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2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46959

RESUMO

Site do ministério da Saúde do Brasil, disponibiliza, Boletins epidemiologicos, editado pela Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, publicações de caráter técnico-científico, acesso livre, formato eletrônico com periodicidade mensal e semanal para os casos de monitoramento e investigação de doenças específicas sazonais. ISSN: 2358-9450


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
5.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020. (WHO/2019-nCoV/SurveillanceGuidance/2020.3).
em Árabe, Chinês, Inglês, Russo | WHO IRIS | ID: who-330857
7.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103280, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500706

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases in humans, including febrile gastroenteritis and systemic infections that has a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. This pathogen may cause massive outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated food products, which highlight its importance in public health. In the last decade, L. monocytogenes has emerged as a foodborne pathogen of major importance in Chile. A previous work showed that in Chile during 2008 and 2009, L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified in food and clinical strains. Here we report the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 2008 to 2017 in the country. Our results indicate that serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b continue to be the most commonly found in food products. In addition, we identify persistent and widespread PFGE subtypes. This study reports ten years of epidemiological surveillance ofL. monocytogenes in Chile.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Saúde Pública , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Fatores de Virulência/genética
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884773

RESUMO

The Hepatitis E (HE) is a viral liver disease that is common on all continents at different rates and very frequently is not symptomatically distinguishable from other viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A, B and C, as well as from other infectious diseases referred to as "acute jaundice syndrome". The GE-anthroponosis (in the case of infection caused by genotypes 1 or 2 of hepatitis E virus) or anthropozoonosis (in the case of infection caused by 3 or 4 viruses) is predominantly propagated through fecal-oral transmission. The article presents the general characteristics of VGE, human risk factors and means of prevention. The particular attention is paid to the development of complex of anti-epidemic, hygienic and veterinary sanitary measures in the Belgorod Oblast.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Higiene , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Saneamento
9.
Presse Med ; 48(12): 1528-1535, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767249

RESUMO

The emergence of a viral disease most often results from an imbalance in the interaction between the infectious agent, the host and the environment. After the introduction phase of a viral disease in a territory or a given population and once the first chains of transmission occur, the spread of the disease or its sustainability are possible if the control measures are not implemented or are not sufficiently effective. If it is difficult to anticipate the occurrence and introduction of an emerging viral disease, the following three key elements must be strengthened to limit its impact: (1) anticipation and preparation; (2) research and (3) monitoring and surveillance. Finally, to guarantee that the measures taken are relevant and acceptable to the population, a multidisciplinary approach must be systematically relied upon and re-evaluated on a prospective basis.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Previsões , Viroses/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Meio Ambiente , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Controle de Infecções/tendências , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Viroses/prevenção & controle
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 990, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 1985, two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses (Victoria-like and Yamagata-like) have circulated globally. Trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain two circulating influenza A strains but a single B strain and thus provide limited immunity against circulating B strains of the lineage not included in the vaccine. In this study, we describe the characteristics of influenza B viruses that caused respiratory illness in the population in Italy over 13 consecutive seasons of virological surveillance, and the match between the predominant influenza B lineage and the vaccine B lineage, in each season. METHODS: From 2004 to 2017, 26,886 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were registered in Italy, of which 18.7% were type B. Among them, the lineage of 2465 strains (49%) was retrieved or characterized in this study by a real-time RT-PCR assay and/or sequencing of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. RESULTS: Co-circulation of both B lineages was observed each season, although in different proportions every year. Overall, viruses of B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages caused 53.3 and 46.7% of influenza B infections, respectively. A higher proportion of infections with both lineages was detected in children, and there was a declining frequency of B/Victoria detections with age. A mismatch between the vaccine and the predominant influenza B lineage occurred in eight out of thirteen influenza seasons under study. Considering the seasons when B accounted for > 20% of all laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, a mismatch was observed in four out of six seasons. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA1 domain confirmed the co-circulation of both lineages and revealed a mixed circulation of distinct evolutionary viral variants, with different levels of match to the vaccine strains. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the understanding of the circulation of influenza B viruses in Italy. We found a continuous co-circulation of both B lineages in the period 2004-2017, and determined that children were particularly vulnerable to Victoria-lineage influenza B virus infections. An influenza B lineage mismatch with the trivalent vaccine occurred in about two-thirds of cases.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/classificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104800, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704560

RESUMO

In spite of the efforts invested to eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle, the disease is still present in several developed countries, including Spain. Among the factors related with disease persistence in high prevalence areas, the lack of sensitivity of the screening test for detection of infected herds [single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test] can play a major role. Here, a scenario tree model mimicking the diagnostic test scheme in place in the region of Castilla y Leon (Spain) was developed to estimate the probability of detecting bTB in an infected-non detected officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herd (herd sensitivity, HSe). In order to do so the probability of detecting at least one positive animal in the SIT test with/without post-mortem (detection of lesions and culture) confirmation in an infected herd was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation through @RISK (Palisade Co, NY, USA). Uncertainty on the accuracy of the diagnostic tests was introduced in the model using distributions based on the literature. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing the predicted number of SIT/post-mortem positive animals in infected herds with those observed in newly detected bTB-infected herds in the region in 2011-2015. The estimated HSe of the SIT test was 76.2% (95% probability interval: 19.8-97.6). According to the model, bTB infection would be then confirmed through culture in 65.3% (95% PI: 50.0-82.3) of the herds detected through the SIT test, so that overall the proportion of infected-non detected OTF herds in which the infection could be confirmed after the initial SIT test was 49.6% (95% PI: 9.75-80.3). The predicted HSe of both SIT test and culture was directly correlated with herd size. Results from the model suggest a moderate but highly variable HSe of the current surveillance system in place for bTB detection in OTF herds located in high prevalence areas, that could be maximized by performing multiple tests within a year as indicated in the Spanish eradication program (with a median SIT HSe of 87% when two consecutive tests were considered). In addition, these results highlight the usefulness of performing subsequent SIT tests to rule out infection in SIT-positive herds even when the causative agent cannot be isolated.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104805, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715496

RESUMO

In Spain, the eradication of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has had some setbacks and therefore we need to re-evaluate the current surveillance strategies. The Spanish cattle TB surveillance system consists of three components: a) routine skin testing, b) slaughterhouse surveillance, and c) pre-movement controls. Our objectives were to assess the effectiveness of the whole surveillance system and evaluate the relative contribution of each of those components, both at national and at the province level. The effectiveness was estimated based on both the sensitivity of detection per year and the time until detection. Moreover, we evaluated the impact of different factors on that effectiveness. We used a stochastic model that simulated the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex (MTC) infection within cattle herds that was modified to incorporate the three components of TB surveillance. Input data, at the province level, on cattle movements off-farm or the frequency of the routine screening were provided by the Spanish Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Under the current conditions, 96.1% of Spanish herds were detected within one year after their infection (i.e. mean sensitivity of TB surveillance), although that detection took on average 178 days. The surveillance system effectiveness was highly dependent on the routine skin testing, responsible for the detection of almost 90% of the infected herds, while slaughterhouse surveillance and pre-movement controls contributed only to the identification of a small proportion of infected herds. We observed substantial differences in the effectiveness of the surveillance components among Spanish provinces, although in general, the sensitivities were high. The most influential factor on the efficiency of TB detection in Spain was, by far, the frequency of routine controls, followed by the sensitivity of the test used. In a context of reduced funding for cattle TB eradication, the frequency of testing should be adapted based on risk-based surveillance strategies, i.e. efforts should focus on herds more likely to be infected, but also in herds more likely to infect other herds. While slaughterhouse surveillance seems a cost-effective strategy, the use of pre-movement testing at least in areas of low incidence should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Ácido Hialurônico , Vigilância da População , Espanha/epidemiologia , Processos Estocásticos , Transportes , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104777, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731037

RESUMO

Information about infectious diseases at the global level relies on effective, efficient and sustainable national and international surveillance systems. Surveillance systems need to be regularly evaluated to ensure their performance, the quality of the data and information provided, as well as to allocate resources efficiently. Currently available frameworks for evaluation of surveillance systems in animal or human health often treat technical, process and socio-economic aspects separately instead of integrating them. The surveillance evaluation (EVA) tool, a support tool for the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems, was developed to provide guidance for integrated evaluation of animal health surveillance including economic evaluation. The tool was developed by international experts in surveillance and evaluation in an iterative process of development, testing and revision taking into account existing frameworks and guidance, scientific literature and expert opinion. The EVA tool encompasses a web interface for users to develop an evaluation plan, a Wiki classroom to provide theoretical information on all required concepts and a generic evaluation work plan to facilitate implementation and reporting of outputs to decision makers. The tool was tested by planning and conducting epidemiological and economic evaluations of surveillance for classical and African swine fever, bovine virus diarrhoea, avian influenza, and Salmonella Dublin in five European countries. These practical applications highlighted the importance of a comprehensive evaluation approach to improve the quality of the evaluation outputs (economic evaluation; multiple attributes assessment) and demonstrated the usefulness of the guidance provided by the EVA tool. At the same time they showed that comprehensive evaluations might be constrained by practical issues (e.g. confidentiality concerns, data availability) and resource scarcity. In the long term, the EVA tool is expected to increase professional evaluation capacity and help optimising animal health surveillance system efficiency and resource allocation for both public and private actors of the surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/economia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Vigilância da População/métodos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738869

RESUMO

Aim: To describe the epidemiology of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in New South Wales (NSW) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: LGV notification data between 2006 and 2015 from New South Wales were analysed to describe time trends in counts and rates by gender, age group and area of residence, as well as anatomical sites of infection. A positivity ratio was calculated using the number of LGV notifications per 100 anorectal chlamydia notifications per year. Data linkage was used to ascertain the proportion of LGV cases that were co-infected with HIV. Results: There were 208 notifications of LGV in NSW from 2006 to 2015; all were among men, with a median age of 42 years, and half were residents of inner-city Sydney. Annual notifications peaked at 57 (1.6 per 100,000 males) in 2010, declined to 16 (0.4 per 100,000 males) in 2014, and then increased to 34 (0.9 per 100,000 males) in 2015. Just under half (47.4%) of LGV cases were determined to be co-infected with HIV. Conclusion: The number of LGV notifications each year has not returned to the low levels seen prior to the peak in 2010. Continued public health surveillance is important for the management and control of LGV.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Notificação de Doenças , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto Jovem
18.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 424: 75-83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650236

RESUMO

Infectious disease emergence into humans from animals or the environment occurs primarily due to genetic changes in the microbe through mutation or re-assortment making it either more transmissible or virulent or through a change in the disease "ecosystem". Research into infectious disease emergence can be grouped into different strategic approaches. One strategic approach is to study a specific or model disease system to understand the ecology of an infectious disease and how is transmitted and propagated through the environment and different hosts and then extrapolate that disease system knowledge to related pathogens. The other strategic approach follows the genomics and phylogenetics-tracking how pathogens are evolving and changing at the amino acid level. Here we argue that for understanding complex zoonotic diseases and for the purposes of preventing emergence and re-emergence into humans, that the Return on Investment be considered for the best research strategy.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Filogenia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/patogenicidade , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/classificação , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Vírus/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is affected by demographic, virological, clinical, and lifestyle-related factors and varies in different regions in Brazil or worldwide. The present study aimed to clarify the epidemiological patterns of HCV infection in the interior region of Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to the guidelines of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis. The participants answered a structured questionnaire on social and epidemiological factors. Immunochromatographic rapid tests were used for the qualitative detection of antibodies against HCV in whole blood (Alere HCV® Code 02FK10) in adult subjects by a free-standing method. RESULTS: Of 24,085 tested individuals, 184 (0.76%) were anti-HCV positive. The majority of anti-HCV-positive individuals were born between 1951 and 1980 (n=146 [79.3%]), with 68 women and 116 men. Identified risk factors included syringe and/or needle sharing (p = 0.003), being in prison (p = 0.004), and having tattoos or piercings (p = 0.005) and were significantly associated with the decade of birth. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the importance of testing populations at risk for HCV infection, including incarcerated individuals, those with tattoos or piercings, those who share or have shared syringes or needles, and those in high-risk birth cohorts (1950s, 1960s, and 1970s) in the Southern Triangle Macro-region.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Vet Sci ; 20(5): e56, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565899

RESUMO

Korea is located within the East Asian-Australian flyway of wild migratory birds during the fall and winter seasons. Consequently, the likelihood of introduction of numerous subtypes and pathotypes of the Avian influenza (AI) virus to Korea has been thought to be very high. In the current study, we surveyed wild bird feces for the presence of AI virus that had been introduced to Korea between September 2017 and February 2018. To identify and characterize the AI virus, we employed commonly used methods, namely, virus isolation (VI) via egg inoculation, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), conventional RT-PCR (cRT-PCR) and a newly developed next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In this study, 124 out of 11,145 fresh samples of wild migratory birds tested were rRT-PCR positive; only 52.0% of VI positive samples were determined as positive by rRT-PCR from fecal supernatant. Fifty AI virus specimens were isolated from fresh fecal samples and typed. The cRT-PCR subtyping results mostly coincided with the NGS results, although NGS detected the presence of 11 HA genes and four NA genes that were not detected by cRT-PCR. NGS analysis confirmed that 12% of the identified viruses were mixed-subtypes which were not detected by cRT-PCR. Prevention of the occurrence of AI virus requires a workflow for rapid and accurate virus detection and verification. However, conventional methods of detection have some limitations. Therefore, different methods should be combined for optimal surveillance, and further studies are needed in aspect of the introduction and application of new methods such as NGS.


Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
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