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1.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(1): 129-143, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757231

RESUMO

Stinging insect allergy is uncommon but can be life threatening. Diagnosis requires clinical history and confirmative skin or blood testing by an allergist. Baseline serum tryptase level can be used to stratify risk. Treatment is supportive for all reactions except for anaphylaxis, which is treated with intramuscular epinephrine, recumbent posture, and adjunct measures such as IV fluids, and oxygen. Venom immunotherapy is most effective for long-term management in patients with a history of anaphylaxis. Venom immunotherapy rapidly reduces the risk of sting anaphylaxis by up to 98% and maintenance treatment can be stopped after 5 years in most cases.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Peçonhas/uso terapêutico
2.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 73(12): 1037-1038, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883561

RESUMO

Bees defend themselves by stinging and injecting a venom into their victims; bee venom is a complex mixture of chemicals including the polypeptide melittin which is mainly responsible for triggering the pain of the sting.


Assuntos
Venenos de Abelha , Animais , Abelhas , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Meliteno
4.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(12): 1512-1518, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613654

RESUMO

The plasma levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and its receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) play a significant role in the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), but it is not clear how these proteins are involved in wasp sting patients developing SIRS. To study potential genetic factors predisposing to the risk of SIRS caused by wasp sting injury, we determined the plasma levels of IL-8 and its receptors among SIRS patients with wasp sting injury and investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of these genes with SIRS. A total of 225 patients were divided into the SIRS group (n = 62) and non-SIRS group (control, n = 163), and we associated polymorphisms in IL-8 [rs4073 (-251T>A), rs2227532 (-845C>T), rs2227307 (+396G>T), rs2227306 (+781T>C), CXCR1 rs2234671 (+860C>G), CXCR2 [rs2230054 (+811T>C), rs57929613 (+1235C>T), and rs60626131 (+1440A>G)] with SIRS with a linear additive model. In terms of protein expression, the IL-8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 plasma levels were significantly higher in the SIRS group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Significantly higher frequencies were observed for the IL-8 - 251T allele (AT+TT), CXCR2 + 811T allele (CT+TT), and +1235C allele (TC+CC) in the SIRS group, when compared with the control group, with odds ratio (OR) = 3.971 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.618-9.734), p = 0.003; OR = 4.223 (95% CI, 1.863-9.571), p = 0.001; and OR = 4.012 (95% CI, 1.773-9.079), p = 0.001; respectively. In addition, SIRS is more likely to occur in males, patients with number of wasp stings ≥10 stings, and stings in the limbs. The current study suggests that the IL-8 - 251T allele (AT+TT) and IL-8 receptor CXCR2 + 811C allele (CT+TT) and +1235T allele (TC+CC) could be risk factors among SIRS patients with wasp sting injury.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-8A/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/genética , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/genética , Vespas/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Interleucina-8/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Receptores de Interleucina-8A/sangue , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/patologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Malar J ; 18(1): 334, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito saliva elicits immune responses in humans following mosquito blood feeding. Detection of human antibodies recognizing the Anopheles gambiae salivary gland protein 6 (gSG6) or the gSG6-P1 peptide in residents of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia suggested the potential for these antibodies to serve as a universal marker to estimate human biting rates. Validating the utility of this approach requires concurrent comparisons of anopheline biting rates with antibodies to the gSG6 protein to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for monitoring changes in vector populations. This study investigated whether seroprevalence of anti-gSG6 antibodies in humans reflected the relative exposure to Anopheles farauti bites in the Solomon Islands as estimated from sympatric human landing catches. METHODS: Human biting rates by An. farauti were estimated by landing catches at 10 sampling sites in each of 4 villages during the wet and dry seasons. Human serum samples from these same villages were also collected during the wet and dry seasons and analysed for antibody recognition of the gSG6 antigen by the Luminex xMAP© platform. Antibody titres and prevalence were compared to HLCs at the sampling sites nearest to participants' residences for utility of anti-gSG6 antibodies to estimate human exposure to anopheline bites. RESULTS: In this study in the Solomon Islands only 11% of people had very high anti-gSG6 antibody titres, while other individuals did not recognize gSG6 despite nightly exposures of up to 190 bites by An. farauti. Despite clear spatial differences in the human biting rates within and among villages, associations between anti-gSG6 antibody titres and biting rates were not found. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies to date have concurrently measured anopheline biting rates and the prevalence of human antibodies to gSG6. The lack of association between anti-gSG6 antibody titres and concurrently measured human biting rates suggests that the assay for human anti-gSG6 antibodies lacks sufficient sensitivity to be a biomarker of An. farauti exposure at an epidemiologically relevant scale. These findings imply that an improvement in the sensitivity of serology to monitor changes in anopheline biting exposure may require the use of saliva antigens from local anophelines, and this may be especially true for species more distantly related to the African malaria vector An. gambiae.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Melanesia , Mosquitos Vetores , Estações do Ano , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 474, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global spread of mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) has presented increasing challenges to public health. The transmission of MBD is mainly attributable to the biting behaviors of female mosquitoes. However, the ecological pattern of hourly host-seeking behavior in Aedes albopictus and its association with climatic variables are still not well understood, especially for a precise requirement for establishing an effective risk prediction system of MBD transmission. METHODS: Mosquito samples and data on mosquito hourly density and site-specific climatic variables, including temperature, relative humidity, illuminance and wind speed, were collected simultaneously in urban outdoor environments in Guangzhou during 2016-2018. Kernel regression models were used to assess the temporal patterns of hourly host-seeking behavior in mosquito populations, and negative binomial regression models in the Bayesian framework were used to investigate the associations of host-seeking behavior with climatic variables. RESULTS: Aedes albopictus was abundant, constituting 82% (5569/6790) of the total collected mosquitoes. Host-seeking behavior in Ae. albopictus varied across time and was significantly influenced by climatic variables. The predicted hourly mosquito densities showed non-linear relationships with temperature and illuminance, whereas density increased with relative humidity but generally decreased with wind speed. The range of temperature estimates for female biting was 16.4-37.1 °C, peaking at 26.5 °C (95% credible interval: 25.3-28.1). During the favorable periods, biting behavior of female Ae. albopictus was estimated to occur frequently all day long, presenting a bimodal distribution with peaks within 2-3 h around both dawn and dusk (05:00-08:00 h and 16:00-19:00 h). Moreover, a short-term association in hourly density between the females and males was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our field-based modeling study reveals that hourly host-seeking behavior of Ae. albopictus exhibits a complex pattern, with hourly variation constrained significantly by climatic variables. These findings lay a foundation for improving MBD risk assessments as well as practical strategies for vector control. For instances of all-day-long frequent female biting during the favorable periods in Guangzhou, effective integrated mosquito control measures must be taken throughout the day and night.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Clima , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , /prevenção & controle , Aedes/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Distribuição Binomial , China/epidemiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Luz , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Densidade Demográfica , Chuva , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo , Vento
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 400-404, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559793

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the 1970s and 1980s, the occurrence of bedbugs (Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758) was noticed only sporadically in accommodation facilities in Slovakia. Under regular monitoring, it was possible to even eradicate its occurrence in the 1980s. Today, the problem is once again a major global health issue. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to point out the occurrence of cimicosis in the case of atypical urticaria in patients referred to parasitological examination by inpatient and outpatient physicians. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the period 2006-2015, 102 patients with suspected ectoparasitosis were examined in the Diagnostic Laboratory of Human Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine of Comenius University in Bratislava. Specialists and general practitioners referred the patients with itching red efflorescences. Parasitological examination and entomologic analysis of insects confirmed in many of them the presence of skin ectoparasitosis caused by Cimex lectularius, and in one case Oeciacus hirundinis. RESULTS: A total number of 102 parasitologically patients were examined - 62 adults and 40 children. Among the 62 adults, there were 57 patients positive for cimicosis. In 5 patients cimicosis was not confirmed, in one of them (Sarcoptes scabiei Linnaeus, 1758) was detected. Among the 40 children, there were 34 positive for cimicosis. One female child was diagnosed with lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei.. CONCLUSIONS: The bed bug should again be subjected to the reporting service to public health authorities, and thus recording the monitoring of its incidence and spread in the population.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pele/parasitologia , Eslováquia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Malar J ; 18(1): 314, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eave ribbons treated with spatial repellents effectively prevent human exposure to outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria mosquitoes, and could constitute a scalable and low-cost supplement to current interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study measured protection afforded by transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons to users (personal and communal protection) and non-users (only communal protection), and whether introducing mosquito traps as additional intervention influenced these benefits. METHODS: Five experimental huts were constructed inside a 110 m long, screened tunnel, in which 1000 Anopheles arabiensis were released nightly. Eave ribbons treated with 0.25 g/m2 transfluthrin were fitted to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 huts, achieving 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% coverage, respectively. Volunteers sat near each hut and collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them from 6 to 10 p.m. (outdoor-biting), then went indoors to sleep under untreated bed nets, beside which CDC-light traps collected mosquitoes from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. (indoor-biting). Caged mosquitoes kept inside the huts were monitored for 24 h-mortality. Separately, eave ribbons, UV-LED mosquito traps (Mosclean) or both the ribbons and traps were fitted, each time leaving the central hut unfitted to represent non-user households and assess communal protection. Biting risk was measured concurrently in all huts, before and after introducing interventions. RESULTS: Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons provided 83% and 62% protection indoors and outdoors respectively to users, plus 57% and 48% protection indoors and outdoors to the non-user. Protection for users remained constant, but protection for non-users increased with eave ribbons coverage, peaking once 80% of huts were fitted. Mortality of mosquitoes caged inside huts with eave ribbons was 100%. The UV-LED traps increased indoor exposure to users and non-users, but marginally reduced outdoor-biting. Combining the traps and eave ribbons did not improve user protection relative to eave ribbons alone. CONCLUSION: Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons protect both users and non-users against malaria mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. The mosquito-killing property of transfluthrin can magnify the communal benefits by limiting unwanted diversion to non-users, but should be validated in field trials against pyrethroid-resistant vectors. Benefits of the UV-LED traps as an intervention alone or alongside eave ribbons were however undetectable in this study. These findings extend the evidence that transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons could complement ITNs.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Ciclopropanos , Fluorbenzenos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Repelentes de Insetos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Malar J ; 18(1): 301, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a huge global health burden due to its mortality, morbidity and cost to economies. It is necessary to eliminate the disease in all countries where possible to achieve the World Health Organization target of > 90% reduction by 2030. Successful previous campaigns suggest elimination is feasible in Peru. However, the incidence has recently been rising, focalized to the region of Loreto. Currently, the distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) is a major part of Peru's malaria control strategy, however these may be having a limited effect in Loreto, because of the recent behavioural adaption of the mosquito vector, Anopheles darlingi, to earlier biting times, as well as local perceptions and practices towards LLINs. It was, therefore, necessary to investigate how perceptions, practices and lifestyle factors affect the efficacy of LLINs in Loreto. METHODS: Qualitative research was carried out in 5 rural communities along the Iquitos-Nauta Road in Loreto, which have increased exposure and have received nets in a distribution scheme prior to the study. Twenty semi-structured interviews as well as observations of the bed nets were conducted in participants' homes, using a topic guide. Thematic content analysis was used to produce the findings. RESULTS: All participants viewed malaria prevention as a high priority, and the use of bed nets was deeply embedded in the culture. They expressed preference for LLINs over traditional-type nets. However there were too few LLINs distributed, participants did not maintain the nets correctly, washed them too frequently and did not repair holes. The earlier mosquito biting times were also problematic. Additionally, poor housing construction and proximity to mosquito breeding sites further increased transmission. CONCLUSION: The positive findings in attitudes of the respondents can be used to improve malaria control in these communities. Interventions providing education on effective LLIN use should be implemented. A change in strategy away from vector control methods is also necessary, as these do not provide long-term protection due to the adaptability of An. darlingi. Interventions focusing on parasite control are recommended, and socio-economic factors which increase malaria risk should be addressed.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Resistência a Inseticidas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Peru , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
12.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 7(4): 258-259, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493336

RESUMO

The natural history of large local reactions to Hymenoptera stings allowed to estimate the risk to develop a systemic reaction after an initial large local reaction in about 4% of patients. A recently published study claimed that such risk concerns instead around one-fourth of patients. However, such study is flawed by serious imprecision, particularly the unreliable identification by patients of the culprit insect, as well as the dubious identification of the causative venom in multisensitized patients. Also, the authors criticized previous studied because of the limited number of patients, while they included in the study 662 patients. Indeed, when only patients clearly restung by the same insect according to their history data were considered, the number of patients fell to 35. These data are unable to change the current shared concept on the low risk of systemic reactions in patients with initial large local reaction.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Animais , Humanos , Som , Peçonhas
13.
Malar J ; 18(1): 274, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are effective for malaria prevention and are designed to provide nearly 5 years of mosquito protection. However, many ITNs and LLINs become damaged and ineffective for mosquito bite prevention within 1 to 2 years in field conditions. Non-adherence to recommended bed net care and repair practices may partially explain this shortened net longevity. METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional study, a net care adherence score was developed and adherence to net care practices described from two regions of western Kenya. Relationships between attitudes and environmental factors that influence net longevity were measured with adherence to bed net care practices. RESULTS: While overall care practices are highly adherent particularly in the highlands, practices related to daily storage, washing frequency, and drying location need improvement in the lowlands. Seventy-seven percent of nets in the lowlands were washed < 3 months prior to the survey compared to 23% of nets in the highlands. More nets were dried in the sun in the lowlands (32% of nets) compared to the highlands (4% of nets). Different elements of care are influenced by various malaria attitudes and environmental factors, highlighting the complexity of factors associated with net care. For example, households that learned about net care from community events, that share a sleeping structure with animals, and that have nets used by adult males tend to adhere to washing frequency recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: In western Kenya, many nets are cared for in accordance to recommended practices, particularly in the highlands sites. In the lowlands, demonstrating methods at community events to tie nets up during the day coupled with messaging to emphasize infrequent washing and drying nets in the shade may be an appropriate intervention. As illustrated by differences between the highlands and lowlands sites in the present study, should interventions to improve adherence to bed net care practices be necessary, they should be context-specific.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anopheles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398914

RESUMO

Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), which is a cutaneous allergic reaction to antigens from Culicoides spp., is the most prevalent skin disorder in horses. Misdiagnosis is possible, as IBH is usually diagnosed based on clinical signs. Our study is the first to employ IgE levels against several recombinant Culicoides spp. allergens as an objective, independent, and quantitative phenotype to improve the power to detect genetic variants that underlie IBH. Genotypes of 200 Shetland ponies, 127 Icelandic horses, and 223 Belgian Warmblood horses were analyzed while using a mixed model approach. No single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) passed the Bonferroni corrected significance threshold, but several regions were identified within and across breeds, which confirmed previously identified regions of interest and, in addition, identifying new regions of interest. Allergen-specific IgE levels are a continuous and objective phenotype that allow for more powerful analyses when compared to a case-control set-up, as more significant associations were obtained. However, the use of a higher density array seems necessary to fully employ the use of IgE levels as a phenotype. While these results still require validation in a large independent dataset, the use of allergen-specific IgE levels showed value as an objective and continuous phenotype that can deepen our understanding of the biology underlying IBH.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Cavalos/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Imunoglobulina E/genética , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Ceratopogonidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Cavalos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/veterinária , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/veterinária
15.
Surg Pathol Clin ; 12(3): 745-770, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352986

RESUMO

Although about 90% of the world's population is infected by EBV only a small subset of the related infections result in neoplastic transformation. EBV is a versatile oncogenic agent involved in a multitude of hematopoietic, epithelial, and mesenchymal neoplasms, but the precise role of EBV in the pathogenesis of many of the associated lymphoid/histiocytic proliferations remains hypothetical or not completely understood. Additional studies and use of evolving technologies such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing may help address this knowledge gap and may lead to enhanced diagnostic assessment and the development of potential therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/classificação , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/classificação , Animais , Doença Crônica , Culicidae , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hidroa Vaciniforme/diagnóstico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Mononucleose Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células B/classificação , Linfoma de Células B/virologia , Linfoma de Células T/classificação , Linfoma de Células T/virologia , Granulomatose Linfomatoide/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Neoplasias de Plasmócitos/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Pseudolinfoma/diagnóstico , Pseudolinfoma/virologia , Latência Viral/fisiologia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 364, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of five common habitat types on the diversity and abundance of Anopheles spp. and on the biting rate and time of Anopheles balabacensis (currently the only known vector for Plasmodium knowlesi in Sabah) at Paradason village, Kudat, Sabah. The habitats were forest edge, playground area, longhouse, oil palm plantation and shrub-bushes area. Sampling of Anopheles was done monthly using the human landing catch method in all habitat types for 14 months (October 2013 to December 2014, excluding June 2014). The Anopheles species were morphologically identified and subjected to PCR assay for the detection of Plasmodium parasites. Generalised linear mixed models (GLMM) were applied to test the variation in abundance and biting rates of An. balabacensis in different habitat types. RESULTS: A total of 1599 Anopheles specimens were collected in the village, of which about 90% were An. balabacensis. Anopheles balabacensis was present throughout the year and was the dominant Anopheles species in all habitat types. The shrub bushes habitat had the highest Anopheles species diversity while forest edge had the greatest number of Anopheles individuals caught. GLMM analysis indicated that An. balabacensis abundance was not affected by the type of habitats, and it was more active during the early and late night compared to predawn and dawn. PCR assay showed that 1.61% of the tested An. balabacensis were positive for malaria parasites, most of which were caught in oil palm estates and infected with one to two Plasmodium species. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of infected vectors in a range of habitats, including agricultural and farming areas, illustrates the potential for humans to be exposed to P. knowlesi outside forested areas. This finding contributes to a growing body of evidence implicating environmental changes due to deforestation, expansion of agricultural and farming areas, and development of human settlements near to forest fringes in the emergence of P. knowlesi in Sabah.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Florestas , Modelos Lineares , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Malásia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/isolamento & purificação
19.
Nature ; 572(7767): 56-61, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316207

RESUMO

The radiation-based sterile insect technique (SIT) has successfully suppressed field populations of several insect pest species, but its effect on mosquito vector control has been limited. The related incompatible insect technique (IIT)-which uses sterilization caused by the maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia-is a promising alternative, but can be undermined by accidental release of females infected with the same Wolbachia strain as the released males. Here we show that combining incompatible and sterile insect techniques (IIT-SIT) enables near elimination of field populations of the world's most invasive mosquito species, Aedes albopictus. Millions of factory-reared adult males with an artificial triple-Wolbachia infection were released, with prior pupal irradiation of the released mosquitoes to prevent unintentionally released triply infected females from successfully reproducing in the field. This successful field trial demonstrates the feasibility of area-wide application of combined IIT-SIT for mosquito vector control.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Wolbachia/patogenicidade , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China , Copulação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodução
20.
Immunology ; 158(1): 47-59, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315156

RESUMO

During probing and blood feeding, haematophagous mosquitoes inoculate a mixture of salivary molecules into their vertebrate hosts' skin. In addition to the anti-haemostatic and immunomodulatory activities, mosquito saliva also triggers acute inflammatory reactions, especially in sensitized hosts. Here, we characterize the oedema and the cellular infiltrate following Aedes aegypti mosquito bites in the skin of sensitized and non-sensitized BALB/c mice by flow cytometry. Ae. aegypti bites induced an increased oedema in the ears of both non-sensitized and salivary gland extract- (SGE-)sensitized mice, peaking at 6 hr and 24 hr after exposure, respectively. The quantification of the total cell number in the ears revealed that the cellular recruitment was more robust in SGE-sensitized mice than in non-sensitized mice, and the histological evaluation confirmed these findings. The immunophenotyping performed by flow cytometry revealed that mosquito bites were able to produce complex changes in cell populations present in the ears of non-sensitized and SGE-sensitized mice. When compared with steady-state ears, the leucocyte populations significantly recruited to the skin after mosquito bites in non-sensitized and sensitized mice were eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, inflammatory monocytes, mast cells, B-cells and CD4+ T-cells, each one with its specific kinetics. The changes in the absolute number of cells suggested two cell recruitment profiles: (i) a saliva-dependent migration; and (ii) a migration dependent on the immune status of the host. These findings suggest that mosquito bites influence the skin microenvironment by inducing differential cell migration, which is dependent on the degree of host sensitization to salivary molecules.


Assuntos
Aedes/imunologia , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Edema/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Microambiente Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Cinética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infiltração de Neutrófilos
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