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1.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4): 454-460, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672510

RESUMO

Pig bite injuries are an infrequently described consequence of human-animal conflict. The domestic pig is thought to be a placid animal not given to unprovoked aggression. We report 2 separate cases of children managed at our institution who sustained abdominal injuries after attack by domestic pigs in rural Zimbabwe. Both incidents occurred at home in remote rural areas with long prehospital transport times. Initial resuscitative interventions were performed in both cases in the prehospital setting and at poorly resourced peripheral hospitals before referral. Prophylactic antibiotics were also given in both cases. Laparotomy was performed for both patients. Reduction of eviscerated bowel, exploratory laparotomy, and peritoneal lavage were performed with closure of the abdominal wounds. No surgical site infections were encountered, and patients were subsequently discharged after an uneventful convalescence. Prehospital care is the crucial phase of management of these injuries, which frequently take place in remote, rural settings and usually have a long time to definitive intervention. Expeditious laparotomy and exploration are indicated, as well as meticulous attention to techniques to avert infectious complications. Despite the generally placid temperament of the domestic pig, their bite can result in grave injuries, including abdominal evisceration necessitating prompt referral and emergency laparotomy.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/etiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/patologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Suínos , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Agressão , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4): 441-445, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653551

RESUMO

Crocodile attack injuries plague communities near bodies of water and continue to be an infrequent but significant form of trauma encountered in our medical facility. Regional anesthesia techniques are a novel adjunct to treatment and may facilitate simplified definitive management and better utilization of constrained operating room resources. We report a case of an adult male who presented with a large lower extremity wound after a crocodile bite. The patient was managed with initial debridement and irrigation and serial wound care entirely under regional anesthesia at the bedside. The patient did not develop wound infection, eventually receiving a skin graft with good functional outcomes. Regional anesthesia techniques are increasingly being used in the trauma setting, and their versatility allows for their use in multiple settings, by practitioners with limited experience and in resource-limited environments. No specific guidelines exist for performance of neuraxial techniques in the setting of animal bite injuries, but concerns about infectious complications have been raised. Regional anesthesia techniques may be useful in the management of extremity trauma due to crocodile attacks without infectious complications. They may reduce utilization of theatre resources and reduce opioid requirements.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Mordeduras e Picadas/etiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Perna (Membro)/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Transplante de Pele
3.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4): 394-400, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite increasing health effects of arthropod bites and associated costs, research on their frequency is limited, especially at the population level. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, correlates, and recent trends in visits to US emergency departments related to arthropod bites and stings. METHODS: The prevalence of arthropod bites, including information regarding location of the bite, was calculated for years 2010 through 2014 using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Sex- and age-stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with "arthropod bite" as the dependent variable and patient and hospital characteristics as independent variables. RESULTS: Overall, there were significant increases in bites over the study period with higher rates of bites in the summer months (June-August), especially among children. Individuals who seek treatment for arthropod bites in the emergency department are more likely to reside in zip codes with lower median household income and to be without insurance coverage or with Medicaid rather than private insurance. The cost of care related to arthropod bites increased approximately 40% over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide updated surveillance on the prevalence and correlates of arthropod bites and stings in the US population.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 299: 203-207, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039547

RESUMO

The discipline of forensic odontology is at a crossroads with the application of bitemark evidence in the court of law. In the last decade, the increase in the number of cases in which bitemarks were the 'smoking gun' to a conviction being appealed and verdicts reverse is alarming and due in a large part to the lack of validated rules and scientific rigor needed to evaluate this evidence objectively. In some cases, post-mortem trauma to human remains has been misinterpreted as human bitemarks. This case report illustrates how bitemarks misinterpreted as human-caused were reevaluated by a computerized imaging analytical method and determined to be consistent with those caused by crayfish scavenging on the remains. Fetal pigs were exposed to crayfish native to the crime scene for a period of 72 h. Crayfish bitemarks on the pigs were compared to marks on the victim and the bite width of the crayfish and found to be statistically the same. These findings led to the exoneration of the convicted individual. Such computer-aided pattern recognition protocols are necessary in traditional forensic identification sciences such as forensic odontology to minimize biased conclusions by extraneous evidence and preconceived assumptions and replace subjective guesswork with sound scientific protocols.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Odontologia Legal/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Odontologia Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Suínos
5.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 65: 105-107, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132726

RESUMO

Distinguishing between ante-mortem and post-mortem domestic dog injuries is fundamental in order to correctly find the cause of the death. Although fatal aggressions are chiefly perpetrated by pit bull-type dogs, small dogs are responsible for a significant share of animal bites and can cause high-degree injuries. On the other side, indoor and outdoor scavenging can hinder forensic investigation, consuming parts of the body where crucial forensic features like bruises and wounds have been inflicted. In the case we present, a man died after falling down his house stairs because of a traumatic intracranial haemorrhage. His dog, a Jack Russel Terrier, scavenged a significant portion of his facial superficial and deep tissues, suggesting to the investigators the hypothesis of a brutal aggression. In this paper, we showed how the application of advanced 3D processing and modelling techniques can give a crucial contribution to detect the injuries certainly caused by animal teeth.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar , Imagem Tridimensional , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidentes por Quedas , Adulto , Animais , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/patologia , Odontologia Legal , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Lesões do Pescoço/etiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/patologia , Fotogrametria , Fraturas Cranianas/patologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia
6.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(3): 296-300, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the clinical and clinicopathologic changes in cats presenting with trauma from bite wounds, identify common abnormalities associated with bite wounds, and to determine whether the calculated animal trauma triage (ATT) score is related to any clinicopathologic abnormalities. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Forty-three client-owned cats that presented for bite wounds to a large, urban, veterinary hospital between 1998 and 2009. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Pertinent history, physical examination findings, results of biochemical testing, and outcome were extracted from medical records. Animal triage trauma score was calculated based on the physical examination at presentation in cats with adequate available information. Patients were classified as having either a low (<5) ATT (n = 20) or a high (≥5) ATT (n = 23) score. Male cats were overrepresented (65.1%), and a majority of cats had outdoor access (53.4%). Low venous blood pH (P = 0.047), high plasma lactate concentration (P = 0.018), and low ionized calcium concentration (P = 0.004) were associated with higher ATT scores. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between low venous blood pH, high plasma lactate concentration, and low ionized calcium concentration and higher ATT scores at presentation in cats suffering from bite wounds. Early recognition of these abnormalities may help to identify more severely injured patients.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Gatos/lesões , Cães , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Triagem , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 64: 23-27, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913445

RESUMO

Shark incidents in Recife, Pernambuco state (Brazil), are registered since 1992. The occurrence of those events is in a relatively small area of urban beaches of about 30 km long, making up one of the world's highest indices of shark incidents per unit of area, totaling 64 casualties, of these 24 were fatal. To mitigate shark incidents, the knowledge on shark species involved is crucial given that each species has specific usage of the habitat and dissimilar feeding strategy. Jaws of five species caught along the Pernambuco coast (Brazil), corresponded to 2 specimens of Carcharhinus acronotus, 4 specimens of C. leucas, 1 of C. limbatus, 4 of Galeocerdo curvier and 3 of Sphyrna lewini. Relative Warps Analysis was applied to enhance possible differences among jaw shapes of the studied species. The consensus configuration from the 14 images was obtained. The first two relative warps components explained 70.17% of the total observed variation. Four distinct groups were clearly observed. Three groups were formed by single species, corresponding to G. curvier, C. leucas and S. lewini, respectively, and one group formed by the combination of C. acronotus and C. limbatus. As expected, due to its peculiar skull shape, S. lewini jaws are very different from other analyzed species, thus all observed individuals of this group were found isolated from the others, considering the horizontal axis. Relative warps and curvature analyses show to be useful tools in the forensic study of shark incidents. In general, jaws shape significantly differed among species.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Tubarões/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Medicina Legal , Humanos
8.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(4): 976-981, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629748

RESUMO

Fatalities due to animal attacks are rare in forensic medical work but have been known to pose problems due to their potential to mimic homicide. This review summarizes reported cases of fatal attacks by large mammals that inhabit the Nordic wilderness, namely brown bear, moose, wild boar, and wolf, and attempts to elucidate injury patterns that can guide the forensic pathologist to identifying the species and modus operandi of the attacker. A tendency toward a species-specific injury pattern was observed. Injuries by bear and especially wolf are dominated by biting whereas moose and wild boar do not seem to bite their victims. The bear uses its paws, both for hitting, resulting in crush injury and fractures, and clawing with resulting excoriations and possible penetrating injuries. Crush injuries and fractures appear, on the other hand, to be minimal or absent in attacks by wolf and wild boar.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Traumatismo Múltiplo/patologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/patologia , Agressão , Animais , Exsanguinação/etiologia , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
9.
Animal ; 13(4): 835-844, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132431

RESUMO

Tail biting is a major welfare and economic problem in intensive pig production. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine tail lesion prevalence at a German abattoir, (2) test for associations between meat inspection findings and tail lesions, (3) assess the agreement between tail necrosis recorded during meat inspection and scored from pictures and (4) test whether the tail biting management tool 'Schwanzbeiß-Interventions-Programm' (SchwIP) had an effect on tail lesion prevalence. A total of three observers scored tail lesions from pictures of 43 328 pigs from 32 farms where SchwIP had been applied, and of 36 626 pigs from 32 control farms. Tail lesions were classified as score 0: no visible lesion, score 1: mild lesion, score 2: severe lesion and score 3: necrosis. In addition, complete loss of tail (CL) was recorded. Tail necrosis was the only tail-related carcase finding recorded by meat inspectors. (1) Tail lesion prevalences in pigs from control farms were 23.6% for score 1, 1.02% for score 2, 0.55% for score 3 and 0.41% for CL. The combined prevalence of any lesion and/or CL was 25.4%. (2) Pleurisy, lung findings, signs of inflammation in the legs, arthritis and abscesses were the most frequent meat inspection findings (prevalences of 8.46%, 8.09%, 2.99%, 0.83% and 0.23%, respectively; n=79 954 pigs). Leg inflammation, arthritis and abscesses were more prevalent in pigs with tail lesions of any degree compared with pigs without tail lesions (3.39% v. 2.83%, 1.06% v. 0.75% and 0.39% v. 0.17%, respectively; all P<0.001, n=79 954 pigs). Pigs with severe tail lesions also had more lung findings (2.00% v. 0.17%, P<0.001). (3) Tail necrosis scored during meat inspection resulted in lower prevalence than scored from pictures (0.22% v. 0.69%; n=79 954 SchwIP and control farm pigs). (4) Although tail lesion prevalence was significantly higher in pigs from SchwIP than in pigs from control farms during the first 3 months (32.2% v. 23.8%, P=0.015), it was not significantly higher during the remainder of the year (22.6 v. 26.9, 24.4 v. 21.4 and 24.0 v. 28.0, second, third and fourth quarters, respectively). In conclusion, meat inspection results in much lower tail lesion prevalences than tail lesion assessment from pictures, even if only the category 'necrosis' is compared. Advising farms on tail biting using the management tool SchwIP helped to decrease the prevalence of tail lesions on problem farms.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Carne , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Cauda/patologia , Matadouros , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Necrose , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209330, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571785

RESUMO

Taphonomic analyses of bone-surface modifications can provide key insights into past biotic involvement with animal remains, as well as elucidate the context(s) of other biostratinomic (pre-burial) processes, diagenesis, excavation, preparation and storage. Such analyses, however, first require researchers to rigorously disambiguate between continuums of damage morphologies prior to attributing individual marks to specific actors and effectors (e.g., carnivore tooth, stone tool cutting edge, etc.). To date, a number of bone-modifying agents have been identified, and criteria for identifying their traces have been published. Relatively little research, however, has focused on bone-surface modifications imparted during specimen preparation. Herein we report that air scribes, small pneumatic tools commonly used for preparation in museum contexts, can generate unintentional marks that may mimic surficial modification caused by carnivores. To aid investigators in assessing the hypothesis that a mark in question is derived from air-scribe preparation activities, we provide high-resolution, detailed morphological information imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main diagnostic characteristic of air-scribe damage is the occurrence of sequential, variously spaced, sub-millimeter scallop-like stepped bone removals. This morphology can resemble damage imparted by carnivore teeth. In contrast to marks produced by trampling, stone tools and carnivores, however, no continuous internal features, such as linear microstriations, were observed within grooves produced by the air scribe. Thus, the presence of such features can be used to disprove an air-scribe origin. A culmination of the morphological criteria presented herein, cross-cutting relationships with other surficial features (e.g., diagenetic discoloration, weathering textures), the position of occurrence, and an overall contextual framework for the assemblage is suggested for accurate identification of such traces. The ability to recognize or disprove air-scribe damage will allow researchers to confidently proceed with interpreting past biological and sedimentological interactions with animal remains.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Paleontologia/métodos , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Restos Mortais/ultraestrutura , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Carnívoros , Fósseis/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Museus , Paleontologia/instrumentação , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 29(4): 527-530, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309824

RESUMO

Jellyfish have been increasing at a global scale in recent years. These blooms not only have deleterious effects on marine ecosystems, they also increase the risk of jellyfish stings and accompanying envenomation. Here, we report a fatal case of pulmonary edema caused by jellyfish envenomation in a child in Korea. The patient died 4 h after envenomation despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nemopilema nomurai was the suspected species of jellyfish encountered by the patient, although we are unable to confirm this. With this case report, we aim to inform on the serious issue of toxicity associated with jellyfish species that bloom mainly along Korean, east Chinese, and Japanese shores and to discuss appropriate first aid methods in case of jellyfish stings.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Venenos de Cnidários/envenenamento , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Cifozoários , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/fisiopatologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Coreia (Geográfico) , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Edema Pulmonar/terapia
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15959, 2018 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374155

RESUMO

Dog-incurred injury is a serious public health concern worldwide, especially for children, responsible for numerous infectious diseases, such as rabies. Our study aims to investigate the current status of dog-incurred injury and its prevention among special groups of children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among migrant children (MC) and non-MC, "left-behind" children (LBC) and non-LBC in two cities in southern China. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and experience with dog-incurred injury, to assess knowledge of dog behaviour and rabies prevention and attitudes in risk identification and practice in risk behaviour. A total of 9,380 children aged 6-19 years old participated in this study. The self-reported prevalence of overall lifetime dog-incurred injuries in MC was 19.4% (vs. 11.2% in non-MC, χ2 = 175.8) and LBC was 20.6% (vs. 13.5% in non-LBC, χ2 = 114.1). MC were more likely to provoke a dog before the injury happened (12.7% vs 11.0%), while LBC (13.3% vs. 10.7%) and non-MC (13.1% vs. 12.2%) did not manage their wounds (all P < 0.001). 45.6% of victims were alone when the attack happened. MC from other provinces who live in rural areas and LBC with their mother absent had the lowest levels of knowledge among the groups. Taken together, MC and LBC are at greater risk for dog-incurred injury. They had lower knowledge of and attitudes towards prevention and more high-risk behaviour. Therefore, an appropriate public health education intervention is needed for schoolchildren regarding the prevention and management of dog-incurred injury and disease.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Raiva/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 29(4): 521-526, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236886

RESUMO

Fire corals (Millepora spp) are the second most common reef-forming organisms and are frequently found in tropical and subtropical waters. Fire corals are not true corals but rather hydrozoans more closely related to jellyfish and sea nettles. Rigidly affixed to the reef and with a branching structure, each fire coral is a colony of numerous individual hydrozoans forming a collective symbiotic organism. It is common for divers to accidentally make contact with fire corals. Fire coral contact is characterized by the immediate onset of burning pain caused by venom discharge from numerous tiny nematocysts located externally on the creature. Treatment consists of saltwater irrigation of the wound, nematocyst removal, and supportive care of the associated symptoms of pain, dermatitis, and pruritus. Rarely, fire coral can cause systemic toxicity. We present a case report of a 30-y-old recreational diver who experienced a fire coral sting of her left anterior thigh and review the recommended prevention and management of fire coral stings.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Venenos de Cnidários/envenenamento , Hidrozoários , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas/fisiopatologia , Venenos de Cnidários/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia Combinada , Mergulho , Feminino , Florida , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Recreação , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 36(10): 1927.e1-1927.e2, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare dermatologic reaction characterized by an erythematous rash with pustular erosions, fever and leukocytosis. Although most often secondary to antibiotic use, AGEP has also been associated with many drugs. A thorough literature search showed only four previously documented cases of ibuprofen-associated AGEP, and one case of dog bite-associated AGEP. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 46 year old Caucasian female who developed AGEP after self-treating with ibuprofen for a dog bite. CONCLUSION: In the clinical setting this rash is often dramatic and illuminating the causative agent can be a diagnostic challenge. Our case represents a rare cause of AGEP and an important finding for current practitioners.


Assuntos
Pustulose Exantematosa Aguda Generalizada/patologia , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Pustulose Exantematosa Aguda Generalizada/etiologia , Pustulose Exantematosa Aguda Generalizada/imunologia , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos , Mordeduras e Picadas/tratamento farmacológico , Mordeduras e Picadas/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Vet Ital ; 54(2): 175-180, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019334

RESUMO

The present case study concerns a case of predation of 4 individuals of captive pink flamingo in Emilia Romagna Region, Northeastern Italy. The pink flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is a species included in the Red List of Threatened Species established by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) which lists species in danger of extinction. During the Winter of 2013, 4 flamingos (2 in the Comacchio area, and 2 from Argenta and Codigoro oases - Ferrara province) were found dead some of them headless, with their bodies severely bitten. At first, a fox (Vulpes vulpes) was suspected to be the predator responsible for the killing and the birds were taken to the laboratory for further investigations. The investigations included: field observations, study of the predator behaviour, necropsy examinations, assessment of the intercanine distance, and genetic analysis on the predator's traces. The intercanine distance indicated that the predator could not have been a fox. The analysis of salivary DNA samples enabled us to establish that the predator was in fact a dog. This case highlights the importance of co-operation among the various branches of forensic sciences and the great usefulness of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in solving crime.


Assuntos
Aves/lesões , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Cães , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Ciências Forenses , Itália , Comportamento Predatório , Medicina Veterinária
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