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1.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127071, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470730

RESUMO

The measurements of a monoterpene (α-pinene) were performed by the PTR-TOF-MS instrument at an urban site of India from mid-January to March 2014. The daytime concentration increased from 0.15 ppb in the second-half of January to 0.40 ppb in the second-half of March. Both the nighttime and daytime ratios of α-pinene/benzene in the second-half of March were 2-3 times higher their respective values from mid-January to first-half of February. The ratios of α-pinene/benzene increased from ∼0.27 ppb ppb-1 at lower temperatures to ∼0.51 ppb ppb-1 at higher temperatures indicating the increase of biogenic emissions in March. The concentration of α-pinene exhibited exponential decline with wind speed, but the rate of decrease in February was about twice that for March. The nighttime ratios of α-pinene/isoprene were greater than those measured in the daytime, suggesting temperature-dependent biogenic emissions of α-pinene. From mid-January to March, the increase of ∼53% in the biogenic contributions of α-pinene were associated with the change in meteorological conditions. Our analysis suggests that the combined effect of the northwest wind flow and higher air temperatures in March favored the emissions of BVOCs from local vegetation. The exceptionally high concentrations of α-pinene up to 6 ppb were measured during the Holi bonfire festival. This is the first study reporting the change in α-pinene during winter-summer transition over India. In the urban regions of developing countries, high emissions of BVOCs from vegetation and of NOx from anthropogenic sources can act as a source of ozone.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Benzeno/análise , Butadienos , Hemiterpenos , Índia , Meteorologia , Monoterpenos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Vento
2.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268226

RESUMO

White cabbage, Brassica oleracea, plants and artificial leaves covered with B. oleracea epicuticular wax were exposed to α-pinene and α-pinene oxidation products formed through the oxidation of α-pinene by ozone (O3) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. O3 and OH-induced oxidation of α-pinene led to the formation of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) and secondary organic aerosol particles (SOA), referred to together as oxidation products (OP). Exposure of cabbage plants to O3 and OH-induced α-pinene OP led to the deposition and re-emission of gas-phase OP by exposed cabbage plants. In a series of 2-choice bioassays, the specialist cruciferous herbivore, Plutella xylostella adults deposited less eggs on artificial leaves exposed to α-pinene OP than on control plants exposed to clean filtered air. P. xylostella larvae did not show a specific feeding preference when offered leaves from different exposure treatments. However, the generalist Indian stick insect, Carausius morosus, fed more on control filtered air-exposed plants than on those exposed to α-pinene OP. Taken together, our results show that exposure to α-pinene oxidation products affects VOC emissions of B. oleracea and alters P. xylostella oviposition and C. morosus feeding responses.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Feminino , Larva , Monoterpenos , Oviposição
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236115

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most prevalent causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is largely associated with consumption of contaminated poultry. Current Campylobacter control measures at the poultry production level remain insufficient, and hence there is the need for alternative control strategies. We evaluated the potential of the monoterpene (-)-α-pinene for control of C. jejuni in poultry. The antibacterial and resistance-modulatory activities of (-)-α-pinene were also determined against 57 C. jejuni strains. In addition, the anti-quorum-sensing activity of (-)-α-pinene against C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was determined for three subinhibitory concentrations (125, 62.5, 31.25 mg/L) over three incubation times using an autoinducer-2 bioassay based on Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioluminescence measurements. The effects of a subinhibitory concentration of (-)-α-pinene (250 mg/L) on survival of C. jejuni, and in combination with enrofloxacin on fluoroquinolone resistance development in C. jejuni, were determined in a broiler chicken model, by addition of (-)-α-pinene to the broiler water supply. The reduction of C. jejuni numbers by (-)-α-pinene was further determined in broiler chickens that were colonized with either fluoroquinolone-susceptible or -resistant strains, by direct gavage treatment. We observed weak in vitro antimicrobial activity for (-)-α-pinene alone (MIC >500 mg/L), but strong potentiating effects on antibiotics erythromycin and ciprofloxacin against different Campylobacter strains (>512 fold change). After 24 h of treatment of C. jejuni with (-)-α-pinene, its quorum-sensing signaling was reduced by >80% compared to the untreated control. When given in the drinking water, (-)-α-pinene did not show any significant inhibitory effects on the level of C. jejuni in the colonized chickens, and did not reduce fluoroquinolone resistance development in combination with enrofloxacin. Conversely, when (-)-α-pinene was administered by direct gavage, it significantly reduced the number of fluoroquinolone susceptible C. jejuni in the colonized broiler chickens. These results demonstrate that (-)-α-pinene modulates quorum-sensing in Campylobacter, potentiates antibiotics against different Campylobacter strains, and reduces Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/patologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiologia , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
4.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(4): 444-458, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189147

RESUMO

Soils can be contaminated with substances arising from anthropogenic sources, but also with natural bioactive compounds produced by plants, such as terpenes and flavonoids. While terpenes and flavonoids have received much less attention from research studies than metals, the effects that phytocompounds can have on soil organisms such as beneficial microorganisms should not be neglected. Herein we report the sole and combined exposure of Rhizobium to cadmium, to the monoterpene alpha-pinene and to the flavanol quercetin. A range of environmentally relevant concentrations of the phytocompounds was tested. Physiological (growth, protein content and intracellular Cd concentration), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation) and antioxidant mechanisms (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione-S-transferases, protein electrophoretic profiles) were assessed. Results suggest that exposure to both phytocompounds do not influence Rhizobium growth, but for combined exposure to phytocompounds and Cd, different responses are observed. At low concentrations, phytocompounds seem to relieve the stress imposed by Cd by increasing antioxidant responses, but at high concentrations this advantage is lost and membrane damage may even be exacerbated. Thus, the presence of bioactive phytocompounds in soil may influence the tolerance of microorganisms to persistent toxicants, and may change their impact on the environment.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Quercetina/toxicidade , Rhizobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Rhizobium/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2595-2605, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994876

RESUMO

The diffusivity of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the bulk particle phase of a viscous atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can have a profound impact on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics. Here, we investigate the bulk diffusivity of SVOCs formed from photo-oxidation of isoprene as they partition to a bimodal aerosol consisting of an Aitken (potassium sulfate) and accumulation mode (aged α-pinene SOA) particles as a function of relative humidity (RH). The model analysis of the observed size distribution evolution shows that liquid-like diffusion coefficient values of Db > 10-10 cm2 s-1 fail to explain the growth of the Aitken mode. Instead, much lower values of Db between 2.5 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 at 32% RH and 8 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 at 82% RH were needed to successfully reproduce the growth of both modes. The diffusivity within the aged α-pinene SOA remains appreciably slow even at 80% RH, resulting in hindered partitioning of SVOCs to large viscous particles and allowing smaller and relatively less viscous particles to effectively absorb the available SVOCs and grow much faster than would be possible otherwise. These results have important implications for modeling SOA formation and growth in the ambient atmosphere.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Atmosfera , Difusão , Monoterpenos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2139-2145, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973519

RESUMO

α-Pinene is an important monoterpene that is widely used as a pharmaceutical product, biofuel, and so forth. We first established a cell-free system with modular cocatalysis for the production of pinene from glucose. After optimization of the compositions of the cell-free reaction mixture using the Plackett-Burman experimental design and the path of steepest ascent, the production of pinene increased by 57%. It was found that ammonium acetate, NAD+, and NADPH are the three most important parameters for the production of pinene. Mix-and-match experiments showed that the simultaneous addition of the lysate of Escherichia coli overexpressing native 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase, SufBCD Fe-S cluster assembly protein, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, and Pinus taeda pinene synthase improved the production of pinene. Increasing the enzyme concentration of the extract further enhanced the production of pinene to 1256.31 ± 46.12 mg/L with a productivity of 104.7 mg/L h, almost 1.2-fold faster than any system reported thus far. This study demonstrates that a cell-free system is a powerful and robust platform for biomanufacture.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Escherichia coli/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/metabolismo , Catálise , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Cinética , NAD/química , NAD/metabolismo , NADP/química , NADP/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816427

RESUMO

Volatile monoterpenes are emitted in large quantities to both air and soil by many plant species. While studies have addressed effects of monoterpenes on aboveground invertebrates, we have much poorer understanding of the possible effects of monoterpenes on soil invertebrates. Monoterpenes play a protective role in some plant species during heat and water stress, and therefore may provide similar protection against abiotic stress to soil invertebrates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the common monoterpene, α-pinene, on the soil living springtail, Folsomia candida (Collembola; Isotomidae). We hypothesized that exposure to α-pinene would lower the transition temperature of membranes, and thereby improve cold tolerance. Controlled exposure to α-pinene, which is a volatile liquid at room temperature, was made possible by passive dosing through the air-phase using a lipid donor. This lipid-based passive dosing approach also allows linking observed effects to concentrations in membrane when equilibrium is achieved. Equilibrium membrane concentrations above 116 mmol kg-1 caused springtails to become comatose, and coma recovery time was proportional to exposure concentration. Alpha-pinene delayed time to first egg laying, while the number of eggs laid and hatchability was unaffected. Springtails exposed to α-pinene showed increased survival of cold shock (-6 °C, 2 h), but no effects on heat (34 °C, 2 h) or drought tolerance (98.2% relative humidity, 7d) were observed. The present study has demonstrated that α-pinene has direct toxic effects to F. candida, but on the other hand can improve their cold tolerance considerably at membrane concentrations above 87 mmol kg-1.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/fisiologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Osmorregulação , Animais , Reprodução
8.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 159-169, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446559

RESUMO

Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) is used traditionally for its numerous medicinal properties such as antimalarial, antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves of L. camara (LCEO) occurring in the Republic of Benin (West Africa) in comparison with LCEOs from other regions; evaluated its sedative effects in mice via inhalation administration; and identified the compounds responsible for activity. LCEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and chemical analyses of the oil were performed by GC and GC/MS. The oil was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (60.58%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (33.39%), among which sabinene (38.81%) and 1,8-cineole (28.90%) were the most abundant. LCEO administered via inhalation to mice significantly decreased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, mainly at the doses of 0.0004 and 0.04 mg per 400 µL of triethyl citrate (TEC). The oil was fractionated to give two fractions, which were further investigated, and revealed that both sabinene and 1,8-cineole were the principal active compounds. The results of the present study indicated that via inhalation administration, LCEO and its main constituents could be considered as promising candidates for the management of dementia, insomnia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other central nervous system-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Eucaliptol/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Lantana/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benin , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Eucaliptol/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
9.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(5): 731-735, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445842

RESUMO

This study, was to evaluate the acaricidal effect of the essential oil (EO) and fractions (FR) obtained from Laurus nobilis leaves on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Eight fractions were obtained, however FR1: sabinene (37.83%), ß-pinene (13.50%), 1,8-cineole (12.66%), α-pinene (12.56%) and FR8: α-terpineol (79.19%) were highlighted as to the larvicidal potential when submitted by Larval Packet Test. The EO was tested by the Adult Immersion Test, at concentrations of 200.00; 100.00 and 50.00 µL/mL caused mortality of engorged females, egg mass reduction and hatching inhibition. Two fractions are shown to be efficient in controlling larvae FR8 (LC50 = 0.13 µL/mL, LC99 = 0.51 µL/mL) and FR1 (LC50 = 0.20 µL/mL, LC99 = 0.56 µL/mL). The fractionation of EO was determinant to elucidate which compounds were responsible for the larvicidal potential. This study opens new perspectives to direct new bioassays with the compounds obtained in the fractionation, since they present high potential on cattle tick larvae.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Ericaceae/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Bovinos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Feminino , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 117: 103286, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760134

RESUMO

Chouioia cunea (Yang) is a pupal parasitoid wasp and this species is able to seek host insects depending on its olfactory system. However, the molecular mechanism of the olfactory system in the C. cunea is still limited. To identify putative semiochemicals bound to CcOBP2, a protein specifically expressed in antennae, 14 compounds from the pupae of H. cunea and 11 common volatile compounds from plants were selected for competitive fluorescence binding assay. The result of the binding assay showed that five compounds were able to bind toCcOBP2. The electroantennogram (EAG) demonstrated that the antennae had a significant response to the 3-Carene, a bicyclic monoterpene, and C. cunea could be obviously attracted by this compound. The behavioral response to 3- carene was dramatically weakened when CcOBP2 was specifically knocked down. The molecular docking result indicated that several amino acids especially Ile-81, Val-122, Phe-123 of CcOBP2 were responsible for binding to 3-Carene. Furthermore, there was a repellent effect on the host H. cunea with the treatment of the 3-Carene. This study illustrated that CcOBP2 might be a crucial protein involved in the olfactory signaling pathway and the 3-Carene, secreted from plants, could probably have a potential role in repelling pests as well as attracting natural enemies.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mariposas/parasitologia , Percepção Olfatória , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mariposas/metabolismo , Pupa/metabolismo , Pupa/parasitologia
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(3): 445-448, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602287

RESUMO

An experimental investigation on essential oil of a Montenegrin Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don fil. (Asteraceae) is reported. The essential oil was analysed in both liquid and vapour phases. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the liquid oil showed the predominance of sesquiterpenes with ß-eudesmene (21.65%) and ß-bisabolene (19.90%) as the major ones. Monoterpene fraction was mainly represented by α-pinene (16.90%) and neryl acetate (10.66%). Head-space technique revealed the vapour phase enriched of monoterpenes with α-pinene (78.76%) predominance. The essential oil was tested against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Candida albicans (ATCC 14053) and the clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interesting fungicidal/bactericidal potency against C. albicans and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was revealed at concentration of 5% v/v.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Helichrysum/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Asteraceae , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Montenegro , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/farmacologia
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(3): 441-444, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600707

RESUMO

The hydro-distilled essential oil from aerial parts of Orthosiphon pallidus Royle, ex Benth (Lamiaceae) was investigated by using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-two compounds, representing 98.4% of the total oil constituents, were identified. The major constituents were ß-caryophyllene (17.4%) and 7-epi-α-selinene (15.2%). The other minor constituents were terpinolene (6.9%), ß-pinene (6.8%), ß-elemene (5.1%), α-humulene (4.9%), α-copaene (4.8%), epi-cubebol (4.5%) and zonarene (3.9%). The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbon type constituents. Lamiaceae[Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/análise , Orthosiphon/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lamiaceae/química , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/análise
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110106, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877546

RESUMO

In this work, the essential oil (EO) and supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SF extract) of four Valerianaceae plants (Valeriana officinalis L., Valeriana officinalis L. var. latifolia Miq., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Nardostachys chinensis Bat.) were chemically characterized. GC-MS analysis identified 74 compounds, representing 35.2%-82.4% of the total EOs and SF extracts. The EO was dominated by low-molecular-weight components while the SF extract was rich in fatty acids. Bornyl acetate and camphene were the characteristic compounds in EO and SF extracts. The efficacy of six extracts against three stored-product insects was investigated. In contact assays, V. officinalis exhibited strongest toxicity to red flour beetle (LD50 = 10.0 µg/adult), and V. jatamansi EO was the most active one against the cigarette beetle (LD50 = 17.6 µg/adult), while V. officinalis var. latifolia EO showed outstanding efficacy against the booklouse (LD50 = 40.2 µg/cm2). Binary mixtures of two major compounds (camphene and bornyl acetate) were assessed for the contact toxicity to the red flour beetle. Additive effect existed in the natural proportion of V. officinalis, and synergism was observed in that of V. officinalis var. latifolia. This work confirmed the insecticidal efficacy of the species of the Valerianaceae family, and it would offer some information for the development of botanical insecticide.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Canfanos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Valerianaceae , Animais , Besouros , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Repelentes de Insetos/análise , Insetos , Inseticidas/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 193-200, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lemon processing procedures yield a significant amount of waste as peels, which are 57% of processed lemons and represent a possible source of bioactive compounds (essential oils, EOs). EOs were extracted from lemon fruits belonging to four cultivars harvested at four different sampling times (25 October, 23 November, 20 December, 1 February), characterized, and quantified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The chemical composition of EOs highlighted that 26 compounds of the four lemon cultivars at the different ripening stages were clearly identified. The compounds analysed belonged to four chemical classes: monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and fatty alcohol esters. Among the monoterpene hydrocarbons, d-limonene, ß-pinene, and γ-terpinene were the most abundant; and among the oxygenated monoterpenes, α-terpineol, nerol, and geraniol were the most abundant. Quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the most abundant monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-pinene, ß-pinene, myrcene, d-limonene, and γ-terpinene) highlighted that the amount of EOs decreased during ripening stages. 'Ovale di Sorrento' and 'Sfusato Amalfitano' showed the highest level of EOs in December, whereas in 'Femminello Cerza' and 'Femminello Adamo' this occurred in November. EOs, as well as the phenolic compounds, were positively correlated with the antioxidant activity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid). CONCLUSIONS: EOs reached the highest level in the four lemon cultivars at different ripening stages. Campanian cultivars ('Ovale di Sorrento' and 'Sfusato Amalfitano') showed the greatest EO content in November, whereas in Sicilian cultivars ('Femminello Cerza' and 'Femminello Adamo') this occurred in December. Besides phenolic compounds, measured in lemon peel extracts, EOs can contribute to antioxidant activity, as demonstrated by the positive correlation. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Citrus/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sesquiterpenos/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 311: 125957, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864191

RESUMO

The main aim of this work was to characterize the volatile profile of virgin pistachio oils produced from eight cultivars (Aegina, Avdat, Kastel, Kerman, Larnaka, Mateur, Napoletana and Sirora), under different technological conditions (temperature, roasting, use of whole nuts, screw speed and nozzle diameter), and compare it with those of commercial pistachio oils. Terpenes (15.57-41.05 mg/kg), accounting for ~97% of total volatiles, were associated with appreciated sensory properties, with α-pinene as the main volatile (14.47-37.09 mg/kg). Other terpene compounds such as limonene (0.11-3.58 mg/kg), terpinolene (0.00-1.61 mg/kg), ß-pinene (0.12-1.20 mg/kg) and α-terpineol (0.00-1.17 mg/kg) were quantified at lower concentrations. Acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters and hydrocarbons only summed to ~3% of the total volatile compounds. The volatiles content greatly depended on the pistachio cultivar employed. The influence of extraction conditions was also very relevant; in particular, terpenes doubled (28.38-53.84 mg/kg) using whole pistachios for oil extraction, also being incremented by mild processing conditions. On the contrary, higher temperature or roasting decreased the terpene content (~50-25% respectively), and pyrazines appeared (up to 3.12 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Pistacia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Culinária , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Pistacia/classificação , Pistacia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química
16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(1): 188-197, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insect pheromones and host volatiles are important for pest control due to their high efficiency and low potential for environmental pollution. The functions of myrtenol, myrtanol and myrtenal in pest-host interactions are unknown. This study aimed to determine the presence of myrtenol, myrtanol and myrtenal in newly emerged and emerged stages of Dendroctonus armandi, and in infected and healthy Pinus armandi, and to identify their roles in tree protection and pest management based on electroantennography (EAG), Y-tube and toxicity experiments. RESULTS: Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, EAG, Y-tube and toxicity assays revealed the following: (1) myrtenol was found in P. armandi phloem and did not exhibit significant toxicity towards D. armandi; (2) myrtanol was produced by infected P. armandi after D. armandi invasion and had significant toxicity towards D. armandi, especially females; and (3) myrtenal might represent an aggregation pheromone produced by female D. armandi to exert aggregation effects on other females, to help them overcome the resistance of P. armandi jointly and ensure a successful invasion, females remained in an aggregation state from leaving the host to mating in a new host. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that myrtanol as a repellent has potential for the protection of P. armandi and that myrtenal could be used to trap and disorient D. armandi. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Besouros , Pinus , Gorgulhos , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Feminino , Feromônios
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(2): e1900553, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869516

RESUMO

The aroma emitted from the different organs of two Salvia verbenaca L. populations from Jordan were extracted by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC/MS. The emission profile of the stem, leaf and sepal samples from the Mediterranean zone (Al-Salt) was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (68.0 %, 33.7 %, and 42.2 %, respectively). The emission profile of flowering parts including pre-flowering buds, fully expanded flowers and petals was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (58.6 %, 59.3 % and 87.1 %, respectively). The major constituent detected in these organs was trans-sabinene hydrate acetate (range 14.5 %-87.0 %). On the other hand, samples collected from Irano-Turanian zone showed different emission patterns. While the stems, leaves and petal emissions were dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (54.9 %, 76.8 % and 52.6 %, respectively), monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the emission profiles of the pre-flowering buds (75.1 %) and fully expanded flowers (73.6 %). Petals emissions were characterized by high concentrations of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.8 %). Notably, trans-sabinene hydrate dominated most organs emissions except for leaves (range 20.0 %-58.8 %). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) revealed two different clusters related to the two different geographical zones. The current investigation revealed two ecotypes of S. verbenaca that could result in two different chemotypes. Trans-sabinene hydrate acetate and trans-sabinene hydrate are suggested compounds for identifying these two chemotypes.


Assuntos
Salvia/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Jordânia , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Salvia/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
18.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835831

RESUMO

New herbicides based on natural products are claimed to address weed resistance and environmental concerns related to synthetic herbicides. In our previous studies, certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Ulex europaeus and Cytisus scoparius were argued to be responsible for the phytotoxicity of both shrub species. Interactions among VOCs were hypothesized to explain the inconsistency between the effects of the identified pure compounds and those naturally emitted from fresh plant material. In this work, eugenol, verbenone, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and linalool were assayed as binary mixtures of Amaranthus retroflexus and Digitaria sanguinalis. Powerful synergistic inhibitory effects were revealed for germination and early growth. Only 3.1 ppm of verbenone was enough to inhibit A. retroflexus germination when paired to other VOCs. Eugenol was capable of exacerbating the effects of terpinen-4-ol on A. retroflexus, even though it was innocuous when acting alone at 12.5 ppm. The verbenone and linalool pair produced very significant synergistic effects in terms of D. sanguinalis germination. The synergistic effects were predominantly irreversible for D. sanguinalis, since seeds exposed to paired VOCs were unable to recover their germination capacity after removing the phytotoxins or produced damaged seedlings. Both shrub species have been revealed as sources of natural herbicide molecules, with promising synergistic modes of action that deserve to be studied in depth.


Assuntos
Cytisus/química , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Ulex/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/farmacologia , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Digitaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Digitaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
19.
Assay Drug Dev Technol ; 17(8): 339-351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846362

RESUMO

Repurposing of drugs/natural or synthetic chemicals is a promising approach to identify the new therapeutic indication/use and mode of action. In pharmaceuticals, this process is used to save the time and cost for the drug discovery process with reduced risk of failure. In the present studies, repurposing of a natural molecule: sabinene (major phytochemical in cardamom) was used to characterize the new biological activities using in silico as well as in vitro approaches. In silico similarity searching demonstrated that (+)-3-carene possessed the maximum structural similarity with sabinene. In vitro activities of (+)-3-carene were repurposed for sabinene based on similarity hypothesis (similar structures may have similar biological activities). In vitro studies demonstrated that sabinene is having antimicrobial activity and also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. Sabinene treatment protected the yeast cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Moreover, it was found that sabinene treatment decreased the generation of oxidative stress and also decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione S-transferase, catalase, and lipid peroxidase as compared with untreated yeast cells. Sabinene was also found to have angiostatic and antiangiogenic effects. These results were supported by molecular docking studies against antiangiogenic targets. Therefore, the results of these studies suggested that structurally similar molecules are having the same activity. The phytochemical repurposing using in silico similarity searching as well as in vitro approaches can also be applied for other phytochemicals whose activities are not/less known. Furthermore, this could also be useful in the novel lead/scaffold discovery and target fishing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Descoberta de Drogas , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877775

RESUMO

Interactions between CD147 and cyclophilin A (CypA) promote plaque rupture that causes atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Here, we investigated whether SP-8356 ((1S,5R)-4-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxystyryl)-6,6-dimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one), a novel drug, can exert therapeutic effects against plaque progression and instability through disruption of CD147-CypA interactions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE KO) mice. Immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation analyses were performed to assess the effects of SP-8356 on CD147-CypA interactions. Advanced plaques were induced in ApoE KO mice via partial ligation of the right carotid artery coupled with an atherogenic diet, and SP-8356 (50 mg/kg) orally administrated daily one day after carotid artery ligation for three weeks. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of SP-8356 was assessed using histological and molecular approaches. SP-8356 interfered with CD147-CypA interactions and attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation. Moreover, SP-8356 induced a decreased in atherosclerotic plaque size in ApoE KO mice and stabilized plaque vulnerability by reducing the necrotic lipid core, suppressing macrophage infiltration, and enhancing fibrous cap thickness through increasing the content of vascular smooth muscle cells. SP-8356 exerts remarkable anti-atherosclerotic effects by suppressing plaque development and improving plaque stability through inhibiting CD147-CypA interactions. Our novel findings support the potential utility of SP-8356 as a therapeutic agent for atherosclerotic plaque.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Basigina/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Basigina/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Placa Aterosclerótica/genética , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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