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2.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 31(3): 332-336, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800447

RESUMO

We report a case of a 42-y-old female patient who sustained a sting to the neck from a Trachinus draco fish. She subsequently developed complications including arytenoid membrane edema secondary to either the local anesthetic agent administered to the wound or the dracotoxin itself. The patient was examined in the emergency department after the sting. Local anesthesia with lidocaine was administered to the areas of injury at another hospital before presenting to our hospital emergency department. The patient reported that her pain partially decreased but hoarseness developed and she had difficulty breathing after the local anesthetic was administered. Laryngeal examination by our hospital's otolaryngologist revealed edema of the patient's right arytenoid membrane without evidence of vocal cord swelling. Computed tomography of the neck revealed edema in the right arytenoid membrane on the side of the neck where the local anesthetic had been injected. The patient, who was given supplementary treatment, was discharged without any complications on the seventh day of hospitalization. The principle treatment for these types of stings includes immersion in hot water, analgesic therapy, and observation for signs of local and systemic envenomation. We recommend using caution when injecting local anesthetic agents in the neck because of underlying vital structures.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor , Prega Vocal/patologia , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/diagnóstico , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas
3.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 322-325, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605424

RESUMO

An epidemiological study on the stings of Pelagia noctiluca was carried out on four Mediterranean beaches in Morocco. Data were retrieved from patients seeking medical treatment after a jellyfish sting. A total of 1321 patients presented with P. noctiluca stings during the summer of 2018. Most of the injuries were observed in persons aged 11-20 years. The stings were located more on the lower (53%) than on the upper limbs (27%). A total of 61% of those seeking treatment were Moroccan tourists, 29% were local residents and 9% were foreign tourists. The main medications provided were antiseptics (54%), non-pharmacological treatments (41%) and antibiotics (4%). The continuing presence of P. noctiluca in the Moroccan Mediterranean makes it necessary to set effective strategies to prevent and minimise their impact.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cifozoários , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Praias/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 310: 110254, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200306

RESUMO

Dog attacks today represent a health hazard considering that prevention strategies have not always been successful. The identification of the dog that attacked the victim is necessary, considering the civil or criminal consequences for the animal's owner. An accurate scene analysis must be performed collecting a series of important information. Forensic investigations in dog attacks involve different methods, such as the evaluating of the canine Short Tandem Repeat (STR) typing in saliva traces on wounds or bite mark analysis, however, these techniques cannot always be applied. The effort to find new methods to identify the dog that attacked the victim represents a very interesting field for the forensic community. This study aims to propose an innovative approach, based on the identification of the victim's profile in the dog's mouth, using a buccal swab on the suspected aggressor dog, to find the victim's genetic profile. In addition, a further goal of this study is to determine the persistence time of hexogen DNA in the dog's mouth to define a timeframe for performing this particular technique. For this purpose, ten different dogs were used to aggressively bite a bovine sample (reference sample) to simulate the victim. For each dog two buccal swabs were taken at different time intervals: 30', 45', 60', 90', 120', 150', 180' and 240'. The typing of the swabs provided an interpretable profile after 45' while traces of bovine profile were found until 150' after the dog attack simulation. These results could be improved using the human identification kit, which is more sensitive. In the light of this experimental study, the forensic community should consider using this approach in real casework studies with the aim of collecting new data, validating this technique for forensic use.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA/análise , Saliva/química , Animais , Cães , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Linhagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4): 454-460, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672510

RESUMO

Pig bite injuries are an infrequently described consequence of human-animal conflict. The domestic pig is thought to be a placid animal not given to unprovoked aggression. We report 2 separate cases of children managed at our institution who sustained abdominal injuries after attack by domestic pigs in rural Zimbabwe. Both incidents occurred at home in remote rural areas with long prehospital transport times. Initial resuscitative interventions were performed in both cases in the prehospital setting and at poorly resourced peripheral hospitals before referral. Prophylactic antibiotics were also given in both cases. Laparotomy was performed for both patients. Reduction of eviscerated bowel, exploratory laparotomy, and peritoneal lavage were performed with closure of the abdominal wounds. No surgical site infections were encountered, and patients were subsequently discharged after an uneventful convalescence. Prehospital care is the crucial phase of management of these injuries, which frequently take place in remote, rural settings and usually have a long time to definitive intervention. Expeditious laparotomy and exploration are indicated, as well as meticulous attention to techniques to avert infectious complications. Despite the generally placid temperament of the domestic pig, their bite can result in grave injuries, including abdominal evisceration necessitating prompt referral and emergency laparotomy.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/etiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/patologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Suínos , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Agressão , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4): 441-445, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653551

RESUMO

Crocodile attack injuries plague communities near bodies of water and continue to be an infrequent but significant form of trauma encountered in our medical facility. Regional anesthesia techniques are a novel adjunct to treatment and may facilitate simplified definitive management and better utilization of constrained operating room resources. We report a case of an adult male who presented with a large lower extremity wound after a crocodile bite. The patient was managed with initial debridement and irrigation and serial wound care entirely under regional anesthesia at the bedside. The patient did not develop wound infection, eventually receiving a skin graft with good functional outcomes. Regional anesthesia techniques are increasingly being used in the trauma setting, and their versatility allows for their use in multiple settings, by practitioners with limited experience and in resource-limited environments. No specific guidelines exist for performance of neuraxial techniques in the setting of animal bite injuries, but concerns about infectious complications have been raised. Regional anesthesia techniques may be useful in the management of extremity trauma due to crocodile attacks without infectious complications. They may reduce utilization of theatre resources and reduce opioid requirements.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Mordeduras e Picadas/etiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Perna (Membro)/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Transplante de Pele
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 885-893, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012370

RESUMO

Dog bites are a known public health problem involving physical, mental and emotional traumas. From a forensic point of view, it has been stated that their morphological characters, and the intercanine and interincisive measurements, could allow a taxonomic and specific identification of the implicated animal. The aim of this study was to differentiate and identify the biological profile of a potential aggressor dog by analysing eight morphometric bite patterns belonging to three different dog breeds. The data obtained were analyzed following three categories: a) breeds; b) sexes among breeds; and c) sex within breed. Significant differences were detected among the variables (p≤ 0.05), but only the maximum maxillary intercanines width (MaxCW) allowed a breed differentiation. The other variables allowed a differentiation between two breeds or one breed over the others. The principal components analysis (PCA) allowed visualizing the degree of dispersion and relationship among the scores. It showed three well-defined and separated breed groups, and different degrees of dispersion within and among breeds. The most important variable for such a differentiation was MaxCW. When considering sex among breeds for males, it showed a statistically significant difference, but only the diastema located between the third left mandibular, incisive and the left mandibular canine (C-I-ManL) allowed breed differentiation. For females, only MaxCW allowed a differentiation among breeds. The multivariate analysis permitted with a 95 % confidence interval, a breed and sex differentiation. Besides, the PCA models allowed classifying, identifying, separating and graphically showing the relationship among the variables. This made it possible to differentiate between breeds and sexes. Due to the large range of dog breeds around the world, this multivariate analysis could also help determining the dog's weight and size, narrowing down towards an approximate number of offending dogs, focussing on a certain kind of dog breed, and pinpointing any suspect dog.


Las mordeduras de perros son un conocido problema de salud pública que involucra traumas físicos, mentales y emocionales. En la faz forense, se ha establecido que características morfológicas, así como las medidas intercanina e interincisiva, permitirían una identificación taxonómica y especifica del animal involucrado. El objetivo fue diferenciar e identificar el perfil biológico de un potencial perro agresor analizando ocho patrones morfológicos de mordeduras pertenecientes a tres diferentes razas caninas. Los datos fueron analizados considerando tres categorías: a) razas; b) sexo entre razas; y c) sexo en cada raza. Se observaron diferencias entre las variables (p≤0,05), pero sólo la distancia máxima entre caninos maxilares (MaxCW), permitió una diferenciación entre razas. Las otras variables permitieron una diferenciación entre dos razas o de una raza sobre las otras. El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) permitió visualizar el grado de dispersión y la relación entre las puntuaciones (dentro y entre razas). Se observaron tres grupos (razas) bien definidos y separados con diferentes grados de dispersión dentro y entre razas. La variable más importante para tal diferenciación fue la MaxCW. Al considerar sexo (machos) entre razas, se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa, pero sólo la medida del diastema localizado entre el tercer incisivo y canino izquierdo mandibulares (C-I-ManL) permitió la diferenciación entre razas. Para hembras, sólo la MaxCW permitió una diferenciación entre razas. El análisis multivariante permitió, con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %, diferenciar raza y sexo. El modelo PCA permitió además clasificar, identificar, separar y mostrar gráficamente la relación entre las variables. Esto posibilitó diferenciar entre razas y sexos. Debido a la gran variedad de razas de perros en el mundo, este análisis multivariado permitiría estimar peso y tamaño del animal, indicando un número aproximado de perros atacantes, centrándose en ciertos tipos de raza, y localizar a cualquier cánido sospechoso.


Assuntos
Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Cães , Odontologia Legal/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4): 394-400, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite increasing health effects of arthropod bites and associated costs, research on their frequency is limited, especially at the population level. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, correlates, and recent trends in visits to US emergency departments related to arthropod bites and stings. METHODS: The prevalence of arthropod bites, including information regarding location of the bite, was calculated for years 2010 through 2014 using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Sex- and age-stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with "arthropod bite" as the dependent variable and patient and hospital characteristics as independent variables. RESULTS: Overall, there were significant increases in bites over the study period with higher rates of bites in the summer months (June-August), especially among children. Individuals who seek treatment for arthropod bites in the emergency department are more likely to reside in zip codes with lower median household income and to be without insurance coverage or with Medicaid rather than private insurance. The cost of care related to arthropod bites increased approximately 40% over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide updated surveillance on the prevalence and correlates of arthropod bites and stings in the US population.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 299: 203-207, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039547

RESUMO

The discipline of forensic odontology is at a crossroads with the application of bitemark evidence in the court of law. In the last decade, the increase in the number of cases in which bitemarks were the 'smoking gun' to a conviction being appealed and verdicts reverse is alarming and due in a large part to the lack of validated rules and scientific rigor needed to evaluate this evidence objectively. In some cases, post-mortem trauma to human remains has been misinterpreted as human bitemarks. This case report illustrates how bitemarks misinterpreted as human-caused were reevaluated by a computerized imaging analytical method and determined to be consistent with those caused by crayfish scavenging on the remains. Fetal pigs were exposed to crayfish native to the crime scene for a period of 72 h. Crayfish bitemarks on the pigs were compared to marks on the victim and the bite width of the crayfish and found to be statistically the same. These findings led to the exoneration of the convicted individual. Such computer-aided pattern recognition protocols are necessary in traditional forensic identification sciences such as forensic odontology to minimize biased conclusions by extraneous evidence and preconceived assumptions and replace subjective guesswork with sound scientific protocols.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Odontologia Legal/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Odontologia Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Suínos
11.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 65: 105-107, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132726

RESUMO

Distinguishing between ante-mortem and post-mortem domestic dog injuries is fundamental in order to correctly find the cause of the death. Although fatal aggressions are chiefly perpetrated by pit bull-type dogs, small dogs are responsible for a significant share of animal bites and can cause high-degree injuries. On the other side, indoor and outdoor scavenging can hinder forensic investigation, consuming parts of the body where crucial forensic features like bruises and wounds have been inflicted. In the case we present, a man died after falling down his house stairs because of a traumatic intracranial haemorrhage. His dog, a Jack Russel Terrier, scavenged a significant portion of his facial superficial and deep tissues, suggesting to the investigators the hypothesis of a brutal aggression. In this paper, we showed how the application of advanced 3D processing and modelling techniques can give a crucial contribution to detect the injuries certainly caused by animal teeth.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar , Imageamento Tridimensional , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidentes por Quedas , Adulto , Animais , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/patologia , Odontologia Legal , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Lesões do Pescoço/etiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/patologia , Fotogrametria , Fraturas Cranianas/patologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia
12.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(3): 296-300, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the clinical and clinicopathologic changes in cats presenting with trauma from bite wounds, identify common abnormalities associated with bite wounds, and to determine whether the calculated animal trauma triage (ATT) score is related to any clinicopathologic abnormalities. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Forty-three client-owned cats that presented for bite wounds to a large, urban, veterinary hospital between 1998 and 2009. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Pertinent history, physical examination findings, results of biochemical testing, and outcome were extracted from medical records. Animal triage trauma score was calculated based on the physical examination at presentation in cats with adequate available information. Patients were classified as having either a low (<5) ATT (n = 20) or a high (≥5) ATT (n = 23) score. Male cats were overrepresented (65.1%), and a majority of cats had outdoor access (53.4%). Low venous blood pH (P = 0.047), high plasma lactate concentration (P = 0.018), and low ionized calcium concentration (P = 0.004) were associated with higher ATT scores. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between low venous blood pH, high plasma lactate concentration, and low ionized calcium concentration and higher ATT scores at presentation in cats suffering from bite wounds. Early recognition of these abnormalities may help to identify more severely injured patients.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Gatos/lesões , Cães , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Triagem , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 64: 23-27, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913445

RESUMO

Shark incidents in Recife, Pernambuco state (Brazil), are registered since 1992. The occurrence of those events is in a relatively small area of urban beaches of about 30 km long, making up one of the world's highest indices of shark incidents per unit of area, totaling 64 casualties, of these 24 were fatal. To mitigate shark incidents, the knowledge on shark species involved is crucial given that each species has specific usage of the habitat and dissimilar feeding strategy. Jaws of five species caught along the Pernambuco coast (Brazil), corresponded to 2 specimens of Carcharhinus acronotus, 4 specimens of C. leucas, 1 of C. limbatus, 4 of Galeocerdo curvier and 3 of Sphyrna lewini. Relative Warps Analysis was applied to enhance possible differences among jaw shapes of the studied species. The consensus configuration from the 14 images was obtained. The first two relative warps components explained 70.17% of the total observed variation. Four distinct groups were clearly observed. Three groups were formed by single species, corresponding to G. curvier, C. leucas and S. lewini, respectively, and one group formed by the combination of C. acronotus and C. limbatus. As expected, due to its peculiar skull shape, S. lewini jaws are very different from other analyzed species, thus all observed individuals of this group were found isolated from the others, considering the horizontal axis. Relative warps and curvature analyses show to be useful tools in the forensic study of shark incidents. In general, jaws shape significantly differed among species.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Tubarões/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Medicina Legal , Humanos
14.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(8): 677-685, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806093

RESUMO

Introduction: Snakes, insects, arachnids and myriapods have been linked to necrosis following envenomation. However, the pathways involved in arthropod venom-induced necrosis remain a highly controversial topic among toxinologists, clinicians and the public. On the one hand, clinicians report on alleged envenomations based on symptoms and the victims' information. On the other hand, toxinologists and zoologists argue that symptoms are incompatible with the known venom activity of target species. This review draws from the literature on arthropod envenomations, snakebite, and inflammatory processes to suggest that envenomation by a range of organisms might trigger an intense inflammatory cascade that ultimately lead to necrosis. If confirmed, these processes would have important implications for the treatment of venom-induced necrosis. Objectives: To describe two inflammatory pathways of regulated necrosis, tumour necrosis factor (necroptosis) and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETosis); to discuss existing knowledge about snake venom and arachnid-induced necrosis demonstrating the involvement of tumour necrosis factor and neutrophils in the development of tissue necrosis following envenomation and to contribute to the understanding of venom-induced necrosis by arthropods and provide clinicians with an insight into little known inflammatory processes which may occur post envenomation. Methods: ISI Web of Science databases were searched using the terms "spider bite necrosis", "arthropod envenomation necrosis", "venom necrosis", "venom immune response", "loxoscelism", "arachnidism", "necroptosis venom", "necroptosis dermatitis", "tumour necrosis factor TNF venom", "scorpionism", "scolopendrism", "centipede necrosis", "NETosis venom", "NETosis necrosis". Searches produced 1737 non-duplicate citations of which 74 were considered relevant to this manuscript. Non-peer-reviewed sources or absence of voucher material identifying the organism were excluded. What is necrosis? Necrosis is the breakdown of cell membrane integrity followed by inflowing extracellular fluid, organelle swelling and the release of proteolytic enzymes into the cytosol. Necrosis was historically considered an unregulated process; however, recent studies demonstrate that necrosis can also be a programmed event resulting from a controlled immune response (necroptosis). Tumour necrosis factor and the necroptosis pathway: Tumour necrosis factor is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in regulating immune response, inflammation and cell death/survival. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α participates in the development of necrosis after envenomation by vipers. Treatment with TNF-α-antibodies may significantly reduce the manifestation of necrosis. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and the NETosis pathway: The process by which neutrophils discharge a mesh of DNA strands in the extracellular matrix to entangle ("trap") pathogens, preventing them from disseminating. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps have been recently described as important in venom-induced necrosis. Trapped venom accumulates at the bite site, resulting in significant localized necrosis. Arthropod venom driving necrosis: Insects, myriapods and arachnids can induce necrosis following envenomation. So far, the processes involved have only been investigated in two arachnids: Loxosceles spp. (recluse spiders) and Hemiscorpius lepturus (scorpion). Loxosceles venom contains phospholipases D which hydrolyse sphingomyelin, resulting in lysis of muscle fibers. Subsequently liberated ceramides act as intermediaries that regulate TNF-α and recruit neutrophils. Experiments show that immune-deficient mice injected with Loxosceles venom experience less venom-induced inflammatory response and survive longer than control mice. Necrosis following Hemiscorpius lepturus stings correlates with elevated concentrations of TNF-α. These observations suggest that necrosis may be indirectly triggered or worsened by pathways of regulated necrosis in addition to necrotic venom compounds. Conclusions: Envenomation often induce an intense inflammatory cascade, which under certain circumstances may produce necrotic lesions independently from direct venom activity. This could explain the inconsistent and circumstantial occurrence of necrosis following envenomation by a range of organisms. Future research should focus on identifying pathways to regulated necrosis following envenomation and determining more efficient ways to manage inflammation. We suggest that clinicians should consider the victim's immune response as an integral part of the envenomation syndrome.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes/toxicidade , Artrópodes , Mordeduras e Picadas , Dermotoxinas/toxicidade , Dermatopatias , Animais , Venenos de Artrópodes/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Dermotoxinas/imunologia , Necrose , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
15.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(4): 976-981, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629748

RESUMO

Fatalities due to animal attacks are rare in forensic medical work but have been known to pose problems due to their potential to mimic homicide. This review summarizes reported cases of fatal attacks by large mammals that inhabit the Nordic wilderness, namely brown bear, moose, wild boar, and wolf, and attempts to elucidate injury patterns that can guide the forensic pathologist to identifying the species and modus operandi of the attacker. A tendency toward a species-specific injury pattern was observed. Injuries by bear and especially wolf are dominated by biting whereas moose and wild boar do not seem to bite their victims. The bear uses its paws, both for hitting, resulting in crush injury and fractures, and clawing with resulting excoriations and possible penetrating injuries. Crush injuries and fractures appear, on the other hand, to be minimal or absent in attacks by wolf and wild boar.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Traumatismo Múltiplo/patologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/patologia , Agressão , Animais , Exsanguinação/etiologia , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
16.
Animal ; 13(4): 835-844, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132431

RESUMO

Tail biting is a major welfare and economic problem in intensive pig production. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine tail lesion prevalence at a German abattoir, (2) test for associations between meat inspection findings and tail lesions, (3) assess the agreement between tail necrosis recorded during meat inspection and scored from pictures and (4) test whether the tail biting management tool 'Schwanzbeiß-Interventions-Programm' (SchwIP) had an effect on tail lesion prevalence. A total of three observers scored tail lesions from pictures of 43 328 pigs from 32 farms where SchwIP had been applied, and of 36 626 pigs from 32 control farms. Tail lesions were classified as score 0: no visible lesion, score 1: mild lesion, score 2: severe lesion and score 3: necrosis. In addition, complete loss of tail (CL) was recorded. Tail necrosis was the only tail-related carcase finding recorded by meat inspectors. (1) Tail lesion prevalences in pigs from control farms were 23.6% for score 1, 1.02% for score 2, 0.55% for score 3 and 0.41% for CL. The combined prevalence of any lesion and/or CL was 25.4%. (2) Pleurisy, lung findings, signs of inflammation in the legs, arthritis and abscesses were the most frequent meat inspection findings (prevalences of 8.46%, 8.09%, 2.99%, 0.83% and 0.23%, respectively; n=79 954 pigs). Leg inflammation, arthritis and abscesses were more prevalent in pigs with tail lesions of any degree compared with pigs without tail lesions (3.39% v. 2.83%, 1.06% v. 0.75% and 0.39% v. 0.17%, respectively; all P<0.001, n=79 954 pigs). Pigs with severe tail lesions also had more lung findings (2.00% v. 0.17%, P<0.001). (3) Tail necrosis scored during meat inspection resulted in lower prevalence than scored from pictures (0.22% v. 0.69%; n=79 954 SchwIP and control farm pigs). (4) Although tail lesion prevalence was significantly higher in pigs from SchwIP than in pigs from control farms during the first 3 months (32.2% v. 23.8%, P=0.015), it was not significantly higher during the remainder of the year (22.6 v. 26.9, 24.4 v. 21.4 and 24.0 v. 28.0, second, third and fourth quarters, respectively). In conclusion, meat inspection results in much lower tail lesion prevalences than tail lesion assessment from pictures, even if only the category 'necrosis' is compared. Advising farms on tail biting using the management tool SchwIP helped to decrease the prevalence of tail lesions on problem farms.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Carne , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Cauda/patologia , Matadouros , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Necrose , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209330, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571785

RESUMO

Taphonomic analyses of bone-surface modifications can provide key insights into past biotic involvement with animal remains, as well as elucidate the context(s) of other biostratinomic (pre-burial) processes, diagenesis, excavation, preparation and storage. Such analyses, however, first require researchers to rigorously disambiguate between continuums of damage morphologies prior to attributing individual marks to specific actors and effectors (e.g., carnivore tooth, stone tool cutting edge, etc.). To date, a number of bone-modifying agents have been identified, and criteria for identifying their traces have been published. Relatively little research, however, has focused on bone-surface modifications imparted during specimen preparation. Herein we report that air scribes, small pneumatic tools commonly used for preparation in museum contexts, can generate unintentional marks that may mimic surficial modification caused by carnivores. To aid investigators in assessing the hypothesis that a mark in question is derived from air-scribe preparation activities, we provide high-resolution, detailed morphological information imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main diagnostic characteristic of air-scribe damage is the occurrence of sequential, variously spaced, sub-millimeter scallop-like stepped bone removals. This morphology can resemble damage imparted by carnivore teeth. In contrast to marks produced by trampling, stone tools and carnivores, however, no continuous internal features, such as linear microstriations, were observed within grooves produced by the air scribe. Thus, the presence of such features can be used to disprove an air-scribe origin. A culmination of the morphological criteria presented herein, cross-cutting relationships with other surficial features (e.g., diagenetic discoloration, weathering textures), the position of occurrence, and an overall contextual framework for the assemblage is suggested for accurate identification of such traces. The ability to recognize or disprove air-scribe damage will allow researchers to confidently proceed with interpreting past biological and sedimentological interactions with animal remains.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Paleontologia/métodos , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Restos Mortais/ultraestrutura , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Carnívoros , Fósseis/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Museus , Paleontologia/instrumentação , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15959, 2018 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374155

RESUMO

Dog-incurred injury is a serious public health concern worldwide, especially for children, responsible for numerous infectious diseases, such as rabies. Our study aims to investigate the current status of dog-incurred injury and its prevention among special groups of children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among migrant children (MC) and non-MC, "left-behind" children (LBC) and non-LBC in two cities in southern China. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and experience with dog-incurred injury, to assess knowledge of dog behaviour and rabies prevention and attitudes in risk identification and practice in risk behaviour. A total of 9,380 children aged 6-19 years old participated in this study. The self-reported prevalence of overall lifetime dog-incurred injuries in MC was 19.4% (vs. 11.2% in non-MC, χ2 = 175.8) and LBC was 20.6% (vs. 13.5% in non-LBC, χ2 = 114.1). MC were more likely to provoke a dog before the injury happened (12.7% vs 11.0%), while LBC (13.3% vs. 10.7%) and non-MC (13.1% vs. 12.2%) did not manage their wounds (all P < 0.001). 45.6% of victims were alone when the attack happened. MC from other provinces who live in rural areas and LBC with their mother absent had the lowest levels of knowledge among the groups. Taken together, MC and LBC are at greater risk for dog-incurred injury. They had lower knowledge of and attitudes towards prevention and more high-risk behaviour. Therefore, an appropriate public health education intervention is needed for schoolchildren regarding the prevention and management of dog-incurred injury and disease.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Raiva/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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