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1.
Zoo Biol ; 38(6): 498-507, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517405

RESUMO

The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is common in animal-monitoring applications in the wild and in zoological and agricultural settings. RFID is used to track animals and to collect information about movements and other behaviors, as well as to automate or improve husbandry. Disney's Animal Kingdom® uses passive RFID technology to monitor nest usage by a breeding colony of northern carmine bee-eaters. We implemented RFID technologies in various equipment configurations, initially deploying low-frequency (LF) 125 kHz RFID and later changing to high-frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz RFID technology, to monitor breeding behavior in the flock. We installed antennas connected to RFID readers at the entrances of nest tunnels to detect RFID transponders attached to leg bands as birds entered and exited tunnels. Both LF-RFID and HF-RFID systems allowed the characterization of nest visitation, including the timing of nest activity, breeding pair formation, identification of egg-laying females, participation by nonresidents, and detection of nest disruptions. However, we collected a substantially larger volume of data using the increased bandwidth and polling speed inherent with HF-RFID, which permitted tag capture of multiple birds simultaneously and resulted in fewer missed nest visits in comparison to LF-RFID. Herein, we describe the evolution of the RFID setups used to monitor nest usage for more than 7 years, the types of data that can be gained using RFID at nests, and how we used these data to gain insights into carmine bee-eater breeding behavior and improve husbandry.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , Telemetria , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11491-11503, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563307

RESUMO

Automated monitoring of fertility in dairy cows using milk progesterone is based on the accurate and timely identification of luteolysis. In this way, well-adapted insemination advice can be provided to the farmer to further optimize fertility management. To properly evaluate and compare the performance of new and existing data-processing algorithms, a test data set of progesterone time-series that fully covers the desired variability in progesterone profiles is needed. Further, the data should be measured with a high frequency to allow rapid onset events, such as luteolysis, to be precisely determined. Collecting this type of data would require a lot of time, effort, and budget. In the absence of such data, an alternative was developed using simulated progesterone profiles for multiple cows and lactations, in which the different fertility statuses were represented. To these, relevant variability in terms of cycle characteristics and measurement error was added, resulting in a large cost-efficient data set of well-controlled but highly variable and farm-representative profiles. Besides the progesterone profiles, information on (the timing of) luteolysis was extracted from the modeling approach and used as a reference for the evaluation and comparison of the algorithms. In this study, 2 progesterone monitoring tools were compared: a multiprocess Kalman filter combined with a fixed threshold on the smoothed progesterone values to detect luteolysis, and a progesterone monitoring algorithm using synergistic control, PMASC, which uses a mathematical model based on the luteal dynamics and a statistical control chart to detect luteolysis. The timing of the alerts and the robustness against missing values of both algorithms were investigated using 2 different sampling schemes: one sample per cow every 8 h versus 1 sample per day. The alerts for luteolysis of the PMASC algorithm were on average 20 h earlier compared with the ones of the multiprocess Kalman filter, and their timing was less sensitive to missing values. This was shown by the fact that, when 1 sample per day was used, the Kalman filter gave its alerts on average 24 h later, and the variability in timing of the alerts compared with simulated luteolysis increased with 22%. Accordingly, we postulate that implementation of the PMASC system could improve the consistency of luteolysis detection on farm and lower the analysis costs compared with the current state of the art.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Luteólise/metabolismo , Leite , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Progesterona/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Bovinos , Corpo Lúteo , Fazendas , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação
3.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 1988-1994, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Famotidine is sometimes administered as a continuous rate infusion (CRI) to treat gastrointestinal ulceration in critically ill dogs. However, clinical studies have not evaluated the efficacy of a famotidine CRI in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of famotidine at raising intragastric pH when it is administered as a CRI in dogs. We hypothesized that CRI treatment with famotidine would meet clinical goals for raising intragastric pH ≥3 and 4. ANIMALS: Nine healthy Beagle dogs. METHODS: Randomized 2-way crossover. All dogs received 1.0 mg/kg IV q12h famotidine or CRI famotidine at 1.0 mg/kg IV loading dose and 8.0 mg/kg/d for 3 consecutive days. Beginning on day 0 of treatment, intragastric pH monitoring was used to continuously record intragastric pH. Mean percentage times (MPTs) for which intragastric pH was ≥3 and ≥4 were compared between groups using analysis of variance. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (P < .05) in MPT ≥3 and ≥4 between the CRI and IV q12h groups on all treatment days. On days 1, 2, and 3, the MPTs ± SD for which pH was ≥3 were 92.1 ± 8.5, 96.3 ± 6.2, and 90.0 ± 15.7 for the CRI treatment group and 49.3 ± 27.3, 42.2 ± 19.6, and 45.8 ± 10.1, respectively, for the twice-daily group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: These results suggest that a famotidine CRI, but not standard doses of famotidine, achieves the clinical goals established in people to promote healing of gastric tissue injury and offers an alternative to intravenous treatment with proton pump inhibitors in dogs.


Assuntos
Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Cães , Famotidina/farmacologia , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Famotidina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Determinação da Acidez Gástrica/veterinária , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Horm Behav ; 113: 95-102, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077709

RESUMO

According to the cort-fitness hypothesis, glucocorticoid levels correlate negatively with fitness. However, field studies found mixed support for this hypothesis, potentially because the association between glucocorticoids and fitness might depend on prevailing environmental conditions. Based on the long-term monitoring of a natural rodent population, we tested whether individuals with elevated corticosterone levels were more likely to disappear, accounting for individual condition and among-year variation in food availability, population density and predation pressure. We used basal corticosterone levels measured at the onset of the pre-breeding season in 331 African striped mice from six generations. While basal corticosterone levels were highly repeatable within individuals, between-individual variation was large. Survival analysis revealed that disappearance risk over the pre-breeding season increased with elevated basal corticosterone levels for light but not for heavy individuals. High levels of corticosterone may be more deleterious to smaller individuals (i.e. through allostatic overload), eventually increasing their mortality risk, and disappearance would represent actual death. An alternative non-exclusive explanation could be that high levels of corticosterone selectively trigger dispersal in light individuals, and disappearance would rather reflect their departure from the population. Although environmental conditions varied considerably among generations, none of the interactions between corticosterone and environmental variables were significant. Disappearance probability was positively correlated with both predation pressure and with food availability, a factor favoring dispersal. In sum, elevated basal corticosterone levels increased disappearance in light striped mice, either directly via reduced survival prospects and/or indirectly via dispersal.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Longevidade/fisiologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Glucocorticoides/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Roedores/sangue , Estações do Ano , África do Sul , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Equine Vet J ; 51(6): 840-845, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerometry is an accepted means of quantifying human physical activity. Quantitative physical activity tracking could be beneficial for studies into equine health and disease prevention, for example in relation to obesity management. OBJECTIVES: Validate accelerometer use in grazing horses, determine between-day repeatability, and assess the effects of pasture size on time budget (i.e. duration in each activity category). STUDY DESIGN: Proof of concept. METHODS: Accelerometers (ActiGraph) were positioned at the poll. Horses underwent 5 min of observed activity in three categories: standing, grazing and ambulating. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, used on ten second data epochs, calculated cut points between the activities. A 20-day study was then undertaken on 6 horses at pasture. Time in each category (per day) was deduced; a Mann Whitney U test was performed to compare standard vs. small paddock and day vs. night turn out. RESULTS: Cut-off values with the optimum sensitivity (94.7-97.7%) and specificity (94.7-96.8%) were found to be <127.6 counts for standing, 127.6-702.7 counts for grazing and >702.7 counts for ambulating. Repeatability was analysed descriptively: Median (IQR) of the between-day difference in minutes standing, grazing and ambulating were 46.9 (21.3-87.9), 77.3 (40.2-124.5) and 15.6 (6.8-40.2) respectively. Median times standing and ambulating were significantly different between standard and small paddocks: standing: 8.7 vs. 10.3 h (P<0.001); ambulating: 55.7 vs. 39.6 min (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the median time spent grazing. There were significant differences between day and night: standing: 32.95% vs. 50.97% (P = 0.001), grazing: 60.81% vs. 46.77% (P<0.001) and ambulating: 4.57% vs. 2.40% (P<0.001). MAIN LIMITATIONS: Small sample size and lack of cross-validation of cut-off points on independent, 'unseen' data. CONCLUSIONS: Accelerometry can differentiate standing, grazing and ambulating in horses. Our proof-of-concept study demonstrates modifying pasture size influences activity budgets; opening avenues into studying obesity management.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Cavalos/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação
6.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(1): 205-215, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871833

RESUMO

Monitoring variables of cardiac performance in horses is challenging owing to patient size, temperament, and anatomic peculiarities. Blood pressure is a major determinant of afterload, but it is not a reliable surrogate of cardiac performance and tissue perfusion. Cardiac output, together with arterial and venous oxygen content, provides insight as to the adequacy of delivery of blood and oxygen to the body as a whole and can be used to gauge the fluid responsiveness and cardiovascular status of the patient. Measurement of intracardiac pressures serves to assess cardiac filling pressures, myocardial performance, and vascular resistance.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Animais , Gasometria , Pressão Sanguínea , Débito Cardíaco , Doenças dos Cavalos , Cavalos/sangue , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
7.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(3): 171-176, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843524

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the present study the ante partum ruminating behavior and the later birth course were examined. Between May 2016 and April 2017 all cows, on a North German farm with 430 Holstein Friesian cows, were equipped with a transponder recording the ruminating behavior at least one week before the calculated date of birth. In total, 28 births could be monitored. Regardless of the course of birth, a decrease in ruminal activity was observed in all animals in the days before birth. The most significant decrease was on the last day before the birth. A significant difference occurred only at certain times. The present study confirmed an association between the early decline in ruminal activity and any imminent -dystocia. Further and in-depth studies are needed to create an appropriate algorithm.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Distocia/diagnóstico , Distocia/veterinária , Feminino , Alemanha , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Gravidez
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(5): 4536-4540, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827545

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to validate the CowManager SensOor ear-tag accelerometer (Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) against visual observations of feeding, rumination, resting, and active behaviors of tiestall-housed dairy cows. Prior validation of the sensor has been published for freestall and grazing dairy herds. However, the behavioral differences that exist among these and a tiestall system necessitate additional validation. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 10) at different lactation stages and parities were included in the study. Cows were monitored both visually and with the sensor for 10 h/d for 4 consecutive days (10 cows × 10 h × 4 d = 400 h of observation total). A single trained observer classified each minute of visual observation into 1 of 13 behaviors and then summarized them into the 4 behavioral categories of eating, rumination, not active, or active. The sensor registered ear movements continuously and, based on a proprietary model, converted them into the behavioral categories. Multivariate mixed models were run to obtain covariance estimates, from which correlation coefficients were computed to assess agreement between visual observation and sensor data. The models included the percentage of time spent performing each behavior per day as the dependent variable and technology (visual observation versus sensor) and day as fixed effects. The models also included the random effects of technology and the repeated effects of technology and day. The correlation strength between visual observation and sensor data varied from poor to almost perfect by behavioral category (eating: r = 0.27; rumination: r = 0.69; eating-rumination: r = 0.83; not active: r = 0.95; and active: r = 0.89). The results suggest that the sensor can be used to accurately monitor active and not-active behaviors of tiestall-housed dairy cows. The results also suggest that although the sensor shows promise for identifying feeding behaviors in general, the independent classification of rumination and eating requires additional sensitivity.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/veterinária , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Atividade Motora , Acelerometria/métodos , Animais , Orelha , Feminino , Lactação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
9.
Animal ; 13(9): 2070-2079, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739632

RESUMO

The commercially available collar device MooMonitor+ was evaluated with regards to accuracy and application potential for measuring grazing behavior. These automated measurements are crucial as cows feed intake behavior at pasture is an important parameter of animal performance, health and welfare as well as being an indicator of feed availability. Compared to laborious and time-consuming visual observation, the continuous and automated measurement of grazing behavior may support and improve the grazing management of dairy cows on pasture. Therefore, there were two experiments as well as a literature analysis conducted to evaluate the MooMonitor+ under grazing conditions. The first experiment compared the automated measurement of the sensor against visual observation. In a second experiment, the MooMonitor+ was compared to a noseband sensor (RumiWatch), which also allows continuous measurement of grazing behavior. The first experiment on n = 12 cows revealed that the automated sensor MooMonitor+ and visual observation were highly correlated as indicated by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) = 0.94 and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.97 for grazing time. An rs-value of 0.97 and CCC = 0.98 was observed for rumination time. In a second experiment with n = 12 cows over 24-h periods, a high correlation between the MooMonitor+ and the RumiWatch was observed for grazing time as indicated by an rs-value of 0.91 and a CCC-value of 0.97. Similarly, a high correlation was observed for rumination time with an rs-value of 0.96 and a CCC-value of 0.99. While a higher level of agreement between the MooMonitor+ and both visual observation and RumiWatch was observed for rumination time compared to grazing time, the overall results showed a high level of accuracy of the collar device in measuring grazing and rumination times. Therefore, the collar device can be applied to monitor cow behavior at pasture on farms. With regards to the application potential of the collar device, it may not only be used on commercial farms but can also be applied to research questions when a data resolution of 15 min is sufficient. Thus, at farm level, the farmer can get an accurate and continuous measurement of grazing behavior of each individual cow and may then use those data for decision-making to optimize the animal management.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/veterinária , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino
10.
J Dairy Res ; 86(1): 40-42, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729911

RESUMO

This research communication addresses the goal of validating an algorithm to monitor natural occurrence of feeding behaviours in dairy Mediterranean buffalo based on the output of a noseband pressure sensor (RumiWatch®, halter). Several characteristics of the feeding behaviour were detected with a very high (ruminating boluses), high (chews per bolus) and moderate degree of correlation (chews per minute) with video analyses (gold standard). All of them were associated with a low mean difference with the gold standard, and the mean relative measurement error ranged between low (ruminating boluses) and moderate (chews per bolus and chews per minute). The proportion of correctly detected events for the variables rumination and eating time was 98 and 99%, respectively. The collection of data and subsequent evaluation of the parameters investigated may provide objective information on Mediterranean Buffalo behaviours allowing for reliable studies of the animal welfare in this ruminant in the future.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Búfalos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Algoritmos , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Itália , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Nariz , Ruminação Digestiva , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Dairy Res ; 86(1): 43-47, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732674

RESUMO

In a system in which cows are grouped and given differential access to feeding bins with different rations, and where these groups change over time, it is important to find out how a change in the ration (and hence feeding bin) affects the cow's feeding behaviour. Monitoring the locomotion of cows can be used to predict oestrus and improve health (lameness diagnosis), but activity monitors can also be used to estimate both activity and numbers of feeding visits by cows. Ice tag activity monitors were attached to the right hind legs of ten cows. Walking, standing, lying data and health records were used to record changes before and after a change in each cow's feeding bin. Results comparing activity before and after feeding bin change revealed significant increases in motion index, number of steps taken per minute and number of lying bouts per minute (all P < 0.001). Comparing the behaviours of cows subsequently followed during the dry period showed significant differences in motion indices and number of steps taken per minute (P < 0.001) in the dry period. The results indicate that cows are affected by feeding bin change and group change, which can lead to an increase in behaviour associated with the stress response, especially in heifers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/psicologia , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
12.
Anim Sci J ; 90(4): 589-596, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773740

RESUMO

Demand has been increasing recently for an automated monitoring system of animal behavior as a tool for the management of livestock animals. This study investigated the association between the behavior of dairy cattle and the acceleration data collected using three-axis neck-mounted accelerometers, as well as the feasibility of improving the precision of behavior classifications through machine learning. In total 38 Holstein dairy cows were used, and kept in four different farms. A logger was mounted to each collar to obtain acceleration data for calculating the activity level and variations. At the same time the behavior of the cattle was observed visually. Characteristic acceleration waves were recorded for eating, rumination, and lying, respectively; and the activity level and variations were significantly different among these behaviors (p < 0.01). Decision tree learning was performed on the data set from Farm A and validated its precision; which proved to be 99.2% in cross-validation, and 100% in test data sets from Farms B to D. This study showed that highly precise classifications for eating, rumination, and lying is possible by using decision tree learning to calculate the activity level and variations of cattle based on the data obtained by three-axis accelerometers mounted to a collar.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Comportamento Animal/classificação , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/psicologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Árvores de Decisões , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Aprendizado de Máquina , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(4): 3495-3500, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712937

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether data from an electronic drinking system that tracks individual animal attendance with ear tag transponders could be used to detect social competition between dairy cows at the drinker. Specifically, we sought to identify the interval between one cow leaving the drinker and another cow taking her place that most accurately identified competitive replacements (when physical contact initiated by one cow causes the other to entirely remove her head from the drinker and the initiator subsequently places her head in the same drinker). The optimal interval to accurately identify replacements at the drinker was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve and by evaluating the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and confusion matrix values (true positives, true negatives, false positives, false negatives) of different thresholds identified by 3 metrics: the Youden index, the point closest to (0,1) on the curve, and the point where Se roughly equals Sp. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 20) were monitored for 4 consecutive 24-h periods by video recording and with an electronic drinking system. Two periods were used to identify the optimal interval (the baseline set), and the other 2 periods were used to validate the interval (the validation set). The occurrence of a replacement identified by video was paired with the interval between drinking events of 2 cows at the same electronic drinker to identify the interval that best predicted replacement events. Based on the low prevalence of replacement events compared with nonreplacement events, the interval with the lowest number of false positives was considered optimal. Of the 3 potential metrics, the point on the receiver operating characteristic curve where Se and Sp were roughly equal yielded the fewest false positives. The optimal interval to identify replacements at the drinker was ≤29 s, with 82% Se and 83% Sp in the baseline set. This interval was found to have 85% Se and 89% Sp when applied to the validation set. These results indicate that social competition between dairy cows at the drinker can be accurately measured with an electronic drinking system.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Comportamento Social , Animais , Feminino , Lactação , Gravação em Vídeo
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(4): 3487-3494, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772028

RESUMO

Precision dairy technology is important because of the possibility to continuously and accurately measure behavior, biometrics, and productivity on commercial and research dairy farms by an automated method with minimal human intervention. The behavior-monitoring collar (BMC) used in this study is a commercially available precision dairy technology (MooMonitor+, Dairymaster, Co. Kerry, Ireland), designed to measure rumination, heat detection, feeding, and resting behavior of dairy cows. The study objective was to compare cow behavior measured by the BMC with visual observations. Twenty-four lactating, group-housed, Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation; days in milk: 196 ± 101; parity: 2.0 ± 1.1; milk yield: 40.0 ± 9.8 kg/d) were randomly selected for observation at the University of Kentucky's research dairy farm, Lexington). Behavior-monitoring collars were assigned to cows as per farm protocol. Each cow was observed for 240 min within 1 d (0700 to 0900 h, and 1900 to 2100 h). Recordings of rumination, feeding, and resting time (min) by the BMC were compared with visual observation using Pearson correlation, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots for validation of precision and accuracy. Data from the BMC were considered precise if the correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were high (>0.70), and mean bias from the Bland-Altman plots included zero with the 95% interval of agreement. The BMC was considered accurate if the slope from the linear regressions did not differ significantly from 1, and the CCC (ρc) were at least moderate (>0.90). We found very high Pearson correlation coefficients (0.99, 0.93, and 0.94) and coefficients of determination (0.97, 0.85, and 0.88) for rumination, feeding, and resting, respectively. Bland-Altman plots were acceptable; the plots did not show any bias. The Bland-Altman mean differences ± standard deviation (BMC - observation) were -7.57 ± 6.31, 15.81 ± 11.84, and -13.03 ± 9.37 min, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot's 95% interval of agreement encompassed 100% of the observations of resting time, and all but one cow's observations for both rumination and feeding time. The slope of the linear regression, however, was different than 1 for all behaviors, and rumination was the only behavior with moderate CCC. In summary, this study validates the high precision of rumination, resting, and feeding behaviors measured by a BMC in lactating dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Lactação/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Descanso , Animais , Feminino , Irlanda , Leite , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Animal ; 13(9): 2060-2069, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630541

RESUMO

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology offers a real-time solution to monitor behavioral responses of individual animals to various stimuli, which provides crucial implications on farm management and animal well-being. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop and describe an ultra-high frequency radio frequency identification (UHF-RFID) system for continuously monitoring feeding and drinking behaviors of individual broilers in group settings; and (2) validate the performance of the UHF-RFID system against video analysis in determining the instantaneous bird number (IBN) and time spent (TS) at feeder and drinker. The UHF-RFID system consisted of cable-tie tags, antennas, a reader and a data acquisition (DAQ) system. The antennas generated electromagnetic fields where tags were detected and registered by the DAQ system. Electromagnetic fields of the antennas were modified to cover areas of concern (i.e. tube feeders and nipple drinkers) through a series of system evaluations and customizations including tag sensitivity test, power adjustment, radio wave shielding, and assessment of interference by add-ons (e.g. plastic wraps for protecting antennas and an empty carton box for zoning out broilers) and feed/feeder. System validation was performed in two experimental rooms, each with 60 tagged broilers. The results showed that the max reading distances of tags with an identical manufacturer's specification were markedly different, indicating large variations in sensitivity among the tags. Desired electromagnetic fields could be achieved by adjusting the power supplied to antennas and by partially shielding antennas with customized stainless steel sheets. The protection materials and fully loaded feeder had little effect on electromagnetic fields of the antennas. The accuracies of the UHF-RFID system for determining IBN and TS were, respectively, 92.5±4.2% and 99.0±1.2% by the feeder antennas and 94.7±4.2% and 93.7±6.9% by the drinker antennas. It is concluded that the UHF-RIFD system can accurately detect and record feeding and drinking behaviors of individual broilers in group settings and thus is a useful tool for investigating impacts of resource allocations and management practices on these behaviors.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Comportamento Alimentar , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Animais
16.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211417, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699193

RESUMO

There is increasing scrutiny of the animal welfare impacts of all animal use activities, including agriculture, the keeping of companion animals, racing and entertainment, research and laboratory use, and wildlife management programs. A common objective of animal welfare monitoring is to quantify the frequency of adverse animal events (e.g., injuries or mortalities). The frequency of such events can be used to provide pass/fail grades for animal use activities relative to a defined threshold and to identify areas for improvement through research. A critical question in these situations is how many animals should be sampled? There are, however, few guidelines available for data collection or analysis, and consequently sample sizes can be highly variable. To address this question, we first evaluated the effect of sample size on precision and statistical power in reporting the frequency of adverse animal welfare outcomes. We next used these findings to assess the precision of published animal welfare investigations for a range of contentious animal use activities, including livestock transport, horse racing, and wildlife harvesting and capture. Finally, we evaluated the sample sizes required for comparing observed outcomes with specified standards through hypothesis testing. Our simulations revealed that the sample sizes required for reasonable levels of precision (i.e., proportional distance to the upper confidence interval limit (δ) of ≤ 0.50) are greater than those that have been commonly used for animal welfare assessments (i.e., >300). Larger sample sizes are required for adverse events with low frequency (i.e., <5%). For comparison with a required threshold standard, even larger samples sizes are required. We present guidelines, and an online calculator, for minimum sample sizes for use in future animal welfare assessments of animal management and research programs.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Vigilância da População , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Animais , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Tamanho da Amostra , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 123: 178-183, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682579

RESUMO

In this study, the changes of salivary stress biomarkers were contrasted with skin lesions during weaning in piglets. The stress biomarkers evaluated were cortisol (as the reflection of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis), chromogranin A (CgA) and alpha amylase (sAA) (both as the reflection of sympathoadrenal-medullary (SAM) axis). In addition, the accumulation of skin lesions were assessed as proxy measures of aggression. One hundred and two Danbred piglets (51 female and 51 male) from primiparous and multiparous sows were studied from birth to two days post-weaning. Saliva sampling and lesion scoring were performed one day pre-weaning (-1), and one (+1) and two days post-weaning (+2). Our results show that on +1, there was a significant (P < .0001) increase in salivary cortisol, CgA and skin lesions; whereas on +2, there was a significant increase (P < .0001) in salivary CgA and skin lesions. CgA was correlated with the skin lesion score (r = 0.4; P < .0001). sAA did not significantly change at any sampling time. It can be concluded that stress associated to weaning, is associated with changes in salivary CgA and cortisol stress biomarkers and an increase in skin lesions. However, CgA shows higher correlation with skin lesions which indicates that stress due to fighting activates the SAM stress pathway. Therefore, a combination of physiological biomarkers (CgA and cortisol) and proxy of aggression (skin lesions) is preferable than the use of a single biomarker or behavioural indicator when monitoring the social stress response associated to weaning in piglets.


Assuntos
Agressão , Hidrocortisona/química , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Suínos , Animais , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cromogranina A/metabolismo , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Saliva/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases
18.
Integr Zool ; 14(1): 30-47, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851240

RESUMO

As one of the few felids that is predominantly diurnal, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) can be exposed to high heat loads in their natural habitat. Little is known about long-term patterns of body temperature and activity (including hunting) in cheetahs because long-term concurrent measurements of body temperature and activity have never been reported for cheetahs, or, indeed, for any free-living felid. We report here body temperature and locomotor activity measured with implanted data loggers over 7 months in 5 free-living cheetahs in Namibia. Air temperature ranged from a maximum of 39 °C in summer to -2 °C in winter. Cheetahs had higher (∼0.4 °C) maximum 24-h body temperatures, later acrophase (∼1 h), with larger fluctuations in the range of the 24-h body temperature rhythm (approximately 0.4 °C) during a hot-dry period than during a cool-dry period, but maintained homeothermy irrespective of the climatic conditions. As ambient temperatures increased, the cheetahs shifted from a diurnal to a crepuscular activity pattern, with reduced activity between 900 and 1500 hours and increased nocturnal activity. The timing of hunts followed the general pattern of activity; the cheetahs hunted when they were on the move. Cheetahs hunted if an opportunity presented itself; on occasion they hunted in the midday heat or in total darkness (new moon). Biologging revealed insights into cheetah biology that are not accessible by traditional observer-based techniques.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Atividade Motora , Namíbia , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 425-433, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174287

RESUMO

Analysing behaviours can provide insight into the health and overall well-being of dairy cows. Automatic monitoring systems using e.g., accelerometers are becoming increasingly important to accurately quantify cows' behaviours as the herd size increases. The aim of this study is to automatically classify cows' behaviours by comparing leg- and neck-mounted accelerometers, and to study the effect of the sampling rate and the number of accelerometer axes logged on the classification performances. Lying, standing, and feeding behaviours of 16 different lactating dairy cows were logged for 6h with 3D-accelerometers. The behaviours were simultaneously recorded using visual observation and video recordings as a reference. Different features were extracted from the raw data and machine learning algorithms were used for the classification. The classification models using combined data of the neck- and the leg-mounted accelerometers have classified the three behaviours with high precision (80-99%) and sensitivity (87-99%). For the leg-mounted accelerometer, lying behaviour was classified with high precision (99%) and sensitivity (98%). Feeding was classified more accurately by the neck-mounted versus the leg-mounted accelerometer (precision 92% versus 80%; sensitivity 97% versus 88%). Standing was the most difficult behaviour to classify when only one accelerometer was used. In addition, the classification performances were not highly influenced when only X, X and Z, or Z and Y axes were used for the classification instead of three axes, especially for the neck-mounted accelerometer. Moreover, the accuracy of the models decreased with about 20% when the sampling rate was decreased from 1Hz to 0.05Hz.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/veterinária , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Feminino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Animal ; 13(3): 617-621, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014808

RESUMO

Lying behaviour is important for the welfare of the cow. Therefore, reliable electronic devices may improve the management of the cows, and the devices can be used as a tool in research. However, accelerometer-based devices measure acceleration, and an algorithm is therefore necessary for the calculation of lying behaviour. Thus, validation of such devices is imperative prior to use. The objective of this study was to validate the use of the AfiTagII device for measurements of the lying time and frequency of lying bouts of Danish Holstein (DH) and Danish Jersey (DJ) cows in a loose-house system on two different bedding materials. The validation included correlations and linear regression analyses of data collected by the AfiTagII compared with data collected both by direct observations and recordings from a previously validated device (IceQube). In total, 40 cows were observed directly with primiparous and multiparous DJ and DH cows, equally represented. Furthermore, 21 cows were monitored with both AfiTagII and IceQube devices, and data from both devices were collected simultaneously. The devices were attached to the hind leg of the cow. The estimates of the lying time from the AfiTagII device was highly correlated with the recordings from direct observations (r=0.98), and there was a linear relation between these with an intercept equal to 0 and a slope close to 1. The estimates of the lying time from the AfiTagII device was also highly correlated with the IceQube recordings (r=0.94). However, the intercept deviated from 0. The frequency of lying bouts recorded by the AfiTAgII compared to direct observations showed a positive predictive value of 0.96 for lactating cows on the slatted floor and of 0.85 for the dry cows on the deep bedding. The correlations between frequency of lying bouts recorded with the two devices were high (r=0.94), but the intercept deviated from 0. In conclusion, the AfiTagII has a high accuracy for the measurements of lying behaviour in both DH and DJ cows kept on different bedding materials.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Feminino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Especificidade da Espécie
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