Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 136.152
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

RESUMO

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Smog , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cidades , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMO

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Rios
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250000, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339398
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249641, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339363

RESUMO

Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.


Resumo Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.


Assuntos
Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bivalves , Metais Pesados/análise , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244494, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285607

RESUMO

Abstract Since water is one of the essentials for life, the presence and quality of water in the habitat is extremely important. Therefore, water quality change and management of Lake Aygır was investigated in this study. For this, water samples collected from the lake and the irrigation pool between May 2015 and May 2016 were analyzed monthly. Spectrophotometric, titrimetric and microbiological methods were used to determine the water quality. According to some water quality regulations, HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, fecal coliform and total suspended solid (TSS) values were found above the limit values. The other 29 parameters comply with Turkish national and international legislations. Lake Aygır was negatively affected by the surrounding settlements and agricultural activities. It is thought that the water resource should be monitored periodically and remedial studies should be done to prevent parameters exceeding the limits. However, Lake Aygır was generally suitable for drinking, use, fishing and irrigation.


Resumo Como a água é um dos elementos essenciais para a vida, a presença e a qualidade da água no habitat são extremamente importantes. Portanto, a mudança da qualidade da água e a gestão do lago Aygır foram investigadas neste estudo. Para isso, amostras de água coletadas no lago e na piscina de irrigação entre maio de 2015 e maio de 2016 foram analisadas mensalmente. Métodos espectrofotométricos, titulométricos e microbiológicos foram usados para determinar a qualidade da água. De acordo com alguns regulamentos de qualidade da água, os valores de HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, coliformes fecais e total sólido suspenso (TSS) foram encontrados acima dos valores limite. Os outros 29 parâmetros estão em conformidade com as legislações nacionais e internacionais turcas. O lago Aygır foi afetado negativamente pelos assentamentos e atividades agrícolas ao redor. Pensa-se que o recurso hídrico deve ser monitorado periodicamente e estudos corretivos devem ser feitos para evitar que os parâmetros ultrapassem os limites. No entanto, o lago Aygır era geralmente adequado para beber, usar, pescar e irrigar.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Lagos , Turquia , Qualidade da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesqueiros
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247913, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278555

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this paper was recording the occurrence of the species Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) in lotic systems of the State of São Paulo. Specimens were collected in Sapucaí River, located in Campos do Jordão State Park. The mapping of geographical distribution of this species is of interest to public health since L. variegatus may be an intermediate host of Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), a parasite of recognized zoonotic potential. Distribution data serves as a basis for environmental monitoring and evaluation, being essential to map possible cases of the disease (Dioctophimosis) and provide information to health professionals.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) em um sistema lótico do Estado de São Paulo. Os espécimes foram coletados no rio Sapucaí, localizado no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão. O mapeamento da distribuição geográfica desta espécie é de interesse para saúde pública uma vez que L. variegatus pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário de Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), parasito de reconhecido potencial zoonótico. Dados de distribuição servem de base para monitoramento e avaliação ambiental, sendo essenciais para mapear possíveis casos da doença (Dioctofimose) e fornecer informações para profissionais de saúde.


Assuntos
Animais , Oligoquetos , Nematoides , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113489, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325795

RESUMO

Heavy metal-contaminated wastes can threaten mangrove forests, one of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. The study evaluated the geospatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations in soils, the ecological and human health risks, and metal contents in soil fractions and mangrove organisms in the Botafogo estuary, Brazil, one of the most environmentally impacted estuaries in the country. The metal concentrations exceeded by up to 2.6-fold the geochemical background; 91%, 59%, 64%, 31%, and 82% of the soils were contaminated with Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni, respectively. Adverse effects to the biota may occur due to Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb exposures. Contents of clay and organic matter were the main factors governing the distribution of metals in soil, contributing to up to 63% of the total variability. However, the geospatial modeling showed that the predictive ability of these variables varied spatially with the metal and location. The ecological and human health risks assessments indicated that the metal concentrations in soils are safe for the environment and human beings. There was a low transfer of metals from the soil to the biota, with values of sediment-biota accumulation factor (SBAF) and biological accumulation coefficients (BAC) lower than 1.0, except for Zn (SBAF = 13.1). The high Zn bioaccumulation by Crassostrea rhizophorae may be associated with the concentrations of Zn in the bioavailable fractions.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 3498394, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320947

RESUMO

We present the results of groundwater quality assessment that was done during the rainy season in November 2018 in the Manga region of Nyamira County, Kenya. Water samples were collected from three springs, Kiangoso, Kerongo, and Tetema, for the assessment. Water quality index was calculated based on pH, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphates, fluoride, iron, total phosphorous, total hardness, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, and total coliform. These fifteen parameters were analyzed and characterized according to standard methods and with reference to the World Health Organization and Kenya Bureau of Standards for physiochemical and bacteriological parameters which were then used in the calculation of water quality index. The water quality index was 21.32 for Kiangoso, 29.66 for Kerongo, and 25.64 for Tetema. The water quality index was found to be of excellent quality status at Kiangoso, while of good quality status at Kerongo and Tetema. The water quality index of Manga groundwater represented by the three springs therefore is less than 30 and can be used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purpose. The present results are crucial for future management of groundwater in the Manga region.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Quênia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113495, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245764

RESUMO

Twenty beaches located around the island of Cyprus, in the eastern Mediterranean, were identified as monitoring sites. They were monitored over four monitoring sessions from January to September 2021 to assess marine litter amounts, categories, and spatiotemporal distribution. A total of 42,499 marine litter items were collected. The average marine litter density was 0.19 items/m2. Most of the collected items were plastics, with single-use plastics being ubiquitous. Plastic fragments >2.5 cm made a significant proportion of the plastic litter collected, particularly in the northern coasts of the island. Cigarette butts were abundant on touristic beaches, especially in the tourism period. The study identifies significant temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and distribution of marine litter, as well as variations related to waste management or lack thereof.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Chipre , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Estações do Ano , Resíduos/análise
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113565, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314394

RESUMO

Plastic pollution has become a threat to the global marine environment. Many studies have shown that marine organisms are at risk of plastic ingestion, but there is still a lack of relevant research in the artificial reef area and adjacent waters of Haizhou Bay, located in the western Yellow Sea. The study of MPs will provide useful information for MPs pollution in the artificial reef food webs, as well as the understanding of MPs trophic transfer by reef fish. In this study, we quantified plastic ingestion by marine fish in artificial reef areas and adjacent waters (Natural area, NA; Aquaculture area, AA; Estuary area, EA; Artificial reefs area, AR and Comprehensive effective area, CEA) and analysed the related possible influencing factors. Of the 146 fish samples examined, 100% of fish ingested plastics, and 98.9% of these particles were microplastics (MPs) (<5 mm), with 3.00 ± 2.63 pieces/fish. The main types and colours of MPs were fibre (95.9%) and blue (84%). The MP quantity of AR and AA were significantly higher than that of CEA (P < 0.05) and there is no significant difference among other habitats. The MP ingestion by pelagic fishes was significantly lower than that of demersal fishes (P < 0.05). MP ingestion by omnivores was significantly higher than that by carnivores and planktivores (P < 0.05). The body length (body weight) of four species (Larimichthys polyactis: 17.7-16.7 cm (16.01-59.41 g); Collichthys lucidus: 8.1-14.3 cm (19.65-56.92 g); Tridentiger barbatus: 5.9-9.2 cm (3.37-19.1 g); Cynoglossus joyneri: 10.1-18.7 cm (5-45 g)) had no significant correlation with MP ingestion (P > 0.05). Our results showed that MPs in this region are ubiquitous (i.e., the MP ingestion rate was as high as 100%). We infer that there is a transfer mechanism in MPs from pelagic to benthic fish in this area, and there is weak biomagnification with the trophic transfer of the food chain (TMF = 1.62). However, more practical studies still need to verify whether MPs are actually transferred to humans through trophic transfer from the marine food web.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Baías , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119058, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227841

RESUMO

In order to investigate the effectiveness of diagnostic ratios in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) source discrimination, semi-open pyrolysis experiments have been performed on an organic-rich, immature shale from the Winnipegosis Formation in southeastern Saskatchewan, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The concentrations and distributions of PAHs in expelled oils and residual extracts change drastically with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The difficulty and inconsistency commonly encountered by using diagnostic ratios for PAH source identification in environmental samples seem to be rooted in the great variation of the diagnostic ratios themselves under different formation temperatures. No single diagnostic ratio allows a simple segregation of PAHs into petrogenic or pyrogenic sources. Some diagnostic ratios such as anthracene/phenanthrene and benz[a]anthracene/chrysene compound pairs are mostly effective for low-temperature pyrolysis, whereas indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene, aromatic hydrocarbon ring number distribution and degree of alkylation are mainly valid for high-temperature pyrolysis. The diagnostic ratios based on fluoranthene/pyrene, benzo[bk]fluoranthene/benz[a]pyrene compound pairs enjoy limited validity over a narrow pyrolysis range, whereas parameters derived from aromatic hydrocarbon ring number distribution, degree of alkylation and 1,7-/(2,6- + 1,7-dimentylphenanthrene) may be undistinguishable between petrogenesis and low-temperature pyrolysis. The apparent temperature-related variability must be taken into account when using the diagnostic ratios for source identification purposes. Multiple molecular markers need to be carefully selected to confirm the results obtained with PAH diagnostic ratios. Mechanical use of diagnostic ratios most likely leads to misinterpretation of environmental samples.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Pirólise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Extratos Vegetais , Óleos Vegetais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Saskatchewan
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8972, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643781

RESUMO

Sources and levels of heavy metals (HMs) in soil and dust of urban and suburban areas in Riyadh (industrial city) and Mahad AD'Dahab (mining area) cities in Saudi Arabia were reported in this study. Additionally, the concentrations of HMs in different soil particle size fractions (> 250, 63-250 and < 63 µm) were reported. Pollution extent, and ecological and human health risks associated with collected soil and dust samples were explored. Contamination levels of HMs were higher in dust as compared to soil samples at all sites. The average integrated potential ecological risk in dust samples of urban area of Mahad AD'Dahab was 139, and thus characterized as a very-high-risk criterion. Enrichment factor (EF), correlation analyses, and principal component analysis showed that aluminum (Al), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), titanium (Ti), and zinc (Zn) had mainly the lithogenic occurrence (EF < 2). However, Zn, copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in Riyadh, and cadmium (Cd), Cu, Zn, and Pb in the Mahad AD'Dahab were affected by industrial and mining activities, respectively, that were of anthropogenic origins (EF > 2). The hazard index values of dust and soil (< 63 µm) samples in both urban and suburban areas in Mahad AD'Dahab were > 1, suggesting non-carcinogenic risk. Therefore, the dust and soil samples from the mined area of Mahad AD'Dahab had a higher pollution levels, as well as ecological and human health risks than those from Riyadh. Hence, the pollution of such residential environments with HMs (especially Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb) needs to be monitored.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Cádmio/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Solo , Zinco/análise
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 462, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644795

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the 1-year change over the pandemic period in Istanbul, the megacity with the highest population in Turkey, based on environmental components. Among the environmental topics, water consumption habits, changes in air quality, changes due to noise elements, and most importantly, the changes in usage habits of disposable plastic materials that directly affect health have been revealed. The results obtained showed that, in Istanbul, 8.1 × 108 gloves should be considered waste, and considering the population living in districts along coastal areas, the number of waste masks that are likely to end up in the sea was 325.648 pieces/day. The results of the air quality and noise measurements during the pandemic showed that reductions in parallel with human activities were recorded with the lockdown effect. The average noise values of the districts along both sides of the Bosporus, where urbanization is concentrated, were between 50 and 59 dB. The precautions taken during the pandemic have had an effective role in reducing air pollution in Istanbul. In the measurements, the parameters with effective reductions were PM10 (7-47%), PM2.5 (13-48%), NO2 (13-38%), and SO2 (10-56%). As a result, Istanbul's year of changes during the pandemic period, in terms of water, air, noise, and solid plastic wastes, which are the most important components of the environment, is presented.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Pandemias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Plásticos , Resíduos Sólidos
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 467, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648237

RESUMO

The relationship between indoor particulate matter and asthma in children was assessed in this study. Forty-five (45) locations were randomly selected across the five local government areas in Benin City, Edo State, for air quality assessment. Indoor and outdoor particulates (PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10) were monitored monthly using a handheld BLATN particulate sampler (Br-Smart-126S series). Reported clinical cases of asthma in children from 2008 to 2017 were collected from two major hospitals in the metropolis. The data obtained were analysed with SPSS for Windows version 21.0. The average concentrations of indoor and ambient PM ranged between 10.7-26.2 and 19.0-49.4 µg/m3 (PM1.0), 27.4-59.6 and 45.6-93.0 µg/m3 (PM2.5), and 33.5-67.9 and 60.9-106.1 µg/m3 (PM10) in the wet and dry seasons. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were observed above the WHO standards. Indoor particulate concentration was significantly (p = 0.001-0.012) higher in the dry season across the locations. Outdoor PM correlated positively (R = 0.568-0.855, p < 0.05; R2 = 0.322-0.724, p < 0.001) with their corresponding indoor PM concentration. The hazard ratio (HR) values of PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded 1 in all the sampling locations during the dry season, while the mean total hazard ratio (THR) of both PM metrics was considerably higher during the dry season than in the wet season. Indoor PM concentrations showed a significant positive correlation with reported cases of asthma (R = 0.498-0.542, p < 0.001) and accounted for 40.6% of the asthma cases during the dry season. The study showed that children in the selected households are at risk of increased asthma exacerbation due to exposure to particulate matter pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Asma , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 468, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648302

RESUMO

Pollution caused by municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming a serious threat to the environment. Composting may be an effective way to speed up the decomposition of biodegradable components in MSW, resulting in compost that can be utilized as an organic fertilizer. The pot experiments were carried out with different soil-MSW mixtures (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75; w/w) to determine the impact of MSW on the bioconcentration of Cd in commonly consumed plants of Sargodha. The possible health risks were evaluated by applying pollution indices, such as the pollution load index, bioconcentration factor, enrichment factor, and health risk index. The pollution load index was higher than 1 in 75% MSW-amended soil. However, the concentration of Cd was found to be below the permissible limits in all studied vegetables, with a range of 0.019-0.106 mg/kg. In the study, serum samples from different volunteers living in four sites in Sargodha were also collected and analyzed. For vegetable crops, the health risk index (HRI) was less than one. It is concluded that the concentration of Cd was increased by increasing the fraction of MSW. Although the metal contents in the soil treated with MSW were not high enough to categorize the soil as polluted, these findings show that the reuse of MSW can serve as an alternative to mineral fertilizers. However, the presence of Cd in MSW can have a direct impact on soil fertility and, if biomagnified, on crop production and human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos Sólidos , Verduras
16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 6161491, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707189

RESUMO

One key carrier for wetland resource protection is wetland park, the main form of which includes lake-type wetland park. To determine the management and control boundary of lake-type wetland parks scientifically and reasonably is of great significance to the sustainable protection and utilization of wetland resources. From the perspective of landscape architecture, and landscape ecology, this paper studies the boundary determination of Changdang Lake National Wetland Park (the Park) based on satellite remote sensing information technology and GIS technology and in virtue of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). In this study, 12 subindicators were selected from three levels including visual control, human geography, and ecological control. The weight of each indicator was determined by AHP, and then the influencing factors were transformed into graphic data by using GIS technology. Finally, the Park's boundary was determined by factor superposition analysis based on the weight. The research shows that the newly defined management and control boundary are about 340 sq.km, which effectively integrates the human and natural ecological resources around the lake area, makes the development of the surrounding areas harmonious, ensures the integrity of the lake area ecosystem, and facilitates the sustainable development of wetland resources.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 880399, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692332

RESUMO

Dhaka, the capital city, which is the nerve center of Bangladesh, is crisscrossed by six different rivers. A network of peripheral rivers connects the city and functions as a natural drainage system for a massive amount of wastewater and sewage by the increased number of inhabitants impacting the overall environmental soundness and human health. This study intended to identify and characterize the outfalls along the peripheral rivers of Dhaka city with the assessment of different pollution indices such as comprehensive pollution index (CPI), organic pollution index (OPI), and ecological risk indices (ERI). The study evaluated the status of the pollution in the aquatic system in terms of ambient water quality parameters along the peripheral rivers due to discharge from outfalls with a particular focus on waste load contribution. Among the identified outfalls, the majority are industrial discharge (60%), and some are originated from municipal (30%), or domestic sewers (10%). Water quality parameters such as suspended solids (SS), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N) for most of the peripheral rivers deviated by as much as 40-50% from industrial discharge standards by the environment conservation rules, Bangladesh, 1997. Based on the CPI, the rivers Buriganga, Dhaleshwari, and Turag could be termed as severely polluted (CPI > 2.0), while the OPI indicated heavy organic pollutant (OPI > 4) contamination in the Dhaleshwari and Buriganga rivers. The associated pollution indices demonstrate a trend for each subsequent peripheral river with significant pollution toward the downstream areas. The demonstrated waste loading map from the outfalls identified sources of significant environmental contaminants in different rivers leading to subsequent ecological risks. The study outcomes emphasize the necessity of systematic investigation and monitoring while controlling the point and non-point urban pollution sources discharging into the peripheral rivers of Dhaka city.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Bangladesh , Humanos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269744, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700165

RESUMO

Riverine macrophytes form distinct species groups. Their occurrence is determined by environmental gradients, e.g. in terms of physico-chemistry and hydromorphology. However, the ranges of environmental variables discriminating between species groups ("discriminatory ranges") have rarely been quantified and mainly been based on expert judgement, thus limiting options for predicting and assessing ecosystem characteristics. We used a pan-European dataset of riverine macrophyte surveys obtained from 22 countries including data on total phosphorus, nitrate, alkalinity, flow velocity, depth, width and substrate type. Four macrophyte species groups were identified by cluster analysis based on species' co-occurrences. These comprised Group 1) mosses, such as Amblystegium fluviatile and Fontinalis antipyretica, Group 2) shorter and pioneer species such as Callitriche spp., Group 3) emergent and floating species such as Sagittaria sagittifolia and Lemna spp., and Group 4) eutraphent species such as Myriophyllum spicatum and Stuckenia pectinata. With Random Forest models, the ranges of environmental variables discriminating between these groups were estimated as follows: 100-150 µg L-1 total phosphorus, 0.5-20 mg L-1 nitrate, 1-2 meq L-1 alkalinity, 0.05-0.70 m s-1 flow velocity, 0.3-1.0 m depth and 20-80 m width. Mosses were strongly related to coarse substrate, while vascular plants were related to finer sediment. The four macrophyte groups and the discriminatory ranges of environmental variables fit well with those described in literature, but have now for the first time been quantitatively approximated with a large dataset, suggesting generalizable patterns applicable at regional and local scales.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos , Fósforo
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 501, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701641

RESUMO

The research assessed the challenges associated with household solid waste management during COVID-19 lockdown period. A mixed method approach was used triangulating both quantitative and qualitative methods. Ten-percent sample size of 1690 households (target population) participated in the research. Stratified random and purposive sampling methods were used to select the participants. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16 and content analysis were used to analyze the data. Chi-square test was used to test whether education level determines the disposal strategy used during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Research findings demonstrates that compulsive use of personal protection equipment such as masks, spending more time at home, bulk buying, and storage of food has skewed the trend of waste generation resulting in the increase in quantity of waste produced daily. COVID-19 lockdown period resulted in reduced waste collection since waste refuse collectors were not operating during lockdown period leading to illegal dumping and burning of waste. On average amount of waste produced weekly per household level was 73 kg (organic waste 35.2 kg, toxic waste 10 kg, and recyclable waste 26.8 kg). A chi-square p value of 0.35 was obtained, showing that there is a relationship between waste disposal strategy used during COVID-19 lockdown period and level of education of the respondents. The research concludes that COVID-19 has greatly affected waste management strategies from generation, collection, transportation, and disposal. It is recommended that the responsible authorities must prioritize collection of waste during the lockdown period as well as ensuring that waste recyclers and collectors are among the essential service providers during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 500, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701693

RESUMO

The water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) is a carrying capacity of natural resources. It affects the application and expansion of the carrying capacity of water resources. This subject involves various elements, such as water resources, the ecological environment system, humans and their economic and social systems, and a wider range of biological groups and their survival needs. Based on the objective recognition of the complex relationship between the water resource system, ecological environment system, and economic and social system, the support scale of water resources and the ecological environment for economic and social development is studied. Current research on the carrying capacity of water resources has mostly shifted from the previously limited support capacity of water resources to include factors such as the population, economy, and ecology, establishing the internal relationships between the economics, water resources, and ecological environment. This reflects the comprehensive carrying capacity of the entire region (or river basin) of water resources and the ecological environment system on an overall economic and social scale. Based on the conceptual connotation of the WRCC and the actual problems facing water resources in Henan Province, the paper uses a system dynamics method to develop information feedback between the four subsystems of Henan Province: economic, population, water resource, and water environment subsystems. The index system of the WRCC in Henan Province is also determined. The weight of each index is comprehensively determined by a combination weighting method of the analytic hierarchy process and an entropy weight method, and then a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate the WRCC of Henan Province under four different development models. The validation period of the model is 2010-2020, and the forecast period is 2021-2030. The results indicate that during the period 2021-2030, the WRCC of Henan Province showed a slight upward trend overall under the four models, but the increase rates were different under the different models. Among the four models, the comprehensive model's benefit was the best, which not only maintained the healthy and stable development of the economy and society but also improved the pressure on the water resources and the quality of the water environment.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recursos Hídricos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Rios , Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...