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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 633, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522292

RESUMO

Information on community structure and spatial distribution of benthic habitats are important in marine conservation and management. Coral areas, often monitored by trained scuba divers, are of importance for the ecosystem goods and services they provide. The data gathered may, however, be limited due to cost and time constraints. These restrictions and the continuing decline in coral reef health contribute to the need to develop rapid methods to efficiently document the distribution and status of coral reefs. A Rapid Assessment Instrument for Coastal Benthic Habitats (ARAICoBeH) System was developed to enable large-scale but low-cost coastal benthic habitat characterization and mapping without compromising accuracy. Inquiries on community structure and status in coral-dominated areas are also possible with the data collected using the method. The instrument, as well as the data processing and mapping algorithm are described in detail in this paper. A comparative study was conducted between ARAICoBeH and the frequently used underwater photo transect method. Variables compared were percent coral cover, functional group diversity, community structure as well as time and monetary requirements. There were no significant differences in estimates of percent coral cover and diversity of benthic functional groups for majority of sites while estimates of community structure were very similar. ARAICoBeH is cheaper and requires less time to gather the same amount of data as that of the photo transect method. The spatial distribution of coastal benthic habitats and community structure of coral-dominated areas in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines, are included to illustrate the application of the method.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Ecossistema , Mapeamento Geográfico , Filipinas
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 616, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493130

RESUMO

This study is the first meta-regression analysis of the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at the global level. Most of the regulating ecosystem services have not been properly estimated in terms of economic value and are also ignored in the everyday decision-making process. This study has reviewed 100 publications and included 275 economic value estimates. This study includes explanatory variables in the meta-analysis to account for these influences on the estimated economic value of regulating ecosystem services. This study has estimated the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at US$29.085 trillion for 2015. This study also has found that the values of climate and water regulations are the highest contributors to the total value of regulating ecosystem services. This study indicates that the results of meta-analysis might be helpful to decision-making with respect to three aspects: first, planning and management of urban green cover for sustainable cities; second, integration of the economic value of all the regulating ecosystem services; third, budget allocation for conservation and improvement of regulating ecosystem services for the present and future generations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Clima , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Recursos Hídricos
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30016-30028, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414392

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in soils of development zones has attracted wide attention. In this study, soil heavy metal pollution levels and health risks in 15 selected development zones in Shandong Province were investigated for the first time. Geo-accumulation and potential ecological risk indexes were used to assess pollution levels, and health risk was assessed using the US Environmental Protection Agency model. The soil was contaminated by various heavy metals, among which Hg was dominant. A total of 19% of the monitoring sites showed moderate ecological risk level, and low risk level was observed in general. Pollution control of Hg and Cd in each development zone must be strengthened. Health risk analysis showed that noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risk levels for adults and children were acceptable or nearly acceptable. Positive matrix factorization model was used to identify three possible sources of heavy metal pollution, namely, industrial sources, atmospheric deposition, and transportation. Some specific measures should be taken to prioritize the control of Hg, As, and Cr for protecting the soil environment and human health, especially vulnerable groups, such as children.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Solo/química , Transportes/economia
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 274-281, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426157

RESUMO

European research efforts to address concerns in relation to increasing levels of marine litter and potential effects on ecosystems and human health have been launched. We assessed a total of 52 European projects which researched or contributed to the implementation of European marine litter legislation. These projects ranged from national initiatives, to large scale programmes involving multiple EU member states. The best represented topics within those European projects were 'Policy, Governance and Management' and 'Monitoring'. Comparatively 'Risk Assessment', 'Fragmentation' and 'Assessment Tools' were underrepresented. The analyses showed that West-European countries have contributed more to marine litter research and therefore received more funding. As a result, thematic hotspots were present, and scientific capacity is concentrated by topic and countries. The results indicate the need to continue to support initiatives to cover clearly identified gaps, either geographic or thematic, to deliver risk assessments and recommendations to address the marine litter issue.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Política Ambiental , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pesquisa , Medição de Risco
5.
J Nurs Adm ; 49(9): 418-422, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436739

RESUMO

The need for continuous observation (1:1) of patients for safety precautions, including fall risk, elopement risk, confusion, and aggressive behavior, is highly variable, and it is therefore difficult to plan accurate staffing levels. The high variability in determining when 1:1 staffing for safety is indicated, and for how long, leads to resource strain and high cost to the hospital. A multidisciplinary team analyzed current processes for assigning, monitoring, and discontinuing safety 1:1 care for nonsuicidal patients using Six Sigma methodologies. The team implemented a standardized weaning process to reduce the duration of time on continuous observation and a standardized 4-hour reassessment using a behavior observation-tracking tool to validate the continued need for 1:1 coverage. The interventions resulted in reducing average monthly safety 1:1 staffing hours by 25.6% and saving an estimated $142 000 annually across 6 units. Phase 2 of the project integrated the observation-tracking tool and reassessment check-in into the hospital's electronic medical record for improved tracking and documentation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Segurança do Paciente/economia , Gestão da Segurança/economia , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Gestão da Qualidade Total/organização & administração , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Pennsylvania , Projetos Piloto
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311099

RESUMO

Air quality monitoring has traditionally been conducted using sparsely distributed, expensive reference monitors. To understand variations in PM2.5 on a finely resolved spatiotemporal scale a dense network of over 40 low-cost monitors was deployed throughout and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Monitor locations covered a wide range of site types with varying traffic and restaurant density, varying influences from local sources, and varying socioeconomic (environmental justice, EJ) characteristics. Variability between and within site groupings was observed. Concentrations were higher near the source-influenced sites than the Urban or Suburban Residential sites. Gaseous pollutants (NO2 and SO2) were used to differentiate between traffic (higher NO2 concentrations) and industrial (higher SO2 concentrations) sources of PM2.5. Statistical analysis proved these differences to be significant (coefficient of divergence > 0.2). The highest mean PM2.5 concentrations were measured downwind (east) of the two industrial facilities while background level PM2.5 concentrations were measured at similar distances upwind (west) of the point sources. Socioeconomic factors, including the fraction of non-white population and fraction of population living under the poverty line, were not correlated with increases in PM2.5 or NO2 concentration. The analysis conducted here highlights differences in PM2.5 concentration within site groupings that have similar land use thus demonstrating the utility of a dense sensor network. Our network captures temporospatial pollutant patterns that sparse regulatory networks cannot.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Características de Residência , Justiça Social , Saúde da População Urbana , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Pennsylvania , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 435, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201540

RESUMO

Serious environmental problems have accompanied remarkable global economic growth for decades. To assist managers in the semiconductor industry with economic and environmental management, this study executes DuPont analysis to examine economic impacts from the effective implementation of sustainability initiatives. We propose a two-stage process including economic development efficiency and environmental protection efficiency through the dynamic data envelopment analysis (DDEA) to reflect the characteristics of eco-efficiency. Through DuPont analysis, the main finding shows the potential improvement in firms' return on equity (ROE) by efficiently utilizing assets to generate sales quickly.Relative to economic development efficiency, the firms show lower scores and higher standard deviations in the environmental protection ability, thus denoting a large gap in the level of environmental protection production technology. The findings in this study reveal that the financial foundations and sustainable development of industries should be improved simultaneously even though specific levels of semiconductor industrial eco-efficiency improvement vary among companies in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias/tendências , Semicondutores/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Comércio , Eficiência , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Taiwan
8.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 292-301, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091493

RESUMO

Linking water to research on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) has attracted wide interest as a means of supporting human-natural sustainability. However, most current research does not focus on water environmental properties; instead, it is at the stage of holistic status assessment and measures adjustment from the point of view of the whole study region without revealing the dynamic interaction between human activities and natural processes. This paper establishes an integrated model that combines a System Dynamics model, a Cell Automaton model and a Multiagent Systems model and exploits the potential of the combined model to reveal regions' human-water interaction status during the process of urban evolution, identify the main pollution sources and spatial units, and provide the explicit space-time measurements needed to enhance local human-natural sustainability. The successful application of the integrated model in the case study of Changzhou City, China reveals the following. (1) As the city's development has progressed, the water environment status in some spatial units is still unsatisfactory and may even become more serious, especially in the urban areas of the Urban District and Liyang County. The concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in monitoring section 157 of the Urban District has increased from 36.90 mg/l to 40.84 mg/l. The main source of this increase is the increase in secondary industry. (2) With the application of the spatially explicit measures of the sewage treatment ratio improvement and new sewage plant construction, the water quality in the urban area has significantly improved and now satisfies the water quality standards. The measure of livestock manure utilization enhancement is adopted to improve the spatial units in which livestock is the main pollution source and achieve the goal of water quality improvement. The model can be used to support the sustainable status assessment of human-water interaction and to identify effective measures that can be used to realize human-water sustainability along with social-economic development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Esgotos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Urbanização , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(10)2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130672

RESUMO

The Mobile Crowd-sensing Network is a novel cyber-physical-social network which has received great attention recently and can be used as a powerful tool to monitor the phenomenon of the field of interest. Due to the limited budget, how to choose appropriate participants to maximize the coverage quality is one of the most important issues when the mobile crowd-sensing network applies to practical application, such as air quality monitoring. In this paper, given the number of available participants, the traverse path and the reward of each participant, we investigate the problem of how to choose suitable participants to monitor an environment of a critical region by a crowd-sensing network, while the total rewards for all selected participants is not larger than the limited budget. In our solution, we first divide a big critical region such as a city into smaller regions of different size, and select some sampling points in the smaller region; the collected data of those sampling points represents the collected data of the whole smaller region. Then, we design a greedy algorithm to select participants to cover the maximum sampling points while the total rewards of selected participants does not exceed the limited budget. Finally, we evaluate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm by conducting extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the greedy algorithm outperforms an existing scheme.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Smartphone , Poluição do Ar/análise , Algoritmos , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Rede Social
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966852

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the regime of air pollution in Ioannina, NW Greece during the years of Greek financial crisis. Annual, weekly and daily patterns for PM10, PM2.5, NO2, O3 and Benzene were defined in order to reveal the sources of air pollutants in Ioannina and the time periods of probable episodes. The quality of air was characterized according to the European Environment Agency's European Air Quality Index, separately for winter and summer, while it was examined if and in what extend the thresholds of European Directives for each pollutant have been exceeded. The air quality in Ioannina was found to be "Good" as far as NO2 and O3 were concerned. In contrast, there were many cases with "Poor" and "Very Poor" conditions related to PM10 and PM2.5 levels, mainly during winter and autumn, caused by wood burning for residential heating. The mean annual concentrations of all pollutants did not exceed EU's standards, but from 2011 onwards, the number of cases with PM10 mean daily concentration above threshold surpassed the number of permitted exceedences of EU directives.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Recessão Econômica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/economia , Benzeno/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Grécia , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Compostos de Oxigênio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
11.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 676-685, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933765

RESUMO

Economic development puts pressure on environment through air, water and land degradation, which in turn brings real costs to the economy. Actual economy growth should therefore consider the environmental degradation cost resulted from economic activities. Pearl River Delta (PRD) region as a typical delta area with rapid development in China, is with great significance to understand the loses resulted from environmental pollution. This study conducts an environmental economic accounting within the PRD region from 2011 to 2015 using the environmental degradation cost accounting approach. We identified and calculated the economic, agricultural, industrial and social losses resulting from air, water and waste pollution with different valuation methods, which includes shadow price, replacement costs, market value method, etc. The results showed the total environmental degradation cost ranged from 18.1 to 19.8 billion US$ and the environmental degradation index declined slightly over the years, with significant differences among cities. It implied that the environmental condition of PRD region has been continuously improved over the years, but the capacity of environment control between cities had large differences. Cities in PRD region should therefore take measures tailored to their current situation to optimize their resource endowment and industrial structure, to overcome the conflicts between economic development and environmental protection. For cities with relatively high degradation cost, it is urgent to accelerate the efforts in improving the quality of the environment and ecosystem. For cities with lower degradation cost, it is important to take actions to keep on a sustainable and ecological efficient developing path. MAIN FINDINGS: The total environmental degradation cost of the PRD region is firstly calculated with insights on environmental management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Rios/química , Agricultura , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Indústrias
12.
J Vis Exp ; (145)2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958472

RESUMO

Communities of nonvascular cryptogams, such as mosses or lichens, are an important part of the Earth's biodiversity, contributing to the regulation of the carbon and nitrogen cycles in many ecosystems. Being poikilohydric organisms, they do not actively control their internal water content and need a humid environment to activate their metabolism. Therefore, studying water relationships of nonvascular cryptogams is crucial to understand both their diversity patterns and their functions in the ecosystems. We present the BtM datalogger, a low-cost open-source platform for the study of the water content of nonvascular cryptogams. The datalogger is designed to measure ambient temperature, humidity, and conductance from up to eight samples simultaneously. We provide a design for a printed circuit board (PCB), a detailed protocol to assemble the components, and the required source code. All this makes the assembly of the BtM datalogger accessible to any research group, even to those without previous specialized knowledge. Therefore, the design presented here has the potential to help popularize the use of this type of device among ecologists and field biologists.


Assuntos
Briófitas/metabolismo , Custos e Análise de Custo , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Líquens/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Umidade , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013626

RESUMO

Currently, low-cost, sensor-based fine dust measurement devices are commercially available in South Korea. This study evaluated the reliability of three such devices-Yi Shan A4, Plantower PMS7003, and Plantower PMS7003-in comparison to long-term consecutive monitoring systems for discharge and prevention facilities regarding fine dust control. The performance of these devices for concentration intervals over time was examined through real-time comparison using a GRIMM (Model: 11-A, dust spectrometer from Grimm Technologies) as a reference; this included a correction factor (C-Factor), calculated by a gravimetric method and an equivalence test. For comparison, the reference and target devices were installed in a chamber with fine dust concentrations of 2 µg/m3, with temperature and humidity maintained at 20 °C and 40%, respectively. The fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 concentrations were classified into five intervals: ≤40 µg/m3, 40⁻80 µg/m3, 80⁻120 µg/m3, 120⁻160 µg/m3, and 200⁻230 µg/m3. Statistical analysis was performed using data obtained from national stations for monitoring and controlling fine dust released from facilities under high fine dust loading conditions. The results showed that the measurements of all target devices, which were corrected according to the reference device, provided accurate values at PM2.5 concentrations of ≥40 µg/m3. The statistical analysis results suggest that the evaluated devices are more reliable than the conventional numerical-analysis-based monitoring system.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Custos e Análise de Custo , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215586, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017960

RESUMO

Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to record the presence of many different organisms in several different aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although eDNA has been demonstrated as a useful tool for the detection of invasive and/or cryptic and declining species, this approach is subject to the same considerations that limit the interpretation of results from traditional survey techniques (e.g. imperfect detection). The wood turtle is a cryptic semi-aquatic species that is declining across its range and, like so many chelonian species, is in-need of a rapid and effective method for monitoring distribution and abundance. To meet this need, we used an eDNA approach to sample for wood turtle presence in northern Virginia streams. At the same time, we used repeat visual encounter surveys in an occupancy-modelling framework to validate our eDNA results and reveal the relationship of detection and occupancy for both methods. We sampled 37 stream reaches of varying size within and beyond the known distribution of the wood turtle across northern Virginia. Wood turtle occupancy probability was 0.54 (0.31, 0.76) and while detection probability for wood turtle occupancy was high (0.88; 0.58, 0.98), our detection of turtle abundance was markedly lower (0.28; 0.21, 0.37). We detected eDNA at 76% of sites confirmed occupied by VES and at an additional three sites where turtles were not detected but were known to occur. Environmental DNA occupancy probability was 0.55 (0.29, 0.78); directly comparable to the VES occupancy estimate. Higher probabilities of detecting wood turtle eDNA were associated with higher turtle densities, an increasing number of days since the last rainfall, lower water temperatures, and lower relative discharges. Our results suggest that eDNA technology holds promise for sampling aquatic chelonians in some systems, even when discharge is high and biomass is relatively low, when the approach is validated and sampling error is quantified.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , /genética , Tartarugas/genética , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Biomassa , Custos e Análise de Custo , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Dinâmica Populacional , Probabilidade , Rios , Virginia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027282

RESUMO

Natural ecosystems benefit human lives via providing fundamental life-support services and goods upon which human civilization depends. However, as nature provides those for free, many people believe that they are of little or no value and they exploit the land greedily and unreasonably, which makes serious ecological degradation. Concerning this issue, we present the ecological services valuation model (ESVM) to measure the cost of environmental degradation of land use cost, which is an evaluation model of environmental degradation cost. Environmental degradation cost refer to the cost of deterioration or compromise of natural environment through natural processes or human activities, which consists of opportunity cost and environmental damage cost. Land area is an important variable in the ESVM. Based on Osmotic system, we put forward the effective land area, which combines the scale factor and the impact of external environment. What is more, the Cobb-Douglas production function is modified to establish the model. Finally, we propose the calculation formula of the economic cost of land use projects. Analysis of effectiveness and sensitivity prove that ESVM was a relatively stable model.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Planejamento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , China , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Modelos Econométricos , Modelos Teóricos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935120

RESUMO

Environmental⁻economic efficiency assessment is an effective way to evaluate the degree of coordination between an economy and the environment. Previous studies on environmental⁻economic efficiency have primarily investigated the efficiency of economic production and have often overlooked the efficiency of pollution treatment in overall economic activities. We applied a network data envelopment analysis model to evaluate the environmental⁻economic efficiency of a multistage process with undesirable outputs in 30 Chinese provinces during 2001⁻2017. The multistage process consisted of two sequential stages: economic production and pollution treatment. The results show that the average environmental⁻economic efficiency across all provinces was generally low but demonstrated a gradual upward trend during the study period. The spatial pattern for the 30 provinces showed that provinces with medium or high environmental⁻economic efficiency are mainly located in the eastern regions in China. Finally, few provinces exhibited economic activities with high economic production and pollution treatment efficiency, with most provinces generally having low economic production and pollution treatment efficiency. Hence, provinces with different economic production and pollution treatment efficiency modes should implement targeted improvement strategies according to their characteristics.


Assuntos
Economia , Eficiência Organizacional/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , China , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 209, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847582

RESUMO

In Palestine, open dumping and/or burning the waste, including agricultural waste, are prevalent practices resulting in emitting leachate and acidifying greenhouse gases. Composting the agricultural waste can reduce emissions and provide 'compost' as an organic fertilizer and soil amendment; yet, it has not been implemented at the national level. To develop a local marketing strategy for compost, this study views a need to identify farmers' perceptions and willingness of compost production and use in agriculture and examine various socioeconomic, agricultural, and individual factors shaping them. The case of Wadi al-Far'a watershed (WFW) is investigated, where farmers practice inappropriate waste disposal and overuse of agrochemicals. A semi-structured questionnaire is administered to 409 farmers through face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression are used for data analysis. High acceptance level (84%) is disclosed among farmers in WFW for the hypothetical idea of producing and using compost. Farmers also have high, yet lower, willingness level (63.6%) of the more salient option of producing compost themselves and using it in agriculture. Tenure systems, large cultivated areas, rainfed irrigation, and lack of access to training sessions inhibit farmers' acceptance of the idea of compost production (overall p value = 0.000). Large cultivated areas and rainfed irrigation is also associated with farmers' unwillingness to produce compost, besides high household monthly income, animal or mixed animal-plant farming, experience in compost production, and use of pesticides (overall p value = 0.000).


Assuntos
Compostagem/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Fazendas/economia , Poluição da Água/economia , Animais , Fertilizantes/economia , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Praguicidas/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos/economia , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Solo/química , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(6): 1944-1954, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884047

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate a low-cost water quality test for at-scale drinking water safety estimation in rural India. METHODS AND RESULTS: Within a longitudinal study to characterize variability in household drinking water safety in rural Maharashtra, we piloted a low-cost presence-absence (LCPA) microbial test designed to be used by volunteer residents in rural areas. In comparing the LCPA results with standard laboratory methods for enumeration of Escherichia coli, we found that LCPA tests using modified mTec media were highly sensitive in detecting drinking water of moderate risk (88% of tests were positive at E. coli counts of 11-100 CFU per 100 ml) and high risk (96% of tests were positive at E. coli counts of 101 + CFU per 100 ml). The LCPA tests demonstrated low specificity for E. coli specifically, due to concurrent detection of Klebsiella: 38% of LCPA tests were positive even when E. coli was not detected in a 100 ml sample by membrane filtration, suggesting the test would be conservative in risk estimation. We also found that 47% of participants in rural villages in India were willing to conduct tests and return results after a brief training, with 45% of active participants sending their water testing results via short message service. CONCLUSIONS: Given their low cost (~US$0.50 as piloted) and open-source format, such tests may provide a compelling alternative to standard methods for rapid water quality assessments, especially in resource-limited settings. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The lack of availability of water quality data constrains efforts to monitor, evaluate and improve the safety of water and sanitation infrastructure in underserved settings. Current water testing methods are not scalable because of laboratory and cost constraints. Our findings indicate the LCPA or similar low-cost microbial tests could be useful in rapid water safety estimation, including via crowdsourcing.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Índia , Estudos Longitudinais , Técnicas Microbiológicas/economia , Técnicas Microbiológicas/normas
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(2): 120, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706141

RESUMO

Scientifically determining the characteristics of arable land use in different regions is significant in promoting arable land protection. Most studies on the changes in arable land focus on an isolated analysis of the impact of urban development on arable land. Studies on the influence mechanism of regional spatial forces in different cities from the macro perspective are limited. A gravity model and ArcGIS spatial analysis methods were used to analyze the characteristics and driving mechanisms of arable land changes in different urban function orientations from the perspective of interregional economic interaction. We hope to provide guidance for the establishment of arable land protection in a similar city circle. The results indicated the following: (1) During the study period, the geographic range of arable land with strong dynamic changes (average annual change exceeding 1.5%) gradually widened from the core area to the surrounding area, while the annual change rate decreased. (2) There is a strong correlation between the change in arable land use and the scope of gravitational action. The dynamic changes in arable land in areas with strong gravitational relationships with the core area are strong, while in the weak gravitational areas that are less affected by the core area, the average annual rate of change is nearly below 1%. (3) In the 10-year study period, the overall changing trend of the radiation circle in the core area expanded. The gravitational value where the breaking point falls within its own administrative division is more related to the change of its arable land area, and the greater the gravitational attraction is, the more likely the correlation. In a city circle, it is essential to both protect arable land resources and promote coordinated economic development. Future research on arable land utilization in different city circles should consider overall area development. Different functional areas can be determined by calculating the gravitational value, then regional development potential and key development types can be determined, and arable land protection measures can be optimized based on these functional areas.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais/provisão & distribução , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Humanos
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(3): 175, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788632

RESUMO

Management of healthcare waste in low- and middle-income countries lacks a straightforward solution, especially where rural health services are provided. The purpose of our case study was to explore the knowledge and practices of health surveillance assistants operating at rural village health clinics in Ntcheu District, Malawi, with regard to the collection, segregation, transportion, treatment, and disposal of healthcare waste. Data were collected from 81 clinics. The results indicated that while general gaps in both knowledge and practice were observed, sharps (e.g., needles) management was generally being done well. An opportunity for scale-up was found in one clinic, in which local materials had been used to construct a low-cost innovative sharps disposal receptacle that had been modified from a pit latrine design. This study recommends waste management training suitable for rural settings, the promotion of low-cost sharps disposal receptacles using local materials, further opportunities for low-cost incinerators, central waste collection, and encouraging grassroots innovation in healthcare waste management.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Humanos , Incineração , Malaui , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Agulhas , Serviços de Saúde Rural/economia , População Rural
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