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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110994, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888603

RESUMO

The effects of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (90%), Microcystis aeruginosa) and dense Elodea canadensis beds on the health endpoints of the amphipod Gmelinoides fasciatus and bivalve mollusc Unio pictorum were examined in mesocosms with simulated summer conditions (July-August 2018) in the environment of the Rybinsk Reservoir (Volga River Basin, Russia). Four treatments were conducted, including one control and three treatments with influencing factors, cyanobacteria and dense elodea beds (separately and combined). After 20 days of exposure, we evaluated the frequency of malformed and dead embryos in amphipods, heart rate (HR) and its recovery (HRR) after stress tests in molluscs as well as heat tolerance (critical thermal maximum or CTMax) in both amphipods and molluscs. The significant effect, such as elevated number of malformed embryos, was recorded after exposure with cyanobacteria (separately and combined with elodea) and presence of microcystins (MC) in water (0.17 µg/l, 40% of the most toxic MC-LR contribution). This study provided evidence that an elevated number (>5% of the total number per female) of malformed embryos in amphipods showed noticeable toxicity effects in the presence of cyanobacteria. The decreased oxygen under the influence of dense elodea beds led to a decrease in HR (and an increase in HRR) in molluscs. The notable effects on all studied biomarkers, embryo malformation frequency and heat tolerance in the amphipod G. fasciatus, as well as the heat tolerance and heart rate in the mollusc U. pictorum, were found when both factors (elodea and cyanobacteria) were combined. The applied endpoints could be further developed for environmental monitoring, but the obtained results support the importance of the combined use of several biomarkers and species, especially in the case of multi-factor environmental stress.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Anfípodes/metabolismo , Animais , Aphanizomenon/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Bivalves/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Microcystis/metabolismo , Federação Russa , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110957, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888620

RESUMO

Due to growing commercial interest as a fishing resource and its intermediate position in the marine trophic chains as both prey and predator, cephalopods can play an important role in mercury (Hg) transfer along the marine food webs, since they can bioaccumulate this metal in its tissues. Our study aims to analyze Hg accumulation in Loligo forbesi caught in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal) quantifying Hg in different tissues (mantle and stomach), as well in the squid stomach content, in order to evaluate the efficiency of Hg transfer from prey to predator. Hg data from the tissues was used to estimate the weekly tolerable Hg intake due to squid consumption. Overall data indicate that Hg measured in the stomach tissue (0.1 ± 0.01 µg g-1) was significantly higher than Hg levels found in the mantle (0.04 ± 0.001 µg g-1) and stomach contents (0.01 ± 0.001 µg g-1). BMF (bioaccumulation factor) was >1 for all the samples, indicating a biomagnification process from prey to predator. Hg concentration in the mantle tissue was correlated with mantle size; although females present higher Hg levels than males, the difference was found to be not related to gender but rather to the fact that females had larger bodies. Finally, considering the Hg concentration found in the mantle and the permitted Hg levels, it is advisable to consume up to 1050-1890g of squid per week, according to the regulatory agencies. Thus, our results indicate that, since these doses are respected, consumption of squids from the Azorean waters do not pose a risk to humans.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Loligo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Portugal , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Nature ; 585(7824): 193-202, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908264

RESUMO

Advances in machine learning and contactless sensors have given rise to ambient intelligence-physical spaces that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of humans. Here we review how this technology could improve our understanding of the metaphorically dark, unobserved spaces of healthcare. In hospital spaces, early applications could soon enable more efficient clinical workflows and improved patient safety in intensive care units and operating rooms. In daily living spaces, ambient intelligence could prolong the independence of older individuals and improve the management of individuals with a chronic disease by understanding everyday behaviour. Similar to other technologies, transformation into clinical applications at scale must overcome challenges such as rigorous clinical validation, appropriate data privacy and model transparency. Thoughtful use of this technology would enable us to understand the complex interplay between the physical environment and health-critical human behaviours.


Assuntos
Inteligência Ambiental , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Algoritmos , Doença Crônica/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Segurança do Paciente , Privacidade
5.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126867, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957282

RESUMO

The unique maneuverability, ease of deployment, simplicity in logistics, and relatively low costs of multicopters render them effective vehicles for low atmospheric research. While many efforts have contributed to the fundamental success of atmospheric applications of multicopters in the past, several challenges remain, including limited measurable variables, possible response-delay in real-time observations, insufficient measurement accuracy, endurance of harsh conditions and tolerance towards interferences. To address these challenges and further fortify the applicability in diversified research disciplines, this study developed an optimized multicopter UAV sounding technique (MUST). The MUST serves as an integrated platform by combining self-developed algorithms, optimized working environments for sensors/monitors, and retrofitted sampling devices to probe a comprehensive set of atmospheric variables. These variables of interest include meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind direction and speed), the chemical composition (speciated VOCs, CO, CO2, CH4, CO2 isotopologues, O3, PM2.5, and black carbon), and the radiation flux, as well as visible and thermal images. The aim of this study is to achieve the following objectives: 1. to easily probe a comprehensive set of near-surface atmospheric variables; 2. to improve data quality by correcting for sensors' delay in real-time observations and minimizing environmental interferences; and 3. to enhance the versatility and applicability of aerial measurements by incorporating necessary hardware and software. Field launching cases from the surface to a maximum height of 1000 m were conducted to validate the robustness of the integrated MUST platform with sufficient speed, accuracy and resolution for the target variables.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Meteorologia , Vento
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111041, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888612

RESUMO

Although the production and use of PCB153 have been banned globally, PCB153 pollution remains because of its persistence and long half-life in the environment. There is ongoing evidence that exposure to PCB153 may influence gut microbiota health and increase the risk of host health. It is needed to illuminate whether there are associations between gut microbiota dysregulation and PCB153-induced host diseases. Importantly, it is urgently needed to find specific strains as biomarkers to monitor PCB153 pollution and associated disorders. The work aims to investigate the change of gut microbiota composition, structure and diversity and various host physiological indexes, to ravel the chain causality of PCB153, gut microbiota health and host health, and to find potential gut microbiota markers for PCB153 pollution. Here, adult female mice were administrated with PCB153. Obtained results indicated that PCB153 led to gut microbiota health deterioration. PCB153 exposure also induced obesity, hepatic lipid accumulation, abdominal adipose tissue depots and dyslipidemia in mice. Furthermore, specific gut microbiota significantly correlated with the host health indexes. This work provides support for the relationship between gut microbiota aberrance derived from PCB153 and risk of host health, and offers some indications of possible indicative functions of gut microbiota on PCB153 pollution.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Colo/microbiologia , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/microbiologia , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111055, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888617

RESUMO

The pollution level of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in surface soils is detrimental to the ecosystem and human health. In this research, various indices such as an index of geo-accumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (DC), and principal component analysis (PCA) were implemented to identify and evaluate the soil PTEs pollution; and then human health risk assessment model used to establish the link between heavy metals pollution and human health in the urban region of south India. Results exhibited that the mean concentration of Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were found to be 1.45-6.03 times greater than the geochemical background values. Cr and Cu were the most profuse PTEs measured in the soils. The pollution indices suggest that soil of the study region is mainly moderate to highly polluted. The non-carcinogenic health risk assessment proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggested the mean hazard indices (HIs) were below one which denotes no significant of non-carcinogenic risks to both children and adults. Furthermore, carcinogenic risk assessment results advised ~80% of cancer risk was caused by Cr contents, while other heavy metals indicate that neither children nor adults in the study region were of carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adulto , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Ecossistema , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Humanos , Índia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Urbanização
8.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105594, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911329

RESUMO

Diatoms are highly sensitive to perturbations in their environment and are thus useful as bioindicators for anthropogenic impacts such as pollution. However, there is no consensus about what aspects of diatom populations to measure (e.g., diversity, physiology, or morphology) and efficient and reliable survey protocols are lacking. Here, we evaluated the ecological status of diatom communities using both traditional and relatively novel methods on two islands (Deokjeok island and Daeijak island) affected by anthropogenic activities due to extensive agricultural practices and exploitation and that are under consideration for representative touristic sites in South Korea. Dissolved concentrations of metals and metalloid (As, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were below the ecological screening and toxicity reference values in water fractions but were above these values for sediment, particularly at one island, Deokjeok. The tested methods were generally consistent in finding little evidence for disruption of diatom communities, with dominance by Navicula and Gyrosigma, relatively high diversity, and typical abundance of lipid bodies and morphological deformities. However, analysis of lipid bodies and morphological deformities suggested greater potential anthropogenic disturbance at one site in Deokjeok. Future planning is required to ensure the maintenance of the near-pristine environments present on these islands.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Agricultura , China , Saúde Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ilhas , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco
9.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106344, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892902

RESUMO

The novel approach for optimising soil sampling strategies in areas affected by radionuclides is suggested. Major factors influencing the efficiency of soil sampling strategies, including (number of samples, sampling area size, sampling depth and spatial resolution of the sample sites are examined to provide optimisation of the soil sampling plan. The experimental field studies to validate the suggested approach were performed in 25 sampling units ranging from 1.2 × 1.2 m to 60 × 60 m size. The sampling units were selected on arable farmlands, natural meadow and former agricultural land), as well as coniferous and deciduous forests with contamination density of 137Cs ranging from 2.8 kBq·m-2 to 24.5 MBq·m-2. The studied areas were contaminated by both the global fallout and the Chernobyl radioactive particles of different types. To determine the values of standard deviation of the log of the soil contamination density of 137Cs, 25 to 256 soil samples were collected with an increment of 0.07-10 m within each sampling unit. It was found that the values of standard deviation of the log of the soil contamination density of 137Cs were not dependent on the mean contamination density, the type of radioactive deposition and the landscape features. The mean value of standard deviation calculated for all sites studied was estimated as 0.44 ± 0.15 and 0.30 ± 0.10 for the sampling area 0.001 m2 (∅37 mm) and 0.005 m2 (∅80 mm) at the relative measurement uncertainties lower than 10% (CI = 95%). Concentrations of 137Cs in the soil samples were statistically independent when sampling points were situated at a distance larger than 1 m one from each other. A simple method was developed for assessing minimum sample sizes required for estimation of the median or the geometric mean of radionuclide soil contamination with a relative uncertainty set by the user. The approach was also suggested for estimation of the uncertainty of soil contamination for the case of composite samples. The approach was implemented in the Ukrainian national requirements for assessment of quality of the soil.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Radioisótopos de Césio , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Florestas , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Solo
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127412, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947661

RESUMO

The objective of this study was development of a simple and reliable microbial toxicity test based on fermentative bacteria to assess heavy metal (Hg2+, Cu2+, Cr6+, Ni2+, As5+, or Pb2+)-contaminated water. The dominant species of test organisms used in this study was a spore-forming fermentative bacterium, Clostridium guangxiense. Toxicity of water was assessed based on inhibition of fermentative gas production of the test organisms, which was analyzed via a syringe method. Overall, the fermentative bacteria-based test kits satisfactorily identified increased toxicity of water as water was contaminated with high amounts of heavy metals; however, levels of inhibition were dissimilar depending on the species of metals. Inhibitory effects of Hg2+, Cu2+, Cr6+, and Ni2+ were considerably greater than those of As5+ and Pb2+. The 24 h half-maximum effective concentrations (EC50) for Hg2+, Cu2+, Cr6+, Ni2+, As5+, and Pb2+ were analyzed to be 0.10, 0.51, 1.09, 3.61, 101.33, and 243.45 mg/L, respectively, confirming that Hg2+, Cu2+, Cr6+, and Ni2+ are more toxic to fermentative gas production than As5+ and Pb2+. The fermentative bacteria-based toxicity test represents an improvement over other existing toxicity tests because of ease of end-point measurement, high reproducibility, and favorable on-site field applicability. These advantages make the fermentative bacteria-based test suitable for simple and reliable toxicity screening for heavy metal-contaminated water.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Bactérias , Clostridium , Fermentação , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127310, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947673

RESUMO

We characterized the aerosol composition and sources of particulate matter (PM) in Sanmenxia, a polluted city located in the Fen-Wei Plain region of Central China. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by 18% from 72 µg m-3 in 2014 to 59 µg m-3 in 2019. All chemical species presented pronounced seasonal variations, with their highest concentrations in winter due to enhanced emissions and the frequent stagnant meteorological conditions. Nitrate was the major fraction of PM2.5 during all seasons (35-41%) except summer (25%), while sulfate was a dominant species in summer (29%) compared to other seasons (16-18%) from July 2018 to June 2019. The detailed analysis of a wintertime severe haze episode that lasted for approximately half a month demonstrated that secondary aerosols, including secondary organic aerosol, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, contributed 89% to non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1), indicating the remarkable role of secondary aerosol formation in air pollution in Sanmenxia. Positive matrix factorization analysis further showed considerably enhanced low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and hydrocarbon-like OA during severe haze episodes, while significant contributions in semi-volatile oxygenated OA and coal combustion OA during clean periods. Severe pollution events in the city were generally associated with air masses from the southwest, and we also found that aerosol species, especially secondary aerosol species, showed distinct forenoon increases that were caused by the subsidence of air pollutants aloft. Our results highlight that future air quality improvement would benefit substantially from a more efficient control of gaseous precursors, particularly the NOx emissions from industry and vehicle emissions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
12.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 94, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various risk factors influence obesity differently, and environmental endocrine disruption may increase the occurrence of obesity. However, most of the previous studies have considered only a unitary exposure or a set of similar exposures instead of mixed exposures, which entail complicated interactions. We utilized three statistical models to evaluate the correlations between mixed chemicals to analyze the association between 9 different chemical exposures and obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We fitted the generalized linear regression, weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to analyze the association between the mixed exposures and obesity in the participants aged 6-19 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010. RESULTS: In the multivariable logistic regression model, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) (OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.11, 1.40)), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58)), and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) (OR (95% CI): 1.42 (1.07, 1.89)) were found to be positively associated with obesity, while methylparaben (MeP) (OR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.68, 0.94)) was negatively associated with obesity. In the multivariable linear regression, MEP was found to be positively associated with the body mass index (BMI) z-score (ß (95% CI): 0.12 (0.02, 0.21)). In the WQS regression model, the WQS index had a significant association (OR (95% CI): 1.48 (1.16, 1.89)) with the outcome in the obesity model, in which 2,5-DCP (weighted 0.41), bisphenol A (BPA) (weighted 0.17) and MEP (weighted 0.14) all had relatively high weights. In the BKMR model, despite no statistically significant difference in the overall association between the chemical mixtures and the outcome (obesity or BMI z-score), there was nonetheless an increasing trend. 2,5-DCP and MEP were found to be positively associated with the outcome (obesity or BMI z-score), while fixing other chemicals at their median concentrations. CONCLUSION: Comparing the three statistical models, we found that 2,5-DCP and MEP may play an important role in obesity. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of the three statistical models, our study confirms the necessity to combine different statistical models on obesity when dealing with mixed exposures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Pediátrica/induzido quimicamente , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110905, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800240

RESUMO

The group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are particularly dangerous for the environment and by consequence for human health because of the risk to be transmitted in the food chain. Among them, the urgent problem of obsolete and forbidden organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) needs a rigorous management in many countries, including Kazakhstan. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides content in food products on the genetic status and health of the population living on the contaminated areas near destroyed warehouses for OCPs (4 villages of Talgar district and 1 control site, Almaty region). The food products sampled in Taukaraturyk (control site), and in 4 villages where non-utilized obsolete pesticides were discovered: Beskainar, Kyzylkairat, Amangeldy, and Belbulak. The contents of 24 pesticides in food products from plant (apples, pears, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet peppers) and animal (beef meat, cow milk, honey) origin, that grown in places of localization of non-utilized OCPs, were determined, sometimes in high and unacceptably high concentrations (before 2500 times over MRL). In pears, the pesticides content (especially DDT, γ-HCH, ß-HCH, endosulfan, and aldrin pesticide group), was higher than in other fruits. Among vegetables, the highest levels of all groups of pesticide were found in cucumbers. Beef meat samples demonstrated increased contents of ß-HCH, γ-HCH, endrin and dieldrin. In cow milk samples only the high concentration of dieldrin was found. The content of pesticides in meat was 4-5 times higher than in milk. The medical examinations, carried out among the cohorts living around the polluted by pesticides territories and control cohort from ecologically favorable village, showed that there were more individuals with high and middle levels of somatic health in the control group than in groups exposed to OCPs. The long-term effect of the pesticide contamination of the environment on genetic status of the population was assessed by chromosomal aberration (CA) frequencies. The highest level of chromosomal aberrations was identified for the examined residents of Kyzylkairat (41%) and Belbulak (38%), a high level in Amangeldy (12%), and middle level in Beskainar (6.5%). The association between the CA frequency, health status and the pesticides contents in food were assessed by a Spearman rank correlation. The low indicators of somatic health status were strictly associated with high levels of CA, and good health status indicates that the CA rates did not exceed the spontaneous level of mutagenesis. The strongest correlation was shown between high levels of chromosomal aberrations and the content of different pesticides in pears (Cr = 0.979-0.467), tomatoes (Cr = 0.877-0.476), cucumbers (Cr = 0.975-0.553) and meat (Cr = 0.839-0.368). The obtained results highlight the need to improve health protection by increasing the public awareness to the security of the storage of obsolete OCPs in order to strengthen food safety by efficient control services.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Aldrina/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieldrin/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Hexaclorocicloexano , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110910, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800245

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and more abundant in the marine environment. Consequently, increasing focus has been put on MPs in oceans and seas, while little importance has been attached to their presence in freshwaters and soils. Therefore, this paper aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the occurrence, analysis and ecotoxicology of MPs. The abundance and distribution of MPs in several typical freshwater systems of China were summarized. It suggested that the surface water of Poyang Lake contained the highest concentration of 34 items/L MPs among all the 8 freshwater systems, and the content of MPs in sediments were higher than that of the surface water. Net-based zooplankton sampling methods are the most frequently utilized sampling methods for MPs, and density separation, elutriation and digestion are three major pretreatment methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are often used to identify the polymer types of MPs. Besides, MPs might damage the digestive tract of various organisms and negatively inhibit their growth, feeding and reproduction. The ways of human exposure to MPs are by ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, digestive and respiratory system might be adversely influenced. However, potential health risks of MPs to humans are remained insufficiently researched. Overall, by showing the presence of MPs in freshwaters and soils as well as possible ecotoxicological effects on the environment and humans, this paper provided a framework for future research in this field.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Animais , China , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lagos/química , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/química , Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110913, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800248

RESUMO

Soil is considered as a sink for heavy metals. Human health is severely affected by the continuous intake of toxic heavy metals even in a very low concentration. In the present experiment, we determined the influence of nutritional status including control (fasted condition), glucose (fed state), plant protein (fed state), animal protein (fed state) and calcium (fed state) on soil cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) bioaccessibility using physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) method together with simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) model. The bioaccessibility of Cd was 1.06-73.58%, 0.44-54.79% and 0-17.78% and Cu was 3.81-67.32%, 4.98-71.14%, and 0-17.54% in the phase-I, phase-II and Phase-III respectively (in this study gastric phase, small intestinal phase and colon phase were considered as phase-I, phase-II and Phase-III respectively). The outcomes showed that, the average Cd bioaccessibility was higher with animal protein addition compared with other treatments in different phases. So, the effect of animal protein on Cd bioaccessibility was higher than other treatments in the phase-I, phase-II and phase-III. Due to the addition of plant protein, the higher average bioaccessibility of Cu was noticed in phase-I and phase-II in comparison to other treatments. However, in phase-III, the higher average bioaccessibility of Cu was found due to control treatment comparing with other treatments. Therefore, the influence of plant protein was higher than other nutrients on Cu bioaccessibility in the phase-I and phase-II. Moreover, other nutrients showed variable influence on Cd and Cu bioaccessibility. So, nutritional status has a significant effect on bioaccessibility as well as human health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Intestinos/química , Metais Pesados , Nutrientes , Solo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745120

RESUMO

Humanity's reliance on clean water and the ecosystem services provided makes identifying efficient and effective ways to assess the ecological condition of streams ever more important. We used high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA region to explore relationships between stream microbial communities, environmental attributes, and assessments of stream ecological condition. Bacteria and archaea in microbial community samples collected from the water column and from stream sediments during spring and summer were used to replicate standard assessments of ecological condition performed with benthic macroinvertebrate collections via the Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (BIBI). Microbe-based condition assessments were generated at different levels of taxonomic resolution from phylum to OTU (Operational Taxonomic Units) in order to understand appropriate levels of taxonomic aggregation. Stream sediment microbial communities from both spring and summer were much better than the water column at replicating BIBI condition assessment results. Accuracies were as high as 100% on training data used to build the models and up to 80% on validation data used to assess predictions. Assessments using all OTUs usually had the highest accuracy on training data, but were lower on validation data due to overfitting. In contrast, assessments at the order-level had similar performance accuracy for validation data, and a reduced subset of orders also performed well, suggesting the method could be generalized to other watersheds. Subsets of the important orders responded similarly to environmental gradients compared to the entire community, where strong shifts in community structure occurred for known aquatic stressors such as pH, dissolved organic carbon, and nitrate nitrogen. The results suggest the stream microbes may be useful for assessing the ecological condition of streams and especially useful for stream restorations where many eukaryotic taxa have been eliminated due to prior degradation and are unable to recolonize.


Assuntos
Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Rios/microbiologia , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776939

RESUMO

There is an increasing emphasis on effects-based monitoring to document responses associated with exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals, climate change, pathogens, parasites and other environmental stressors in fish populations. For decades aquatic monitoring programs have included the collection of tissues preserved for microscopic pathology. Consequently, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue can be an important reservoir of nucleic acids as technologies emerge that utilize molecular endpoints. Despite the cross-linking effects of formalin, its impact on nucleic acid quality and concentration, amplification, and sequencing are not well described. While fresh-frozen tissue is optimal for working with nucleic acids, FFPE samples have been shown to be conducive for molecular studies. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is one technology which allows for collection of specific regions or cell populations from fresh or preserved specimens with pathological alterations, pathogens, or parasites. In this study, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) liver was preserved in three different fixatives, including 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), Z-Fix® (ZF), and PAXgene® (PG) for four time periods (24 hr, 48 hr, seven days, and 14 days). Controls consisted of pieces of liver preserved in RNALater® or 95% ethanol. Smallmouth bass were chosen as they are an economically important sportfish and have been utilized as indicators of exposure to endocrine disruptors and other environmental stressors. Small liver sections were cut out with laser microdissection and DNA and RNA were purified and analyzed for nucleic acid concentration and quality. Sanger sequencing and the NanoString nCounter® technology were used to assess the suitability of these samples in downstream molecular techniques. The results revealed that of the formalin fixatives, NBF samples fixed for 24 and 48 hr were superior to ZF samples for both Sanger sequencing and the Nanostring nCounter®. The non-formalin PAXgene® samples were equally successful and they showed greater stability in nucleic acid quality and concentration over longer fixation times. This study demonstrated that small quantities of preserved tissue from smallmouth bass can be utilized in downstream molecular techniques; however, future studies will need to optimize the methods presented here for different tissue types, fish species, and pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fixadores/efeitos adversos , RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Clivagem do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Microdissecção , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , West Virginia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13442, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778673

RESUMO

Delhi, a tropical Indian megacity, experiences one of the most severe air pollution in the world, linked with diverse anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions. First phase of COVID-19 lockdown in India, implemented during 25 March to 14 April 2020 resulted in a dramatic near-zeroing of various activities (e.g. traffic, industries, constructions), except the "essential services". Here, we analysed variations in the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over the Delhi-National Capital Region. Measurements revealed large reductions (by 40-70%) in PM2.5 during the first week of lockdown (25-31 March 2020) as compared to the pre-lockdown conditions. However, O3 pollution remained high during the lockdown due to non-linear chemistry and dynamics under low aerosol loading. Notably, events of enhanced PM2.5 levels (300-400 µg m-3) were observed during night and early morning hours in the first week of April after air temperatures fell close to the dew-point (~ 15-17 °C). A haze formation mechanism is suggested through uplifting of fine particles, which is reinforced by condensation of moisture following the sunrise. The study highlights a highly complex interplay between the baseline pollution and meteorology leading to counter intuitive enhancements in pollution, besides an overall improvement in air quality during the COVID-19 lockdown in this part of the world.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Ozônio/análise , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Temperatura
19.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111138, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777643

RESUMO

This study proposes a new method to retrieve the bathymetry of turbid-water floodplains from the inundation frequency (IF) data derived from over 32 years of composite optical remote sensing data. The new method was tested and validated over the Curuai floodplain in the lower Amazon River, where the entire bathymetry was surveyed in 2004, and water level gauge data has been available since 1960. The depth was estimated based on the relationship derived from IF and surveyed depth data, and the results were compared to those retrieved from bare-Earth DEM. We further assessed the sensitivity of the approach by analyzing the deepest part of the lake (i.e., permanent water body ~ 8m) with high IF, as well as the effect of gradual sedimentation in the lake over time. The results showed that the model is highly accurate and sensitive to IF changes even in the permanent water body areas, suggesting that this model can be used in other seasonal lakes worldwide with turbid-waters, where large-scale bathymetry surveys are not feasible due to high operation costs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1628: 461440, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822980

RESUMO

A selective and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence derivatization method was developed for determination of ethinyl estradiol (EE); one of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). The fluorescence derivatization procedure was based on Sonogashira coupling reaction using 4-(4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl) iodobenzene (DIB-I), a fluorescence labeling reagent, to derivatize EE in presence of copper and palladium ions. The formed fluorescent product was separated on Cosmosil 5C18 MS-II by an isocratic elution with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 5.0 mM Tris-HNO3 buffer, pH 7.4 (60:40, v/v %). The detection wavelengths were set at 310 and 400 nm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. Various parameters affecting derivatization reaction were optimized. Further, the proposed method was validated and a good linearity with low detection limit (S/N=3) 7.4 ng L-1 was obtained in water sample after a simple solid-phase disk extraction (C18 SPE disk) method. The proposed method was successfully applied for detection of EE in river water samples in order to monitor EE concentration and to distinguish its effect on the ecosystem and human health.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Etinilestradiol/análise , Rios/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Fluorescência , Extração em Fase Sólida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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