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1.
Inj Prev ; 28(3): 288-297, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevention of dog bites is an increasingly important public health topic, as the incidence of serious injury continues to rise. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent dog bites and aggression. METHODS: Online databases were searched (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Google Scholar), using the search terms: dog/s, canine, canis, kuri, bite/s, bitten, aggression, attack, death, fatal, mortality, injury/ies, prevention, intervention, for studies between 1960 and 2021. All study designs were considered. Outcomes of interest were the incidence of dog bites or dog aggression. Non-English studies, and those without full-text access were excluded. RESULTS: Forty-three studies met the review criteria, including 15 observational and 27 interventional studies. Fifteen studies investigating dog-control legislation, including leash laws, stray dog control and infringements indicated this can reduce dog bite rates. Breed-specific legislation had less of an effect. Six studies investigating sterilisation, showed while this may reduce dog bites through a reduction in the dog population, the effect on dog aggression was unclear. An alcohol reduction programme showed a significant reduction in dog bite rates in one study. Seven studies assessing educational approaches found that intensive adult-directed education may be effective, with one study showing child-directed education was not effective. Eight studies on dog training (two police-dog related), and six evaluating dog medication or diet were generally low quality and inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple strategies including effective engagement with indigenous communities and organisations will be required to reduce dog-bites and other incidents involving dog aggression. This review provides some evidence that legislated dog control strategies reduce dog bite rates. Available evidence suggests greater restrictions should be made for all dogs, rather than based on breed alone. Due to a burden of child injury, protection of children should be a focus of legislation and further investigations. Prevention strategies in children require redirection away from a focus on child-directed education and future research should investigate the effectiveness of engineering barriers and reporting strategies.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Acidentes , Agressão , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Cruzamento , Cães , Humanos , Incidência
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(3): 351-354, 2022 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381658

RESUMO

From 2011 to 2020, there were 111 213 cases of rabies exposed people recruited from the rabies immunization clinic of a hospital in Beijing. The monthly distribution of patients in each year was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The distribution of patients showed remarkable seasonality, with the exposure peak from May to October. The ratio of male to female was 1∶1.3. The majority of patients were aged 20-29 years old (39.1%) and in-service personnel (56.5%). Level-Ⅱ wounds (84.2%) were more common than level-Ⅲ wounds (14.9%). The number of visits to level-Ⅲwounds increased rapidly since 2017. The most common injured body part was hand (60.7%). Dogs were the most common animal for injuries (60.6%), followed by cats (32.3%), of which most were host animals (75.5%). The vaccination rate from 2016 to 2020 [49.8% (24 276/48 703)] was significantly higher than that from 2011 to 2015[18.6% (6 559/35 272)](χ²=8597.18, P<0.001).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Vacinação
3.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(5): 1149-1152, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dog bite injuries are largely preventable yet present the most common animal related cause of hospitalisation. This study examines the demographics and clinical cost of patients with dog bite related injuries who presented to Sydney Children's Hospital (SCH) from 2010 to 2020. The results from our study will be used to raise awareness regarding the impact of dog bite injuries in our community. METHODS: Data was obtained from the SCH database using ICD-10-AM code W54.0, which captures all patients presenting to SCH with dog bite injuries from 2010 to 2020. A chart review was then performed to retrieve demographic data for analysis. Data analysis was performed using SAS® software version 9.4 and cost for each patient retrieved from the SCH clinical costing department. RESULTS: A total of 628 patients presented to SCH with dog bites during the study period. 273 (43.5%) patients received treatment in ED only with the remaining 355 (56.5%) patients admitted for treatment. The average age was 5.69 years old. There were 321 males (51.1%) and 307 females (48.9%). Facial and other head & neck injuries were most common (64.4%). Pitbull, Labrador and Rottweiler were the most commonly documented offending breeds (25%) with the family dog most likely to offend (49%). The mean clinical cost for per dog bite injury was $2968. CONCLUSION: As part of the largest single centre study exploring dog bite injuries, we expect that this study will stimulate potential public health campaigns targeted at educating parents and children on interacting with dogs to minimise these injuries.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 1-9, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the microbiologic characteristics of animal bites in tropical Australia and the appropriateness of current Australian antimicrobial guidelines for their management. METHODS: This retrospective audit examined hospitalizations in tropical Australia after an animal bite or animal-associated penetrating injury between 2013 and 2020. The primary outcome was a composite of death, intensive care unit admission, amputation, quaternary center transfer, or unplanned rehospitalization. RESULTS: A wide variety of animals were implicated, but snakes (734/1745, 42%), dogs (508/1745, 29%), and cats (153/1745, 9%) were the most common. Hospital presentation after 24 hours (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 68.67 (42.10-112.01)) and a cat-related injury (OR (95% CI): 22.20 (11.18-44.08)) were independently associated with an increased risk of infection. A pathogen not covered by the relevant antimicrobial regimen recommended in Australian guidelines was identified in only 12/1745 (0.7%) cases. The primary outcome occurred in 107/1745 (6%) and was independently associated with tissue trauma (OR (95% CI): 9.29 (6.05-14.25), p<0.001), established deep infection at presentation (OR (95% CI): 2.95 (1.31-6.61), p=0.009) and hospital presentation after 24 hours (OR (95% CI): 1.77 (1.12-2.79), p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A wide variety of animals bite humans in tropical Australia, but empiric antimicrobial regimens recommended in current national guidelines cover almost all the microbiologic isolates from the resulting wounds.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Animais , Antibacterianos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Cães , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia
5.
Injury ; 53(4): 1319-1328, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101258

RESUMO

Animal-related injuries are a substantial but under-reported, emerging public health problem contributing considerably to worldwide morbidity and death. Understanding the behavior of big animals may help in injury prevention. Camels are large long-neck ungulates of the genus Camelus that have been domesticated for millennia as a mode of transportation, race, and food source. Camel-related injuries are not well studied when compared with other animals' injuries. Camels can occasionally be very hostile to humans, inflicting serious injuries. These injuries can be caused by camel bites, falls from their backs, kicks, or collisions with motor vehicles. The relative magnitude of each mechanism has never been extensively studied in the literature. Furthermore, the incidence of camel-related injuries is not well reported worldwide. Camels remain a potential cause of serious injuries and a public health problem for some countries in the Middle East. There are gaps in the incidence, risk factors and mechanism, distribution of camel-related injuries. We aimed to summarize the data and draw conclusions pertaining not just to the most common mechanism of injury but to demographics, incidence, severity, and appropriate methods of prevention of camel-related injuries. This scoping review findings will help for better understanding of the nature and consequences of camel-related injuries, and to improve the existing preventive and management strategies.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Camelus , Animais , Árabes , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia
6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(4): 581-588, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064380

RESUMO

Zoonotic species of Capnocytophaga genus belong to the oral microbiota of dogs and cats. They may be responsible for serious human infections, mainly after animal bites, with a high mortality rate. In France, only few cases have been reported and no multicenter study has been conducted. Our aim was to describe the French epidemiology of Capnocytophaga zoonosis. We conducted a multicenter (21 centers) retrospective non-interventional, observational study in France describing the epidemiology of Capnocytophaga zoonosis (C. canimorsus, C. cynodegmi, C. canis) over 10 years with regard to clinical and bacteriological data. From 2009 to 2018, 44 cases of Capnocytophaga zoonotic infections were described (C. canimorsus, n = 41; C. cynodegmi, n = 3). We observed an increase (2.5 times) in the number of cases over the study period (from the first to the last 5 years of the study). The most frequent clinical presentations were sepsis (n = 37), skin and soft tissue infections (n = 12), meningitis (n = 8), osteoarticular infections (n = 6), and endocarditis (n = 2). About one-third of patients with sepsis went into septic shock. Mortality rate was 11%. Mortality and meningitis rates were significantly higher for alcoholic patients (p = 0.044 and p = 0.006, respectively). Other comorbidities included smoking, splenectomy, diabetes mellitus, and immunosuppressive therapy are associated to zoonotic Capnocytophaga infection. Eighty-two percent of cases involved contact with dogs, mostly included bites (63%). Despite all isolates were susceptible to the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination, three of them were resistant to amoxicillin.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Capnocytophaga , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(2): 709-714, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535830

RESUMO

This study focuses on the impact of a prevention program regarding dog bites in children. As a consequence of our previous investigation in 2005, we have initiated a child safety program for primary school children starting January 2008 until present to teach children how to avoid dog attacks and how to behave in case of an attack. In our retrospective study, we analyzed all patients younger than 15 years presenting with dog-related injuries between 2014 and 2018. As the main indicator for success of the prevention measures taken, we have defined the severity of injury in comparison to our previous study. Out of 296 children with dog-related injuries, 212 (71.6%) had sustained a dog bite. In the vast majority (n = 195; 92%), these patients presented with minor injuries; the extremities were most commonly affected (n = 100; 47%). Injuries to the head (n = 95; 45%) and trunk (n = 18; 8%) were less frequent. The proportion of severe injuries (8%) was significantly lower compared to our previous study, where 26% of children presented with severe injuries necessitating surgical intervention, while the number of patients requiring in-hospital treatment declined from 27.5% in the period 1994-2003 to 9.0% in the period between 2014 and 2018 (p < 0.05).Conclusion: Teaching of primary school children may effectively reduce the injury severity of dog bites. What is Known: • Dog bites are a substantial healthcare problem especially in children. What is New: • This study shows that a broad-based prevention program for primary school children can effectively decrease the severity but not the frequency of dog bite injuries in children.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Criança , Cães , Hospitais , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
Acta Trop ; 226: 106249, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Côte d'Ivoire, just as in the majority of developing countries, rabies cases are underestimated. The official data are based on passive surveillance studies which cannot provide true estimates. Therefore, the economic and health burden of rabies is underestimated. To be able to better estimate the true burden of rabies, this study looked at surveillance data of bite records and household survey. METHODOLOGY: The data was collected from a cross-sectional survey of 8004 households, of which 4002 were in the Department of Bouaké and 4002 in the Department of San Pedro. Further data was collected from Human Rabies control centres and from the respective veterinary services. We estimate the burden of rabies through data from the bites surveillance records. Human deaths from rabies were estimated using a series of probability steps to determine the likelihood of clinical rabies in a person after being bitten by a suspected rabid dog. Monte Carlo simulations of a series of interconnected probabilities were used to estimate the rabies burden in the country. RESULTS: The number of deaths from rabies was estimated at 637deaths per year [95% CI 442-849] and human mortality from rabies was estimated at 2.61 per 100'000 [95% CI 1.81-3.56], which represents 24-47 times more cases than the official data. Deaths due to rabies are responsible for 23,252 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) lost each year [95% CI 16,122-30,969]. The estimated annual cost of rabies is 40.15 million USD [95% CI 27.8-53.4]. Overall, 99% of the cost was due to premature deaths. The cost of post-exposure prophylaxis was estimated at 1.6 million USD and represented 1% of the overall cost of rabies. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the underreporting of rabies cases by the official health information system in Côte d'Ivoire and the annual financial losses related to rabies are equivalent to the estimated cost of the elimination of rabies by 2030. Thus, investing in the fight against in Côte d'Ivoire will be cost effective.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Raiva , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e048551, 2021 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review was to map the current situation and available evidence and gaps on rabies morbidity, mortality, integrated rabies surveillance programmes, and existing prevention and control strategies in Africa. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review following the Joanna Briggs methodology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews checklist. Medline, Embase, CINAHL (EBSCOHost), Scopus, Web of Science and rabies web conferences were used to search for peer-reviewed publications between January 1946 and May 2020. Two researchers reviewed the studies and extracted data based on author (year) and region, study design and data collection duration, participants/comparators, interventions, control conditions/exposures and outcomes (rabies mortality and morbidity) and key findings/gaps/challenges. The results were reported narratively using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. RESULTS: Electronic search yielded 2775 records, of which 43 studies were included. A total of 543 714 bite victims were censored through the included studies. Most of the victims were less than 15 years of age. The studies included rabies morbidity (21) and mortality (15) fluctuating in space and time across Africa depending on countries' rabies prevention and control practices (16). Others were surveillance (nine studies); surveillance and prevention (five studies); management and control (seven studies); and surveillance, prevention and control (six studies). We found challenges in rabies reporting, existing dog vaccination programmes and post-exposure prophylaxis availability or compliance. CONCLUSION: This study found challenges for dog rabies control and elimination in Africa and the need for a policy to drive the goal of zero dog-transmitted rabies to humans by 2030.This is an open-access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build on this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated and the use is non-commercial (see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Raiva , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cães , Morbidade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle
10.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(6): 1301-1310, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dog bites are a significant health concern in the pediatric population. Few studies published to date have stratified the injuries caused by dog bites based on surgical severity to elucidate the contributing risk factors. METHODS: We used an electronic hospital database to identify all patients ≤17 years of age treated for dog bites from 2013-2018. Data related to patient demographics, injury type, intervention, dog breed, and payer source were collected. We extracted socioeconomic data from the American Community Survey. Data related to dog breed was obtained from public records on dog licenses. We calculated descriptive statistics as well as relative risk of dog bite by breed. RESULTS: Of 1,252 injuries identified in 967 pediatric patients, 17.1% required consultation with a surgical specialist for repair. Bites affecting the head/neck region were most common (61.7%) and most likely to require operating room intervention (P = 0.002). The relative risk of a patient being bitten in a low-income area was 2.24, compared with 0.46 in a high-income area. Among cases where the breed of dog responsible for the bite was known, the dog breed most commonly associated with severe bites was the pit bull (relative risk vs German shepherd 8.53, relative risk vs unknown, 3.28). CONCLUSION: The majority of injuries did not require repair and were sufficiently handled by an emergency physician. Repair by a surgical specialist was required <20% of the time, usually for bites affecting the head/neck region. Disparities in the frequency and characteristics of dog bites across socioeconomic levels and dog breeds suggest that public education efforts may decrease the incidence of pediatric dog bites.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia , Criança , Cães , Cabeça , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2125, 2021 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal bites are a major public health problem. The more serious the bite wound is, the higher the risk of developing rabies is. This study aimed to investigate the severity of wounds among animal bite victims and identify the influencing factors in Wuhan, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1015 animal bite victims visiting rabies prevention clinics. We performed a face-to-face interview to collect information on the exposure category of the bite wound, the type of the offending animal, exposure-to-risk situations, etc. Factors associated with exposure categories were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-four (55.57%) cases were category III exposures, 418 (41.18%) were category II exposures, and 33 (3.25%) were category I exposures. People who were hurt by their own domestic animals (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.10), and those exposed to animals unvaccinated against rabies (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.08-1.95) had a higher risk for category III exposures. Respondents who did not know the fatality of rabies were more likely to be injured seriously compared to those who knew that rabies is fatal, and the OR was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.05-1.86). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that factors associated with the severity of bite wounds mainly included types of the offending animal, vaccination status of the animal, and knowledge of rabies fatality. Educational programs and awareness-raising campaigns should be provided to decrease severe animal bites, especially targeting pet owners and those with limited rabies knowledge.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Raiva , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1013, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a disease that still exists in developing countries and leads to more fatalities than other zoonotic diseases. Our study aimed to describe the profile of human exposures to animals over fifteen years and to assess the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) practices in the governorate of Kasserine (Tunisia) on pre- and post-revolution (2011). METHODS: We carried out a descriptive study using surveillance data from a region in Central-West Tunisia. All humans exposed to animals, residents in Kasserine Governorate and declared to the regional directorate of primary health care (RDPH) from January 1st, 2004 to December 31st, 2018 were included. RESULTS: A total of 45,564 cases of human exposures to animals were reported over the fifteen-year period of the study with an annual average of 3089.2 ± 403.1. The standardized incidence rate (SIR) of human exposures to animals was 694 per year per 100,000 inhabitants (inh). The most listed offending animal was the dog (91.3%) and the most reported type of exposure was bites (63.7%). The trend in human exposures to animals increased significantly over time. The number of exposures by vaccinated dogs decreased significantly and by unvaccinated and stray dogs increased steeply. When comparing pre-and post-revolution periods, the yearly average of animal exposures post-2011 was significantly greater than the average prior to 2011 (3200 ± 278.5 vs 2952.8 ± 483) (p < 0.001). The yearly average of animal bites post-2011 was significantly greater than the average prior to 2011 (2260.5 ± 372.1 vs 1609.8 ± 217.9) (p < 0.001). The average number of vaccine doses per animal exposure was 2.4. Concerning PEP protocols, protocol A (2 and 3 doses) was indicated in 79% of animal exposures cases. From 2004 to 2018, a downward trend was noted for protocol A (r = - 0.29, p < 0.001) and an upward trend for protocol B (3 and 5 doses) (r = 0.687, p < 0.001). During our study period, 5 fatal cases of human rabies were declared. CONCLUSION: Rabies remains a major public health problem in Tunisia. The political dynamics had an impact on the health care system and rabies control. Preventive measures should be applied adequately to decrease the burden of this disease.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cães , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Tunísia/epidemiologia
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1582-1589, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491218

RESUMO

Elimination of dog-transmitted human rabies worldwide will require large-scale dog vaccination campaigns. However, this places participating vaccinators at increased risk. Data from the 2016-2017 Haitian mass rabies vaccination campaign was analyzed to determine dog bite incidence among vaccinators. A survey was then developed for completion by all identifiable bitten vaccinators covering demographics; experience and training; bite episode details; attitudes toward dogs and rabies; and medical care. A parallel group of unbitten vaccinators was also surveyed. Dog bite incidence was 0.03% (43/127,000) of all dogs vaccinated. The capture, vaccinate, and release method of vaccination carried a significantly higher risk of dog bite (0.35%, 6/1,739 vaccinations) than other methods (P < 0.001). Twenty-seven bitten vaccinators, and 54 control vaccinators were included in the survey analysis. No differences were found between groups in demographics, experience, or training. However, bitten vaccinators were significantly more likely than the control group to have experienced a dog bite before the study period (P < 0.001). This may be associated with a lesser appreciation of dogs, and/or a poorer ability to interpret dog behavioral signals within this group. Although 98% of the control group indicated they would seek medical care for a dog bite, only 35% of bitten vaccinators sought such care. On a yearly basis, for the Haitian campaign, a full series of postexposure rabies vaccinations for all bite victims would prove more cost-effective than preexposure vaccination of all vaccinators. These findings may prove useful for the planning and safety of future mass dog vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa , Raiva/veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009617, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human rabies remains a significant public health problem in Africa with outbreaks reported in most countries. In Nigeria-the most populous country in Africa-rabies causes a significant public health burden partly due to perennial obstacles to implementing a national prevention and control program. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review using standard Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify and select published articles from Nigeria during 1978-2020 reporting on rabies virus infections (human, canine, livestock, and wildlife), canine bites, knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) surveys on rabies and canine ecology studies. We extracted information on study location, year and additional details of each study such as rabies prevalence, general characteristics of offending dogs, dog vaccination status and health-seeking behaviours. FINDINGS: Between 1978 and 2020, 90 published articles met our inclusion criteria. The prevalence of rabies virus antigen detection varied between 3% and 28%, with more studies in the north. Most bites were unprovoked from dog bite studies (36.4%-97%), by dogs with low vaccination rates (12-38%). A more significant proportion of biting dogs were owned (31-90%). Laboratory confirmation for biting was available for only a small proportion of studies (6%; n = 2/32). Of the dogs surveyed during ecology studies, indigenous dogs accounted for the majority (62-98%), used mostly for security purposes (52-98%), with the vaccination rate between 15% and 38% in most states. Studies conducted in areas distant from rabies diagnostic facilities accounted for more human rabies cases and fewer dog rabies cases. CONCLUSION: Significant improvements are necessary to achieve the elimination of human rabies mediated via dogs by 2030.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cães , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/veterinária
15.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(11): 1050-1055, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, injuries cause >5 million deaths annually and children and young people are particularly vulnerable. Injuries are the leading cause of death in people aged 5-24 years and a leading cause of disability. In most low-income and middle-income countries where the majority of global child injury burden occurs, systems for routinely collecting injury data are limited. METHODS: A new model of injury surveillance for use in emergency departments in Nepal was designed and piloted. Data from patients presenting with injuries were collected prospectively over 12 months and used to describe the epidemiology of paediatric injury presentations. RESULTS: The total number of children <18 years of age presenting with injury was 2696, representing 27% of all patients presenting with injuries enrolled. Most injuries in children presenting to the emergency departments in this study were unintentional and over half of children were <10 years of age. Falls, animal bites/stings and road traffic injuries accounted for nearly 75% of all injuries with poisonings, burns and drownings presenting proportionately less often. Over half of injuries were cuts, bites and open wounds. In-hospital child mortality from injury was 1%. CONCLUSION: Injuries affecting children in Nepal represent a significant burden. The data on injuries observed from falls, road traffic injuries and injuries related to animals suggest potential areas for injury prevention. This is the biggest prospective injury surveillance study in Nepal in recent years and supports the case for using injury surveillance to monitor child morbidity and mortality through improved data.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299828

RESUMO

Dog bites are a health risk in a number of workplaces such as the delivery, veterinary and dog rescue sectors. This study aimed to explore how workers negotiate the risk of dog bites in daily interactions with dogs and the role of procedures in workplace safety. Participants who encounter dogs at work were recruited using snowball sampling. Ethnographic methods (interviews, focus group discussions, participant-observations) were used for data collection. All data were coded qualitatively into themes. Six themes describing dog bite risk management were identified: 'Surveillance of dogs'; 'Communicating risk; 'Actions taken to manage perceived risk'; 'Reporting bites and near-misses', 'Investigating bites and near-misses', and; 'Learning and teaching safety'. While the procedures described dog bite risk as objective, when interacting with dogs, participants drew on experiential knowledge and subjective judgment of risk. There was a discrepancy between risks that the procedures aimed to guard against and the risk participants were experiencing in the course of work. This often led to disregarding procedures. Paradoxically, procedures generated risks to individual wellbeing and sometimes employment, by contributing to blaming employees for bites. Dog bite prevention could be improved by clarifying definitions of bites, involving at risk staff in procedure development, and avoiding blaming the victim for the incident.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cães , Emprego , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e01042021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320131

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rabies is considered one of the most relevant public health problems owing to its high fatality rate and the high number of deaths worldwide. METHODS: We included patients with human rabies who attended a reference hospital in the state of Ceará during 1976-2019. RESULTS: Data were available for 63 out of 171 (36.8%) patients. Of these patients, 48 (76.2%) were attacked by dogs. In recent years, wild animals have been the most common aggressor species (marmosets and bats). Only 39 (70%) patients were initially correctly suspected with rabies. Bites were the most frequent exposure (56; 96%), most commonly on the hands (21; 42%) and the head (9; 18.4%). Only 14 (22%) patients had sought medical assistance before the onset of symptoms, and only one completed post-exposure prophylaxis. The most prevalent signs and symptoms included aggressiveness/irritability (50; 79.4%), fever (42; 66.7%), sore throat/dysphagia (40; 63.5%), and myalgia (28; 44.4%). Hydrophobia was present in 17 patients (22.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of human rabies in Ceará occurred due to the failure to seek medical assistance and/or the failure of the health system in initiating early post-exposure prophylaxis. There is a need for specific information and education campaigns focusing on the cycle of sylvatic rabies as well as prevention measures. Health professionals should undergo refresher training courses on the signs and symptoms of rabies and on the specific epidemiological features of the disease in Brazil.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/epidemiologia
18.
Int Marit Health ; 72(2): 110-114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212350

RESUMO

Despite the high number of victims every year, Physalia physalis's envenomations in Indonesia are scientifically unsounded. This annual event occurred mainly in Java's southern beaches and the Eastern Bali Islands, which are the most tourist destinations. The lack of scientific reports can lead to unaware and uneducated beachgoers resulting in a high number of victims, which in turn may ruin the economic sectors. Thus, this study aimed to report P. physalis's envenomation and its treatments in the southern beaches of the Special Region of Yogyakarta Province. It was based on the 15 beach lifeguards' and the primary health care units' reports in 2019-2020. The envenomation cases varied among beaches and years, whereas the highest number of cases were reported in the most popular beach (Parangtritis beach). The partial beach closing due to the pandemic COVID-19 caused the number of cases in 2020 was slightly lower than that in 2019. The envenomations' general symptoms were oedema and local pain that were treated with 5% food vinegar and hot water, if available. The severe cases (dyspnoea, nausea, vomiting, and cephalgia) were only reported twice in 2019. They were hospitalised in primary health care units; however, many people still practise the traditional non-scientific treatments, particularly in a chaotic situation.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Venenos de Cnidários/envenenamento , Hidrozoários , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia , Estações do Ano , Viagem
19.
Int Marit Health ; 72(2): 93-98, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jellyfish stings are one of the commonest causes of marine animal related injuries in human. Despite mostly being harmless, box jellyfish species can cause major stings with fatalities or systemic envenoming symptoms. There are 15-20 species identified to be life-threatening. There are few reported cases that suggest the presence of deadly box jellyfish in the Malaysian coast. However, numbers of stings around Malaysia are still under reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study was conducted in Manjung, Perak and Langkawi Island to look at the pattern and incidence of jellyfish stings which occur within 1 year. RESULTS: There were 45 sting incidents reported with the highest number of cases occurred in December and February. Cases mainly involved young adults aged 10 to 29 years old. The most common clinical symptom that presented was sudden and persistent pain. Vinegar was applied as first aid in 53.3% of reported stings. All patients were treated symptomatically and discharged well. Stings occurred at mean sea surface temperature of 29.38°C and the wind speed of 7.6 knots. All cases were mild and did not require antivenom. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the occurrence of jellyfish stings are affected by weather conditions. Jellyfish stings occur seasonally, thus making it predictable and easily preventable with public awareness, early first aid application and use of jellyfish nets.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Governo , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Malásia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237103

RESUMO

Cambodia is a rabid-endemic country. However, data on dog population characteristics are lacking, and there is no national dog vaccination program. We implemented the first extensive door-to-door longitudinal survey in 2 Cambodian provinces, namely Kandal and Battambang, to estimate dog population demographic parameters, identify dog ownership determinants, analyze dog management practices and estimate the yearly cumulative bite incidence and associated factors. During the first session, more than 5000 dogs were recorded and identified. Data on families, dogs and cats characteristics, as well as the number of bites experienced the year before in the family, were recorded. One year later, a second session was performed in both provinces to record missing dogs and the reasons for missing. Age-specific survival rates of the dog populations were computed using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Ownership determinants and bite risk factors were identified using a negative binomial regression model. Dog trade and dog meat consumption were often reported. We estimated high dog-to-human ratios (1:3.8 in Kandal, and 1:3.3 in Battambang). The mean age of dog populations was 26.4 months in Kandal against 24.3 in Battambang, with a survival rate of 52% at 24 months in Kandal (34% only in Battambang). They were no feral dogs, but the large majority of recorded dogs were free roaming. In both provinces, the number of dogs significantly increased in families with children younger than 15, and when the head of the family was a male. The estimated yearly cumulative bite incidences were 2.3 and 3.1% in Kandal and Battambang provinces respectively, and are among the highest in the world. Our survey provides valuable data to focus information programs, parametrize transmission models and identify efficient vaccination strategies to control rabies in Cambodia in the future.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/etiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/etiologia , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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