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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 138, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451937

RESUMO

Monascus azaphilone pigments, including red, orange, and yellow, are world-famous food colorants. However, the pigments produced by different Monascus species vary in yields and compositions. The underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, four wild-type Monascus strains, namely M. anka M7, M. purpureus M9, M. ruber C100, and M. aurantiacus M15, were selected as research objects according to the diversification of their pigments fermented in the same mediums and conditions. Twenty-three 3 kbp segments (300 bp overlap with adjacent segments) of the pigment gene cluster were amplified, sequenced, and assembled into the DNA sequences of the clusters. The DNA sequences of pigment biosynthetic gene clusters of the four strains showed 99.94% similarity according to the results of multiple alignment. The expression levels of 17 pigment biosynthetic genes of four strains were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. The transcriptional regulation contributed more than the DNA sequence variation in Monascus pigments metabolism. Our result gives insight into the study of Monascus pigment biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Monascus/genética , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cor , DNA Fúngico/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Monascus/química , Monascus/classificação , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/química
2.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 897-904, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091861

RESUMO

Monascus purpureus recombinant mppC and mpp7 knockout strains were subjected to extractive fermentation in the context of azaphilone pigment production. Inclusion of Diaion HP-20 resin resulted in the selective production of unreduced azaphilone congeners, in addition to the early intermediate FK17-P2a, from ∆mppC and ∆mpp7 strains that would otherwise mainly produce reduced congeners. Structural determination of two novel unreduced azaphilones from the ∆mpp7 strain was accomplished. The unreduced azaphilone compound was converted into the cognate reduced congener in recombinant M. purpureus strains, demonstrating its intermediate role in azaphilone biosynthesis. This study demonstrates the possibility that extractive fermentation with Diaion HP-20 resin can be used to obtain cryptic azaphilone metabolites.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Monascus/genética , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Benzopiranos/química , Vias Biossintéticas , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Oxirredução , Pigmentos Biológicos/química
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(10): 4772-4780, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monascus, a filamentous fungus, produces many bioactive substances. However, in the process of fermentation, Monascus also produces the mycotoxin citrinin. Owing to the presence of citrinin, the safety of Monascus products has been questioned and their wide application limited. Using soybean isoflavones (SI) as exogenous additives, alterations in citrinin production by Monascus aurantiacus Li AS3.4384 (MALA) in different media used for liquid state fermentation were investigated. RESULTS: Results showed that the citrinin concentration was 95.98% lower than that of the control group after 16-days fermentation when 20.0 g L-1 SI were added to rice powder and inorganic salt medium. Citrinin production was reduced by 97.24% after 12-days fermentation with 10.0 g L-1 SI in starch inorganic salt medium; 82.52% after 20-days fermentation with 20.0 g L-1 SI in starch peptone medium with high starch content; 45.07% after 14-days fermentation with 5.0 g L-1 SI in starch peptone medium with low starch content; and 82.21% after 14-days fermentation with 20.0 g L-1 SI in yeast extract sucrose medium. CONCLUSION: The developed method of removing citrinin is simple, safe, and effective, and it can be applied to reduce the citrinin content of Monascus products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Citrinina/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Monascus/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Citrinina/análise , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Soja/química
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(9): 4439-4444, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Today, there is an increasing concern about the consumption of synthetic colorants in food because of their possible health hazards. Monascus purpureus has attracted a great deal of attention as it produces various coloured pigments with high chemical stability, but it also produces citrinin, a secondary toxic metabolite, along with the pigments. This study aims to investigate the amount of pigment and citrinin reduction by different treatments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae such as heat treatment and suspension concentration. RESULTS: The results indicated that the ability of S. cerevisiae regarding citrinin adsorption increased with increase of temperature and yeast concentration. The maximum extent of citrinin adsorption was related to heat treatment at 121 °C and a yeast concentration of 105 cells mL-1 , for which citrinin reduced from 4.43 mg L-1 in control to 0.1 mg L-1 . Heat treatment of 103 cells mL-1 suspension of S. cerevisiae cells at 50 °C, with 0.56 mg L-1 citrinin remaining in the medium, showed the lowest ability for citrinin binding. The optimum absorbance of all red, orange and yellow pigments was observed for the heat treatment at 50 °C and yeast concentrations of 103 and 104 cells mL-1 which was greater than that for the control. CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude from this study that heat treatment with S. cerevisiae can be a useful way to reduce citrinin to below the standard limits. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Citrinina/metabolismo , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Citrinina/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Food Chem ; 284: 205-212, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744847

RESUMO

The mycotoxin citrinin is often produced during fermentation of Monascus products. We studied the effects of flavonoids on citrinin production by Monascus aurantiacus Li AS3.4384 (MALA) by adding rutin, α-glucosylrutin, or troxerutin to the fermentation medium, in a first-of-its-kind study. Appropriate amounts of rutin, α-glucosylrutin, or troxerutin did not affect normal mycelial growth. Addition of 5.0 g/l of rutin only weakly reduced (29.2%) citrinin production, relative to inhibition by 5 g/l α-glucosylrutin or troxerutin (by 54.7% and 40.6%, respectively). In starch inorganic liquid culture media, addition of 20.0 g/l of troxerutin, followed by fermentation for 12 days, reduced citrinin yield by 75.26%. Addition of 15.0 g/l of troxerutin to low-starch peptone liquid fermentation media reduced citrinin yield by 87.9% after 14 days of fermentation, and addition of 30.0 g/l troxerutin to yeast extract sucrose liquid media for 12 days reduced citrinin yield by 53.7%.


Assuntos
Citrinina/biossíntese , Monascus/efeitos dos fármacos , Monascus/metabolismo , Rutina/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Fermentação , Hidroxietilrutosídeo/análogos & derivados , Hidroxietilrutosídeo/farmacologia , Monascus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rutina/análogos & derivados , Trissacarídeos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(9): 2563-2569, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734557

RESUMO

Monascus purpureus is an important food and drug microbial resource through the production of a variety of secondary metabolites, including monacolin K, a well-recognized cholesterol-lowering agent. However, the high production costs and naturally low contents of monacolin K have restricted its large-scale production. Thus, in this study we sought to improve the production of monacolin K in M. purpureus through overexpression of four genes ( mokC, mokD, mokE, and mokI). Four overexpression strains were successfully constructed by protoplast electric shock conversion, which resulted in a 234.3%, 220.8%, 89.5%, and 10% increase in the yield of monacolin K, respectively. The overexpression strains showed clear changes to the mycelium surface with obvious folds and the spores with depressions, whereas the pBC5 mycelium had a fuller structure with a flatter surface. Further investigation of these strains can provide the theoretical basis and technical support for the development of functional Monascus varieties.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/metabolismo , Lovastatina/biossíntese , Lovastatina/genética , Monascus/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Monascus/metabolismo
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(1): 13, 2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603886

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi Monascus sp. has been utilized for fermentative production of food colorant (Red Yeast Rice) for more than 1000 years in China. The main colorant components of Red Yeast Rice are mixture of red Monascus pigments (RMPs) with various primary amine residues. In the present work, the non-natural primary amine p-aminobenzamide, exhibiting as non-involved in nitrogen microbial metabolism, nontoxicity to microbial cells, and chemical reactivity with orange Monascus pigments (OMPs), was screened. Based on the screened result, RMPs with the single p-aminobenzamide residue were produced by cell suspension culture in a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution via in situ chemical modification of OMPs. Furthermore, in situ chemical modification of OMPs also provided a strategy for maintaining a relatively low OMP concentration and then efficient accumulation of high concentration of RMPs (3.3 g/l).


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Tensoativos/química , Benzamidinas/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células
8.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 188(2): 498-513, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536032

RESUMO

The immunomodulatory effects of Monascus-fermented Saccharina japonica extract on anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression of THP-1 cells were evaluated. Extracts of fermented samples showed higher phenolic, flavonoid, protein, and reducing sugar contents than unfermented one. Fermented samples were rich in many bioactive compounds determined by GC-MS analyses and showed cell viability greater than 85% in MTS assay. Regarding the anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory activities of the different samples, Q-PCR analyses revealed that IL-10 gene expression in THP-1 cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the SjMp or SjMk sample than those treated with the unfermented sample. Cells treated with the SjMp extract or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher relative gene expression of IL-4 cytokine than cells treated with SjMk or SjU extracts. The relative gene expression of IFN-α was higher in cells treated with SjMp followed by LPS, SjMk, and SjU. TGF-ß expression was higher in LPS-stimulated cells followed by SjMk and other samples. Cells treated with SjMp exhibited significantly higher pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and NF-κB) cytokine gene expression than cells treated with SjU. These results revealed that extracts from S. japonica fermented with Monascus spp. regulate cytokine gene expression. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Laminaria/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monascus/metabolismo , Biotecnologia , Células CACO-2 , Fermentação , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-4/genética , Laminaria/imunologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Pigmentos Biológicos/farmacologia , Células THP-1
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 272: 552-560, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396112

RESUMO

A mutant Monascus purpureus strain, M183, which produced monascus pigments (MPs) at 8460 U/g via solid-state batch-fermentation, was generated using the atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation system. The optimal glucose concentration (80 g/L) in traditional fermentation media that yielded the highest MPs productivity was determined. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to maximize MPs production using liquid-state batch-fermentation. Under optimal conditions (0.58 g/L MgSO4·7H2O, 0.02 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O, 0.02 g/L FeSO4·7H2O and 4.85 g/L NH4NO3), 207.67 U/mL of MPs were produced with 98.12% validity based on the predicted value. Extracellular MPs production increased significantly to 35.52 U/mL, compared to 14.19 U/mL of the original strain, M. purpureus LQ-6. M. purpureus spores immobilized in sodium alginate were studied. A simultaneous fermentation and separation system was established for MPs using the novel absorption resin LX300C to enhance production efficiency of extracellular MPs.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 292: 83-90, 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580106

RESUMO

This research aimed to evaluate the impacts of Monascus purpureus on the microbial community and major metabolites of Cupei and vinegar of Sichuan bran vinegar (SBV). Cupei is the mixture of fermented materials and vinegar is the liquid leached from Cupei. The characteristics of microbial community were revealed by Illumina-MiSeq. The result suggested that inoculation of M. purpureus decreased the microbial diversities and inhibited several pathogens related microbes including Erwinia, Proteus and Ignatzschineria of Cupei. The dominant genera of SBV were Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Trichoderma and Candida. With addition of M. purpureus, the total relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Acetobacter was increased from 75.14% to 99.79%. Furthermore, the major metabolites in corresponding vinegar were investigated by HPLC and HS-SPME-GC-MS. The result indicated that the addition of M. purpureus significantly promoted the accumulation of organic acids, aromatic esters and alcohols, whose contents were increased by 1.95, 2.30 and 3.55 times, respectively. Meanwhile acetic acid, lactic acid, phenethyl acetate and ß-phenethyl alcohol were the dominant components in organic acids, esters and alcohols, respectively. In addition, the relationship between dominant microbes and major metabolites explored by redundancy analysis displayed that Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Candida and Monascus were closely related with seven volatiles and five organic acids. This study provided an insight on regulation of microbial community and metabolic function of traditional fermented foods by bioaugmentation.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/análise , Microbiota , Monascus/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Erwinia/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Proteus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
11.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0207755, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532218

RESUMO

The present study underlines a statistically optimized, low cost, effective approach for efficient co-valorization of two non-efficiently utilized, highly accumulated, raw agro-industrial wastes: corn cob and glycerol for co-production of natural biopigments: monascus orange and red pigments by the aid of Monascus purpureus strain ATCC 16436. A three step sequential, statistical modeling approach: one variable at a time (OVAT), Plackett-Burman design (PBD), and central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the production of monascus pigments using co-solid state fermentation of the two raw agro-industrial wastes. Corn cob among other carbon sources (e.g., rice grains, sugarcane bagasse, and potato peel) was the most appropriate substrate triggering co-production of orange and red monascus pigments; deduced from OVAT. Glycerol and inoculum size proved to impose significant consequences (P<0.05) on the production of monascus pigments as inferred from PBD. The optimal levels of inoculum size (12 x 1011 spores/mL) and glycerol (2.17 M) did achieve a maximal color value of 133.77 and 108.02 color value units/mL of orange and red pigments, respectively at 30 oC after 10 days; concluded from CCD with an agitation speed of 150 rpm. Present data would underpin the large scale production of monascus pigments using the present approach for efficient exploitation of such biopigments in food, pharmaceutical and textile industries.


Assuntos
Glicerol/metabolismo , Química Verde/métodos , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Zea mays/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Cor , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fermentação , Química Verde/economia , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Oryza/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Saccharum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1555: 45-52, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724646

RESUMO

Monascus yellow (MY) is a natural yellow food coloring. The main components from MY are xanthomonasin A (XA) and xanthomonasin B (XB) for natural yellow colorant of food additives. However, few chromatographic assays of XA and XB exist in food additive products because of unavailable standards for calibration curves. In this study, the single reference (SR) quantitative analysis of XA and XB in MY product is proposed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC/PDA) using relative molar sensitivity (RMS). Moreover, high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) purification with 1H quantitative NMR (qNMR) evaluation is necessary to separate the two analytes for the RMS to be demonstrated. For HSCCC separation, the biphasic solvent system (hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/0.1% formic acid in water, 1/5/1/5) was used to obtain XA and XB fractions that were subjected to qNMR for the determination of their contents in each test solution. Using these solutions and SR solution of carbazochrome acid (CBZ), the RMS of XA and XB are calculated from slopes ratios of calibration curves (three ranges from 0 to 177 µM for XA and 0-126 µM for XB, r2 > 0.998). The averaged RMS of XA/CBZ and XB/CBZ were 8.75 ±â€¯0.07 and 14.8 ±â€¯0.26, respectively. The concentrations of XA and XB in MY can be determined from RMS, peak area and content of CBZ added in the samples; the concentrations were found to be 7.26 µmol/g and 2.53 µmol/g, respectively. The performance of HPLC/PDA using RMS was compared with an absolute calibration curve method. This developed HPLC/PDA using RMS is simple and reliable quantification that does not require native XA and XB standards based on HSCCC purification and qNMR evaluation.


Assuntos
Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Corantes de Alimentos/química , Xantonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Monascus/química , Monascus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(16): 4129-4138, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633617

RESUMO

Monascus pigments (Mps) have been used as food colorants for several centuries in Asian countries. MptriA is a putative acetyltransferase gene involved in the MPs biosynthesis. To analyze the function of MptriA, an MptriA disruption strain (Δ MptriA) and a complementation strain (Δ MptriA:: MptriA) were successfully obtained In addition to the loss of color, the disruption of MptriA had little effect on the phenotypes during growth on four different media. The Δ MptriA strain showed decreased pigment and citrinin production during the liquid-fermentation process. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of several genes involved in the synthesis of pigments and citrinin was down-regulated in Δ MptriA. These results demonstrated that the role of MptriA was to transfer an acyl group to the pyranoquinone structure of the polyketide chromophore during Monascus pigment biosynthesis and to influence the citrinin biosynthesis pathway. This study contributes to the exploration of pigment biosynthesis in M. purpureus.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Monascus/enzimologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Acetiltransferases/genética , Citrinina/biossíntese , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Monascus/genética , Monascus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monascus/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 256: 133-139, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606429

RESUMO

A simple, accurate and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of sesamol, sesamin, asarinin and sesamolin in Monascus aged vinegar. The effects of acid hydrolysis and four heating treatments on the components content in Monascus aged vinegar were discussed. The results showed that the isomerisation of sesamin to asarinin, and decomposition of sesamolin to sesamol significantly increased, regardless of heating or acid hydrolysis. Thermal processes and acid hydrolysis increased the content of sesamol and asarinin, respectively, but severe thermal processes resulted in the loss of total sesame lignans. Sesamol and asarinin reached the highest (2.720 ±â€¯0.202 µg/mL and 2.064 ±â€¯0.075 µg/mL) for autoclaving (125 °C, 15 min) and acid hydrolysis (25 °C, 15 min, nature pH), respectively. Therefore, autoclaving and acid hydrolysis were considered as the optimal way to obtain higher content of sesamol and asarinin.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Lignanas/análise , Lignanas/metabolismo , Monascus/metabolismo , Sesamum/química
15.
J Microbiol ; 56(4): 255-263, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492865

RESUMO

Monascus spp. are commonly used for a wide variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In previous studies, the knock-out of mrflbA (a putative regulator of the G protein α subunit) in M. ruber led to autolysis of the mycelia, decreased pigmentation and lowered mycotoxin production. Therefore, we aimed to obtain a comprehensive overview of the underlying mechanism of mrflbA deletion at the proteome level. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of mycelial proteins indicated that the abundance of 178 proteins was altered in the ΔmrflbA strain, 33 of which were identified with high confidence. The identified proteins are involved in a range of activities, including carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, hyphal development and the oxidative stress response, protein modification, and the regulation of cell signaling. Consistent with these findings, the activity of antioxidative enzymes and chitinase was elevated in the supernatant of the ΔmrflbA strain. Furthermore, deletion of mrflbA resulted in the transcriptional reduction of secondary metabolites (pigment and mycotoxin). In short, the mutant phenotypes induced by the deletion of mrflbA were consistent with changes in the expression levels of associated proteins, providing direct evidence of the regulatory functions mediated by mrflbA in M. ruber.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Monascus/genética , Proteoma , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Quitinases/metabolismo , Citrinina/biossíntese , DNA Fúngico/genética , Metabolismo Energético , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monascus/enzimologia , Monascus/metabolismo , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Vitamina K 3/metabolismo
16.
J Biotechnol ; 271: 56-62, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476806

RESUMO

Peptones are accepted as one of the most favourable nitrogen sources supporting pigment synthesis in Monascus purpureus. The present study was performed to test the feasibility of chicken feather peptone (CFP) as nitrogen source for pigment production from M. purpureus ATCC16365. CFP was compared with fish peptone (FP) and protease peptone (PP) in order to elucidate its effectiveness on pigment production. CFP was prepared from waste feathers using hydrolysis (KOH) and neutralization (H2SO4) methods. The protein content of CFP was determined as 67.2 g/100 g. Optimal concentrations of CFP and glucose for pigment production were determined as 3 and 20 g/L, respectively. A medium pH of 5.5 and an incubation period of 7-days were found to be more favourable for pigment production. In CFP, PP and FP media, yellow pigment absorbances were 2.819, 2.870 and 2.831, red pigment absorbances were 2.709, 2.304 and 2.748, and orange pigment absorbances were 2.643, 2.132 and 2.743, respectively. Sugar consumption and mycelia growth showed the similar trends in CFP, FP and PP media. This study indicates that the peptone from chicken feathers may be a good nutritional substrate for pigment production from M. purpureus.


Assuntos
Plumas/química , Monascus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/química , Peptonas/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Glucose/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentação
17.
Molecules ; 23(1)2018 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301350

RESUMO

The production of Monascus pigments and related byproducts, via microbial fermentation, has been broadly utilized as coloring by traditional food industries and as a natural textile dye. In addition to these traditional purposes, Monascus pigments have been recently favored for a variety of commercial and academic purposes. Pigments and derivatives formed during Monascus fermentation have pharmaceutical and clinical properties that can counteract common diseases, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cancer. Various research attempts have investigated the optimum conditions for this derived compound synthesis, as well as the still-unknown bio-functional effects. Recently, several studies were conducted using Monascus sp. KCCM 10093 and its derivatives. These experimental outcomes potentially reflect the bio-functional features of Monascus sp. KCCM 10093. However, no publication to date provides an overview of Monascus sp. KCCM 10093's unique metabolite products, functionalities, or biological pathways. In order to develop profitable commercial applications of Monascus sp. KCCM 10093, it is necessary not only to conduct continuous research, but also to systematically organize previous Monascus studies. The goals of this review are to investigate the current derivatives of Monascus sp. KCCM 10093 pigments-some of which have demonstrated newly-identified functionality-and the relevant uses of these molecules for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical purposes.


Assuntos
Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Corantes de Alimentos/metabolismo , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Humanos , Metabolismo Secundário
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(4): 918-925, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313328

RESUMO

Because of the increasing demand for healthy and safe food, Monascus spp. have gained much attention as a sustainable source of natural food colorant. In this study, a novel integrated fermentation system consisting of surfactant and in situ extractant was established for efficiently producing yellow pigments by M. purpureus sjs-6. The maximum production of Monascus yellow pigment (669.2 U/mL) was obtained when 40% soybean oil (as extractant) was supplied at the beginning and 5 g/L Span-80 (as surfactant) was supplied at the 72nd h, which resulted in production 27.8-times of that of the control. Critical factors such as alleviating the product inhibition, increasing the membrane permeability, changing the hyphal morphology, and influencing the cell activity have been suggested as the underlying mechanisms. This system is of great significance for the bioprocess, which suffers product inhibition, and it can serve as a promising step for enhancing the yield of hydrophobic metabolites.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hexoses , Microscopia Acústica , Monascus/fisiologia , Monascus/ultraestrutura , Óleo de Soja , Tensoativos
19.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 51(1): 27-37, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27422746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSES: Monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) produced by Monascus purpureus NTU 568 were proven to show excellent hypolipidemic effects in our previous studies; however, the mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: This study used MS, AK, and monacolin K as test substances and performed tests on rats fed high-fat and high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The lipid levels and the related protein levels of the rats were assessed to understand the effects of MS, AK, and monacolin K on lipid metabolism. RESULTS: MS and AK lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and preserved high-density lipoprotein cholesterol contents. MS and AK inhibited acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 expression, thereby preventing LDL assembly. In addition, enhanced LDL-receptor expression increased the transport of LDL-C to the liver for metabolism. MS and AK also significantly increase apo A1 expression, which facilitates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol formation. CONCLUSION: Monascus-fermented MS and AK can perform blood lipid regulation via the suppression of LDL-C assembly and stimulation of apo A1 expression in liver.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Flavinas/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Monascus/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteína A-I/análise , Apolipoproteína B-100/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Peso Corporal , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Fígado/química , Lovastatina/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos
20.
Food Chem ; 245: 297-304, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287375

RESUMO

This work aims to investigate the effects of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes on the release of phenolics in oat fermentation with Monascus anka. There were good correlations between phenolic content and α-amylase, xylanase and FPase activities. A high level of α-amylase activity (141.07 U/g) was observed, while xylanase (2.40 U/g), total cellulase (0.52 U/g) and ß-glucosidase activities (0.028 U/g) were relatively low in the fermentation system. The phenolic content of oat powder treated with crude enzyme from fermented oats significantly increased, especially that of the ferulic acid in the insoluble fraction and the vanillic acid in the soluble fraction. The surface SEM morphology of the oats showed that the cell wall structure was damaged by the crude enzyme treatment, which led to the release of phenolics. This study could provide metabolic understanding for optimization of phenolic compounds which could more efficiently increase the nutrition of oat intended for functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Avena/enzimologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Monascus/metabolismo
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