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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062907

RESUMO

The development of sensitive methods for the determination of potential bacterial contamination is of upmost importance for environmental monitoring and food safety. In this study, we present a new method combining a fast pre-enrichment step using a microporous cryogel and a detection and identification step using antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and labelled antibodies, respectively. The experimental method consists of: (i) the capture of large amounts of bacteria from liquid samples by using a highly porous and functionalized cryogel; (ii) the detection and categorisation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by determining their affinities toward a small set of AMPs; and (iii) the identification of the bacterial strain by using labelled detection antibodies. As proof of concept, the assessment of the three steps of the analysis was performed by using Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. as models for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The use of AMPs with broad specificity combined with labelled antibodies enabled the detection and potential categorization of a large spectrum of unknown or unexpected bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Bacillus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062961

RESUMO

Air pollution is a widespread problem due to its impact on both humans and the environment. Providing decision makers with artificial intelligence based solutions requires to monitor the ambient air quality accurately and in a timely manner, as AI models highly depend on the underlying data used to justify the predictions. Unfortunately, in urban contexts, the hyper-locality of air quality, varying from street to street, makes it difficult to monitor using high-end sensors, as the cost of the amount of sensors needed for such local measurements is too high. In addition, development of pollution dispersion models is challenging. The deployment of a low-cost sensor network allows a more dense cover of a region but at the cost of noisier sensing. This paper describes the development and deployment of a low-cost sensor network, discussing its challenges and applications, and is highly motivated by talks with the local municipality and the exploration of new technologies to improve air quality related services. However, before using data from these sources, calibration procedures are needed to ensure that the quality of the data is at a good level. We describe our steps towards developing calibration models and how they benefit the applications identified as important in the talks with the municipality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Inteligência Artificial , Calibragem , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) heavily hit Italy, one of Europe's most polluted countries. The extent to which PM pollution contributed to COVID-19 diffusion is needing further clarification. We aimed to investigate the particular matter (PM) pollution and its correlation with COVID-19 incidence across four Italian cities: Milan, Rome, Naples, and Salerno, during the pre-lockdown and lockdown periods. METHODS: We performed a comparative analysis followed by correlation and regression analyses of the daily average PM10, PM2.5 concentrations, and COVID-19 incidence across four cities from 1 January 2020 to 8 April 2020, adjusting for several factors, taking a two-week time lag into account. RESULTS: Milan had significantly higher average daily PM10 and PM2.5 levels than Rome, Naples, and Salerno. Rome, Naples, and Salerno maintained safe PM10 levels. The daily PM2.5 levels exceeded the legislative standards in all cities during the entire period. PM2.5 pollution was related to COVID-19 incidence. The PM2.5 levels and sampling rate were strong predictors of COVID-19 incidence during the pre-lockdown period. The PM2.5 levels, population's age, and density strongly predicted COVID-19 incidence during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Italy serves as a noteworthy paradigm illustrating that PM2.5 pollution impacts COVID-19 spread. Even in lockdown, PM2.5 levels negatively impacted COVID-19 incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Cidade de Roma
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065526

RESUMO

A detector for identifying potential bacterial hazards in the air was designed and created in the Military Institute of Chemistry and Radiometry in the framework of the project FLORABO. The presence of fungi and bacteria in the air can affect the health of people in a given room. The need to control the amount of microorganisms, both in terms of quantity and quality, applies to both hospitals and offices. The device is based on the fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of the sample and then these results were compared to the resulting spectrogram database, which includes the standard curves obtained in the laboratory for selected bacteria. The measurements provide information about the presence, the type, and the approximate concentration of bacteria in the sample. The spectra were collected at different excitation wavelengths, and the waveforms are specific for each of the strains. It also takes under analysis the signal intensities of the different spectra (not only shape a maximum of the peak) so that the concentration of bacteria in the sample being tested can be determined. The device was tested in the laboratory with concentrations ranging from 10 to 108 cells/mL. Additionally, the detector can distinguish between the vegetative forms of spores of the bacteria.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Fungos , Bactérias , Computadores de Mão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hospitais
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 415, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117931

RESUMO

The seasonal variability of the lateral flux of total alkalinity (TAlk) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the tropical Hooghly estuary is analyzed in this work. In situ observations of water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, TAlk, and pH were measured in four different stations of the Hooghly estuary. It was measured once every month during 2015-2016, and subsequently, DIC was estimated. A carbon budget was constructed to quantify carbon flows through the freshwater-marine continuum of the Hooghly estuary, and plausible impacts on the adjacent coastal ocean, the northern Bay of Bengal, were examined. The biogeochemical mass balance box model was used to compute the seasonal flow of carbon flux, and subsequently, the annual budgeting of lateral fluxes of TAlk and DIC to the adjacent coastal ocean was carried out. The net annual TAlk and DIC flux from the Hooghly estuary to the adjacent coastal ocean were 4.45 ± 1.90 × 1011 mol and 4.59 ± 1.70 × 1011 mol, respectively. The net annual DIC flux of the Hooghly estuary is about 30 to 60 times higher than surface area integrated air-water CO2 flux, which is an indication of promoting acidification in the adjacent coastal ocean. The present study indicates that the lateral DIC flux has increased substantially in the Hooghly estuary during the last two decades. The increase in inorganic carbon load in the Hooghly estuary due to the enhanced discharge of inorganic and organic matter load in the upper reaches of the estuary led to this increase in lateral DIC flux. The results strongly establish the need of having such regional studies for better understanding the estuarine carbon dynamics, and its role in controlling the adjacent coastal ocean dynamics.


Assuntos
Carbono , Rios , Baías , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 413, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117940

RESUMO

The use of indicator species can simplify bird monitoring by reducing the level of specialized skills needed, which increases the potential pool of participants and reduces training costs and complexity. To facilitate monitoring in the humid forests of northeast Central America, we conducted point count surveys for birds across gradients of disturbance in the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize, and analyzed the association of bird species with remotely sensed metrics of forest condition and anthropogenic disturbance using indicator species analysis. Twenty species exhibited significant associations with one or more of these metrics. We propose six species as indicators for anthropogenic disturbance based on our criteria of being associated with anthropogenically disturbed sites, or anthropogenically disturbed and riparian sites with no explicit mention in the literature of an obligate association with riparian habitats, or association of remotely sensed metrics that appeared to reflect disturbance: yellow-olive flycatcher, red-legged honeycreeper, dusky antbird, blue ground dove, buff-throated saltator, and brown jay. We propose the keel-billed motmot as an indicator of undisturbed forest based on its association with forested sites in our analyses. Green shrike vireo, collard trogon, rufous-tailed jacamar, and rufous piha were associated with a specific elevational range but not associated with disturbance, so upward shifts in elevation that might indicate response to climate change would not be confounded with habitat disturbance or degradation. This exercise yielded a much-reduced list of monitoring targets, which will greatly reduce the cost and complexity of forest bird monitoring in the region, as well as reducing barriers to participation.


Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Belize , Biodiversidade , América Central , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 414, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117952

RESUMO

Despite increasing public concern about air and water pollution risks posed by concentrated animal feeding operation areas (CAFOs), there is little information about bioavailability and ecosystem impacts of agrochemicals used to increase productivity. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of wastewaters originating from beef cattle feeding operation on Daphnia pulex. Specifically, we assessed lethal and chronic sublethal exposure effects using various endpoints including survival, oxygen consumption, morphology, reproduction, and swimming behavior. Exposure assessments (acute and chronic) were performed with ten (10) surface water samples collected from on-site retention ponds designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and R (reference site). Surface water samples were diluted to yield five concentrations (stock, 1 × , 2 × , 3 × , and 4 ×) as treatments and deionized water was used as control. Results showed site-specific and concentration-related effects on toxicity endpoints. Among treatments, significant (p < 0.05) increase in mortality rate (for A, E, F, and H) and decreasing total body length and width (for B, C, D, and G) of D. pulex were observed with increasing wastewater concentration. However, treatments did not have significant effect on swimming behavior (average speed) after exposure to the wastewater samples from all sites except for site E. Evidence from this study suggested that surface waters near beef cattle feed yards affected physiological responses in D. pulex and therefore may similarly affect organisms in the surrounding aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agroquímicos , Animais , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 416, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120239

RESUMO

Spatial variations and mobility of mercury (Hg) and Hg associations with other potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were studied in soil samples from Alaba, the largest e-waste recycling site in Nigeria and West Africa. Total Hg concentration was determined in surface soil samples from various locations using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) following microwave-assisted acid extraction, while sequential extraction was used to determine operationally defined mobility. The concentrations of the PTEs arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia. Total Hg concentration ranged from < 0.07 to 624 mg/kg and was largely dependent on the nature and intensity of e-waste recycling activities carried out. Mobile forms of Hg, which may be HgO (a known component of some forms of e-waste), accounted for between 3.2 and 23% of the total Hg concentration, and were observed to decrease with increasing organic matter (OM). Non-mobile forms accounted for >74% of the total Hg content. In the main recycling area, soil concentrations of Cd, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were above soil guideline values (Environment Agency in Science Report, 2009; Kamunda et al., 2016). Strong associations were observed between Hg and other PTEs (except for Fe and Zn) with the correlational coefficient ranging from 0.731 with Cr to 0.990 with As in April, but these correlations decreased in June except for Fe. Hazard quotient values > 1 at two locations suggest that Hg may pose health threats to people working at the e-waste recycling site. It is therefore recommended that workers should be investigated for symptoms of Hg exposure.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , África Ocidental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Nigéria , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 417, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120244

RESUMO

The need to generate internal revenue by most individuals and government in Nigeria has led to the establishment of quarries in different parts of Ebonyi state of Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the risk associated with the heavy metal burden in the state. Soil samples from the quarrying environments designated as MS1, MS2, and MS3 were analyzed for the metal profile using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The result showed that the mean concentration of metals which is a representation of the whole sites showed a higher concentration of Ca (40.065 ± 1.011 ppm), Mg (12.450 ± 8.815 ppm), K (16.631 ± 14.670 ppm), and Mn (19.539 ± 3.225 ppm) while Na (1.326 ± 0.117 ppm) was low. The heavy metal profile showed Pb (0.120 ± 0.027 ppm), Fe (27.718 ± 1.523 ppm), Zn (2.227 ± 0.570 ppm), Cu (6.267 ± 1.402 ppm), Ni (1.856 ± 0.472 ppm), Mo (1.758 ± 0.258 ppm), Cd (0.023 ± 0.006 ppm), Cr (0.037 ± 0.011 ppm), etc. Hg was found to be below detectable limit while the Cs was not radioactive. The mean values were found to be lower than the permissible limit of each metal. The pollution index (PI) was calculated for the different sites, and the result reveals that MS3 (0.0426) had a higher PI when compared to MS1 (0.0341) and MS2 (0.0317). Therefore, the PI of the sites showed MS3 > MS1 > MS2. These results showed that the environment is still as safe as PI < 1. The geoaccumulation index also showed a safe environment since its values were less than 0 which means that the environment is practically uncontaminated. Other risk determining parameters showed that the three locations were still within a safe level. Although the results of the study have shown a safe environment, it is still necessary to keep close monitoring of the heavy metal profile of the environment, since these metals can bioaccumulate in living tissues with time.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Nigéria , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 419, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120251

RESUMO

Elevated exposure to ambient manganese (Mn) is associated with adverse health outcomes. In Marietta, Ohio, the primary source of ambient Mn exposure is from the longest operating ferromanganese refinery in North America. In this study, the US EPA air dispersion model, AERMOD, was used to estimate ambient air Mn levels near the refinery for the years 2008-2013. Modeled air Mn concentrations for 2009-2010 were compared to concentrations obtained from a stationary air sampler. Census block population data were used to estimate population sizes exposed to an annual average air Mn > 50 ng/m3, the US EPA guideline for chronic exposure, for each year. Associations between modeled air Mn, measured soil Mn, and measured indoor dust Mn in the modeled area were also examined. Median modeled air Mn concentrations ranged from 6.3 to 43 ng/m3 across the years. From 12,000-56,000 individuals, including over 2000 children aged 0-14 years, were exposed to respirable annual average ambient air Mn levels exceeding 50 ng/m3 in five of the six years. For 2009-2010, the median modeled air Mn concentration at the stationary site was 20 ng/m3, compared to 18 ng/m3 measured with the stationary air sampler. All model performance measures for monthly modeled concentrations compared to measured concentrations were within acceptable limits. The study shows that AERMOD modeling of ambient air Mn is a viable method for estimating exposure from refinery emissions and that the Marietta area population was at times exposed to Mn levels that exceeded US EPA guidelines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Manganês , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ferro , Manganês/análise , Ohio
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 418, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120273

RESUMO

Mexican Lake Chapala is used as water supply for human consumption. Consequently, water quality of this lake is of paramount importance for the lake's wellbeing. The contribution presented in this paper investigates monitoring and assessment of lake water quality using water quality index (WQI), metal chemical speciation, and multivariate statistical techniques. Descriptive statistics shows total metal concentrations undetected conferring the lake a healthy status. Dissolved Cd and Pb exceed criterion continuous concentration limit, whereas Zn is below this limit indicating that water quality is satisfactory for aquatic life. However, WQI indicates poor water quality attributed to failure of conductivity, total solids, nitrogen, and phosphates, due to industrial and agro-industrial effluents. Metal speciations indicate that the presence of low concentrations of dissolved metals reflect interactions with gills of fish through metal-biotic ligand complexes affecting water quality. Positive correlations are obtained between conductivity and nitrates, indicating that agricultural activities and fertilizer runoffs increase the conductivity and that the environmental state of lake is being altered by human activities. Factors F1 (31%), F2 (19%), and F3 (11%) represent 61% of variability; F1 and F2 corroborate the pressure exerted by pollutants related with fertilizers and agrochemicals; F3 contains Zn and Pb with positive loads attributed to influx of tourist visitors. Sites S4, S5, S6, and S9 are identified as the most environmentally affected by COD, Alk*, pH, Cl-, nitrites, phosphates, and TS. Multivariate techniques permit to conclude that environmental stress of Lake Chapala is caused by variables pertaining to agrochemical, fertilizers and municipal wastes.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Metais Pesados/análise , México , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 420, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121167

RESUMO

In addition to several negative environmental effects, climate change, which reduces bioclimatic comfort levels especially in urban areas, also has economic implications, especially in cities where the economic structure is tourism-oriented. Considering most of the tourism practices are based on outdoor activities in cities such as Antalya, it is of great importance to determine bioclimatic comfort level as well as the attitudes of people toward climate change who live in those conditions to be able to take proper precautions in terms of tourism and urban planning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to reveal the bioclimatic comfort conditions of Antalya city center, and a comprehensive questionnaire was conducted with the people living in the area questioning the opinions on reasons and consequences of climate change, perceivable effects of climate change in Antalya, and suggestions to prevent or reduce the adverse effects. The areas with appropriate bioclimatic comfort conditions were determined and mapped via geographical information systems using temperature and relative humidity data of the years between 1960 and 2018. The data gathered via questionnaires were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, regression, correlation, and structural equation modelling via SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results, it was determined that in some parts of city center the bioclimatic comfort conditions decreased to levels that could reach harmful dimensions for human health and the analysis of the questionnaires revealed that people living in that area state that the effects of climate change are perceivable as the precipitation seasons have become irregular. According to the participants, it was determined that a 1-unit increase in environmental measures causes a decrease of 0.136 units in disasters (R2 = 1.1%). In comparison, 1-unit increase of Administrative Precautions will cause 0.030 units decrease in effects of climate change on vital needs (R2 = 1.4%). These analysis results show that the respondents expect the disaster scenarios to decrease when environmental measures are increased.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Turismo , Atitude , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Turquia
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4535-4550, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076715

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), a new sort of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are globally prevalent and recalcitrant toxic environmental pollutants. HBCDs have been found in many environmental media and even in the human body, leading to serious health concerns. HBCDs are biodegradable in the environment. By now, dozens of bacteria have been discovered with the ability to transform HBCDs. Microbial debromination of HBCDs is via HBr-elimination, HBr-dihaloelimination, and hydrolytic debromination. Biotic transformation of HBCDs yields many hydroxylated and lower brominated compounds which lack assessment of ecological toxicity. Bioremediation of HBCD pollution has only been applied in the laboratory. Here, we review the current knowledge about microbial debromination of HBCDs, aiming to promote the bioremediation applied in HBCD contaminated sites. KEY POINTS: • Microbial debromination of HBCDs is via hydrolytic debromination, HBr-elimination, and HBr-dihaloelimination. • Newly occurred halogenated contaminants such as HBCDs hitch the degradation pathway tamed by previously discharged anthropogenic organohalides. • Strategy that combines bioaugmentation with phytoremediation for bioremediation of HBCD pollution is promising.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 404, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110504

RESUMO

South Africa is a custodian of an immense wealth of natural and biodiversity resources in Africa. Natural resources are continually changing in different South African biospheres based on anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic causes. Land use activities like agriculture, cultivation, livestock rearing, commercial plantations, urbanisation and mining are among the major drivers of natural resource change and transformation. In this study, land cover change assessment was used to assess natural resource change in Vhembe biosphere and surroundings. To assess natural resource change in Vhembe biosphere, land use land cover change assessment was conducted using South African's national land-cover dataset, generated from multi-seasonal Landsat 5 and Sentinel-2 images. The 72× class land cover map was re-classified into 12× classes to fit the study objectives. Eight out of twelve classes quantified in hectares: indigenous forests, thicket/dense bush, natural woodland, shrubland, grassland, water bodies and wetlands were categorised as natural resources for which the natural resource change assessment for this study was based. Assessment findings established that land use and its related activities have contributed substantially to natural resource change where cultivated commercial, natural woodland and built-up residential contributed the most significant upward change in hectarage and percentage, from 132,246.9 to 365,644.92 (ha)-percentage change of 176%; from 94,665.42 to 257,889.68 (ha)-percentage changes of 172% and from 74,070.27 to 147,701.88(ha)-percentage change of 99% respectively. Shrubland, thicket/dense bush and indigenous forests registered the highest downward changes from 263,070.6 to 977.72 (ha); from 338,723.7 to 23,166.92 and from 13,211.91 to 7402.92 (ha) with percentage changes of -100%, -93% and -44% respectively in Vhembe biosphere and the surroundings from 1990 to 2018. The study showed how natural resources are changing and the use of remote sensing for environmental monitoring and assessment in the Vhembe district.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura , Florestas , Recursos Naturais , África do Sul
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 405, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110509

RESUMO

The massive destruction and loss caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami were attributed to the lack of knowledge on tsunami and low regional detection and communication systems for early warning in that region. This study aimed to identify locations at risk of impending tsunami from Andaman Sea for the safety of community and proper development planning at the coastal areas by providing an updated and revised inundation maps. The last study on this area was conducted several years ago which open the possibility to new findings. Generated by tsunami simulation models, the maps illustrate the extent and level of inundation to which the coastal community and infrastructure would be subjected. As a result of coastal changes and availability of better topographic data, the existing inundation maps for the coastal areas of northwest Peninsular Malaysia at risk to impending tsunami from the Andaman Sea are revised. This paper documented the computational setup leading to the generation of the revised inundation maps. The tsunami simulation model TUNA was used to simulate the generation, propagation, and subsequent run-up and inundation of tsunamis triggered by earthquakes of moment magnitudes (Mw) 8.5, 9.0, and 9.25 along the Sunda Trench. From the simulations, it was found that at Mw 9.25, Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang would be subjected to inundation of as far as 3.47 km with 5.40-m-deep inundation at the highest section.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Tsunamis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indonésia , Malásia
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 407, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110511

RESUMO

Urban development has positive and negative effects on the evolution of enclosed lake water quality. This study aims to quantitatively analyze the water quality evolution of a typical urban lake, the Sha Lake, in the process of urban development. The land use degree comprehensive index (I) was calculated to reveal the level of urban development; water quality index (Smid) and eutrophication index (Tmid) were used to evaluate the water quality changes by fuzzy comprehensive-quantifying assessment (FCQA) method. The urban construction process and the water quality changes in 2000-2018 in the Sha Lake Basin were divided into three stages: (1) in 2000-2006, with the slow urban development, water quality remained stable and the degree of eutrophication improved slightly; (2) in 2007-2009, I increased rapidly to reach 300, Smid and Tmid increased from 90.62 to 92.83 and 75.06 to 87.52, respectively. Water quality deteriorated because of the failure to implement environmental protection measures in time; (3) in 2010-2018, although urban development reached a high level (I > 300), the water network connection project, dredging project, exogenous pollutant control, and sewage pipe network renovation since 2009 were critical measures to improve water quality for a long time. Due to the lag effect on improving water quality, the implementation of environmental protection measures should be synchronized with or even before urban construction. The research results can provide a scientific basis for the urban lake water environment protection in the process of urban development.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 406, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110515

RESUMO

Riparian vegetation cover is significantly affected by a river's hydrological conditions. Especially in arid and semiarid areas, low flow will degrade riparian vegetation, and recent, intensive human activities in the Yongding River Basin have caused a sharp decrease in river flow. We analyzed interannual change in riparian vegetation, river flow effects, and land use on vegetation coverage using the 40 years (1977-2016) of remote sensing images and river flow, combined with 38 years (1980-2018) of land use data. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to determine vegetation cover in five different categories: extremely low, low, medium, high, and extremely high based on the pixel dichotomy model. The weighted average was calculated to obtain vegetation cover trends. We show that riparian vegetation cover from four rivers increased. Compared with 1977, in 2016, combined high and extremely high vegetation covers at the Dongyang, Yang, Sanggan, and Yongding Rivers increased by 20.3%, 26.7%, 50.0%, and 39.2%, respectively. High (R = -0.976, P < 0.01) and extremely high (R = -0.762, P < 0.05) vegetation covers are negatively correlated with flow in the Yongding River. The high vegetation cover of the Sanggan River riparian zone is negatively correlated with river flow (R = -0.683, P < 0.05). In the Dongyang and Sanggan Rivers, land use analysis in the riparian zone showed that change in cultivated land, grassland, and forest were significantly correlated with high and extremely high vegetation cover. The abundant cultivated land and restoration activities are likely responsible for the increase of riparian vegetation cover as river flows decline.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrologia
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 409, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114093

RESUMO

Brazil has one of the greatest hydroelectric potential in the world with high number of reservoirs for the electricity generation. However, little is known about the influence of these environments on the water quality. The water quality monitoring data from 14 stations distributed throughout the Irapé HPP reservoir (lentic environment), and its main tributaries (lotic environment), between the years 2008 and 2018, were evaluated and compared to assess the spatial variability of water quality. The analyzed parameters included total alkalinity, thermotolerant coliforms, electric conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved iron, total phosphorus, nitrate, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids, sulfate, water temperature, and turbidity. Cluster analysis (CA), Kruskal-Wallis (KW) tests, Spearman rank-order correlation, and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to identify and compare the relationship between the main parameters in the lotic and lentic environments. The CA resulted in four clusters according to proximity and the environment type (lotic or lentic). In general, the water quality showed better conditions in the reservoir and in the lotic stations on the immediate surround. The results may be associated with the greater sedimentation in the lentic environment. The analyses indicated that agricultural activities and the geochemical characteristics of the region are the main responsible for changes in the water quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 410, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114096

RESUMO

This study presents a comprehensive investigation of water quality parameters in the fourth sector of Lake Palic in Serbia, which has a regional strategic importance. Namely, it is designated as a tourist destination. What is perhaps even more important is that its surplus water ends up in Lake Ludas, a significant habitat for migrating and aquatic bird species, and it is a RAMSAR site. The conducted analysis points to the major conclusion that the reasons for very high Chlorophyll-a values can be found in considerable anthropogenic pressures exerted on the studied area. Due to these pressures, the lake is not in ecological equilibrium. To support this conclusion, an in-depth analysis was conducted using water quality measurements for 9 years, from 2011 to 2019. The data was subject to principal component analysis (PCA) and machine learning classification algorithms that identified a seasonal character regarding the lake's water quality. Water quality indexes (WQI) were determined using two approaches to provide a more general insight into the lake's overall quality. Keeping in mind the large number of data gathered monthly within the Palic-Ludas Lake system, fitted models for estimating certain water quality parameters were also developed. This was accomplished via multivariate regression, resulting in a number of equations that can, using a few basic input parameters, predict values of ammonium nitrogen, Chlorophyll-a, and 5-day biological oxygen demand. The fitted models were obtained for relatively homogeneous periods within a year identified by cluster analysis.


Assuntos
Lagos , Qualidade da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise Multivariada , Sérvia
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 408, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114104

RESUMO

Bengaluru, widely known for its pleasant climate and IT activities, is one of the fastest growing cities of the world. It houses more than 200 lakes. Lakes are important in a city like Bengaluru which does not have a perennial river, thus is dependent on many lakes for both water supply and recreation. Water quality of these lakes is essential, as they are open spaces as well as interact with groundwater. In this study, ten lakes of three different subwatersheds-rural, semi-urban and urban were studied. Physicochemical analysis of the lakes was carried out. The water quality index was then computed using the weighted arithmetic method and overall index of pollution method. It is found that in the city of Bengaluru, urban subwatersheds host lakes of very poor water quality and need immediate attention. Also, the lakes in semi-urban watersheds must be protected to avoid further deterioration and protection of water bodies. The current study presents the lake water quality of three different types of subwatersheds and hence will be useful in understanding the effect of land use on water quality. It will be helpful for decision makers to take further action in protecting not only the land but also the water quality present in the lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Qualidade da Água , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Poluição da Água/análise
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