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1.
Malar J ; 21(1): 258, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous vector surveillance and sustainable interventions are mandatory in order to prevent anopheline proliferation (or spread to new areas) and interrupt malaria transmission. Anopheline abundance and richness were evaluated in urban and peri-urban malaria foci at a medium-sized city in the Brazilian Amazon, comparing the protected human landing catch technique (PHLC) and alternative sampling methods over different seasonal periods. Additional information was assessed for female feeding behaviour and faunal composition. METHODS: Anophelines were sampled bimonthly in four urban and peri-urban sites in the city of Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil. The average number of captured mosquitoes was compared between an PHLC (gold standard), a tent trap (Gazetrap), and a barrier screen by means of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), which also included season and environment (peri-urban/urban) as predictors. RESULTS: Overall, 2962 Anopheles individuals belonging to 12 species and one complex were caught; Anopheles darlingi represented 86% of the individuals. More mosquitoes were captured in the peri-urban setting, and the urban setting was more diverse. The model estimates that significantly more anophelines were collected by PHLC than by the Screen method, and Gazetrap captured fewer individuals. However, the Screen technique yielded more blood-engorged females. The peak hours of biting activity were from 6 to 7 p.m. in urban areas and from 7 to 8 p.m. in peri-urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: Although peri-urban settings presented a greater abundance of anophelines, Shannon and Simpson diversities were higher in urban sites. Each technique proved to be useful, depending on the purpose: PHLC was more effective in capturing the highest anopheline densities, Gazetrap caught the greatest number of species, and the barrier screen technique captured more engorged individuals. There was no seasonal effect on Anopheles assemblage structure; however, a more diverse fauna was caught in the transitional season. Biting activity was more intense from 6 to 8 p.m., with a predominance of An. darlingi.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mordeduras e Picadas , Malária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Estações do Ano
2.
JBJS Case Connect ; 12(3)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049027

RESUMO

CASE: A case of Francisella tularensis finger proximal interphalangeal joint septic arthritis secondary to feral cat bite is presented. The patient underwent operative debridement on presentation. On postoperative day 5, a gram-negative rod resembling F. tularensis was identified. The patient received 4 weeks of gentamicin for culture-confirmed ulceroglandular tularemia. At the final follow-up, the infection had resolved, and full function of the digit had been regained. CONCLUSION: Francisella tularensis septic arthritis secondary to a feral cat bite is exceedingly rare but should be considered in the appropriate clinical context. Proper identification and treatment with antibiotics is essential for a positive outcome.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa , Mordeduras e Picadas , Francisella tularensis , Tularemia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Gatos , Humanos , Tularemia/complicações , Tularemia/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011770

RESUMO

Dog aggression directed towards people is a leading reason for relinquishment and a major public health hazard. In response to the threat of dog aggression and dog bites, breed-specific legislation has been introduced in numerous cities within the United States and countries throughout the world. There is limited evidence, however, to suggest that such laws are effective. This study explored, through an online, anonymous, cross-sectional survey, US residents' views about the bite risk of common dog breeds, breed-specific legislation, and alternative options for improved public safety. A total of 586 surveys were completed by adult US residents, 48.8% female and 48.6% male. Approximately half of the respondents reported feeling that dog bites are a serious public health issue. Although 70% of respondents were opposed to a breed ban, only 56% felt that banning specific breeds creates an animal welfare issue. Females were less likely to support a ban or agree that specific breed bans improve public safety. When participants were asked to indicate their support of several alternatives to breed-specific legislation, the most frequently endorsed options included public education about animal welfare and animal behavior, and stricter leash laws. Further research pertaining to the most effective public education dissemination methods is warranted.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Agressão , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Cruzamento , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
4.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(5): 583-585, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963786

RESUMO

Rat bite fever is an acute illness caused by bacteria from rodents. In the United States, rat bite fever is considered rare; however, actual incidence is unknown because of lack of mandatory disease reporting requirements. Risk of development of rat bite fever after being bitten by a rat is approximately 10%. Early treatment is imperative as death is a potential complication. The following case study demonstrates the gravity of the syndrome.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Febre por Mordedura de Rato , Streptobacillus , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Febre por Mordedura de Rato/complicações , Febre por Mordedura de Rato/diagnóstico , Febre por Mordedura de Rato/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 161-165, julio-diciembre 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392158

RESUMO

Se describen las características sobre el phoneutrismo a propósito de un caso. El phoneutrismo es el término con el que se conoce al accidente ocasionado por la mordedura de la araña phoneutria spp, la cual tiene una relevancia clínica dada por las características tóxicas de su veneno. Se presenta un caso de mordedura de la araña phoneutria spp de un paciente atendido en un hospital de alta complejidad de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, con manifestaciones cardiovasculares y hallazgos compatibles con un síndrome compartimental, lo cual es inusual en este tipo de arañas, por lo que se necesitó vigilancia en unidad de alta dependencia y fasciotomía cutánea. En Colombia este tipo de accidentes no son de reporte obligatorio, por tanto existe un alto riesgo de subregistro. Lo llamativo de este caso está en las manifestaciones cardiovasculares y la presencia de síndrome compartimental que no se ha descrito en la literatura con este subespecie de arañas.


The characteristics of phoneutrism are described in relation to a case. Phoneutrism is the term with which the accident caused by the bite of the phoneutria spp spider is known, which has clinical relevance given by the toxic characteristics of its venom. We present a case of a bite by the phoneutria spp spider in a patient treated at a high-complexity hospital in the city of Medellín, Colombia, with cardiovascular manifestations and findings compatible with compartment syndrome, which is unusual in this type of spiders, and required surveillance in a high dependency unit and cutaneous fasciotomy. In Colombia reporting this type of accident is not mandatory; therefore, there is a high risk of underreporting. What is striking about this case is the cardiovascular manifestations and the presence of compartment syndrome that has not been described in the literatura with this genre of spiders.


As características do fonutrismo são descritas em um relatório de um caso. Fonutrismo é o termo usado para descrever o acidente causado pela mordida da aranha Phoneutria spp, que é clinicamente relevante devido às características tóxicas de seu veneno. Apresentamos um caso de mordida de aranha por uma aranha Phoneutria em um paciente tratado em um hospital de alta complexidade na cidade de Medellín, Colômbia, com manifestações cardiovasculares e achados compatíveis com a síndrome compartimental, o que é incomum neste tipo de aranha, exigindo vigilância em uma unidade de alta de-pendência e fasciotomia cutânea. Na Colômbia, este tipo de acidente não é obrigatório, portanto, há um alto risco de subnotificação. O que é impressionante neste caso são as manifestações cardiovasculares e a presença da síndrome compartimental, que não foi descrita na literatura com esta subespécie de aranha.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aranhas , Venenos , Peçonhas , Mordeduras e Picadas , Fasciotomia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 696, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a Gram-negative rod, belongs to the Flavobacteriaceae family and colonizes the oropharynx of dogs and cats. Infections with C. canimorsus are rare and can induce a systemic infection with a severe course of the disease. So far, only five case reports of C. canimorsus infections associated with Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome (WFS) have been reported with only two of the patients having a history of splenectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a fatal case of WFS due to C. canimorsus bacteremia and mycetal superinfection in a 61-year-old female asplenic patient. Despite extensive therapy including mechanical ventilation, antibiotic coverage with meropenem, systemic corticosteroids medication, vasopressor therapy, continuous renal replacement therapy, therapeutic plasma exchange, multiple transfusions of blood products and implantation of a veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation the patient died 10 days after a dog bite. The autopsy showed bilateral hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal cortex and septic embolism to heart, kidneys, and liver. Diagnosis of C. canimorsus was prolonged due to the fastidious growth of the bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of a severe sepsis after dog bite should always urge the attending physician to consider C. canimorsus as the disease-causing pathogen. A therapeutic regimen covering C. canimorsus such as aminopenicillins or carbapenems should be chosen. However, despite maximum therapy, the prognosis of C. canimorsus-induced septic shock remains very poor. Asplenic or otherwise immunocompromised patients are at higher risk for a severe course of disease and should avoid exposure to dogs and cats and consider antibiotic prophylaxis after animal bite.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Sepse , Síndrome de Waterhouse-Friderichsen , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Capnocytophaga , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Waterhouse-Friderichsen/complicações
7.
Can Vet J ; 63(8): 835-840, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919461

RESUMO

This case study describes a severe tail-biting event on a multi-site swine operation in Ontario and outlines the management strategies implemented in an attempt to control the problem. An established social order was clearly present before the tail-biting event occurred. Over 40% of tail-docked pigs in 3 of 8 grower-finisher barns were severely affected, leading to higher mortality and increased numbers of pigs re-housed in hospital pens. Environmental factors, management practices, and animal health in the barns experiencing the tail-biting event are described, including detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in corn at > 2 ppm. Changes implemented in response to tail-biting included altering the phase-feeding schedule, adding enrichment devices, and increasing surveillance. The subsequent cohort of pigs was followed through the finisher barns and did not engage in the same severity or prevalence of tail-biting as the previous cohort of pigs which experienced the tail-biting event. Key clinical message: No single factor was identified as the initiating cause for the severe tail-biting event. The subsequent cohort of pigs in 4 barns of the same operation were monitored for tail-biting from entry until market, and the incidence of tail-biting was very low.


Un cas de caudophagie dans une exploitation porcine à sites multiples en Ontario. Cette étude de cas décrit un cas grave de caudophagie dans une exploitation porcine à sites multiples en Ontario et décrit les stratégies de gestion mises en oeuvre pour tenter de limiter le problème. Un ordre social établi était clairement présent avant que l'événement de mordillage de queue ne se produise. Plus de 40 % des porcs à la queue coupée dans trois des huit élevages de type croissance-finition ont été gravement touchés, ce qui a entraîné une mortalité plus élevée et un nombre accru de porcs relogés dans des enclos hospitaliers. Les facteurs environnementaux, les pratiques de gestion et la santé animale dans les porcheries où sévissaient la caudophagie sont décrits, y compris la détection de la mycotoxine désoxynivalénol dans le maïs à > 2 ppm. Les changements mis en oeuvre en réponse à la caudophagie comprenaient la modification du calendrier d'alimentation par phases, l'ajout de dispositifs d'enrichissement et l'augmentation de la surveillance. La cohorte suivante de porcs a été suivie dans les porcheries de finition et n'a pas eu la même gravité ou prévalence de caudophagie que la cohorte précédente de porcs qui ont subi l'événement de caudophagie.Message clinique clé :Aucun facteur unique n'a été identifié comme la cause initiale de l'événement grave de caudophagie. La cohorte suivante de porcs dans quatre porcheries de la même exploitation a été surveillée pour la caudophagie depuis l'entrée jusqu'au marché, et l'incidence de la caudophagie était très faible.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças dos Suínos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Humanos , Incidência , Ontário , Suínos , Cauda/cirurgia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010614, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921319

RESUMO

Rabies is an endemic, highly fatal, and vaccine-preventable disease with severe socio-economic implications. Most (99%) human rabies cases are transmitted through dog bites. Children under 15 years account for 40% of all dog bite victims and 35-50% of all rabies deaths. Rabies awareness among this vulnerable group is critical to rabies prevention. However, there is a paucity of data on rabies awareness among pupils under 15. Hence, this study assessed the awareness and attitude of pupils under 15 years towards canine rabies in Kwara state in Nigeria. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey of 1,388 pupils across the state using a structured questionnaire that was administered as a one-on-one interview using the Open Data Kit on Android phones in December 2019. Of the 1388 pupils included in this study, only 21.7% (n = 301) of them were aware of rabies. The mean rabies score was 1.7±0.8 and only 29.2% (n = 88/301) of the pupils had adequate knowledge of canine rabies. The dog ownership rate was 18.7% (n = 259) with an average of 1.93 dogs per household. Approximately 5% (n = 66) of the pupils have been previously bitten by a dog. One-third of the dog bite victims (35%, n = 23/66) were managed and treated at home and only 12% (n = 8/66) were treated in a health facility. The result of the multivariable logistic regression showed that students aged between 13-15 years were more likely (OR: 1.93; 95% CI: 0.72-3.01; p < 0.001) to have adequate knowledge of rabies than the younger pupils. Similarly, pupils that have dogs in their households (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.49-2.75; p < 0.001) and those that reside in Kwara South (OR:1.78 95% CI:1.29, 2.44; p < 0.001) were more likely to be aware and have adequate knowledge of canine rabies respectively. Finally, Pupils from non-dog-owning households were more likely (OR:2.2; 95% CI: 1.45, 4.42; p < 0.001) to have been bitten by dogs than those from dog-owning households. The awareness and attitude of pupils under 15 to canine rabies was poor. We advocate the introduction of rabies lessons into the school curriculum in Kwara State to reduce the incidence of dog bites and prevent dog-mediated human rabies.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças do Cão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Adolescente , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Percepção , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010634, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944018

RESUMO

Rabies is one of the most lethal infectious diseases, with those living in Asia and Africa having the highest risk of dying from rabies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in urban and peri-urban areas of Bangladesh to describe canine bite rates, rabies knowledge, and healthcare seeking behaviors and barriers to human and dog vaccination. A bite risk assessment score (BRAS) and healthcare-seeking behavior score (HSBS) was calculated for each bite victim. Respondents were given two hypothetical situations to assess potential behaviors after a bite and willingness to pay for rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin. In total, 2,447 households participated in the survey and 85 bite victims were identified. The BRAS identified that 31% of bites posed no risk of rabies transmission. Multivariate analyses showed that living in Chittagong (ß = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.1, 2.7) was associated with a higher HSBS. Findings presented here provide useful information regarding bite occurrences, healthcare-seeking behaviors, and a need for strategies to increase rabies awareness.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças do Cão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
11.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 2(40): 44-51, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027898

RESUMO

The forensic role of microbiology in bite mark analysis as evidence in a court of law has not yet been explored, as the analysis of bite marks is mostly morphology-based. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate if the analysis of the oral microbiota may be helpful as a complementary forensic tool. Articles were searched on the PubMed database, using predefined data fields and keywords. The final selection included a total of 6 papers (out of 42). Our results indicated that the Streptococcus genus is a key player in the analysis of bite mark microbiology from a forensic perspective and its genomic analysis may facilitate the association of a bite mark to the perpetrator. However, much more research is still needed before this forensic strategy can be applied in real scenarios. There is a need to optimize and standardize the methods of microbiome analysis and to determine several factors that may influence the results, such as the frequency of bacterial genotypes in the human population and the temporal stability of the oral microbiome on human skin.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Mordeduras Humanas , Odontologia Legal , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Streptococcus
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272359, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925949

RESUMO

Understanding the links between species and their environment is critical for species management. This is particularly true for organisms of medical and/or economic significance. The 'Irukandji' jellyfish (Carukia barnesi) is well known for its small size, cryptic nature, and highly venomous sting. Being the namesake of the Irukandji syndrome, contact with this marine stinger often leads to hospitalization and can be fatal. Consequently, the annual occurrence of this organism is believed to cost the Australian government an estimated $AUD3 billion annually in medical costs and losses for tourism. Despite its economic importance the logistical difficulties related to surveying C.barnesi in situ has led to a paucity of knowledge regarding its ecology and significantly impeded management strategies to date. In this study, we use six years of direct C. barnesi capture data to explore patterns pertaining to the annual occurrence and abundance of this species in the nearshore waters of the Cairns coast. We provide novel insights into trends in medusae aggregations and size distribution and primarily focus on the potential role of environmental drivers for annual C. barnesi occurrence patterns. Using a two-part hurdle model, eight environmental parameters were investigated over four time periods for associations with records of medusa presence and abundance. Final models showed a small amount of variation in medusa presence and abundance patterns could be accounted for by long-term trends pertaining to rainfall and wind direction. However, the assessed environmental parameters could not explain high annual variation or site location effects. Ultimately best-fit models had very low statistical inference power explaining between 16 and 20% of the variance in the data, leaving approximately 80% of all variation in medusa presence and abundance unexplained.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Venenos de Cnidários , Cubomedusas , Hidrozoários , Cifozoários , Animais , Austrália , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Ecologia
13.
J Craniofac Surg ; 33(4): 1118-1121, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children under the age of 14 account for over 40% of the almost 900,000 annual hospital visits associated with dog bites. Care for dog bites ranges from simple wound irrigation to complex surgical reconstruction. Due to a number of factors, children frequently sustain dog bites to highly vulnerable regions, often necessitating intervention by plastic surgeons. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed data from the 1422 pediatric patients who sustained dog bites and presented to the Le Bonheur Children's Hospital Emergency Room from January 2011 to May 2017. RESULTS: The typical pediatric dog bite case was male (63.5%), African-American (57.4%), and less than 10 years old (69.4%). The head and neck were the most commonly affected areas (64.7%). Of the head and neck regions, the cheeks and lips were the most frequently injured structures (34.5%). Hospital admission was required for 188 patients (13.2%) and operative repair was deemed necessary in 16.9% of all cases. Of the patients requiring inpatient operative repair, most (78.3%) were discharged in less than 24 hours. Operative complications occurred in 5.8% of all cases, with infections accounting for the majority (92.9%). No fatal dog bites occurred in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Age, bite location, and number of bites sustained are several factors of significance, which may aid the novice plastic surgeon in identifying, which pediatric dog bite cases will require surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Centros de Traumatologia , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia , Cães , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14121, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986014

RESUMO

The perceived and real threat of shark bites have significant direct health and indirect economic impacts. Here we assess the changing odds of surviving an unprovoked shark bite using 200 years of Australian records. Bite survivability rates for bull (Carcharhinus leucas), tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier) and white (Carcharodon carcharias) sharks were assessed relative to environmental and anthropogenic factors. Survivability of unprovoked bull, tiger and white shark bites were 62, 75 and 53% respectively. Bull shark survivability increased over time between 1807 and 2018. Survivability decreased for both tiger and white sharks when the person was doing an in water activity, such as swimming or diving. Not unsurprisingly, a watercraft for protection/floatation increased survivability to 92% from 30%, and 88% from 45%, for tiger and white sharks respectively. We speculate that survival may be related to time between injury and treatment, indicating the importance of rapid and appropriate medical care. Understanding the predictors of unprovoked bites, as well as survivability (year and water activity), may be useful for developing strategies that reduce the number of serious or fatal human-shark interactions without impacting sharks and other marine wildlife.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Tubarões , Animais , Austrália , Humanos , Água
15.
Am Fam Physician ; 106(2): 137-147, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977137

RESUMO

Arthropods, including insects and arachnids, significantly affect humans as vectors for infectious diseases. Arthropod bites and stings commonly cause minor, usually self-limited reactions; however, some species are associated with more severe complications. Spider bites are rarely life-threatening. There are two medically relevant spiders in the United States. Widow spider (Latrodectus) envenomation can cause muscle spasm and severe pain that should be treated with analgesics and benzodiazepines. Antivenom is not widely available in the United States but may be considered for severe, refractory cases. Recluse spider (Loxosceles) bites are often overdiagnosed, should be treated supportively, and only rarely cause skin necrosis. Centruroides scorpions are the only medically relevant genus in the United States. Envenomation causes neuromuscular and autonomic dysfunction, which should be treated with analgesics, benzodiazepines, supportive care, and, in severe cases, antivenom. Hymenoptera, specifically bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants, account for the most arthropod-related deaths in humans, most commonly by severe allergic reactions to envenomation. In severe cases, patients are treated with analgesia, local wound care, and systemic glucocorticoids. Diptera include flies and mosquitoes. The direct effects of their bites are usually minor and treated symptomatically; however, they are vectors for numerous infectious diseases. Arthropod bite and sting prevention strategies include avoiding high-risk areas, covering exposed skin, and wearing permethrin-impregnated clothing. N,N-diethyl- m-toluamide (DEET) 20% to 50% is the most studied and widely recommended insect repellant.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Mordeduras e Picadas , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Picaduras de Aranhas , Animais , Antivenenos , Benzodiazepinas , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Picaduras de Aranhas/complicações , Picaduras de Aranhas/diagnóstico , Picaduras de Aranhas/terapia , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(7): e0010595, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852994

RESUMO

Rabies remains a public health problem in the Philippines despite the widespread provision of rabies vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Detailed descriptions of recent human rabies cases in the Philippines are scarce. This study aimed to describe the clinical, epidemiological, and spatial features of human rabies cases between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2015. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based case record review of all patients admitted to one referral hospital in Manila who received a clinical diagnosis of rabies. During the 10-year study period there were 575 patients (average 57.5 cases per year, range 57 to 119) with a final diagnosis of rabies. Most patients were male (n = 404, 70.3%) and aged ≥ 20 years (n = 433, 75.3%). Patients mostly came from the National Capital Region (n = 160, 28.0%) and the adjacent Regions III (n = 197, 34.4%) and IV-A (n = 168, 29.4%). Case mapping and heatmaps showed that human rabies cases were continuously observed in similar areas throughout the study period. Most patients had hydrophobia (n = 444, 95.5%) and/or aerophobia (n = 432, 93.3%). The leading causative animals were dogs (n = 421, 96.3%) and cats (n = 16, 3.7%). Among 437 patients with animal exposure history, only 42 (9.6%) had been administered at least one rabies vaccine. Two patients (0.5%), young children bitten on their face, had received and a full course of rabies vaccine. Human rabies patients were continuously admitted to the hospital, with no notable decline over the study period. The geographical area in which human rabies cases commonly occurred also did not change. Few patients received PEP and there were two suspected cases of PEP failure. The retrospective design of this study was a limitation; thus, prospective studies are required.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/tratamento farmacológico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886286

RESUMO

Jellyfish are ubiquitous animals registering a high and increasing number of contacts with humans in coastal areas. These encounters result in a multitude of symptoms, ranging from mild erythema to death. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and relevant clinical and forensic aspects of jellyfish stings. There are three major classes of jellyfish, causing various clinical scenarios. Most envenomations result in an erythematous lesion with morphological characteristics that may help identify the class of jellyfish responsible. In rare cases, the sting may result in delayed, persistent, or systemic symptoms. Lethal encounters have been described, but most of those cases happened in the Indo-Pacific region, where cubozoans, the deadliest jellyfish class, can be found. The diagnosis is mostly clinical but can be aided by dermoscopy, skin scrapings/sticky tape, confocal reflectance microscopy, immunological essays, among others. Treatment is currently based on preventing further envenomation, inactivating the venom, and alleviating local and systemic symptoms. However, the strategy used to achieve these effects remains under debate. Only one antivenom is currently used and covers merely one species (Chironex fleckeri). Other antivenoms have been produced experimentally but were not tested on human envenomation settings. The increased number of cases, especially due to climate changes, justifies further research in the study of clinical aspects of jellyfish envenoming.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Venenos de Cnidários , Cubomedusas , Cifozoários , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Humanos
18.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 33(3): 355-360, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863955

RESUMO

Crocodile bites lead to fatal and nonfatal outcomes in humans. Mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) and saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) are common in India. Most crocodile bites can cause severe injuries, especially to the extremities, due to the substantial bite force of the crocodile, which typically leads to extensive tissue damage, fractures, amputations, and vascular injuries. We report the case of a crocodile bite victim who presented with features of acute limb ischemia, was found to have vascular thrombosis of the common femoral artery, and was experiencing complete compression of the femoral vein due to external vascular compression by a hematoma. We discuss various injury mechanisms sustained in crocodile bites and the roles of point-of-care ultrasound and continuous tomography angiography, which could help identify these injuries. After thrombectomy and hematoma evacuation the patient recovered and was discharged without any physical dysfunction.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Mordeduras e Picadas , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Hematoma , Humanos , Índia
19.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(9): 1756-1759, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802028

RESUMO

Capnocytophaga canis is a commensal bacterium present in the oral cavities of dogs and cats. Human infection with Capnocytophaga spp. can present with a range of symptoms from mild flu-like illness to sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A case fatality rate of up to 31% has been reported. We present a case of C. canis infection presenting with sepsis, purpura, cellulitis and a targetoid rash. Click here for the corresponding questions to this CME article.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Exantema , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Sepse , Animais , Capnocytophaga , Gatos , Cães , Exantema/etiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sepse/diagnóstico
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805269

RESUMO

The components of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) saliva secreted during feeding on humans and animals induce various pathological reactions manifested by skin lesions and systemic symptoms. In this study, we describe 43 cases of severe skin lesions induced by blackfly bites and analyze their potential causes. Based on the results of a survey of 418 patients, we identified periods with risk of blackfly attacks and their environmental determinants in the eastern part of the European Union. Especially strong inflammatory reactions after blackfly bites were reported in patients with concomitant cardiovascular diseases (mainly with venous insufficiency), metabolic diseases, and bacterial infections. Enhanced symptoms of simuliosis were also observed in other patients attacked by these insects only once or repeatedly. The greatest number of blackfly attacks in the study area is recorded from May to July, with a peak in June (38.73%) in the afternoon (37.10%) and evening (33.03%), when patients are in fields, forests, or their households. The case analysis indicates interactions of various factors in the development of severe inflammatory reactions in patients bitten by blackflies. Therefore, it is recommended that subjects exposed to the presence of blackflies during their work or rest should limit the length of their stay in a vulnerable environment during the highest seasonal and daily activity of these insects. It is also necessary to take measures to reduce the number of blackflies and popularize methods for prophylaxis of their attacks.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Simuliidae , Dermatopatias , Animais , União Europeia , Humanos
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