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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321868

RESUMO

Many subjects perceive venous blood collection as too invasive, and thus moving to better-accepted procedures for leukocytes collection might be crucial in human biomonitoring studies (e.g., biomonitoring of occupational or residential exposure to genotoxins) management. In this context, primary DNA damage was assessed in buccal lymphocytes (BLs), fresh whole venous, and capillary blood leukocytes, and compared with that in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)-the most frequently used cells-in 15 young subjects. Mouthwashes were collected after the volunteers rinsed their mouths with normal saline, and BLs were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture or by lancet. Anthropometric and lifestyle information was obtained by the administration of a structured questionnaire. As shown in the Bland-Altman plots, the level of agreement between BLs and PBLs lied within the accepted range, we thus enrolled a wider population (n = 54) to assess baseline DNA damage in BLs. In these cells, mean values of tail length (µm), tail intensity (%), and tail moment were 25.7 ± 0.9, 6.7 ± 0.4 and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. No significant association was observed between sex and smoking habit with any of the DNA damage parameters. Conversely, underweight subjects displayed significantly higher genomic instability compared with normal weight group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we successfully managed to set up and update a non-invasive and well-accepted procedure for the isolation of BLs from saliva that could be useful in upcoming biomonitoring studies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Linfócitos , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/citologia
2.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128055, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113660

RESUMO

Red deer antlers have a number of advantages that make them a unique material for monitoring trace elements. As antlers are shed and regrown every year, results of toxicological investigations can be applied to a particular region and time. We analyzed the content of four toxic (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) and three essential (Cu, Zn, Fe) trace elements in 254 red deer antler samples spanning between 1953 and 2012. Age of stags did not influence concentrations of analyzed elements in antlers, except for Zn whose level increased with age. The highest concentrations of toxic elements occurred at the beginning of the analyzed period. Levels of Pb, Hg and Zn in antlers decreased over the course of the study. Levels of Cd and As were low and presented a steady trend. Variations in the levels of the analyzed elements in red deer antlers are considered to reflect levels of exposure of animals in their habitat over the sixty-year study period. The range of essential element levels did not indicate any contamination. Environmental conditions in the Mazury Region during the last decades appeared to have improved significantly, as established by declining trends of toxic elements levels in deer antlers.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/química , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cervos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Biológico/história , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Polônia , Oligoelementos/análise
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 685-691, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067667

RESUMO

Owls are predators that perform important ecological functions. There are several threats to owl conservation such as the bioaccumulation of chemicals through environmental contamination. The high probability of bioaccumulation in these animals is related to their role as predators and high trophic positions. The objective of this study was to quantify four elements (cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead) as the biomarkers of environmental exposure in owls. To this end, we analyzed pellets and feathers of different owl species. These matrices were contaminated with all four elements, with chromium most commonly detected. Chromium and nickel were found in the pellets in all 10 months of the study, and May was the month with the highest concentrations of all the elements. Tyto furcata appears to bioaccumulate more elements in its feathers than Megascops spp. and Athene cunicularia. Our findings showed bioaccumulation of these four elements in owls and their environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Plumas/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Estrigiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Níquel/análise
4.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 354-370, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025049

RESUMO

Heavy metals threaten communities near biodiversity hotspots, as their protein sources come from the environment. This study assessed Hg, Cd, and Se concentrations in fish, as well as the magnitude of exposure and hematological conditions of adult citizens from Puerto Nariño (Colombian Amazon). Among fish samples, greater Hg concentrations were found in higher trophic level species, including Rhaphiodon vulpinus (880 ± 130 ng/g) and Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (920 ± 87 ng/g). These species presented the highest hazard quotients and lowest Se:Hg molar ratios among those studied, showing their consumption represents a health risk to consumers. Moreover, some samples of Mylossoma duriventre and Prochilodus magdalenae had Cd levels greater than the regulated limit (100 ng/g). The average total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in human hair and blood were 5.31 µg/g and 13.7 µg/L, respectively. All hair samples exceeded the 1.0 µg/g threshold set by the USEPA, whereas 93% of the volunteers had T-Hg blood levels greater than 5 µg/L, suggesting elevated exposure. The mean Cd level was 3.1 µg/L, with 21% of samples surpassing 5 µg/L, value at which mitigating actions should be taken. Eighty-four percent of participants presented Se deficiencies (<100 µg/L). There was a significant association between fish consumption and T-Hg in hair (ρ = 0.323; p = 0.032) and blood (ρ = 0.381; p = 0.011). In this last matrix, Se correlated with Cd content, whereas lymphocytes were inversely linked to Hg concentrations. The results of this study show that there is  extensive exposure to Hg in fish, the consumption of which may promote detrimental impacts on hematology parameters within the community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Adulto , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Colômbia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 269-278, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866568

RESUMO

Elevated levels of arsenic and uranium have been detected in water sources near abandoned uranium mines in the Southwest. Evidence suggests uranium exposure increases the likelihood of immune dysfunction and this study investigates the impact of arsenic and uranium on human immune cell lines. Concentration-dependent cytotoxicity occurred following exposure to arsenite, whereas cells remained viable after 48 -h treatment with up to 100 µM uranyl acetate despite uptake of uranium into cells. Arsenite stimulated an oxidative stress response as detected by Nrf-2 nuclear accumulation and induction of HMOX-1 and NQO1, which was not detected with up to 30 µM uranyl acetate. Cellular oxidative stress can promote DNA damage and arsenite, but not uranium, stimulated DNA damage as measured by pH2AX. Arsenic enhanced the cytotoxic response to etoposide suggesting an inhibition of DNA repair, unlike uranium. Similarly, uranium did not inhibit PARP-1 activity. Because uranium reportedly stimulates oxidative stress, DNA damage and cytotoxicity in adherent epithelial cells, the current study suggests distinct cell type differences in response to uranium that may relate to generation of oxidative stress and associated downstream consequences. Delineating the actions of uranium across different cell targets will be important for understanding the potential health effects of uranium exposures.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Reparo do DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Mineração , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Células THP-1
6.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 310-320, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901336

RESUMO

The concentrations of trace elements in feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. were used to indicate the relative levels of air pollution by trace elements in Polish national parks. Pleurozium schreberi was collected from nine national parks. The highest concentrations were recorded in the moss samples from the southern and most industrialised part of the country; the lowest from northern and north-eastern Poland. A comparison of data obtained from Polish national parks in the 1970s and 1990s showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of heavy metals. In the linear covariability estimation, the t quantile approach was used for multi-element comparison. A number of positive covariabilities were observed. This is a result of anthropogenic activity and the geochemical characteristics of the local environment, including crust composition to which soil composition is related. The statistical approach of t quantile to study common relationships between element concentrations can be used in the interpretation of biomonitoring research results in similar studies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Bryopsida/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Parques Recreativos , Oligoelementos/análise , Bryopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Ativação de Nêutrons , Polônia
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110984, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888605

RESUMO

The use of water for drinking and agriculture requires knowledge of its toxicity. In this study, we compared the use of genetically modified bioluminescent (GMB) bacteria whose luminescence increases in the presence of toxicants and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for the characterization of the toxicity of water samples collected from a lake and streams, hydroponic and aquaponic farms, and a wastewater treatment plant. GMB bacteria were used to probe genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species-induced effects in the whole water samples. Unlike GMB bacteria, the use of CHO cells requires XAD resin-based pre-concentration of toxic material present in water samples for the subsequent cytotoxicity assay. In addition to the examination of the toxicity of the water from the different sources, the GMB bacteria were also used to test the XAD extracts diluted to the concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition of the CHO cells. The two biomonitoring tools provided different results when they were used to test the above-mentioned diluted XAD extracts. A pre-concentration procedure based on adsorption by XAD resins with subsequent elution was not sufficient to represent the material responsible for the toxicity of the whole water samples toward the GMB bacteria. Therefore, the use of XAD resin extracts may lead to major underestimates of the toxicity of water samples. Although the toxicity findings obtained using the GMB bacteria and CHO cells may not correlate with each another, the GMB bacteria assay did provide a mechanism-specific biomonitoring tool to probe the toxicity of water samples without a need for the pre-concentration step.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Lagos/análise , Rios , Águas Residuárias/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Hidroponia , Luminescência , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
8.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13440, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885569

RESUMO

Cytogenetic tests are used to assess the influence of physical and chemical factors with potential mutagenic and genotoxic properties on the animal organism. The test results make it possible to eliminate mutagens, as well as helping predict possible genetic consequences in animal cells and assess animal resistance. The aim of this study was to examine, using cytogenetic tests, the spontaneous chromosome and DNA damage in coypu lymphocytes. Four tests: fragile site (FS), bleomycin (BLM), micronucleus, (MN) and comet were used for the first time in coypu cells. The averages with standard deviations obtained in the research were as follows: 3.30 ± 0.80 fragile sites/cell; 0.63 ± 0.80 BLM damage/cell; 6.10 ± 0.53% binucleated cells with MN; and 3.24 ± 0.63% DNA in tail. The present analysis showed high interindividual variation in spontaneous chromosomal and DNA damage levels. In the case of micronucleus, fragile sites, and comet assays, the differences between animals were statistically significant. The data suggest that these assays are sensitive enough to detect some effects on an individual animal and can be proposed as tools for coypu biomonitoring.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Variação Biológica Individual , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Análise Citogenética/veterinária , Roedores/genética , Animais , Bleomicina , Aberrações Cromossômicas/veterinária , Sítios Frágeis do Cromossomo , Ensaio Cometa/veterinária , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Linfócitos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105618, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937231

RESUMO

Bifenthrin is a second generation synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that is widely used in Australia and worldwide. It is frequently found in urban freshwater sediments at concentrations likely to impact biota as it is highly toxic to fish and macroinvertebrates, such as chironomids. Our main goal was to evaluate if oxidative stress and hydrolase enzymes are useful biomarkers of effect of synthetic pyrethroids exposure under different scenarios. Chironomus tepperi larvae (5 days old) were exposed to sub-lethal sediment concentrations of bifenthrin for 5 days under controlled laboratory conditions. A field-based microcosm exposure with bifenthrin-spiked sediments (using the same concentrations as the laboratory exposure) was carried out at a clean field site for four weeks to allow for colonization and development of resident chironomid larvae. At the end of both experiments, Chironomus larvae (C. tepperi in the laboratory exposures and C. oppositus in the microcosm exposures) were collected and oxidative stress enzymes (Glutathione-s-Transferase, Glutathione Reductase and Glutathione Peroxidase) and hydrolase enzymes (Acetylcholinesterase and Carboxylesterase) were measured. Only the Glutathione Peroxidase activity was significantly impacted in larvae from the laboratory exposure. On the contrary, significant changes were observed in all the measured enzymes from the field-based microcosm exposure. This is likely because exposure was throughout the whole life cycle, from egg mass to fourth instar, showing a more realistic exposure scenario. Furthermore, this is the first time that changes in oxidative stress and hydrolase enzymes have been shown to occur in Australian non-biting midges exposed under field-based microcosm conditions. Thus, this study demonstrated the usefulness of these enzymes as biomarkers of effect following bifenthrin exposure in microcosms. It also highlights the importance of using a range of different biochemical endpoints to get a more holistic understanding of pesticide effects and the pathways involved.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Chironomidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Austrália , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Chironomidae/enzimologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Larva/enzimologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3297-3304, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827105

RESUMO

A comparative study on the strobilar morphology of the tapeworm Proteocephalus percae (Müller, 1780) (Cestoda), a parasite of the perch Perca fluviatilis (L.), showed a high percentage of abnormally developed parasite individuals. The evaluation of biological samples showed seven types of morphological abnormalities, mostly related to reproductive organs of the model tapeworm species. The most commonly identified deformity was an incomplete segmentation of the strobila. A malformed ovary, which is a structural anomaly linked with proglottization and maturation of the strobila, was also shown to be rather frequent. Offish hosts (P. percae) were collected from two localities with different levels of heavy metal pollution, the highly contaminated water reservoir Ruzín and a control locality, the water reservoir Palcmanská Masa, which belongs to the European network of protected areas in Slovakia. Tapeworm abnormalities occurred more frequently in individuals from the contaminated environment (29.9%) compared with individuals from the control site (4.9%). The concentrations of heavy metals found in the parasites and their fish hosts from the heavily polluted reservoir support our assumption that the occurrence of abnormalities could be linked with the destructive effect of toxic substances. The present study also demonstrates that the enumeration of body deformities exceeding the common level of phenotypic variability of particular parasitic species could potentially be used as an indicator of environmental problems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Percas/parasitologia , Animais , Cestoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Feminino , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Eslováquia , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade
12.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127730, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763647

RESUMO

The first statewide New Jersey Biomonitoring (NJBM) of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was conducted from 2016 to 2018. Forty ortho-substituted PCBs were measured in serum samples collected from 920 NJ residents in compliance with the CDC method. The lipid adjusted geometric mean (GM) of ∑40PCB concentration for all the 920 measured subjects was 65.5 ng/g lipid (95% CIs: 56.9-75.4 ng/g lipid). Age stratified serum concentration showed that the lowest GM (33.3 ng/g lipid) was observed in the 20-39 years age group (n = 282), followed by a concentration of 76.05 ng/g lipid (n = 382) in the 40-59 years age group, and the highest GM (168.4 ng/g lipid) was found in the 60-74 years age group (n = 256). A survey regression model revealed that ∑40PCBs was significantly associated with age, moderately associated with geographic region, and not significantly associated with sex. The comparison of serum PCB levels in NJBM with the sequential National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data suggested that the serum PCBs in NJ adults declined 52-59% at all age groups over the last decade. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) suggests that ongoing and recent exposure to lower molecular weight PCBs contributes about 15% to total serum PCB levels and more in younger subjects, while higher molecular weight PCBs contribute 52% of the total serum PCB levels and more in older subjects.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12144, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to simultaneously determine urinary 1-naphthol (1-NAP) and 2-naphthol (2-NAP) for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to naphthalene. METHODS: NAPs were derivatized in situ with acetic anhydride after enzymatic hydrolysis, extracted with n-hexane, and analyzed using GC-MS. Validation of the proposed method was conducted in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidance. A final validation was performed by analyzing a ClinChek® -Control for phenolic compounds. RESULTS: The linearity of calibration curves was indicated by a high correlation coefficient (>0.999) in the concentration range 1-100 µg/L for each NAP. The limits of detection and quantification for each NAP were 0.30 and 1.00 µg/L, respectively. The recovery was 90.8%-98.1%. The intraday and interday accuracies, expressed as the deviation from the nominal value, were 92.2%-99.9% and 93.4%-99.9%, respectively. The intraday and interday precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.3%-3.9% and 0.4%-4.1%, respectively. The ClinChek® values obtained using our method were sufficiently accurate. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method is simple, reliable, and appropriate for routine analyses, and is useful for biological monitoring of naphthalene exposure in occupational health practice.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Naftóis/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Humanos , Naftóis/química
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 13-21, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659468

RESUMO

The few Belgian studies on the human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have until now concerned the Northern part of Belgium (Flanders), while data related to Wallonia (South region) are missing. To fill this gap, 8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids and 3 perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates were measured in the serum of 242 adults (>18 years old) recruited in 2015 and living in the Province of Liege. Some multivariate regression models were also built with the PFAS levels and the participant's answers to a questionnaire about their diet and lifestyle habits in order to identify some predictors of exposure. The results obtained showed that although PFAS levels observed in our population seemed to be similar or lower than those reported in other countries, and especially lower than in the Northern part of Belgium, half of the population showed PFOS and PFOA serum levels above the health guidance values set by the German HBM Commission. As expected, age and gender were the main covariates explaining the different PFAS serum levels between participants, while breastfeeding (for women), consumption of fish and seafood, consumption of rice, and use of nail polish seemed also to impact the PFAS body burden of our population. Nevertheless, the statistical models were poorly predictive suggesting that the main sources of exposure were not taken into account.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110966, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678755

RESUMO

We studied the effect of the chemical interaction of nutrients and the ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on metals toxicity. Growth inhibition tests of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata by nutrient metals copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), and the non-nutrient metal lead (Pb), were performed. The high-enriched Bold's Basal medium (BBm) and two low-enriched standard media, recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECDm) and Environmental Protection Agency-algal assay procedure medium (AAPm), were used in this study. The metals toxicity was affected by the interaction of nutrients and EDTA. Cu+2 was more toxic in the OECDm (EC50 20.3 µg/L), while Pb+2 (EC50 23.1 µg/L) and Zn+2 (EC50 99.4 µg/L) in the AAPm. Non-toxic effect of these metals was observed in BBm, but the exclusion of EDTA shifted it into a toxic medium. Finally, we found that the toxicity of the studied nutrient metals is mainly influenced by EDTA, which reduced the concentration of ionized metals, while the toxicity of the non-nutrient metal is affected by EDTA and phosphates.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Quelantes/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Bioensaio , Cobre/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Chumbo/toxicidade , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Teóricos , Zinco/toxicidade
16.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127521, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688310

RESUMO

The Punchuncaví Valley is one of the most polluted areas in central Chile affected by anthropogenic emissions from the Ventanas Industrial Complex (IC) where the most important industry is the copper smelter and refinery. In this context, this research aims were to assess the usefulness of the Cupressus macrocarpa as a biomonitor. The leaf samples were taken from five selected sites, located between 0.8 and 15 km away from the source. A total of 34 elements were analyzed in leaf samples by ICP-MS and examined by enrichment factor (EF), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and principal component analysis (PCA). Leaf concentration of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Dy, Er, Gd, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, P, Pb, Pr, S, Sb, Sr, Ti, Yb and Zn showed statistically significant differences between sampling sites (p-value < 0.05). A clear trend to increase the concentration of Cu, Sb, S, As, Cd and Pb with the proximity to the IC. Besides, high values of Cu (93.4-369 mg kg-1) and As (7.6-12.7 mg kg-1) were observed near to industrial area exceed the phytotoxic levels reported in plants with EF > 3000% for Cu and >1300% for As. The application of PCA and HCA identified 6 factors related to the industrial complex, traffic and geogenic sources, providing the greatest variance the component related to industrial activity mainly with copper smelter and refinery. According to the results, the C. macrocarpa leaves are a good biomonitor to evaluate the high pollution load for anthropogenic elements in industrial areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cupressus/química , Metalurgia , Folhas de Planta/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Chile , Cupressus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais/análise , Metais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Componente Principal , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
18.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127722, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717515

RESUMO

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were widely used on the Canary Islands (Spain) for intensive crop production and against plagues of African locust. A previous study performed in 1988-1994 showed a high concentration of p,p'-DDE in the eggs of common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) from the island of Tenerife. The present study shows OC pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) levels in 40 unhatched common kestrel eggs collected from southern Tenerife between 2009 and 2016. The protoporphyrin IX in eggshells has also been analysed in order to explore the use of this pigment as a biomarker. Egg biometry, status of embryo development, eggshell thickness and mass of extractable lipids of each egg were recorded. Surrounding land use and reproductive parameters (hatching and fledging rates) were obtained for each nest. The most abundant compound was p,p'-DDE (15.0 µg/g d.w), followed by PCBs (0.46 µg/g d.w.). The decline in p,p'-DDE levels in southern Tenerife (with 23.6 µg/g d.w. in 1988-1994) was 36.4%. p,p'-DDE levels were positively associated with the surface of active and abandoned cropland in a 200 m-radius around the nest and with proximity to urban areas. PCB levels were associated with proximity to roads. Shell thickness was negatively affected by the p,p'-DDE concentration. The concentration of protoporphyrin IX in the eggshell was negatively associated with the concentration of hexachlorobenzene in the egg content. Despite the total ban on the use of p,p'-DDT in Spain since 1986, p,p'-DDE levels remain elevated in those areas in which that use was formerly intensive.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Casca de Ovo/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Falconiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Ovos/análise , Pigmentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Protoporfirinas/análise , Espanha , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 211-217, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594201

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to compare the physiological response (content and degradation of photosynthetic pigments, membrane oxidation products and soluble proteins) and multi-element content of Ramalina celastri (lichenized fungi) growing on agricultural fences with no-tillage (associated with transgenic crops and agrochemical application), organic cropping and a non-cultivated area. We found that R. celastri did not differ in its physiological response to agricultural practices, except for the contents of chlorophyll b and phaeophytin a which were high in both cultivated areas. Lichens growing in organic cropping fields have higher arsenic, chromium, uranium and internal transition elements common in the earth's crust, possibly due to the greater resuspension of the material during soil tillage. Lichens that grow on posts close to no-tillage field had higher bromine contents (present in numerous pesticides). We found evidence that R. celastri behaves as a tolerant species to air pollution in agricultural environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Líquens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Praguicidas/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Líquens/química , Líquens/fisiologia , Agricultura Orgânica , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Solo/química
20.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 218-223, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591851

RESUMO

The adverse effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs) on aquatic wildlife and human health represent a current issue of high public concern. Substantial knowledge of the level of estrogenic EDs in fish has accumulated from field surveys. For this purpose, a survey of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta trutta) was carried out to assess the incidence of EDs in the feral fish population living in the Liri river (Abruzzi, Italy). The results of this study show that this aquatic environment possesses an estrogenic potency that triggered the increase of vitellogenin levels in both female and male trouts. Fish exposed to different pesticides and urban waste in downstream river showed higher vitellogenin levels in comparison to the headwater site. Furthermore, some trouts coming from the downstream reported the presence of several pesticides and fungicides, some of these banned several years ago.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Rios/química , Truta/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Feminino , Itália , Masculino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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