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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557278

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The virus still spreads globally through human-to-human transmission. Nevertheless, there are no specific treatments clinically approved. This study aimed to compare antiviral activity of gemcitabine and its analogue 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (2FdC) against SARS-CoV-2 as well as cytotoxicity in vitro. Fluorescent image-based antiviral assays revealed that gemcitabine was highly potent, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1.2 µM, more active than the well-known nucleoside monophosphate remdesivir (EC50 = 35.4 µM). In contrast, 2FdC was marginally active (EC50 = 175.2 µM). For all three compounds, the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were over 300 µM toward Vero CCL-81 cells. Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses verified that gemcitabine blocked viral protein expression in virus-infected cells, not only Vero CCL-81 cells but also Calu-3 human lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was found that gemcitabine has a synergistic effect when combined with remdesivir. This report suggests that the difluoro group of gemcitabine is critical for the antiviral activity and that its combination with other evaluated antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, could be a desirable option to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , /efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , /virologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 279, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436624

RESUMO

Remdesivir is the only FDA-approved drug for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The active form of remdesivir acts as a nucleoside analog and inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is incorporated by the RdRp into the growing RNA product and allows for addition of three more nucleotides before RNA synthesis stalls. Here we use synthetic RNA chemistry, biochemistry and cryo-electron microscopy to establish the molecular mechanism of remdesivir-induced RdRp stalling. We show that addition of the fourth nucleotide following remdesivir incorporation into the RNA product is impaired by a barrier to further RNA translocation. This translocation barrier causes retention of the RNA 3'-nucleotide in the substrate-binding site of the RdRp and interferes with entry of the next nucleoside triphosphate, thereby stalling RdRp. In the structure of the remdesivir-stalled state, the 3'-nucleotide of the RNA product is matched and located with the template base in the active center, and this may impair proofreading by the viral 3'-exonuclease. These mechanistic insights should facilitate the quest for improved antivirals that target coronavirus replication.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , /efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , /efeitos dos fármacos , Nucleotídeos , RNA Viral , /enzimologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 668, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510133

RESUMO

Except remdesivir, no specific antivirals for SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently available. Here, we characterize two small-molecule-compounds, named GRL-1720 and 5h, containing an indoline and indole moiety, respectively, which target the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). We use VeroE6 cell-based assays with RNA-qPCR, cytopathic assays, and immunocytochemistry and show both compounds to block the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values of 15 ± 4 and 4.2 ± 0.7 µM for GRL-1720 and 5h, respectively. Remdesivir permitted viral breakthrough at high concentrations; however, compound 5h completely blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro without viral breakthrough or detectable cytotoxicity. Combination of 5h and remdesivir exhibits synergism against SARS-CoV-2. Additional X-ray structural analysis show that 5h forms a covalent bond with Mpro and makes polar interactions with multiple active site amino acid residues. The present data suggest that 5h might serve as a lead Mpro inhibitor for the development of therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , /efeitos dos fármacos , /efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Células Vero , /metabolismo
4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 707-720, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440983

RESUMO

The whole world is battling through coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is a fatal pandemic. In the early 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a global health emergency without definitive treatments and preventive approaches. In the absence of definitive therapeutic agents, this thorough review summarizes and outlines the potency and safety of all molecules and therapeutics which may have potential antiviral effects. A number of molecules and therapeutics licensed or being tested for some other conditions were found effective in different in vitro studies as well as in many small sample-sized clinical trials and independent case studies. However, in those clinical trials, there were some limitations which need to be overcome to find the most promising antiviral against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In conclusion, many of above-mentioned antivirals seems to have some therapeutic effects but none of them have been shown to have a strong evidence for their proper recommendation and approval in the treatment of COVID-19. Constantly evolving new evidences, exclusive adult data, language barrier, and type of study (observational, retrospective, small-sized clinical trials, or independent case series) resulted to the several limitations of this review. The need for multicentered, large sample-sized, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on COVID-19 patients to reach a proper conclusion on the most promising antiviral agent is warranted.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /terapia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/farmacologia , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Interferons/farmacologia , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
5.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(2): 331-342.e5, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450186

RESUMO

ApoE4, a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease, has been associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19. However, it is unclear whether ApoE4 alters COVID-19 susceptibility or severity, and the role of direct viral infection in brain cells remains obscure. We tested the neurotropism of SARS-CoV2 in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models and observed low-grade infection of neurons and astrocytes that is boosted in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures and organoids. We then generated isogenic ApoE3/3 and ApoE4/4 hiPSCs and found an increased rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ApoE4/4 neurons and astrocytes. ApoE4 astrocytes exhibited enlarged size and elevated nuclear fragmentation upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we show that remdesivir treatment inhibits SARS-CoV2 infection of hiPSC neurons and astrocytes. These findings suggest that ApoE4 may play a causal role in COVID-19 severity. Understanding how risk factors impact COVID-19 susceptibility and severity will help us understand the potential long-term effects in different patient populations.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/virologia , Tropismo/fisiologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/virologia , Diferenciação Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Neuritos/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/patologia , Organoides/virologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Sinapses/patologia , Células Vero
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2229, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500537

RESUMO

The development of specific antiviral compounds to SARS-CoV-2 is an urgent task. One of the obstacles for the antiviral development is the requirement of biocontainment because infectious SARS-CoV-2 must be handled in a biosafety level-3 laboratory. Replicon, a non-infectious self-replicative viral RNA, could be a safe and effective tool for antiviral evaluation. Herein, we generated a PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 replicon. Eight fragments covering the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome except S, E, and M genes were amplified with HiBiT-tag sequence by PCR. The amplicons were ligated and in vitro transcribed to RNA. The cells electroporated with the replicon RNA showed more than 3000 times higher luminescence than MOCK control cells at 24 h post-electroporation, indicating robust translation and RNA replication of the replicon. The replication was drastically inhibited by remdesivir, an RNA polymerase inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2. The IC50 of remdesivir in this study was 0.29 µM, generally consistent to the IC50 obtained using infectious SARS-CoV-2 in a previous study (0.77 µM). Taken together, this system could be applied to the safe and effective antiviral evaluation without using infectious SARS-CoV-2. Because this is a PCR-based and transient replicon system, further improvement including the establishment of stable cell line must be achieved.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , /efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Células CHO , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Eletroporação , Genoma Viral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral , Regiões não Traduzidas , Células Vero , Vírion , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009292, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507952

RESUMO

The human airway epithelium is the initial site of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used flow cytometry and single cell RNA-sequencing to understand how the heterogeneity of this diverse cell population contributes to elements of viral tropism and pathogenesis, antiviral immunity, and treatment response to remdesivir. We found that, while a variety of epithelial cell types are susceptible to infection, ciliated cells are the predominant cell target of SARS-CoV-2. The host protease TMPRSS2 was required for infection of these cells. Importantly, remdesivir treatment effectively inhibited viral replication across cell types, and blunted hyperinflammatory responses. Induction of interferon responses within infected cells was rare and there was significant heterogeneity in the antiviral gene signatures, varying with the burden of infection in each cell. We also found that heavily infected secretory cells expressed abundant IL-6, a potential mediator of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/farmacologia , /virologia , Tropismo Viral , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/farmacologia , /genética , Epitélio/imunologia , Epitélio/virologia , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Interferons/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Tropismo Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Acta Pharm ; 71(2): 163-174, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151166

RESUMO

The current outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections urges the need to identify potential therapeutic agents. Therefore, the repurposing of FDA-approved drugs against today's diseases involves the use of de-risked compounds with potentially lower costs and shorter development timelines. In this study, the recently resolved X-ray crystallographic structure of COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) was used to generate a pharmacophore model and to conduct a docking study to capture antiviral drugs as new promising COVID-19 main protease inhibitors. The developed pharmacophore successfully captured five FDA-approved antiviral drugs (lopinavir, remdesivir, ritonavir, saquinavir and raltegravir). The five drugs were successfully docked into the binding site of COVID-19 Mpro and showed several specific binding interactions that were comparable to those tying the co-crystallized inhibitor X77 inside the binding site of COVID-19 Mpro. Three of the captured drugs namely, remdesivir, lopinavir and ritonavir, were reported to have promising results in COVID-19 treatment and therefore increases the confidence in our results. Our findings suggest an additional possible mechanism of action for remdesivir as an antiviral drug inhibiting COVID-19 Mpro. Additionally, a combination of structure-based pharmacophore modeling with a docking study is expected to facilitate the discovery of novel COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/química , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Modelos Químicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 11 12.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331727

RESUMO

Much has changed in the medical treatment of COVID-19 after the first patient with an infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the Netherlands was diagnosed in February 2020. On the basis of limited data, at first only off-label use of (hydroxy)chloroquine seemed to be a treatment option. However, now based on the findings of several randomized studies, other medicines have been included in the Dutch guidelines about the treatment of COVID-19. In this article, we will briefly discuss the current state of affairs with regard to the drugs (hydroxy) chloroquine, remdesivir and corticosteroids. Again, it appears that only well-executed randomized clinical trials can determine the status of various supposedly effective drugs.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Glucocorticoides , Hidroxicloroquina , /efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /epidemiologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/normas , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(1)2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055231

RESUMO

Patients and physicians worldwide are facing tremendous health care hazards that are caused by the ongoing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Remdesivir (GS-5734) is the first approved treatment for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is a novel nucleoside analog with a broad antiviral activity spectrum among RNA viruses, including ebolavirus (EBOV) and the respiratory pathogens Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. First described in 2016, the drug was derived from an antiviral library of small molecules intended to target emerging pathogenic RNA viruses. In vivo, remdesivir showed therapeutic and prophylactic effects in animal models of EBOV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the substance failed in a clinical trial on ebolavirus disease (EVD), where it was inferior to investigational monoclonal antibodies in an interim analysis. As there was no placebo control in this study, no conclusions on its efficacy in EVD can be made. In contrast, data from a placebo-controlled trial show beneficial effects for patients with COVID-19. Remdesivir reduces the time to recovery of hospitalized patients who require supplemental oxygen and may have a positive impact on mortality outcomes while having a favorable safety profile. Although this is an important milestone in the fight against COVID-19, approval of this drug will not be sufficient to solve the public health issues caused by the ongoing pandemic. Further scientific efforts are needed to evaluate the full potential of nucleoside analogs as treatment or prophylaxis of viral respiratory infections and to develop effective antivirals that are orally bioavailable.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacocinética , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/farmacocinética , Alanina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Esquema de Medicação , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/mortalidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/patologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(11): 857-867, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100032

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus recently identified in Wuhan, China (2019-nCoV) has resulted in an increasing number of patients globally, and has become a highly lethal pathogenic member of the coronavirus family affecting humans. 2019-nCoV has established itself as one of the most threatening pandemics that human beings have faced, and therefore analysis and evaluation of all possible responses against infection is required. One such strategy includes utilizing the knowledge gained from the SARS and MERS outbreaks regarding existing antivirals. Indicating a potential for success, one of the drugs, remdesivir, under repurposing studies, has shown positive results in initial clinical studies. Therefore, in the current work, the authors have attempted to utilize the remdesivir-RdRp complex - RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) being the putative target for remdesivir - to screen a library of the already reported RdRp inhibitor database. Further clustering on the basis of structural features and scoring refinement was performed to filter out false positive hits. Finally, molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to validate the identification of hits as RdRp inhibitors against novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. The results yielded two putative hits which can inhibit RdRp with better potency than remdesivir, subject to further biological evaluation.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , /antagonistas & inibidores , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/química , Alanina/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16577, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024223

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for COVID-19, resulting in the largest pandemic in over a hundred years. After examining the molecular structures and activities of hepatitis C viral inhibitors and comparing hepatitis C virus and coronavirus replication, we previously postulated that the FDA-approved hepatitis C drug EPCLUSA (Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir) might inhibit SARS-CoV-2. We subsequently demonstrated that Sofosbuvir triphosphate is incorporated by the relatively low fidelity SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps), serving as an immediate polymerase reaction terminator, but not by a host-like high fidelity DNA polymerase. Other investigators have since demonstrated the ability of Sofosbuvir to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung and brain cells; additionally, COVID-19 clinical trials with EPCLUSA and with Sofosbuvir plus Daclatasvir have been initiated in several countries. SARS-CoV-2 has an exonuclease-based proofreader to maintain the viral genome integrity. Any effective antiviral targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp must display a certain level of resistance to this proofreading activity. We report here that Sofosbuvir terminated RNA resists removal by the exonuclease to a substantially higher extent than RNA terminated by Remdesivir, another drug being used as a COVID-19 therapeutic. These results offer a molecular basis supporting the current use of Sofosbuvir in combination with other drugs in COVID-19 clinical trials.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Exonucleases/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , RNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Sofosbuvir/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/química , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/enzimologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Sofosbuvir/química , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26946-26954, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028676

RESUMO

Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral nucleotide prodrug that has been clinically evaluated in Ebola virus patients and recently received emergency use authorization (EUA) for treatment of COVID-19. With approvals from the Federal Select Agent Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Institutional Biosecurity Board, we characterized the resistance profile of remdesivir by serially passaging Ebola virus under remdesivir selection; we generated lineages with low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir after 35 passages. We found that a single amino acid substitution, F548S, in the Ebola virus polymerase conferred low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir. The F548 residue is highly conserved in filoviruses but should be subject to specific surveillance among novel filoviruses, in newly emerging variants in ongoing outbreaks, and also in Ebola virus patients undergoing remdesivir therapy. Homology modeling suggests that the Ebola virus polymerase F548 residue lies in the F-motif of the polymerase active site, a region that was previously identified as susceptible to resistance mutations in coronaviruses. Our data suggest that molecular surveillance of this region of the polymerase in remdesivir-treated COVID-19 patients is also warranted.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Ebolavirus/enzimologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Linhagem Celular , Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/genética , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26915-26925, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046644

RESUMO

Zoonotic coronaviruses represent an ongoing threat, yet the myriads of circulating animal viruses complicate the identification of higher-risk isolates that threaten human health. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a newly discovered, highly pathogenic virus that likely evolved from closely related HKU2 bat coronaviruses, circulating in Rhinolophus spp. bats in China and elsewhere. As coronaviruses cause severe economic losses in the pork industry and swine are key intermediate hosts of human disease outbreaks, we synthetically resurrected a recombinant virus (rSADS-CoV) as well as a derivative encoding tomato red fluorescent protein (tRFP) in place of ORF3. rSADS-CoV replicated efficiently in a variety of continuous animal and primate cell lines, including human liver and rectal carcinoma cell lines. Of concern, rSADS-CoV also replicated efficiently in several different primary human lung cell types, as well as primary human intestinal cells. rSADS-CoV did not use human coronavirus ACE-2, DPP4, or CD13 receptors for docking and entry. Contemporary human donor sera neutralized the group I human coronavirus NL63, but not rSADS-CoV, suggesting limited human group I coronavirus cross protective herd immunity. Importantly, remdesivir, a broad-spectrum nucleoside analog that is effective against other group 1 and 2 coronaviruses, efficiently blocked rSADS-CoV replication in vitro. rSADS-CoV demonstrated little, if any, replicative capacity in either immune-competent or immunodeficient mice, indicating a critical need for improved animal models. Efficient growth in primary human lung and intestinal cells implicate SADS-CoV as a potential higher-risk emerging coronavirus pathogen that could negatively impact the global economy and human health.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Replicação Viral , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Alphacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Expressão Gênica , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16200, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004837

RESUMO

The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is exacerbated by the absence of effective therapeutic agents. Notably, patients with COVID-19 and comorbidities such as hypertension and cardiac diseases have a higher mortality rate. An efficient strategy in response to this issue is repurposing drugs with antiviral activity for therapeutic effect. Digoxin (DIG) and ouabain (OUA) are FDA drugs for heart diseases that have antiviral activity against several coronaviruses. Thus, we aimed to assess antiviral activity of DIG and OUA against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of DIG and OUA were determined at a nanomolar concentration. Progeny virus titers of single-dose treatment of DIG, OUA and remdesivir were approximately 103-, 104- and 103-fold lower (> 99% inhibition), respectively, than that of non-treated control or chloroquine at 48 h post-infection (hpi). Furthermore, therapeutic treatment with DIG and OUA inhibited over 99% of SARS-CoV-2 replication, leading to viral inhibition at the post entry stage of the viral life cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that DIG and OUA may be an alternative treatment for COVID-19, with potential additional therapeutic effects for patients with cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Digoxina/farmacologia , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Replicação Viral , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células Vero
16.
Drugs ; 80(13): 1355-1363, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870481

RESUMO

The antiviral agent remdesivir (Veklury®; Gilead Sciences), nucleotide analogue prodrug, has broad-spectrum activity against viruses from several families. Having demonstrated potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses in preclinical studies, remdesivir emerged as a candidate drug for the treatment of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, during the current global pandemic. Phase III evaluation of remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19 commenced in early 2020 and has thus far yielded promising results. In late May 2020, Taiwan conditionally approved the use of remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19. This was followed by a rapid succession of conditional approvals in various countries/regions including the EU and Canada. Preceding these conditional approvals, an emergency use authorization for remdesivir had been granted in the USA (on 1 May 2020) and a special approval for emergency use was granted in Japan (on 7 May 2020). This article summarizes the milestones in the development of remdesivir leading to its first conditional approval for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Coronavirus , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 163: 1687-1696, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980406

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has caused COVID-19 outbreak with nearly 2 M infected people and over 100K death worldwide, until middle of April 2020. There is no confirmed drug for the treatment of COVID-19 yet. As the disease spread fast and threaten human life, repositioning of FDA approved drugs may provide fast options for treatment. In this aspect, structure-based drug design could be applied as a powerful approach in distinguishing the viral drug target regions from the host. Evaluation of variations in SARS-CoV-2 genome may ease finding specific drug targets in the viral genome. In this study, 3458 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences isolated from all around the world were analyzed. Incidence of C17747T and A17858G mutations were observed to be much higher than others and they were on Nsp13, a vital enzyme of SARS-CoV-2. Effect of these mutations was evaluated on protein-drug interactions using in silico methods. The most potent drugs were found to interact with the key and neighbor residues of the active site responsible from ATP hydrolysis. As result, cangrelor, fludarabine, folic acid and polydatin were determined to be the most potent drugs which have potency to inhibit both the wild type and mutant SARS-CoV-2 helicase. Clinical data supporting these findings would be important towards overcoming COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Helicases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Aprovação de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Genoma Viral , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Helicases/química , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
19.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967116

RESUMO

We report the results of our in silico study of approved drugs as potential treatments for COVID-19. The study is based on the analysis of normal modes of proteins. The drugs studied include chloroquine, ivermectin, remdesivir, sofosbuvir, boceprevir, and α-difluoromethylornithine (DMFO). We applied the tools we developed and standard tools used in the structural biology community. Our results indicate that small molecules selectively bind to stable, kinetically active residues and residues adjoining them on the surface of proteins and inside protein pockets, and that some prefer hydrophobic sites over other active sites. Our approach is not restricted to viruses and can facilitate rational drug design, as well as improve our understanding of molecular interactions, in general.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/química , Alanina/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Sítios de Ligação , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Eflornitina/química , Eflornitina/farmacologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ivermectina/química , Ivermectina/farmacologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/química , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/química , Prolina/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Receptores da Glicina/química , Receptores da Glicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Saposinas/química , Saposinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sofosbuvir/química , Sofosbuvir/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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