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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 310: 123522, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423588

RESUMO

The by-product from acidic concentrated LiBr hydrolyzed (ALBH) crop residues, as ALBH biochar, showed great potential as adsorbent for removing heavy metal pollution. By optimizing the treatment conditions, this study indicated that 22.44% of cellulose was hydrolyzed to glucose, and the residues showed 86.96 mg/g of adsorption capacity to Cr(VI) after T6 treatment of elephant grass. With T3 treatment (5% solid ratio, 0.5 M HCl, at 140 °C for 150 min), the residues from treated elephant grass got 100 mg/g adsorption capability to Cr(VI). Meanwhile, the carbon sphere with uniform, dispersive and in diameter of ~100 nm was formed via the further dehydration and condensation reaction of saccharides. Among the raw feedstocks, the relative high content of cellulose (40.30%) caused elephant grass as the optimal option for carbon spheres production.


Assuntos
Nanosferas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo , Monossacarídeos
2.
Gene ; 741: 144522, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145329

RESUMO

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a transient based reverse genetic tool used to elucidate the function of novel gene in N. benthamiana. In current study, 14 UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase (GAE) family members were identified and their gene structure, phylogeny and expression pattern were analyzed. VIGS system was optimized for the functional characterization of NbGAE6 homologous genes in N. benthamiana. Whilst the GAE family is well-known for the interconversion of UDP-D-GlcA and UDP-D-GalA during pectin synthesis. Our results revealed that the downregulation of these genes significantly reduced the amount of GalA in the homogalacturunan which is the major component of pectin found in primary cell wall. Biphenyl assay and high performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC) depicted that the level of 'GalA' monosaccharide reduced to 40-51% in VIGS plants as compared to the wild type plants. Moreover, qRT-PCR also confirmed the downregulation of the NbGAE6 mRNA in VIGS plants. In all, this is the first comprehensive study of the optimization of VIGS system for the provision of rapid silencing of GAE family members in N. benthamiana, eliminating the need of stable transformants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Carboidratos Epimerases/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Pectinas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Pectinas/biossíntese , Peptídeos , Vírus de Plantas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Tabaco/virologia
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2588-2596, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031793

RESUMO

Monosaccharides play important roles in plant growth and development, and their biofunctions are closely related to their endogenous contents. Therefore, the determination of monosaccharides is beneficial for the further study of monosaccharide biofunction. In this work, we developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method assisted by a post-column derivatization technique (LC-PCD-MS) for the fast and automatic determination of 16 monosaccharides in samples. Post-column chemical derivatization of monosaccharides was performed by a reaction of monosaccharides with 4-benzylaminobenzeneboronic acid (4-PAMBA) through boronate ester formation in a three-way connector. 4-PAMBA worked as a derivatization reagent to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of monosaccharide detection by MS. The developed LC-PCD-MS method integrates LC separation, chemical derivatization, and MS detection in one run, thus greatly reducing the analysis time for each sample. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for 16 monosaccharides were in the range of 0.002-0.1 and 0.007-0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Good linearity was obtained from the linear regression, with a determination coefficient (R2) ranging from 0.9928 to 1.0000. The relative recoveries were in the range of 80.7-117.8%, with the intra- and interday relative standard deviations less than 19.7 and 16.5%, respectively, indicating good accuracy and acceptable reproducibility of the method. Finally, the method was successfully applied to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of 16 monosaccharides in the developing flower and germinating seed of Arabidopsis thaliana.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Flores/química , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação
4.
Food Chem ; 315: 126221, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000077

RESUMO

Xylo- and arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (XOS and AXOS) are of interest for their prebiotic activity. The production of these oligomers might be accompanied with monosaccharides. The measurement of both oligosaccharides and monosaccharides usually requires two methods. The current work presents an HPAEC-PAD method based on gradient elution of aqueous solvents sodium hydroxide and sodium acetate, in contrast to conventional isocratic elution, for the simultaneous separation of 16 standards of monosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides and uronic acids using CarboPac PA 200 column. The presented method showed a stable baseline and high-resolution separation of the standards. The method showed acceptable accuracy and precision. Limits of Detection and Quantitation (LOD and LOQ) were estimated for all the standards. The method was applied to measure the activity of a commercial endoxylanase on wheat bran; a steady release of xylose monosaccharide was observed. Enzyme action on oligosaccharide standards showed a preference for the larger oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Monossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Prebióticos/análise , Triticum/química , Arabinose/análise , Arabinose/metabolismo , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Fibras na Dieta , Grão Comestível/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ácidos Urônicos/química , Xilose/análise , Xilose/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 314: 126219, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978715

RESUMO

In order to further determine the interaction between polysaccharides and polyphenols, the complex of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and two phenols were prepared. According to the results, at the conditions of pH = 4, temperature = 60 °C, concentration ratio of polysaccharide and phenol = 4:1, the maximum adsorption of catechin and gallic acid in the SDF complex was 155.74 and 134.05 mg/g, respectively. Due to UV-Vis and FT-IR analysis, it could be speculated that the interaction between SDF and phenols resulted in chemical combination. Furthermore, the monosaccharide composition and molecular weight distribution of SDF were significantly altered after conjugated with phenols. However, it showed no significant difference between two different SDF-phenol complexes, referring to GC and GPC data. The surface of SDF-phenol complex was loose with uniform arrangement, while the physical mixture surface was porous with irregular holes and cracks. Both SDF-CC and SDF-GA complex indicated higher thermal stability than the mixtures by TGA analysis.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Lotus/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/análise , Catequina/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Ácido Gálico , Monossacarídeos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Polissacarídeos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
Food Chem ; 310: 125818, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787397

RESUMO

Research on plant biostimulants is of interest in their potential benefits for agriculture production and environmental sustainability. These naturally occurring products induce beneficial consequences in plant metabolism and productivity. In most cases their modes of action, and consequences for the whole plant as well as parts, such as the fruit, are well characterized, but the precise mechanisms of action require further attention. This study examined the effects of the commercial biostimulant, Actium®, on Capsicum annuum L. cv Palermo leaves and fruits. The influence of time (characterized by ripening), after 14 and 28 days of treatment, treatment regimen, and their combined impact on the metabolome were studied using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of polar and apolar compounds. The results showed that flavonoids and capsianosides decreased with ripening in leaves, but organic acids, monosaccharides, and carotenoids increased in fruits. The treatment of Capsicum fruits with Actium® increased phenylalanine and total monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) compared to controls, suggesting a further stage in ripening. An increase in carotenoids concomitant with an increase of some digalactosyl diacylglycerols, which are part of the chromoplasts lipid machinery of enzymes involved in the synthesis of carotenoids, was also observed. Our findings suggest that this biostimulant may increase some metabolites related to pepper fruit maturity and coloration in pepper crops.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/fisiologia , Metabolômica , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122349, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708384

RESUMO

The severe pretreatment of poplar makes xylan difficult to utilize efficiently. In this work, poplar was pretreated by hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) with H2SO4 as catalyst to remove lignin, and the solid residues were used to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and monosaccharides by two-step xylanase and cellulase hydrolysis. The results indicated that higher H2SO4 concentrations in the HPAC pretreatment of poplar afforded stronger lignin removal ability. An increased XOS yield of 19.8% was obtained from 200 mM H2SO4-catalyzed poplar by xylanase and the XOS purity was high, with a very low xylose/XOS ratio of 0.14. Higher glucose (75.2%) and xylose (61.4%) yields were obtained from the HPAC-pretreated poplar using 50 mM H2SO4 as catalyst. Finally, 16.9 g XOS and 296.4 g glucose were produced from 1 kg poplar by xylanase and cellulase. This study provides a method for producing functional XOS and monosaccharides from poplar using a simple reduced-pollution strategy.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Glucuronatos , Hidrólise , Monossacarídeos , Oligossacarídeos
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 229: 115477, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826524

RESUMO

A novel polysaccharide, AAP70-1, was isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides for the first time. The primary structural analysis revealed that AAP70-1 was composed of glucose and fructose, had an absolute molecular weight of 2720 Da, and contained a (2→6)-linked ß-D-fructofuranose (Fruf) backbone and a (2→1,6)-linked ß-D-Fruf side chain with an internal α-D-glucopyranose (Glcp) in the form of a neokestose. To explore the potential factors responsible for the medicinally relevant bioactivities of A. asphodeloides, a biological assay was performed. Using flow cytometry analysis, AAP70-1 was experimentally shown to have neuroprotective effects, and it can prevent and ameliorate neurological damage via reducing apoptosis. The immunomodulation assay further revealed that AAP70-1 can significantly improve immune function by promoting phagocytic capacity and the secretion of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that AAP70-1 has potential as a therapeutic agent for central nervous system diseases or as an immunomodulatory agent.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena/química , Frutanos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutanos/química , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Food Chem ; 311: 126039, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869644

RESUMO

The physical properties of the mucilage polysaccharides of Dioscorea opposita (DOMP) were investigated in this study. The monosaccharide and amino acid contents, and molecular weight were determined, and morphology was observed. The rheological and emulsifying properties of different concentrations of DOMP were determined at acidic and basic pH (pH 5.0 and 9.0). The glucose and protein contents were 11.05% and 13.39%, respectively, and the average molecular weight was 9062 Da. The DOMP particles were spheres of 0.18 µm diameter, which aggregated in solution. The viscosity of DOMP decreased gradually with increase in shear rate, which was indicative of pseudoplastic characteristics. DOMP showed relatively better emulsification properties than Konjac glucomannan (KGM). The particle size of DOMP decreased and its emulsifying properties improved under both acidic and basic conditions. These results suggested that DOMP can be used as a natural processing agent for improving the mouth-feel of food.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Dioscorea/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Emulsificantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Reologia , Viscosidade
10.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 176-188.e7, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is limited evidence that a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) reduces gut symptoms in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed a randomized, controlled trial to investigate the effects of a low FODMAP diet on persistent gut symptoms, the intestinal microbiome, and circulating markers of inflammation in patients with quiescent IBD. METHODS: We performed a single-blind trial of 52 patients with quiescent Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and persistent gut symptoms at 2 large gastroenterology clinics in the United Kingdom. Patients were randomly assigned to groups that followed a diet low in FODMAPs (n = 27) or a control diet (n = 25), with dietary advice, for 4 weeks. Gut symptoms and health-related quality of life were measured using validated questionnaires. Stool and blood samples were collected at baseline and end of trial. We assessed fecal microbiome composition and function using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and phenotypes of T cells in blood using flow cytometry. RESULTS: A higher proportion of patients reported adequate relief of gut symptoms following the low FODMAP diet (14/27, 52%) than the control diet (4/25, 16%, P=.007). Patients had a greater reduction in irritable bowel syndrome severity scores following the low FODMAP diet (mean reduction of 67; standard error, 78) than the control diet (mean reduction of 34; standard error, 50), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = .075). Following the low FODMAP diet, patients had higher health-related quality of life scores (81.9 ± 1.2) than patients on the control diet (78.3 ± 1.2, P = .042). A targeted analysis revealed that in stool samples collected at the end of the study period, patients on the low FODMAP diet had significantly lower abundance of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii than patients on control diet. However, microbiome diversity and markers of inflammation did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a trial of the low FODMAP diet vs a control diet in patients with quiescent IBD, we found no significant difference after 4 weeks in change in irritable bowel syndrome severity scores, but significant improvements in specific symptom scores and numbers reporting adequate symptom relief. The low FODMAP diet reduced fecal abundance of microbes believed to regulate the immune response, compared with the control diet, but had no significant effect on markers of inflammation. We conclude that a 4-week diet low in FODMAPs is safe and effective for managing persistent gut symptoms in patients with quiescent IBD. www.isrctn.com no.: ISRCTN17061468.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/análise , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(44): 24269-24285, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670327

RESUMO

An enormous population worldwide is presently confronted with debilitating neurodegenerative diseases. The etiology of the disease is connected to protein aggregation and the events involved therein. Thus, a complete understanding of an inhibitor at different stages in the process is imperative for the formulation of a drug molecule. This review presents a detailed summary of the current status of different cosolvents. It further develops how the complex aggregation pathway can be simplified into three steps common to all proteins and the way computer simulations can be exploited to gain insights into the ways by which known inhibitors can affect all these stages. Computation of theoretical parameters in this regard and their correlation with experimental techniques is accentuated. In addition to providing an outline of the scope of different additives, this review showcases the way by which the problem of analyzing an effect of an additive can be addressed effectively via MD simulations.


Assuntos
Proteínas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623207

RESUMO

Two novel water soluble heteroglycan (PCp-I and PCp-II) with anti-A549 lung cancer cells activity were isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. Their average molecular weights were 2.721 × 104 and 2.850 × 104. PCp-I and PCp-II had the same monosaccharide composition, but their molar ratios were different. Based on methylation and NMR spectroscopy, the part structure of PCp-I was identified. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that PCp-I had an irregular porous structure and PCp-II was flaky and irregularly curved. The results of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) showed that PCp-I and PCp-II had good thermal stability. Furthermore, PCp-I and PCp-II exhibited significant anti-A549 lung cancer cells activity (IC50 = 64.84 and 126.30 µM) in vitro.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Psoralea/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Químicos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615093

RESUMO

Microbial infections remains a serious challenge in food industries due to their resistance to some of the well-known antibacterial and antifungal agents. In this work, a novel monomyristoyl ester (fructosyl monomyristate) and two other derivatives (i.e., glucosyl and galactosyl monomyristates) were successfully synthesized from myristic acid and monosaccharides in two-step reactions. First, the myristic acid was converted to myristoyl chloride, and then the myristoyl chloride was reacted with fructose, glucose and galactose separately to produce the corresponding monosaccharide monomyristate derivatives. The structures of the synthesized products were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR), and mass spectral (MS) data. The monomyristates esters were obtained in reaction yields of 45.80%-79.49%. The esters were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion test. It was found that the esters exhibited a medium antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria; however, they showed a weak antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. Amongst the esters, galactosyl myristate yielded the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, while glucosyl monomyristate exhibited the highest antibacterial activity only against Escherichia coli. Additionally, all products showed remarkable antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These findings demonstrate that monosaccharide monomyristate derivatives are promising for use as biocompatible antimicrobial agents in the future.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600890

RESUMO

In this study, an acidic polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta (Nannf.) L. T. Shen (WCP-I) and its main fragment, WCP-Ia, obtained after pectinase digestion, were structurally elucidated and found to consist of a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region containing both arabinogalactan type I (AG-I) and type II (AG-II) as sidechains. They both expressed immunomodulating activity against Peyer's patch cells. Endo-1,4-ß-galactanase degradation gave a decrease of interleukine 6 (IL-6) production compared with native WCP-I and WCP-Ia, but exo-α-l-arabinofuranosidase digestion showed no changes in activity. This demonstrated that the stimulation activity partly disappeared with removal of ß-d-(1→4)-galactan chains, proving that the AG-I side chain plays an important role in immunoregulation activity. WCP-Ia had a better promotion effect than WCP-I in vivo, shown through an increased spleen index, higher concentrations of IL-6, transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum, and a slight increment in the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that ß-d-(1→4)-galactan-containing chains in WCP-I play an essential role in the expression of immunomodulating activity. Combining all the results in this and previous studies, the intestinal immune system might be the target site of WCP-Ia.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/efeitos dos fármacos , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/imunologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Análise Espectral
15.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569331

RESUMO

As an irreversible and complex degenerative physiological process, the treatment for aging seems strategically necessary, and polysaccharides play important roles against aging owing to their abundant bioactivities. In this paper, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides (FPS) and its sulfated FPS (SFPS) on d-galactose-induced aging mice were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities demonstrated that SFPS had strong reducing power and superior scavenging effects on 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radicals and the chelating activities of Fe2+. The in vivo animal experiments manifested that the SFPS showed superior antioxidant and protective abilities against the d-galactose-induced aging by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities, decreasing lipid peroxidation, improving the inflammatory response and ameliorating the anile condition of mice. Furthermore, the structural analysis of SFPS was investigated through FT-IR, NMR, and HPLC analysis, and the results indicated that SFPS was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide with a weight-average molecular weight of 2.81 × 103 Da. Furthermore, SFPS has also changed in characteristic functional groups and monosaccharide composition compared to FPS. These results suggested that sulfated modification could enhance the anti-oxidation, anti-aging and protective activities of F. velutipes polysaccharides, which may provide references for the development of functional foods and natural medicines.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flammulina/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Monossacarídeos/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Análise Espectral
16.
Se Pu ; 37(11): 1162-1172, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642268

RESUMO

A method for the separation, identification, and determination of fructose and various aldehyde monosaccharides was established by precolumn labeling with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The separation was performed on a Kromasil-C18 column (100 mm×4.6 mm, 3.5 µm) with gradient elution. The detection was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. In this study, the derivatization mechanism of PMP-labeled fructose was proposed under mild NH3·H2O conditions. The suggested method showed good linearity in the corresponding mass concentration ranges, with the correlation coefficients (r2) > 0.9947. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the ranges 0.003 to 0.05 mg/L and 0.01 to 0.15 mg/L, respectively. The recoveries in spiked Lycium barbarum L. samples were 65.1% to 116.2%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 10.2%. By virtue of its simplicity, high sensitivity, and good repeatability, the method could be successfully applied to the analysis of the monosaccharide composition in polysaccharides of Lycium barbarum L. from four planting areas. Results showed that the isolated polysaccharides comprise mannose, fructose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, and ribose. The concentration distribution of various monosaccharides differed notably depending on the planted environmention. The proposed method is expected to be of great significance in standardizing the quality control of polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Lycium/química , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3221-3225, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602875

RESUMO

The non-starch polysaccharides,mainly composed of glucomannans,are the major bioactive compounds in Dendrobium catenatum. In order to evaluate the quality of the medicinal materials and guide the production and processing,a quantification method of non-starch polysaccharides was established by stems of D. catenatum C15 strain collected from the pear epiphytic cultivation. The non-starch polysaccharides were obtained by " water extraction,α-amylase pretreatment,and alcohol precipitation once" method. The contents of starches,non-starch polysaccharides and monosaccharides were analyzed. In addition,the system suitability was tested. Compared with method of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition),the contents of total polysaccharides,glucose,and mannose were decreased by 20. 9%,58. 8% and 1. 6% respectively. The method effectively digested starch and retained non-starch polysaccharides,and the analysis result was accurate and repeatable. Therefore,it is suitable for the content measurement of non-starch polysaccharides of D. catenatum. Furthermore,it could be an alternative method for quality control of D. catenatum and a reference in the determination of non-starch polysaccharides in other starch-containing medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Monossacarídeos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Amido/análise
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3608-3614, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602930

RESUMO

In order to provide scientific basics for exploitation and sufficient application of Polyporus umbellatus resources and study the monosaccharide composition of P. umbellatus polysaccharides,the anthrone-sulfuric acid method was applied to compare polysaccharide content of P. umbellatus from 17 producing areas. The monosaccharides were derived by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone( PMP) and the derivatives were identified by UPLC-MS/MS and the content of each monosaccharide component was determined simultaneously. The results demonstrated that there was a certain difference in total polysaccharide content of P. umbellatus from different regions,and the content of total P. umbellatus polysaccharide from Shaanxi province and Sichuan province( 1. 15% and 1. 90%) was relatively higher than that of others areas. Polysaccharides from P. umbellatus was mainly composed of eight monosaccharides,including glucose,glucuronic acid,galactose,ribose,xylose,arabinose,mannose and fucose. The contents of glucose( 17. 65 mg·g-1) was higher than others. The ribose was the lowest( 0. 13 mg·g-1). In addition,fructose,rhamnose and galacturonic acid were also detected in some samples. Furthermore,the results of cluster analysis( CA) and principal component analysis( PCA) indicated that totally 17 batches of P. umbellatus polysaccharide could be classified into three clusters,samples collected from Wuchang in Heilongjiang province were clustered into one group separately. The study can provide a basis for rational utilization of P. umbellatus resources,and also implies the sequence of monosaccharide linking and pharmacological activity of P. umbellatus polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Monossacarídeos/química , Polyporus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Geografia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4065, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492838

RESUMO

Unnatural monosaccharides such as azidosugars that can be metabolically incorporated into cellular glycans are currently used as a major tool for glycan imaging and glycoproteomic profiling. As a common practice to enhance membrane permeability and cellular uptake, the unnatural sugars are per-O-acetylated, which, however, can induce a long-overlooked side reaction, non-enzymatic S-glycosylation. Herein, we develop 1,3-di-esterified N-azidoacetylgalactosamine (GalNAz) as next-generation chemical reporters for metabolic glycan labeling. Both 1,3-di-O-acetylated GalNAz (1,3-Ac2GalNAz) and 1,3-di-O-propionylated GalNAz (1,3-Pr2GalNAz) exhibit high efficiency for labeling protein O-GlcNAcylation with no artificial S-glycosylation. Applying 1,3-Pr2GalNAz in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), we identify ESRRB, a critical transcription factor for pluripotency, as an O-GlcNAcylated protein. We show that ESRRB O-GlcNAcylation is important for mESC self-renewal and pluripotency. Mechanistically, ESRRB is O-GlcNAcylated by O-GlcNAc transferase at serine 25, which stabilizes ESRRB, promotes its transcription activity and facilitates its interactions with two master pluripotency regulators, OCT4 and NANOG.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Animais , Azidas/química , Azidas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Autorrenovação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Glicosilação , Células HeLa , Hexosaminas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/química , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células NIH 3T3 , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 224: 115195, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472848

RESUMO

Brown seaweeds are well-known source of bioactive compounds, which are producing a variety of secondary metabolites with promising bioactive properties. Traditionally, seaweeds used as ingredients in medicine for many centuries in Asian countries. However, the protective mechanisms of many metabolites found in seaweeds are remains to be determined. Thus, applications of seaweeds are limited because of poor understanding of their structural features and mechanisms responsible for their bioactive properties. In the present study, anti-inflammatory properties of fucoidan isolated from the brown seaweed Padina commersonii (PCF) was evaluated against LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PCF was characterized using NMR, FT-IR, and HPAE-PAD spectrum (for mono sugar composition). It was observed that PCF is rich in fucose and sulfate as well as a similar structure to the commercial fucoidan. Western blots and RT-qPCR analysis were used to determine the protective effects of PCF after LPS challenge using RAW 264.7 macrophages. According to the results, PCF significantly down-regulated LPS-activated mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 which are known inducers/activators of NF-κB transcriptional factors. The results, obtained from this study demonstrated PCF has a potential to inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses via blocking TLR/MyD88/ NF-κB signal transduction.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citosol/efeitos dos fármacos , Citosol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/genética
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