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1.
Ther Umsch ; 77(5): 199-206, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870096

RESUMO

Treatment of acute injuries of the hand Abstract. Injuries to the hand are a common presentation in primary care units. When accurately assessed, many open injuries may be handled in the emergency department without referral to a hand surgery specialist. We would like to give some recommendations on how to treat the most frequent injuries like lesions to the nail and nailbed, fingertip amputation as well as burns, infections and bites. But first, we highlight the different methods of local anesthesia and discuss the use of a tourniquet or vasoconstriction with adrenalin - WALANT - instead.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Traumatismos dos Dedos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos da Mão/diagnóstico , Traumatismos da Mão/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Mão/terapia , Anestesia Local , Mãos , Humanos , Unhas/lesões , Torniquetes
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997052

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) is a cosmopolitan species, with a widespread distribution and responsible for a great number of injuries caused by cnidarians worldwide, including Brazil. Geoprocessing technology, however, has never been used to assess the spatial distribution of these animals on beaches. The aim of this study was to carry out a health risk assessment of Portuguese man-of-war (P. physalis) envenomations on the São Marcos and Calhau beaches in São Luís city, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: This is a descriptive and quantitative study concerning primary data on the occurrence of the Portuguese man-of-war (P. physalis) and human envenomations in the studied places, conducted over a two-year period in São Luís, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. RESULTS: Envenomations mainly occurred on beaches presenting high density of P. physalis during the dry period. Vinegar has been incorporated as a first aid, according to recommendations set by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve prevention and control actions of human envenomation, risk areas for this type of envenomation should be clearly indicated as alert areas. Inclusion of the geographical location of the envenomation in the Notification/Investigation SINAN Form was suggested for allowing the continuity of studies involving this public health issue.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Hidrozoários , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1293, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of rabies disease in rural and urban communities of Pakistan. It also identified malpractices after suspected dog bite that might pose a risk for humans contracting rabies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (n = 1466) on people having different age groups and educational levels in four different geographic regions of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces in Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of people were assessed using a structured questionnaire. We used a bivariate and multivariate analysis to study the association between rabies related mortalities in near or extended family members and different risk behaviors. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the majority of the juvenile population (less than 18 years of age) were not aware of the clinical signs of rabies in animals. 75% of the total respondents were not vaccinated against rabies, 60% did not seek a doctor's advice after a suspected animal bite, and 55% had inadequate health care facilities for rabies patients in local hospitals. Respondents that had pets at home had not vaccinated (38%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.58) themselves against rabies due to lack of knowledge and awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies (51%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.25). They also tend to not visit doctor after suspected bite (52%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.97), which may had resulted in more deaths (65%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.73) of someone in their near or extended family due to rabies. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge about the nature of rabies disease and prophylaxis has contributed to increase of rabies related deaths. Inadequate health care facilities and poor attitude of not seeking medical attention after suspected dog bite are the major reasons of rabies related deaths. These findings could help in devising a targeted management strategy and awareness program to control and reduce the incidence of human rabies related deaths in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0007477, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841227

RESUMO

Dog bites in humans are a major public health problem in India in general and Kashmir in particular. Canine rabies is almost non-existent in developed countries and exists mainly in the poorer, low socioeconomic strata of society in the developing world. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics, pattern, and burden of dog bite injuries in the Kashmir valley. Data from Anti-Rabies Clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, the summer capital of the state of Jammu & Kashmir, was collated and analyzed. Analysis of records of all the patients who had reported between April 2016 and March 2017 was done. A total of 6172 patients had reported to the Anti-Rabies Clinic for management of animal bites from 1st April 2016 to 31st March 2017. Most of the patients were young males. Almost half (47.7%) of the patients were bitten in the afternoon. Lower limbs were the most common site of bite (71.7%). Most of the bites were of Category III (57.6%) followed by Category II (42.3%); only one case of Category I was recorded. Almost all (98.0%) cases reported being bitten by dogs. Conclusions: Category III dog bites on lower limbs were the most common type of animal bites presenting to the Anti-Rabies Clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Children have more chances of a bite on head and neck region. Serious and workable efforts have to be made to reduce the incidence and consequences of animal bites.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Raiva/tratamento farmacológico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817716

RESUMO

Bhutan is one of the biological hotspots in the world where humans and natural flora and fauna co-exist in close proximity. Bhutan is home to two species of bears: Sloth Bear and Himalayan Black Bear. Human conflicts with bears are reported from all over the country. This study describes the profile of the victims and the pattern of injury resulting from bear attacks and circumstances around human conflicts with bears in Bhutan between 2015 and 2019. This was a cross-sectional study with a review of hospital records of patients treated at the National Referral Hospital from 01 January 2015 till 31 December 2019. Data were extracted into a structured pro forma and entered into EpiData Entry 3.1 and analysed in STATA 13.1. There were thirty-four patients who were provided care for bear maul injuries, with an average annual caseload of 6.8 cases per year. The injury prevalence was 100% and the kill prevalence was 0%. Bear attacks were reported from fourteen of twenty districts of the country. The mean age of the victims was 49 (±13) years. Males (26, 76%) and farmers (26, 76%) were the common victims; the risk of bear attacks was 0.16 per 100,000 farmers per year. The commonest region of the body attacked was the face (29, 85%) and victims were provided emergency and rehabilitative care within and outside the country. Thirty-three victims (97%) were provided post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies. All victims received antibiotics despite the lack of national guidelines on the choice of antibiotics post-bear maul. Human-bear conflict is multi-faceted, puts a considerable strain on bear-conservation efforts and requires multi-disciplinary efforts in the prevention of human injury and socioeconomic losses.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Ursidae/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Butão/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/fisiopatologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Orelha/lesões , Orelha/fisiopatologia , Orelha/cirurgia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Florestas , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/patologia , Raiva/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Ursidae/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Wiad Lek ; 73(6): 1108-1113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work is to determine the frequency, structure, features of clinical manifestations and treatment of bitten wounds of the face and neck in children of Poltava region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: It has been analyzed 91 histories of disease of thematic patients undergone treatment at the Surgical Department of Pediatric town clinical hospital of Poltava. RESULTS: Results: In the structure of traumatic injuries of maxillofacial area in children 5.3% were patients with bitten wounds of the face and neck. Among the injured were children of the age 7-12 years old (30.2%). In 74.7% of cases, the bites were complicated by acute inflammatory processes. Urban residents accounted for 71.8% of the total number of cases, while rural residents accounted for 28.2%. Boys were injured by 53.6% and girls by 46.4%. Sharps (74.5%), punctures (19.3%) and lacerations (6.2%) differed in form. The comprehensive treatment of patients with bitten maxillofacial area wounds was carried out according to the protocol of care. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The clinical picture and severity of bitten wounds of maxillofacial area in children have individual features, which are largely due to topographic and anatomical localization of injuries. The choice of the optimal variant of primary surgical treatment of wounds and the amount of surgery should be determined individually depending on the severity of the injury, the time of injury. Special attention should be paid to normalization of psycho-emotional state of patients and prevention of scar formation.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Criança , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pescoço
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008478, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692739

RESUMO

A canine rabies epidemic started in early 2015 in Arequipa, Peru and the rabies virus continues to circulate in the dog population. Some city residents who suffer dog bites do not seek care or do not complete indicated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens, increasing the risk of human rabies. The objectives of our study are to qualitatively assess knowledge about rabies, and preventive practices, such as rabies vaccine administration, following a dog bite. We conduct eight focus group discussions in peri-urban and urban communities with 70 total participants. In our results, we observe low awareness of rabies severity and fatality, and different practices following a dog bite, depending on the community type: for example, whereas participants in the urban communities report cleaning the wound with hydrogen peroxide rather than soap and water, participants in peri-urban areas cover the wound with herbs and hair from the dog that bit them. Misconceptions about rabies vaccines and mistreatment at health centers also commonly prevent initiating or completing PEP. We identify important behavioral and structural barriers and knowledge gaps that limit evidence-based preventive strategies against rabies and may threaten successful prevention of dog-mediated human rabies in this setting.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , População Urbana , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): s69-s106, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117409

RESUMO

La relación de un niño con un animal doméstico, bajo circunstancias debidamente controladas, es beneficiosa para ambos. Las mascotas establecen vínculos de apego con los niños y la relación resulta positiva en aspectos afectivos, en refuerzo de la personalidad y promoción de autoestima, y en desarrollo cognitivo.Sin embargo, existen riesgos en la convivencia de niños y mascotas: mordeduras, lesiones diversas, transmisión de enfermedades. Los factores de riesgo pueden ser inherentes a los niños (edades, conductas inoportunas, falta de supervisión), al medioambiente (hogares pequeños, espacios inadecuados) o a los perros (razas no recomendables, conductas agresivas).En este consenso, se insiste en pautas para una tenencia responsable y una convivencia segura. Se recomiendan perros y gatos como mascotas, y se desaconsejan especies exóticas y animales no tradicionales. Se brindan pautas de tratamiento de mordeduras y se esbozan las principales zoonosis de las que pueden ser transmisores los animales de compañía.


The relationship of a child with a pet, under duly controlled circumstances, is beneficial for both. Pets establish emotional attachments to children, and the relationship turns out positive in terms of affective aspects, in reinforcement of the child ́s personality and promoting self-esteem, and in cognitive development, among many other advantages.Nevertheless, there are real risks in the coexistence of kids and pets: trauma, bites, several injuries and also disease transmission. Risk factors of injuries can be inherent in children (age, improper behavior, lack of supervision), in the environment (small houses, inadequate spaces), or in dogs (big or not recommended breeds, aggressive behaviors).This consensus insists on some guidelines for a responsible tenure and safe coexistence. Dogs and cats are recommended as pets, discouraging exotic species and non-traditional animals. Guidelines for bites treatment are provided and the main zoonoses of which pets can be carriers and transmitters are outlined


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Criança , Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Animais de Estimação , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Terapia Assistida com Animais , Apego ao Objeto
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with facial dog bites and discuss prevention strategies. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of facial dog bites treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) from 1997to 2018. Patients were identified through the Research Patient Data Registry. The predictor variables included demographic characteristics, circumstantial information regarding the injury, and dog characteristics. Other study variables were wound and treatment specifics and follow-up. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed. RESULTS: In total, 321 patients were identified (mean age 29.5 years; range 0.7-81 years). There were 141 males and 180 females. The majority of patients were adults (age > 18 years; n = 223 [69.5%]). Most dogs (n = 281 [87.5%]) were known (P < .00001), and provocation was recorded in 207 cases (64.5%; P < .00001). Bites were preceded by the following behaviors: playing with the dog, feeding the dog, and placing the face close to the dog. Pitbulls led in the number of bites (n = 26 [8.5%]). Location on the face was predominantly the middle or lower third (n = 299 [93.1%]). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that education of dog owners, parents, and children should focus on avoidance of known provoking behaviors. This may help decrease the incidence of these devastating injuries.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
South Med J ; 113(5): 232-239, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Injuries resulting from contact with animals are a significant public health concern. This study quantifies and updates nonfatal bite and sting injuries by noncanine sources using the most recent data available (2011-2015) from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program with the purpose of using these updates to better understand public health consequences and prevention techniques. Increased rates of bites and stings can be expected in this study's time frame, possibly caused by the increasing human population expanding into animal territories, as well as changes in animal geographic distribution and pet ownership. METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program is an ongoing nationally representative surveillance system used to monitor all types and causes of injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments (EDs). Cases were coded by trained hospital coders using information from medical records on animal sources of bite and sting injuries being treated. Data from 2011-2015 were weighted to produce national annualized estimates, percentages, and rates based on the US population. RESULTS: An estimated 1.17 million people visited EDs for noncanine bite and sting injuries annually. This translates to a rate of 371.3/100,000 people. Insects accounted for 71.0% of noncanine bite and sting injuries, followed by arachnids (19.2%) and mammals (7.8%). The estimated annual total lifetime medical and work cost of unintentional noncanine injuries was $5,755,581,000. CONCLUSIONS: Various sources of bite and sting injuries had an outsized effect on injury rates and identify potential areas of focus for education and prevention programs to reduce the burden of these injuries on health and healthcare costs. The study describes the diversity of animal exposures based on a national sample of EDs. Noncanine bite and sting injuries significantly affect public health and healthcare resources. Priorities can be focused on animal sources with the most impact on bite and sting injury rates, healthcare costs, and disease burden.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agkistrodon , Animais , Viúva Negra , Aranha Marrom Reclusa , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crotalus , Feminino , Humanos , Himenópteros , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Roedores , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Picaduras de Aranhas/epidemiologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Toxicon ; 184: 78-82, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473254

RESUMO

Stonefish sting lethality in man has been scarcely documented since the middle of the 20th century. We report three clinical cases, including one fatality, emphasizing the cardiovascular toxicity of the Synanceia verrucosa venom, and its potentially lethal effects. All clinical data have been recently collected in New Caledonia and French Polynesia.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Venenos de Peixe , Peixes Venenosos , Animais , Humanos , Perciformes
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(693): 984-988, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401438

RESUMO

Sea bathing is often a priority activity for travelers, with widely recognized health benefits. The dangers, in contrast, are underestimated, especially in tropical seas. We describe the scope of marine envenoming, trauma, and infections, representing 1-3 % of tropical and travel medicine consultations in the literature. Our review includes the eco-epidemiology, clinical approach, and prevention of envenoming by invertebrates (jellyfish, anemone, sea-urchin, starfish, octopus, sea cone) and some vertebrates (stingrays, stone fish, snakes). We include penetrating trauma (by stingray, stonefish, sea urchin, coral) and infections (mycobacteria, marine bacteria). Eating-related dangers (ciguatera, fugu, parasites) are not described here. We also present antidotes, antivenoms, and first-aid.


Assuntos
Praias , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Infecções/epidemiologia , Infecções/terapia , Natação , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Antivenenos/administração & dosagem , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Primeiros Socorros , Humanos , Medicina de Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459808

RESUMO

Bite marks provide direct evidence for trophic interactions and competition in the fossil record. However, variations in paleoecological dynamics, such as trophic relationships, feeding behavior, and food availability, govern the frequency of these traces. Theropod bite marks are particularly rare, suggesting that members of this clade might not often focus on bone as a resource, instead preferentially targeting softer tissues. Here, we present an unusually large sample of theropod bite marks from the Upper Jurassic Mygatt-Moore Quarry (MMQ). We surveyed 2,368 vertebrate fossils from MMQ in this analysis, with 684 specimens (28.885% of the sample) preserving at least one theropod bite mark. This is substantially higher than in other dinosaur-dominated assemblages, including contemporaneous localities from the Morrison Formation. Observed bite marks include punctures, scores, furrows, pits, and striations. Striated marks are particularly useful, diagnostic traces generated by the denticles of ziphodont teeth, because the spacing of these features can be used to provide minimum estimates of trace maker size. In the MMQ assemblage, most of the striations are consistent with denticles of the two largest predators known from the site: Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus. One of the bite marks suggests that a substantially larger theropod was possibly present at the site and are consistent with large theropods known from other Morrison Formation assemblages (either an unusually large Allosaurus or a separate, large-bodied taxon such as Saurophaganax or Torvosaurus). The distribution of the bite marks on skeletal elements, particularly those found on other theropods, suggest that they potentially preserve evidence of scavenging, rather than active predation. Given the relative abundances of the MMQ carnivores, partnered with the size-estimates based on the striated bite marks, the feeding trace assemblage likely preserves the first evidence of cannibalism in Allosaurus.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Dinossauros , Fósseis , Dente
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