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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201360

RESUMO

This paper presents a method of implementation and the results of aerosol dispersion tests in underground mine workings. Numerous tests were carried out to determine the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection in the underground environment of the mines. The influence of selected parameters of mine air on the possibility and method of aerosol transmission through ventilation routes was experimentally determined in real conditions. The concentration of additional aerosols in the class of ultrafine and fine aerosols increased with the distance from the generator, while the concentration of coarse particles decreased. Assuming the consumption of the solution with which aerosols were generated, even at a small level of 1 cm3/min., the number of additional aerosols was several hundred particles in one cubic centimeter of air at a distance of 50-70 m from the generator. The concentration of ultrafine particles in the range of 40-20,000 nm increased from 122 particles/cm3 to 209 particles/cm3 at air temperature of 12 °C and relative humidity of 95-96%, and from 90 particles/cm3 to 243 particles/cm3 at air temperature of 17 °C and relative humidity of 76-82%, with the increasing distance from the generator (10 m to 50 m).


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , COVID-19/transmissão , Minas de Carvão , Local de Trabalho/normas , Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0236971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106949

RESUMO

Coronaviruses play an important role as pathogens of humans and animals, and the emergence of epidemics like SARS, MERS and COVID-19 is closely linked to zoonotic transmission events primarily from wild animals. Bats have been found to be an important source of coronaviruses with some of them having the potential to infect humans, with other animals serving as intermediate or alternate hosts or reservoirs. Host diversity may be an important contributor to viral diversity and thus the potential for zoonotic events. To date, limited research has been done in Africa on this topic, in particular in the Congo Basin despite frequent contact between humans and wildlife in this region. We sampled and, using consensus coronavirus PCR-primers, tested 3,561 wild animals for coronavirus RNA. The focus was on bats (38%), rodents (38%), and primates (23%) that posed an elevated risk for contact with people, and we found coronavirus RNA in 121 animals, of which all but two were bats. Depending on the taxonomic family, bats were significantly more likely to be coronavirus RNA-positive when sampled either in the wet (Pteropodidae and Rhinolophidae) or dry season (Hipposideridae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae, and Vespertilionidae). The detected RNA sequences correspond to 15 alpha- and 6 betacoronaviruses, with some of them being very similar (>95% nucleotide identities) to known coronaviruses and others being more unique and potentially representing novel viruses. In seven of the bats, we detected RNA most closely related to sequences of the human common cold coronaviruses 229E or NL63 (>80% nucleotide identities). The findings highlight the potential for coronavirus spillover, especially in regions with a high diversity of bats and close human contact, and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Roedores/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Congo/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Roedores/genética
3.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066503

RESUMO

Due to the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), combined with the risk of polio importation from Ukraine, we evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and enteroviruses in 25 sewage water samples from Romania, concentrated using the WHO method between January 2020 and January 2021. Surveillance for enteroviruses and SARS-CoV-2 are relevant in the calculation of prevalence estimates as well as early detection of the introduction or disappearance of these viruses. For SARS-CoV-2 detection, we used two immunochromatographic nucleocapsid antigenic tests as well as real-time PCR assays, produced for respiratory samples. The isolation of cell culture lines, in accordance with the WHO recommendations, was carried out for enterovirus detection. Twenty-three of the samples investigated were positive in rapid tests for SARS-CoV-2, while the RNA of SARS-CoV-2, detected with Respiratory 2.1 plus a panel Biofire Film array, was present in eight samples. The Allplex 2019-nCoV assay was used for the validation of the tests. There were three genes detected in one sample, E, RdPR, and N, two genes, E and RdPR, in one sample, two genes, RdPR and N, in four samples, one gene, RdPR, in five samples and one gene, N, in one sample. Eight samples were positive for non-polio enteroviruses, and no poliovirus strains were isolated. This study suggests the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and enteroviruses in Romanian sewage water in 2020. As such, our results indicate that a rapid, more specific test should be developed especially for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage water.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/virologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Enterovirus/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Romênia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Água
4.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224252

RESUMO

Due to the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), combined with the risk of polio importation from Ukraine, we evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and enteroviruses in 25 sewage water samples from Romania, concentrated using the WHO method between January 2020 and January 2021. Surveillance for enteroviruses and SARS-CoV-2 are relevant in the calculation of prevalence estimates as well as early detection of the introduction or disappearance of these viruses. For SARS-CoV-2 detection, we used two immunochromatographic nucleocapsid antigenic tests as well as real-time PCR assays, produced for respiratory samples. The isolation of cell culture lines, in accordance with the WHO recommendations, was carried out for enterovirus detection. Twenty-three of the samples investigated were positive in rapid tests for SARS-CoV-2, while the RNA of SARS-CoV-2, detected with Respiratory 2.1 plus a panel Biofire Film array, was present in eight samples. The Allplex 2019-nCoV assay was used for the validation of the tests. There were three genes detected in one sample, E, RdPR, and N, two genes, E and RdPR, in one sample, two genes, RdPR and N, in four samples, one gene, RdPR, in five samples and one gene, N, in one sample. Eight samples were positive for non-polio enteroviruses, and no poliovirus strains were isolated. This study suggests the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and enteroviruses in Romanian sewage water in 2020. As such, our results indicate that a rapid, more specific test should be developed especially for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage water.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/virologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Enterovirus/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Romênia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Água
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0236971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262536

RESUMO

Coronaviruses play an important role as pathogens of humans and animals, and the emergence of epidemics like SARS, MERS and COVID-19 is closely linked to zoonotic transmission events primarily from wild animals. Bats have been found to be an important source of coronaviruses with some of them having the potential to infect humans, with other animals serving as intermediate or alternate hosts or reservoirs. Host diversity may be an important contributor to viral diversity and thus the potential for zoonotic events. To date, limited research has been done in Africa on this topic, in particular in the Congo Basin despite frequent contact between humans and wildlife in this region. We sampled and, using consensus coronavirus PCR-primers, tested 3,561 wild animals for coronavirus RNA. The focus was on bats (38%), rodents (38%), and primates (23%) that posed an elevated risk for contact with people, and we found coronavirus RNA in 121 animals, of which all but two were bats. Depending on the taxonomic family, bats were significantly more likely to be coronavirus RNA-positive when sampled either in the wet (Pteropodidae and Rhinolophidae) or dry season (Hipposideridae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae, and Vespertilionidae). The detected RNA sequences correspond to 15 alpha- and 6 betacoronaviruses, with some of them being very similar (>95% nucleotide identities) to known coronaviruses and others being more unique and potentially representing novel viruses. In seven of the bats, we detected RNA most closely related to sequences of the human common cold coronaviruses 229E or NL63 (>80% nucleotide identities). The findings highlight the potential for coronavirus spillover, especially in regions with a high diversity of bats and close human contact, and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Roedores/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Congo/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Roedores/genética
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462317, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161836

RESUMO

Unlike native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), quantitation of substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) has been a challenge in the environmental industry. The challenge can be attributed in part to the large number of theoretically possible isomers and the lack of authentic standards for quantitation. In addition, the lack of a unified approach to the quantitation of these compounds has led to poor interlaboratory accuracy. Because these compounds are often used for toxicology studies or to delineate sources and fingerprinting, it is vital that a standardized approach to quantify them is established. This study evaluated different quantitation approaches to quantify both 16 individual PACs and 32 groups/clusters of substituted PACs in three standard reference materials (SRM 1944 - New York / New Jersey waterway sediments, SRM 1597 - a coal tar sample and SRM 2779 - Gulf of Mexico crude oil). The methods employed include: (1) external calibration taking into account recovery correction factor for each analyte, (2) an average relative response factor (ARRF) of PACs obtained with a recovery correction, (3) ARRF of PACs obtained using uncorrected peak areas (i.e., no recovery correction), (4) ARRF of PACs calculated by normalization to deuterated PAHs and (5) ARRF of native PAHs to quantify substituted PACs. The evaluation of concentrations of individually substituted PACs from the different quantitative approaches compared to the certified/reference values showed that methods 1, 2 and 3 performed best. The average percentage of compounds that fell within our acceptable limit (±30%) using methods 1, 2 and 3 for SRM-1944, -1597a and -2779 was 87, 75 and 100%, respectively. Using native PAHs to quantify their substituted analogs resulted in data of the poorest quality. Irrespective of the approach used, there were significant systematic errors in measurements on clusters/groups PACs most notably C1 and C2-benzanthracenes/ chrysenes/triplenylenes, and C2- and C3-dibenzothiophenes being consistently greater than 100% of the stated value. Commerical availability of more substituted PACs will mitigate the biases associated with the quanititation of PAC clusters/groups.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Alcatrão/análise , Petróleo/análise
7.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066594

RESUMO

This paper assesses the occurrence, distribution, source, and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their methylated form (Me-PAHs) in sewage sludge from 10 WWTPs in Northeastern China was noted. The concentrations of ∑PAHs, ∑Me-PAHs ranged from 567 to 5040 and 48.1 to 479 ng.g-1dw, which is greater than the safety limit for sludge in agriculture in China. High and low molecular weight 4 and 2-ring PAHs and Me-PAHs in sludge were prevalent. The flux of sludge PAHs and Me-PAHs released from ten WWTPs, in Heilongjiang province, was calculated to be over 100 kg/year. Principal component analysis (PCA), diagnostic ratios and positive matrix factorization (PMF) determined a similar mixed pyrogenic and petrogenic source of sewage sludge. The average values of Benzo[a]pyrene was below the safe value of 600 ng.g-1 dependent on an incremental lifetime cancer risk ILCR of 10-6. Sludge is an important source for the transfer of pollutants into the environment, such as PAHs and Me-PAHs. Consequently, greater consideration should be given to its widespread occurrence.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura/métodos , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metilação , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Controle de Qualidade , Testes de Toxicidade
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067394

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals are found in waterbodies worldwide. Conventional sewage treatment plants are often not able to eliminate these micropollutants. Hence, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been heavily investigated. Here, metoprolol is exposed to UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide, and ozonation. Degradation was analyzed using chemical kinetics both for initial and secondary products. Photo-induced irradiation enhanced by hydrogen peroxide addition accelerated degradation more than ozonation, leading to complete elimination. Degradation and transformation products were identified by high-performance liquid-chromatography coupled to high-resolution higher-order mass spectrometry. The proposed structures allowed to apply Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis to predict ecotoxicity. Degradation products were generally associated with a lower ecotoxicological hazard to the aquatic environment according to OECD QSAR toolbox and VEGA. Comparison of potential structural isomers suggested forecasts may become more reliable with larger databases in the future.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Metoprolol/análise , Ozônio/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Algoritmos , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Metoprolol/química , Oxigênio/química , Fotoquímica , Fotólise , Software , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112434, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153539

RESUMO

The inevitable consequence of the operation of landfills is the emission of leachate, which is considered to be one of the main polluters of the ground and water environment. The leachate contains soluble organic compounds, inorganic contaminants, suspended solids, heavy metals and dangerous substances. The selection of the leachate disposal method requires a comprehensive assessment of its properties. Therefore, the physicochemical parameters and toxicity tests were chosen for a comprehensive assessment of the properties of leachate. Four municipal waste landfills (operational and non-operational) were selected for the study, for which multidimensional statistical analyses were carried out. The study was conducted between the period of April 2018 and December 2019. The comprehensive assessment showed that pollutants in leachate from the analyzed landfills remained at a level which did not allow them to be discharged to water or soil. The presence of substances particularly harmful to the aquatic environment (e.g AN, chromium, copper) may hinder their treatment together with household sewage, as it involves obtaining a permit required under laws. Toxicity of leachate may also be a problem, as it may persist after the treatment process is completed. The values of pH, EC and the concentrations of ON, TDS, TSS, chloride, iron and manganese had the strongest influence on the properties of leachate from all landfills. For operational landfills, these were also calcium concentrations, for non-operational ones COD, TU and the concentrations of TKN, AN, TS, sodium, potassium and magnesium. The mentioned parameters also showed strong correlation with other physicochemical properties of the leachate, which indicate their suitability for the monitoring of leachate and the aquatic environment in the vicinity of municipal waste landfills.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Solo/química
10.
Virol J ; 18(1): 109, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection remain the most important existing tools to prevent further spread. METHODS: Here we investigated the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital environment at the Uppsala University Hospital Infectious Disease ward by RT-qPCR and determined the infectivity of the detected virus in vitro on Vero E6 cells. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in several areas, although attempts to infect Vero E6 cells with positive samples were unsuccessful. However, RNase A treatment of positive samples prior to RNA extraction did not degrade viral RNA, indicating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsids or complete virus particles protecting the RNA as opposed to free viral RNA. CONCLUSION: Our results show that even in places where a moderate concentration (Ct values between 30 and 38) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found; no infectious virus could be detected. This suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital environment subsides in two states; as infectious and as non-infectious. Future work should investigate the reasons for the non-infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 virions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Espaços Confinados , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ventilação/métodos , Células Vero
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112444, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174734

RESUMO

Phosphate is considered to be an important biogenic element and responsible for eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems, existing in both dissolved and absorbed forms. Due to the complex matrix of coastal seawater, a high sensitivity and anti-interference method for phosphate detection is required for environmental protection. In this study, a novel electrochemical method was proposed based on reduced graphene oxide-ordered mesoporous carbon screen-printed electrode (rGO-OMC/SPE) analysis, allowing sensitivity and reliable determination of phosphate in turbid coastal waters. Combining the good absorption capacity of OMC with the excellent electroconductivity of rGO, the fabricated electrode exhibits improved signal responses, enhanced by up to 43-fold. The platform was evaluated using turbidity interference test with good recovery percentages comprised between 96% and 105% in different phosphate concentration, and salinity interference test between 92% and 105%, respectively. A linear range from 0.2 to 150 µM phosphate was achieved, with a detection limit of 0.05 µM (s/n = 3). The fabricated platform was successfully used for on-site analysis of phosphate in turbid coastal waters. This reliable and effective method for the analysis of phosphate in turbid coastal waters allows for sensitivity and anti-interference determination, while also representing a significant step towards comprehensive and convenient analysis of phosphorus species.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fosfatos/análise , Carbono/química , Eletrodos , Eutrofização , Grafite/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3188-3194, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146420

RESUMO

Food processors invest significant resources into environmental sampling to detect contamination with potential pathogens, particularly Listeria monocytogenes. To facilitate these efforts, multiple environmental sampling tests (ESTs) have been developed and commercialized that minimize workload, turnaround time, and cost while providing convenient colorimetric detection. For presumptive-positive ESTs, we hypothesized that a relatively minor additional investment could provide, in addition to species confirmation, valuable strain typing data for tracking pathogen spread through a facility, identifying harborage sites, and distinguishing sporadic from persistent or resident contaminants. This hypothesis is based on the demonstrated compatibility of polymorphic locus sequence typing (PLST) with crude samples including food enrichments. Five Listeria ESTs were tested here: broth-based InSite (Hygiena), Path-Chek (Mericon), and Pathfinder (Hardy Diagnositics); and gel-based Petrifilm (3M) and HardyChrom (Hardy Diagnostics). ESTs were inoculated with strains representing two common L. monocytogenes serotypes and nonpathogenic Listeria innocua. Following incubation, broths or suspended colonies were heat treated to inactivate bacteria. Lysates or purified DNAs were prepared and used as templates in PCRs targeting the previously described PLST loci LmiMT1 and LisMT2. Single clear products were obtained from all inoculated ESTs; uninoculated controls were negative. PCR products were subjected to Sanger sequencing, yielding high-quality chromatograms. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed identities to previously determined sequences and revealed relatedness to serotype-matched strains represented in GenBank databases. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Multiple environmental sampling tests have been commercialized in recent years to facilitate the proactive detection of pathogens, particularly Listeria monocytogenes, within food processing facilities. Coupling a positive detection test with strain typing would enhance its value by providing data that can be used to track pathogen spread through a facility, identify harborage sites, and distinguish sporadic from resident contamination.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria/química , Listeria/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
13.
Virol J ; 18(1): 109, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection remain the most important existing tools to prevent further spread. METHODS: Here we investigated the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital environment at the Uppsala University Hospital Infectious Disease ward by RT-qPCR and determined the infectivity of the detected virus in vitro on Vero E6 cells. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in several areas, although attempts to infect Vero E6 cells with positive samples were unsuccessful. However, RNase A treatment of positive samples prior to RNA extraction did not degrade viral RNA, indicating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsids or complete virus particles protecting the RNA as opposed to free viral RNA. CONCLUSION: Our results show that even in places where a moderate concentration (Ct values between 30 and 38) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found; no infectious virus could be detected. This suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital environment subsides in two states; as infectious and as non-infectious. Future work should investigate the reasons for the non-infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 virions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Espaços Confinados , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ventilação/métodos , Células Vero
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112383, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082242

RESUMO

Geochemical approaches are popular for evaluations based on heavy metal concentrations in sediments or soils for eco-risk assessment. This study proposes a systematic geochemical approach (SymGeo) to explore six heavy metals in topsoils and bird tissues and organs of the target birds. We assume that the proposed approach based on field-collected heavy metals in topsoils and feathers can predict the areas with the potential risk of the heavy metals in birds. Finite mixture distribution modeling (FMDM) was used to identify background values of the heavy metal concentrations in topsoil. A spatial enrichment factor (EF), potential contamination index (PCI), contamination degree (Cod), and potential ecological risk index (PRI) based on FMDM results for topsoil, and a potential risk index (PRIbird) of heavy metals in the birds, were utilized for systematic prioritization of high eco-risk areas. Using multiple EF, PRI, and Cod results and multiple PRI-based maps of the heavy metals in feathers, we systematically prioritized risk areas where there is a high potential for heavy metal contamination in the birds. Our results indicate that heavy metal concentrations in the feather, liver, and kidney are not spatially cross-autocorrelated but are statistically significantly correlated with some heavy metals in topsoil due to external and internal depositions. Further, multiple EF, Cod, and RI distributions for topsoil, along with the PRI of the feather, showed that adequate coverages for potential risk for birds were greater than 71.05% in the top 30% and 84.69% in the top 20% potential eco-risk priority area of heavy metals in bird liver and kidney. Hence, our proposed approach suggests that assessments of heavy metals in bird feathers and topsoils without bird organs can be utilized to identify spatially high-risk areas. The proposed approach could be improved by incorporating water and sediment samples to enhance the crowdsourcing and the species-specific data.


Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plumas/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Animais , China , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112375, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051662

RESUMO

129 Shenzhen residents' hair samples were collected and the metal/metalloid concentrations of Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Ni were detected. Meanwhile, the relationships between metal/metalloid contents in human hair and gender, age, seafood diet habit, smoking habit, as well as the housing type (dwelling environment) were analyzed. Results showed that the average content of Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Ni in human hair of Shenzhen residents was 0.76 ± 0.96, 0.10 ± 0.04, 5.25 ± 4.88, 0.25 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31, 13.84 ± 3.67, 2.82 ± 2.01, 196.90 ± 145.01, 12.20 ± 5.10 and 0.34 ± 0.32 µg/g, respectively. Compared with other regions at home and abroad, most metal/metalloids in Shenzhen residents were at a moderate level, and the highly toxic elements (i.e. Pb, Cd, As and Hg) didn't exceed the upper limit of normal values in China. Statistical analysis showed that the young male people contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) level of Pb (in age group of 20-30 years old) and Fe (in age group of 20-40 years old) in hair than the female people. Smokers had significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of Cd (0.35 µg/g) but lower level of Zn (101.24 µg/g) than non-smokers (Cd: 0.17 µg/g; Zn: 252.63 µg/g). Hg and Pb contents in hair of Shenzhen people were positively related with the frequencies of seafood consumption and the age, respectively. Moreover, residents lived in private buildings (well decorated house) accumulated significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of Pb, Cr, Fe and Ni as compared with those lived in public rental house and village house (no decoration or simple decoration), suggesting that decoration material was also an important way for human exposure to heavy metals.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cabelo/química , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China , Cidades , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alimentos Marinhos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112373, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058675

RESUMO

The electronic conductivity of the metal oxides is generally increased by hybridization of highly conductive carbon supportive materials. In this present work, we have demonstrated a novel one-pot preparation of cerium niobate (CeNbO4) nanoparticles embedded with graphene oxide (GO/CeNbO4) composite, for ultrasensitive detection of the photographic developing agent, metol (MTL). The as-prepared GO/CeNbO4 was analyzed by various characterization techniques. The intensive characterization techniques were used to affirm the detailed structural moiety, size, morphology, and surface area of GO/CeNbO4. The GO/CeNbO4 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) affords a superior electrocatalytic activity toward MTL. The obtained amperometric response on the GO/CeNbO4/GCE holding an extremely low level detection of 10 nM and superior sensitivity of 10.97 µA µM-1 cm-2 toward MTL detection. Besides, the GO/CeNbO4/GCE also gives excellent selectivity, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility. We achieved excellent recovery results in real photographic solution and river water samples analysis with great accuracy. This work offers a novel insight into the growth of the carbon-based niobate family with electrochemical sensor applications.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Nanocompostos/química , Rios/química , Sulfatos/análise , Carbono/química , Catálise , Cério/química , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Indústrias , Nanopartículas/química , Nióbio/química , Óxidos/química , Compostos de Oxigênio/química , Fotografação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soluções , Água/química
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11119, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246398

RESUMO

To analyse the cause of the atmospheric PM2.5 pollution that occurred during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nanning, Guangxi, China, a single particulate aerosol mass spectrometer, aethalometer, and particulate Lidar coupled with monitoring near-surface gaseous pollutants, meteorological conditions, remote fire spot sensing by satellite and backward trajectory models were utilized during 18-24 February 2020. Three haze stages were identified: the pre-pollution period (PPP), pollution accumulation period (PAP) and pollution dissipation period (PDP). The dominant source of PM2.5 in the PPP was biomass burning (BB) (40.4%), followed by secondary inorganic sources (28.1%) and motor vehicle exhaust (11.7%). The PAP was characterized by a large abundance of secondary inorganic sources, which contributed 56.1% of the total PM2.5 concentration, followed by BB (17.4%). The absorption Ångström exponent (2.2) in the PPP was higher than that in the other two periods. Analysis of fire spots monitored by remote satellite sensing indicated that open BB in regions around Nanning City could be one of the main factors. A planetary boundary layer-relative humidity-secondary particle matter-particulate matter positive feedback mechanism was employed to elucidate the atmospheric processes in this study. This study highlights the importance of understanding the role of BB, secondary inorganic sources and meteorology in air pollution formation and calls for policies for emission control strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Biomassa , COVID-19 , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Meteorologia , Emissões de Veículos/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992977

RESUMO

Natural and synthetic steroid hormones are chronically released into aquatic spheres. Whereas knowledge on their combined mode of action and the cocktail effect are needed, only few multi-class methods address the challenge of their trace quantification in surface waters. The current study describes a sensitive multi-residue analytical strategy aiming to quantify 23 steroid hormones belonging to androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids and progestogens in whole surface waters. The procedure relies on a two-step solid-phase extraction followed by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography separation coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS/MS). Isotope dilution was implemented when possible in order to ensure the reliability of the measurement. The procedure was optimized toward the reliable quantification of the 23 target compounds at the predicted no-effect concentrations when existing or below the ng L-1 level. Satisfactory absolute global recoveries ≥ 77% were obtained for almost all compounds (21 out of 23) in intermediate precision conditions. Measurement errors were comprised between -27% and +17% for the great majority of compounds (21 out of 23) with standard deviations < 20% in intermediate precision conditions. Despite signal suppression was observed in water samples, satisfactory limits of quantification were achieved, ranging from 0.035 ng L-1 for 17alpha-ethinylestradiol to 1 ng L-1 for 6beta-hydroxycortisol and 6beta-hydroxydexamethasone. Abiotic stability was demonstrated for the great majority of target compounds (22 out of 23) in reference water samples stored at 4 ± 3 °C during 48 h, driving our sampling strategy. To demonstrate its fitness for purpose, the procedure was implemented in a preliminary monitoring survey of Belgian surface waters. As a result, 6 out of 23 target compounds were detected or quantified, showing a contamination by some estrogens and glucocorticoids at levels ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 ng L-1.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hormônios/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Abastecimento de Água
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038315

RESUMO

Ambient air TSP concentrations, dry deposition fluxes and particulate-bound mercury (Hg(p)) concentrations were measured and analyzed at a complex (traffic, residential and commercial) site. Zhang and He's model[1] was used to predict the dry deposition fluxes of ambient air particulates and Hg(p) at this complex site. The results revealed that October had the highest mean particulate concentration and lowest Hp(p) concentration and dry deposition flux. The mean calculated dry deposition fluxes of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 accounted for 1%-2% and 0.06%-5% of the average total calculated dry deposition particle flux, respectively. The average calculated particle dry depositions flux of PM10+, accounted for 93%-99% of the average total calculated dry depositions particle flux. Finally, the model of Zhang and He underestimated the ambient air dry depositions fluxes of both particulates and Hg(p) for all particles sizes (PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10+) at the mixed site in this study. Better results concerning the dry deposition fluxes of pollutants were obtained as the particles size increased.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/química , Poeira , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Estações do Ano
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11119, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045575

RESUMO

To analyse the cause of the atmospheric PM2.5 pollution that occurred during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nanning, Guangxi, China, a single particulate aerosol mass spectrometer, aethalometer, and particulate Lidar coupled with monitoring near-surface gaseous pollutants, meteorological conditions, remote fire spot sensing by satellite and backward trajectory models were utilized during 18-24 February 2020. Three haze stages were identified: the pre-pollution period (PPP), pollution accumulation period (PAP) and pollution dissipation period (PDP). The dominant source of PM2.5 in the PPP was biomass burning (BB) (40.4%), followed by secondary inorganic sources (28.1%) and motor vehicle exhaust (11.7%). The PAP was characterized by a large abundance of secondary inorganic sources, which contributed 56.1% of the total PM2.5 concentration, followed by BB (17.4%). The absorption Ångström exponent (2.2) in the PPP was higher than that in the other two periods. Analysis of fire spots monitored by remote satellite sensing indicated that open BB in regions around Nanning City could be one of the main factors. A planetary boundary layer-relative humidity-secondary particle matter-particulate matter positive feedback mechanism was employed to elucidate the atmospheric processes in this study. This study highlights the importance of understanding the role of BB, secondary inorganic sources and meteorology in air pollution formation and calls for policies for emission control strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Biomassa , COVID-19 , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Meteorologia , Emissões de Veículos/análise
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