]) were independent predictors for NS, but not the level of carboxyhemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified two independent predictors for NS that may be useful for public healthcare workers and physicians in predicting outcomes and deciding on treatment strategies for COP patients.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Adulto , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan , Sinais Vitais
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8270, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164673

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of weather conditions and air pollution on the onset of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service - National Sample Cohort (HIRA-NSC) from 2002 through 2013 was used. A total of 5,200 participants with SSNHL were matched 1:4 for age, sex, income, region of residence, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia with 20,800 control participants. Meteorological data included daily mean temperature (°C), daily highest temperature (°C), daily lowest temperature (°C), daily temperature difference (°C), relative humidity (%), ambient atmospheric pressure (hPa), pressure, SO2 (ppm), NO2 (ppm), O3 (ppm), CO (ppm), and PM10 (µg/m3) of a mean of 60 days, 30 days, 14 days, 7 days, and 3 days before SSNHL were analyzed. Hourly measurements were taken from 94 places to assess the temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure and from 273 places to determine SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of meteorological data for SSNHL were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression analyses. Subgroup analyses were conducted by age and sex. The mean NO2 and O3 concentrations 14 days before the index date were different in the SSNHL group compared to those in the control group (P < 0.001 for NO2 and P = 0.021 for O3). The adjusted 14-day OR for NO2 (0.1 ppm) exposure was 3.12 in the SSNHL group compared to that in the control group (95% CI = 2.16-4.49, P < 0.001). The increased odds of NO2 exposure for 14 days in the SSNHL group persisted in the age group older than 30 years for both sexes. Other meteorological conditions did not show differences between the SSNHL and control groups. SSNHL was associated with high concentrations of NO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Meteorologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(12): 2548-2562, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246718

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Auto racing poses a unique set of physiologic challenges for athletes who compete in this sport. These challenges are not widely recognized due to the limited amount of original research in this field and the diffuse nature of this literature. The purpose of this article is to review the major physiologic challenges of auto racing and summarize what is currently known about athletes in this sport. CONCLUSIONS: The physical stressors of either driving or servicing the race car are overlaid with particular environmental challenges associated with racing (e.g., thermal, noise, carbon monoxide exposure) that increase the physiological stress on motorsport athletes. Physical stress reflects the muscular work required for car control and control of posture during high gravitational (g) loads: factors that predispose athletes to fatigue. The physiologic effects of these stressors include cardiovascular stress as reflected by prolonged elevation of heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen consumption in both driver and pit athletes during competition. Psychological stress is evident in autonomic and endocrine responses of athletes during competition. The thermal stress of having to compete wearing multilayer fire suits and closed helmets in ambient temperatures of 50°C to 60°C results in the ubiquitous risk of dehydration. Published data show that both drivers and pit crew members are accomplished athletes with distinct challenges and abilities. There are gaps in the literature, especially in regard to female, older adult, and child participants. Additionally, minimal literature is available on appropriate training programs to offset the physiological challenges of auto racing.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Gravitação , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Vibração/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 163-174, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153046

RESUMO

Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) not only causes lung inflammation and chronic respiratory diseases, but also increases the incidence and mortality of cardiopulmonary diseases. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation has been shown to play a critical role in the formation of many chronic disorders. On the other hand, carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in many tissues and organs. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on PM-induced inflammatory responses in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). We found that PM induced C-reactive protein (CRP) expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1ß secretion, and caspase-1 activation, which were inhibited by pretreatment with CORM-2. In addition, transfection with siRNA of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4 and pretreatment with an antioxidant (N-acetyl-cysteine, NAC), the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium, DPI), or a mitochondria-specific superoxide scavenger (MitoTEMPO) reduced PM-induced inflammatory responses. CORM-2 also inhibited PM-induced NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase- and mitochondria-derived ROS generation. However, pretreatment with inactivate CORM-2 (iCORM-2) had no effects on PM-induced inflammatory responses. Finally, we showed that CORM-2 inhibited PM-induced CRP, NLRP3 inflammasome, and ASC protein expression in the lung tissues of mice and IL-1ß levels in the serum of mice. PM-enhanced leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice was reduced by CORM-2. The results of this study suggested a protective role of CORM-2 in PM-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting the TLR2 and TLR4/ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome-CRP axial.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 152(9): 333-338, mayo 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183657

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: La relación entre la contaminación ambiental y las enfermedades respiratorias ha sido ampliamente descrita, pero existen menos trabajos referentes a la contaminación y asma en nuestro medio. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el efecto de la contaminación ambiental sobre las agudizaciones de asma. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional. Se incluyeron en el análisis los ingresos hospitalarios diarios y las consultas a urgencias diarias en el Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol (Badalona, Barcelona) entre 2008 y 2016 de aquellos pacientes con diagnóstico de asma agudizada. Se obtuvieron los valores diarios de temperatura, humedad relativa, presión atmosférica y los niveles de NO2, SO2 y CO. Mediante regresión de Poisson simple se estudió la asociación entre estos factores y el número de hospitalizaciones y urgencias mediante regresiones simples para el mismo día y para entre uno y 4 días más tarde (lags 0 a 4). Se corrigió el efecto de las múltiples comparaciones. Resultados: Se asociaron con un incremento en las hospitalizaciones por asma la baja temperatura (lags 0 a 4) y los incrementos en los niveles de NO2 (lags 0, 1, 2 y 4) y presión atmosférica (lags 2 y 3). Al analizar las urgencias, estas se asociaron con la baja temperatura (lags 0, 1, 2, 3 y 4) y los incrementos en los niveles de NO2 (lags 2, 3 y 4). Conclusiones: La baja temperatura y la elevada concentración ambiental de NO2 se asocian con un incremento en las consultas a urgencias y hospitalizaciones por agudización de asma bronquial


Introduction and objective: Air pollution has been widely associated with respiratory diseases. Nevertheless, association between air pollution and exacerbations of asthma in our area has been less studied. To analyse the effect of air pollution on exacerbations of asthma in Badalona. Material and methods: This was an observational study conducted in Badalona. The number of daily hospital admissions and accident and emergency visits related to exacerbation of asthma between 2008 and 2016 was obtained. We used simple Poisson regressions to test the effects of daily mean temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and NO2, SO2 and CO levels on asthma-related emergencies and hospitalisations the same day and 1-4 days after. All p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons. Results: The number of hospitalisations was associated with low temperature (lags 0 to 4) and higher levels of NO2 (lags 0, 1, 2 and 4) and atmospheric pressure (lags 2 and 3). The number of accident and emergency visits was associated with low temperature (lags 0 to 4) and higher levels of NO2 (lags 2, 3 and 4). Conclusions: The number of accident and emergency visits and hospitalisations for exacerbation of asthma is associated with higher levels of NO2 and with lower temperatures


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Efeitos da Contaminação do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/etiologia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Asma/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise
17.
Mil Med Res ; 6(1): 10, 2019 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961671

RESUMO

Inhalation injury is often associated with burns and significantly increases morbidity and mortality. The main toxic components of fire smoke are carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and irritants. In the case of an incident at a nuclear power plant or recycling facility associated with fire, smoke may also contain radioactive material. Medical treatments may vary in different countries, and in this paper, we discuss the similarities and differences in the treatments between China and Germany. Carbon monoxide poisoning is treated by 100% oxygen administration and, if available, hyperbaric oxygenation in China as well as in Germany. In addition, antidotes binding the cyanide ions and relieving the respiratory chain are important. Methemoglobin-forming agents (e.g., nitrites, dimethylaminophenol) or hydroxocobalamin (Vitamin B12) are options. The metabolic elimination of cyanide may be enhanced by sodium thiosulfate. In China, sodium nitrite with sodium thiosulfate is the most common combination. The use of dimethylaminophenol instead of sodium nitrite is typical for Germany, and hydroxocobalamin is considered the antidote of choice if available in cases of cyanide intoxications by fire smoke inhalation as it does not further reduce oxygen transport capacity. Systematic prophylactic use of corticosteroids to prevent toxic pulmonary edema is not recommended in China or Germany. Stable iodine is indicated in the case of radioiodine exposure and must be administered within several hours to be effective. The decorporation of metal radionuclides is possible with Ca (DTPA) or Prussian blue that should be given as soon as possible. These medications are used in both countries, but it seems that Ca (DTPA) is administered at lower dosages in China. Although the details of the treatment of inhalation injury and radionuclide(s) decorporation may vary, the general therapeutic strategy is very similar in China and Germany.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/tratamento farmacológico , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China , Alemanha , Humanos , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Hidroxocobalamina/uso terapêutico , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Radiografia/métodos , Radioisótopos/efeitos adversos , Radioisótopos/metabolismo , Radioisótopos/toxicidade , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/complicações , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/metabolismo , Nitrito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Tiossulfatos/uso terapêutico
18.
Epilepsy Res ; 152: 52-58, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the short-term association between air pollutants and hospitalization for epilepsy in 47 hospitals from 10 cities in eastern China. METHOD: We identified hospital epilepsy admissions in 2014 and 2015. A conditional Poisson regression model was used to examine the association between air pollutants and hospital admission, with temperature and relative humidity adjusted using the natural spline (ns) function. Pollutants included sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM). The association was stratified by sex, age, and geographic region in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. RESULTS: An interquartile (IQR) increase of NO2 and CO on the concurrent day is correlated with an increased admission of 2.0% (0.5%, 3.6%) and 1.1% (0.1%, 2.1%), respectively. The association is stronger in children (≤18 years) and in northern China, but did not vary with sex. A positive association was also observed on the previous day for CO [1.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3%, 2.6%], NO2 (2.5%, 95% CI: 0.6%, 4.3%), and PM2.5 (1.32%, 95% CI: 0.16%, 2.48%). Moving average concentration of 7 days for all pollutants was associated with decreased admission (CO: -1.29%, NO2: -0.4.69%, SO2:-2.12%, PM2.5:-0.98%, PM10:-1.70%). CONCLUSION: Exposures to NO2 and CO on concurrent days, and PM2.5 on the previous day, are associated with increased epilepsy hospitalization, whereas cumulative exposure appeared protective.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897769

RESUMO

There is an increasing body of evidence showing the impact of air pollutants on human health such as on the respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular systems. In China, as people begin to pay more attention to air quality, recent research focused on the quantitative assessment of the effects of air pollutants on human health. To assess the health effects of air pollutants and to construct an indicator placing emphasis on health impact, a generalized additive model was selected to assess the health burden caused by air pollution. We obtained Baidu indices (an evaluation indicator launched by Baidu Corporation to reflect the search popularity of keywords from its search engine) to assess daily query frequencies of 25 keywords considered associated with air pollution-related diseases. Moreover, we also calculated the daily concentrations of major air pollutants (including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO) and the daily air quality index (AQI) values, and three meteorological factors: daily mean wind level, daily mean air temperature, and daily mean relative humidity. These data cover the area of Beijing from 1 March 2015 to 30 April 2017. Through the analysis, we produced the relative risks (RRs) of the six main air pollutants for respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. The results showed that O3 and NO2 have the highest health impact, followed by PM10 and PM2.5. The effects of any pollutant on cardiovascular diseases was consistently higher than on respiratory diseases. Furthermore, we evaluated the currently used AQI in China and proposed an RR-based index (health AQI, HAQI) that is intended for better indicating the effects of air pollutants on respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases than AQI. A higher Pearson correlation coefficient between HAQI and RRTotal than that between AQI and RRTotal endorsed our efforts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , Monóxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , China , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Dióxido de Enxofre/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Vento
20.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 103: 210-215, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703408

RESUMO

To conduct risk assessments of exogenous chemicals for which there are also endogenous exposures, knowledge of the chemistry and biology of both types of exposures needs to be integrated into problem formulation and carried through to risk characterization. This issue is framed in a risk assessment context, highlighting the importance of quantifying increments of dose from all sources of the same or similar chemicals interacting with biological targets; understanding the influence of endogenous chemical concentrations on disease risk; and assessing total dose to targets in evaluating risk from incremental environmental exposures. Examples of recent assessments illustrate the importance of addressing this issue. Evaluations of data on blood or organ concentrations of ammonia, methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and three gaseous signaling molecules (hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide) provide examples where current data are already informing perspectives on relative exposures at the portal of entry and systemically. To facilitate quality risk assessments of exogenous chemicals with endogenous exposures, a series of specific questions are presented that need to be addressed in systematic review to enhance problem formulation, improve the development of holistic conceptual models, and to facilitate the identification of priority data needs for improving risk assessments.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Medição de Risco
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