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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 887714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091544

RESUMO

Adults with intellectual or developmental disability (IDD) comprise 1-2% of the population worldwide. IDD is a significant risk factor for premature morbidity or mortality. This is likely due in part to preventable health conditions, which are modifiable with the intervention of direct care providers in areas including nutrition, promotion of an active lifestyle and effective identification of health or functional deterioration. Adults with IDD are also at increased risk for neglect or mistreatment, a finding that has been documented across multiple countries and in a variety of care settings. Contributing factors include resource availability, lack of person-centered care, management culture and care worker training. Practical and economical interventions may address the known disparities and challenges facing the large community of adults with IDD. To promote person-centered care, improve record-keeping/documentation, and aid in protecting the health and safety of this vulnerable population, we propose incorporation of a video into the evaluation of adults with IDD living outside the home.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Deficiência Intelectual , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Morbidade , Fatores de Risco
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 941977, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119098

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, diabetes, and neuropsychiatric diseases cause significant global morbidity and mortality which disproportionately affect those living in low resource regions including low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In order to reduce NCD morbidity and mortality in LMIC it is imperative to understand risk factors associated with the development of NCDs. Certain infections are known risk factors for many NCDs. Several parasitic helminth infections, which occur most commonly in LMICs, have been identified as potential drivers of NCDs in parasite-endemic regions. Though understudied, the impact of helminth infections on the development of NCDs is likely related to helminth-specific factors, including species, developmental stage and disease burden. Mechanical and chemical damage induced by the helminth in combination with pathologic host immune responses contribute to the long-term inflammation that increases risk for NCD development. Robust studies from animal models and human clinical trials are needed to understand the immunologic mechanisms of helminth-induced NCDs. Understanding the complex connection between helminths and NCDs will aid in targeted public health programs to reduce helminth-induced NCDs and reduce the high rates of morbidity that affects millions of people living in parasite-endemic, LMICs globally.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Animais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Morbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2229532, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053536

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency department (ED) use during pregnancy may be associated with worse obstetrical outcomes, possibly because of differences in access to health care. It is not known whether ED use before pregnancy is associated with serious adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Objective: To study the association between prepregnancy ED use and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, and included all livebirths and stillbirths from April 2003 to January 2020. Exposures: Main exposure was any ED encounter within 90 days preceding the start of the index pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was a composite of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) from 20 weeks' gestation to 42 days' post partum. Secondary outcomes included severe neonatal morbidity (SNM) from 0 to 27 days, neonatal death, and stillbirth. Relative risks (RRs) were adjusted for maternal age, income, and rurality. Results: Of 2 130 245 births, there were 2 119 335 livebirths (99.5%) and 10 910 stillbirths (0.5%). The mean (SD) maternal age was 29.6 (5.4) years, 212 478 (9.9%) were rural dwelling, and 498 219 (23%) had 3 or more comorbidities. Among all births, 218 011 (9.7%) had a prepregnancy ED visit. The rate of SMM was higher among women with a prepregnancy ED visit than those without (22.3 vs 16.5 per 1000 births), with an RR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.30-1.38) and an adjusted RR (aRR) of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.33-1.42). Compared with no prepregnancy ED visit, the aRR was higher in those with 1 (1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.34), 2 (1.51; 95% CI, 1.42-1.61), and 3 or more (1.74; 95% CI, 1.61-1.90) ED visits. Prepregnancy ED visits for a hematological (aRR, 13.60; 95% CI, 10.48-17.64), endocrine (aRR, 4.96; 95% CI, 3.72-6.62), and circulatory (aRR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.68-3.07) conditions were associated with the highest aRRs for SMM. The rate of SNM was higher among newborns whose mother visited the ED within 90 days before pregnancy (68.2 vs 55.4 per 1000 births; aRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.22-1.26) as was the risk of neonatal death (aRR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.37) and stillbirth (aRR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, ED use was common before pregnancy. These findings suggest that ED use may not only reflect a woman's access to prepregnancy care but also higher future risk of severe maternal and perinatal morbidity, potentially offering a useful trigger for health system interventions to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Natimorto , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
6.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 230, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imbalance in L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO) metabolism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and both diseases impact the other's morbidity. We sought to determine whether L-arginine/NO metabolism differs between adults with asthma with or without comorbid OSA, and its association with asthma morbidity. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 322 adults with asthma recruited in Denver, CO and New York City, NY. Data were collected on OSA status, spirometry, and metrics of asthma control and morbidity. L-Arginine metabolites were quantified in patient serum. Bivariate analyses and multiple regression were performed to determine differences between L-arginine metabolism, OSA and association with asthma morbidity. RESULTS: Among the 322 participants, 92 (28.5%) had OSA. The cohort was 81.6% female, 23.4% identified as Black and 30.6% as Latino. Patients with asthma and OSA had significantly higher serum concentrations of NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) (p-value = 0.019), lower L-arginine to ornithine ratios (p-value = 0.003), and increased ornithine (p-value = 0.001) and proline levels (p-value < 0.001) compared to those without OSA. In adjusted models, OSA was associated with worse asthma control, adjusted mean difference in asthma control questionnaire of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06 to 0.65), and asthma quality of life questionnaire, adjusted mean difference: - 0.53 (95% CI: - 0.85 to - 0.21), after adjusting for relevant covariates including body mass index and L-arginine metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with asthma and OSA had increased ADMA, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and greater metabolism of L-arginine via the arginase pathway compared to those with asthma alone, indicating a possible shared pathophysiological mechanism of these diseases.


Assuntos
Asma , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adulto , Arginina , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Ornitina , Qualidade de Vida , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 179, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has maternal health implications reaching beyond the perinatal period. We aimed to investigate the incidence and severity of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in women with previous GDM in a Danish population and to study whether proxies of impaired beta cell function-insulin treatment during GDM pregnancy and development of subsequent manifest diabetes mellitus-influence incident risk of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. METHODS: A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted on the complete cohort of 700,648 women delivering in Denmark during 1997-2018. The exposure variable was GDM and primary outcome was overall cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. Secondary outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and/or stroke/transient cerebral ischemia), hypertension, dyslipidemia, and venous thrombosis. Severity of morbidity was assessed using number of hospital contacts with diagnosis codes related to cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and number of redemptions of prescribed medication related to cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in women who developed cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity after pregnancy. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 10.2-11.9 years with a total range of 0-21.9 years. GDM was associated with increased risk of any cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity (adjusted HR 2.13 [95% CI 2.07-2.20]), major cardiovascular disease (adjusted HR 1.69 [95% CI 1.55-1.84]), hypertension (adjusted HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.82-1.96], dyslipidemia (adjusted HR 4.48 [95% CI 4.28-4.69]), and venous thrombosis (adjusted HR 1.32 [95% CI 1.16-1.50]). Insulin treatment during pregnancy and subsequent development of manifest diabetes exacerbated the risk estimates. Previous GDM was associated with more hospital contacts and more redeemed prescriptions in women developing cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Previous GDM was associated with significantly higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, especially incident dyslipidemia. Risks were exacerbated by proxies of beta cell impairment. Severity of morbidity was significantly worse if GDM preceded cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão , Insulinas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(36): e30390, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086699

RESUMO

Total pancreatectomy (TP) is performed for diseases of the entire pancreas. However, reluctance remains regarding TP because of the fear of high morbidity and mortality. Our retrospective study aimed to evaluate the postoperative outcomes of TP performed at a high-volume single center and to identify the risk factors associated with major morbidities and mortality after TP. A total of 142 patients who underwent elective TP at Samsung Medical Center between 1995 and 2015 were included. TP was usually planned before surgery or decided during surgery [one-stage TP], and there were some completion TP cases that were performed to manage tumors that had formed in the remnant pancreas after a previous partial pancreatectomy [2-stage TP]. The differences between the 1-stage and 2-stage TP groups were analyzed. Chronological comparison was also conducted by dividing cases into 2 periods [the early and late period] based on the year TP was performed, which divided the total number of patients to almost half for each period. Among all TP patients, major morbidity occurred in 25 patients (17.6%), the rate of re-admission within 90-days was 20.4%, and there was no in-hospital and 30-days mortality. Between the 1-stage and 2-stage TP groups, most clinical, operative, and pathological characteristics, and postoperative outcomes did not differ significantly. Chronological comparison showed that, although the incidence of complications was higher, hospitalization was shorter due to advanced managements in the late period. The overall survival was improved in the late period compared to the early period, but it was not significant. A low preoperative protein level and N2 were identified as independent risk factors for major morbidity in multivariable analysis. The independent risk factors for poor overall survival were R1 resection, adenocarcinoma, and high estimated blood loss (EBL). TP is a safe and feasible procedure with satisfactory postoperative outcomes when performed at a high-volume center. More research and efforts are needed to significantly improve overall survival rate in the future.


Assuntos
Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Morbidade , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 957576, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062122

RESUMO

Introduction: To mitigate morbidity, mortality, and impacts of heat-related illnesses (HRIs) on health, it was vital to implement a comprehensive framework for HRI prevention and control. A recognized tool from the field of trauma prevention known as the Haddon matrix was applied. The matrix states that any event is affected by three factors: host, agent, and environment. In addition, another recognized tool known as the combined model was used in this study. The combined model is a three-dimensional model that includes the idea for the three axes of Haddon's matrix with the methodology of the community risk reduction (CRR) model. Aim of the study: To identify the environmental and individual risk factors of HRIs based on the Haddon matrix and the recommended prevention strategies by the CRR tool by using the combined model. Methodology: An extensive literature review was conducted to assess all the risk factors associated with HRI, as well as preventive measures. Then the Haddon matrix was used to structure, separating human factors from technical and environmental details and timing. After that, the combined model was used to set all responses and mitigation measures for each element obtained from the Haddon matrix tool. Conclusion: Projected increases in heat stress over the globe require the formulation and implementation of evidence-based HRI mitigation and preventive measures. In this study, we implemented the combined model that was utilized as a systematic strategy for the more theoretical framework of Haddon's matrix. Using the Haddon matrix to determine the HRI risk factors and the combined model to mitigate its impact was practical and helpful in planning, preparedness, and mitigating the HRIs during Hajj, provided a broad approach equivalent to the Swiss cheese model, and would facilitate an informed decision.


Assuntos
Eventos de Massa , Humanos , Morbidade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 60(5): 548-555, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048807

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has provoked one of the greatest health crises of our time, which is why risk stratification at the time of hospitalization is essential to identify in good time patients with high morbidity and mortality risk. Dysnatremia as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with COVID-19 has recently become relevant. Objective: To find out if there is an association of dysnatremia with 28-day mortality, and as secondary objectives, its association with hospital stay, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) requirement and presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospital stay. Material and methods: Retrospective, descriptive and analytical cohort study. All consecutive patients of 16 years or older of any gender, admitted to a third level hospital from March 1, 2020 to March 2021, who have a diagnosis of COVID-19 with positive PCR were included. Results: The study included a total of 722 patients. The prevalence of dysnatremia was as follows: 18 patients presented hypernatremia (2.49%) and 153 hyponatremia (21.19%). The presence of hypernatremia once sodium was corrected for glucose was associated with higher mortality (p < 0.05, OR 3.446; 95% CI 1.776-6.688), an increased probability of presenting AKI (p <0.05, OR 2.985; 95% CI 1.718-5.184) and a greater requirement for IMV (p < 0.05, OR 1.945; 95% CI 1.701-5.098). Conclusions: Hypernatremia was associated with higher mortality, higher risk of presenting AKI and the requirement for IMV during hospitalization.


Introducción: la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha provocado una de las mayores crisis sanitarias de nuestros tiempos, por lo que la estratificación pronóstica al momento de la hospitalización es fundamental para identificar de manera temprana a los pacientes con alto riesgo de morbimortalidad. La disnatremia como predictor independiente de mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 ha tomado relevancia recientemente. Objetivo: encontrar si existe asociación de disnatremias con mortalidad a 28 días y como secundarios su asociación con estancia hospitalaria, requerimiento de ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) y presencia de lesión renal aguda (LRA) durante la estancia hospitalaria. Material y métodos: estudio de tipo cohorte retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico. Se incluyeron de manera consecutiva todos los pacientes mayores de 16 años de cualquier género, ingresados en un hospital de tercer nivel de marzo de 2020 a marzo de 2021, los cuales presentaron diagnóstico de COVID-19 con PCR positiva. Resultados: el estudio incluyó un total de 722 pacientes. La prevalencia de disnatremia fue la siguiente: 18 pacientes presentaron hipernatremia (2.49%) y 153 hiponatremia (21.19%). La presencia de hipernatremia una vez corregido el sodio para la glucosa se asoció con mayor mortalidad (p < 0.05, RM 3.446; IC 95%, 1.776-6.688), un aumento de la probabilidad de presentar LRA (p < 0.05, RM 2.985; IC 95%, 1.718-5.184) y mayor requerimiento de VMI (p < 0.05, RM 1.945; IC 95%, 1.701-5.098). Conclusiones: la hipernatremia se asoció a una mayor mortalidad, mayor riesgo de presentar LRA y requerimiento de VMI durante la hospitalización.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Hipernatremia , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(5, sept-oct): 453-463, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130351

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación de la concentración de con-taminantes atmosféricos y los indicadores epidemiológicos de Covid-19 en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México (ZMVM). Material y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico ecológico. Se utilizaron modelos lineales tipo Poisson para variables de conteo y modelos lineales de efectos aleatorios en variables continuas para cuantificar la asociación entre los contaminantes atmosféricos y los indicadores de Covid-19. Los datos obtenidos fueron del 28 de febrero de 2020 al 30 de junio de 2021. La exposición a contaminantes se estratificó por estaciones climáticas. RESULTADOS: Los contaminantes que tuvieron asociación significativa con indicadores de morbilidad y mortalidad fueron CO, NOX, O3 y PM10. En la estación seca fría el CO y el NOX tuvieron efecto sobre los casos diarios confirmados y las defunciones diarias. Las PM10 se asociaron con efecto en los indicadores de casos diarios confirmados, incidencia diaria, porcentaje de hospitalizados y la tasa de letalidad. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren una asociación entre el comportamiento epidemiológico de Covid-19 y la exposición a CO, NOX, O3 y PM10, en la que se encontró un mayor efecto en la estación seca-fría en la ZMVM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 73(5): 310-322, septiembre 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-JHG-274

RESUMO

Introduction: The gracilis muscle free flap has gained popularity in head and neck reconstruction due to minimal donor-site morbidity, reliable vascular pedicle, strong muscular component, and possibility to perform nerve coaptation. However, almost all the existing evidence in the literature is related to its use for facial palsy reanimation. The aim of this study was therefore to review and provide a comprehensive summary of all the possible indications and outcomes of this versatile free flap in head neck reconstructive surgery.Materials and methodsA systematic review of the literature was conducted including articles from 1970 to 2019. All articles were examined and described.ResultsTwenty-seven papers published between 1994 and 2019 were identified for analysis. The evidence highlights the use of the gracilis muscle free flap for parotid, forehead and midface defects, oral tongue, oral sphincter, lower and upper lip, cheek, and oral commissure defects, among others, as the most common defects reconstructed.ConclusionThis flap represents an easy to harvest and versatile free flap with low donor-site morbidity and multiple proven uses in head & neck reconstruction. We therefore encourage reconstructive surgeons to include this flap in their armoury, either as a first or as a second-line option. (AU)


Introducción: El colgajo libre de músculo gracilis ha ganado popularidad en la reconstrucción de cabeza y cuello debido a una mínima morbilidad en el sitio donante, un pedículo vascular confiable, un componente muscular fuerte y la posibilidad de realizar una coaptación nerviosa. Sin embargo, casi toda la evidencia existente en la literatura está relacionada con su uso para la reanimación de la parálisis facial. El objetivo de este estudio fue, por tanto, revisar y proporcionar un resumen completo de todas las posibles indicaciones y resultados de este versátil colgajo libre en cirugía reconstructiva de cabeza y cuello.Materiales y métodosSe realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura incluyendo artículos de 1970 a 2019. Todos fueron examinados y descritos.ResultadosSe identificaron 27 artículos publicados entre 1994 y 2019 para su análisis. La evidencia destaca el uso del colgajo libre de músculo gracilis para defectos de parótida, frente y región medio facial, lengua oral, esfínter oral, labio inferior y superior, defectos de mejilla y comisura oral, como los defectos reconstruidos más comunes.ConclusiónEste colgajo representa un colgajo libre versátil y fácil de elevar con baja morbilidad a nivel del sitio donante y múltiples posibilidades en la reconstrucción de cabeza y cuello. Por lo tanto, representa una herramienta útil en el arsenal reconstructivo de cualquier cirujano, ya sea como una opción de primera o de segunda línea. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Morbidade , Pacientes
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061701, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123079

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is debilitating, often requiring surgical reconstruction. An ACL reconstruction (ACLR) using a tendon autograft harvested from the semitendinosus results in substantial injury to the donor muscle. Following ACLR, patients rarely return to their preinjury level of physical activity, are at elevated risk of secondary lower limb injuries and early onset knee osteoarthritis. To date, no randomised controlled trial has evaluated the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in aiding knee function and semitendinosus morphology of following ALCR. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-four ACLR patients aged 18-50 years will be randomised to receive either a single application of PRP (ACLR+) or placebo saline (ACLR) into the semitendinosus harvest zone at the time of surgery. All patients will undergo normal postoperative rehabilitation recommended by the attending orthopaedic surgeon or physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure is between-limb difference (ACLR compared with intact contralateral) in isometric knee flexor strength at 60o knee flexion, collected 10-12 months postsurgery. This primary outcome measure will be statistically compared between groups (ACLR+ and standard ACLR). Secondary outcome measures include bilateral assessments of hamstring muscle morphology via MRI, biomechanical and electromyographic parameters during an anticipated 45° running side-step cut and multidirectional hopping task and patient-reported outcomes questionaries. Additionally, patient-reported outcomes questionaries will be collected before (baseline) as well as immediately after surgery, and at 2-6 weeks, 3-4 months, 10-12 months and 22-24 months postsurgery 10-12 months following surgery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been granted by Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee, Greenslopes Research and Ethics Committee, and Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618000762257p.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Músculos Isquiossurais , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/reabilitação , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Morbidade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tendões
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1151, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to generate new evidence on the economic consequences of multimorbidity on households in terms of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures and their implications for catastrophic OOP expenditure. METHODS: We analyzed Social Consumption Health data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) 75th round conducted in the year 2017-2018 in India. The sample included 1,13,823 households (64,552 rural and 49,271 urban) through a multistage stratified random sampling process. Prevalence of multimorbidity and related OOP expenditure were estimated. Using Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM) we estimated the mean OOP expenditure for individuals reporting multimorbidity and single morbidity for each episode of outpatient visits and hospital admission. We also estimated implications in terms of catastrophic OOP expenditure for households. RESULTS: Results suggest that outpatient OOP expenditure is invariably lower in the presence of multimorbidity as compared with single conditions of the selected Non-Communicable Diseases(NCDs) (overall, INR 720 [USD 11.3] for multimorbidity vs. INR 880 [USD 14.8] for single). In the case of hospitalization, the OOP expenditures were mostly higher for the same NCD conditions in the presence of multimorbidity as compared with single conditions, except for cancers and cardiovascular diseases. For cancers and cardiovascular, OOP expenditures in the presence of multimorbidity were lower by 39% and 14% respectively). Furthermore, around 46.7% (46.674-46.676) households reported incurring catastrophic spending (10% threshold) because of any NCD in the standalone disease scenario which rose to 63.3% (63.359-63.361) under the multimorbidity scenario. The catastrophic implications of cancer among individual diseases was the highest. CONCLUSIONS: Multimorbidity leads to high and catastrophic OOP payments by households and treatment of high expenditure diseases like cancers and cardiovascular are under-financed by households in the presence of competing multimorbidity conditions. Multimorbidity should be considered as an integrated treatment strategy under the existing financial risk protection measures (Ayushman Bharat) to reduce the burden of household OOP expenditure at the country level.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Multimorbidade , Autorrelato
15.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 23(1): 67, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paraquat is a non-selective herbicide that causes severe tissue damage in various organs including the liver and kidney. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of the liver and kidney injury in patients with paraquat poisoning. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed at the Khorshid Hospital referral poisoning emergency center. The medical records of all patients with acute paraquat poisoning admitted from March 2017 to October 2020 were reviewed. Demographic factors, liver and kidney function tests and outcomes were recorded. Patients were divided into two groups based on the outcome of mortality (death or survived). The two groups were compared in terms of changes in creatinine and liver enzymes during hospitalization. RESULTS: A significant difference in mean creatinine levels between the two groups was observed from the third day after admission. The peak median Cr was 3.5 mg/dl for deceased patients in day 6 and 1.47 mg/dl for survived patients on 4th day. Minor elevations of ALT and AST were present in those who died. Logistic regression analysis shows patients who had level of creatinine higher than normal from the 2nd to 6th day post overdose, the risk of mortality was 4.83 to 7.44 times more than patients with normal creatinine level. The mean (SD) area under the curve for outcome prediction was reported to be excellent for creatinine on the 8th day post overdose (85.7 ± 13.2). Creatinine was higher than 2 on the 8th day post ingestion and had a sensitivity 100% and specificity 85.7% for mortality prediction (P value, 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of mortality secondary to paraquat ingestion was highly associated with a rise in creatinine. Minor elevations of ALT and AST were also present in those who died. The creatinine concentration on different days post overdose can be helpful in predicting the severity of poisoning especially when the serum paraquat levels are not available.


Assuntos
Paraquat , Intoxicação , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Rim , Fígado , Morbidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity increases with age and enhances the burden of health problems that result in new challenges to meet additional demands. In the ageing population, health problems, and health care utilization should be assessed carefully and addressed. This study aimed to identify chronic morbidities, health problems, health care seeking behaviour and health care utilization among the elderly. METHODS: We conducted a community based, cross-sectional study in urban areas of the Sunsari district using face-to-face interviews. A total of 530 elderly participants were interviewed and selected by a simple proportionate random sampling technique. RESULTS: About half, 48.3%, elderly were suffering from pre-existing chronic morbidities, of which, 30.9% had single morbidity, and 17.4% had multi-morbidities. This study unfurled more than 50.0% prevalence of health ailments like circulatory, digestive, eye, musculoskeletal and psychological problems each representing the burden of 68.7%, 68.3%, 66.2%, 65.8% and 55.7% respectively. Our study also found that 58.7% preferred hospitals as their first contact facility. Despite the preferences, 46.0% reported visiting traditional healers for treatment of their ailments. About 68.1% reported having difficulty seeking health care and 51.1% reported visits to a health care facility within the last 6 months period. The participants with pre-existing morbidity, health insurance, and an economic status above the poverty line were more likely to visit health care facilities. CONCLUSION: Elderly people had a higher prevalence of health ailments, but unsatisfactory health care seeking and health care utilization behaviour. These need further investigation and attention by the public health system in order to provide appropriate curative and preventive health care to the elderly. There is an urgent need to promote geriatric health services and make them available at the primary health care level, the first level of contact with a national health system.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Morbidade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência
17.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079903

RESUMO

While probiotics are reported to reduce the risks of neonatal morbidities, less is known about probiotics and feeding tolerance. With this retrospective cohort study, we investigate whether introduction of probiotic supplementation as the standard of care was associated with fewer neonatal morbidities and improved feeding tolerance in very preterm infants. Using the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, 345 live-born very preterm infants (28-31 weeks' gestation), from January 2019-August 2021, in NICUs in Stockholm, Sweden, either received probiotic supplementation (Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium lactis, Streptococcusthermophilus) (139) or no supplementation (206); they were compared regarding a primary composite outcome of death, sepsis, and/or necrotising enterocolitis and secondary outcomes: time to full enteral feeding and antibiotics use. Probiotics seemed associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome (4.3% versus 9.2%, p = 0.08). In the subgroup of 320 infants without the primary outcome, probiotics were associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding (6.6 days versus 7.2 days) and less use of antibiotics (5.2 days versus 6.1 days). Our findings suggest that probiotics improve feeding tolerance and further support that very preterm infants may benefit from probiotic supplementation.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Doenças do Prematuro , Probióticos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Morbidade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
PLoS Med ; 19(9): e1004087, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) aims to reduce maternal hyperglycaemia. The TARGET Trial assessed whether tighter compared with less tight glycaemic control reduced maternal and perinatal morbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised trial, identification number ACTRN12615000282583, 10 hospitals in New Zealand were randomised to 1 of 5 implementation dates. The trial was registered before the first participant was enrolled. All hospitals initially used less tight targets (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <5.5 mmol/L (<99 mg/dL), 1-hour <8.0 mmol/L (<144 mg/dL), 2 hour postprandial <7.0 mmol/L (<126 mg/dL)) and every 4 months, 2 hospitals moved to use tighter targets (FPG ≤5.0 mmol/L (≤90 mg/dL), 1-hour ≤7.4 mmol/L (≤133 mg/dL), 2 hour postprandial ≤6.7 mmol/L) (≤121 mg/dL). Women with GDM, blinded to the targets in use, were eligible. The primary outcome was large for gestational age. Secondary outcomes assessed maternal and infant health. Analyses were by intention to treat. Between May 2015 and November 2017, data were collected from 1,100 women with GDM (1,108 infants); 598 women (602 infants) used the tighter targets and 502 women (506 infants) used the less tight targets. The rate of large for gestational age was similar between the treatment target groups (88/599, 14.7% versus 76/502, 15.1%; adjusted relative risk [adjRR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66 to 1.40, P = 0.839). The composite serious health outcome for the infant of perinatal death, birth trauma, or shoulder dystocia was apparently reduced in the tighter group when adjusted for gestational age at diagnosis of GDM, BMI, ethnicity, and history of GDM compared with the less tight group (8/599, 1.3% versus 13/505, 2.6%, adjRR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.88, P = 0.032). No differences were seen for the other infant secondary outcomes apart from a shorter stay in intensive care (P = 0.041). Secondary outcomes for the woman showed an apparent increase for the composite serious health outcome that included major haemorrhage, coagulopathy, embolism, and obstetric complications in the tighter group (35/595, 5.9% versus 15/501, 3.0%, adjRR 2.29, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.59, P = 0.020). There were no differences between the target groups in the risk for pre-eclampsia, induction of labour, or cesarean birth, but more women using tighter targets required pharmacological treatment (404/595, 67.9% versus 293/501, 58.5%, adjRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.44, P = 0.047). The main study limitation is that the treatment targets used may vary to those in use in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: Tighter glycaemic targets in women with GDM compared to less tight targets did not reduce the risk of a large for gestational age infant, but did reduce serious infant morbidity, although serious maternal morbidity was increased. These findings can be used to aid decisions on the glycaemic targets women with GDM should use. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN12615000282583.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Austrália , Glicemia , Cesárea , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Morbidade , Gravidez
19.
Can J Surg ; 65(5): E619-E621, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130804

RESUMO

SummaryMorbidity and Mortality Conferences (MMCs) are considered to be one of the most powerful education tools for clinicians; however, their current structure in many health care facilities focuses predominantly on quality and outcome improvement, and their retrospective approach limits their educational component. This article discusses how MMCs can be modified to enhance the educational outcomes and provide a valuable training session that adds to the quality control value.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Erros Médicos , Humanos , Morbidade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 41: e2021389, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to understand the disparities in mortality and survival without major morbidities among very premature and very low birth weight infants between participating Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) from the Brazilian Network on Neonatal Research (RBPN) and the Neonatal Research Network of Japan (NRNJ). METHODS: Secondary data analysis of surveys by the RBPN and NRNJ was performed. The surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2015 and included 187 NICUs. Primary outcome was mortality or survival without any major morbidity. Logistic regression analysis adjustment for confounding factors was used. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 6,406 infants from the NRNJ and 2,319 from the RBPN. Controlling for various confounders, infants from RBPN had 9.06 times higher adjusted odds of mortality (95%CI 7.30-11.29), and lower odds of survival without major morbidities (AOR 0.36; 95%CI 0.32-0.41) compared with those from the NRNJ. Factors associated with higher odds of mortality among Brazilian NICUs included: Air Leak Syndrome (AOR 4.73; 95%CI 1.26-15.27), Necrotizing Enterocolitis (AOR 3.25; 95%CI 1.38-7.26), and Late Onset Sepsis (LOS) (AOR 4.86; 95%CI 2.25-10.97). CONCLUSIONS: Very premature and very low birth weight infants from Brazil had significantly higher odds for mortality and lower odds for survival without major morbidities in comparison to those from Japan. Additionally, we identified the factors that increased the odds of in-hospital neonatal death in Brazil, most of which was related to LOS.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Sepse , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Japão/epidemiologia , Morbidade
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