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1.
Life Sci ; 314: 121344, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587788

RESUMO

Adolescence is a neurobiological critical period for neurodevelopmental processes. Adolescent opioid exposure can affect cognitive abilities via regional-specific lasting changes in brain structure and function. The current study was therefore designed to assess the long-term effects of adolescent morphine exposure on dark avoidance memory and synaptic plasticity of the ventral hippocampal CA1. Adolescent Wistar rats received escalating doses of morphine for 10 days. Morphine injections were started with an incremental dose of 2.5 mg/kg to reach a dose of 25 mg/kg. 30 days after the last injection, inhibitory memory and in vitro field potential recording were evaluated. Also, the weight of the animals was measured during drug and post-drug exposure. We found that adolescent morphine exposure decreased weight gain during morphine and post-morphine exposure. Passive avoidance memory was impaired in the morphine group. Moreover, adolescent morphine exposure caused an increase in baseline synaptic responsiveness and failed long-term potentiation (LTP) in the ventral hippocampal CA1 during adulthood. In the morphine group, the mean values of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) slopes required to elicit a half-maximal population spike (PS) amplitude were significantly greater than that of the saline group. Therefore, adolescent morphine exposure has a durable effect on memory functions, synaptic activity, and plasticity of ventral hippocampal CA1. Adults with adolescent morphine exposures may experience maladaptive behaviors and cognitive disabilities.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Morfina , Ratos , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Plasticidade Neuronal
2.
Neurosci Lett ; 795: 137048, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603738

RESUMO

Administration of morphine is associated with critical complications in clinic which primarily includes the development of dependence and tolerance even following a single dose (acute) exposure. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies support the significant role of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in tolerance and dependence following chronic morphine exposure. The current study was designed to explore the electrophysiological properties of the LC neurons following acute morphine exposure. In-vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in LC neurons 24 h after intraperitoneal morphine injection. Acute morphine injection significantly decreased the spontaneous firing rate of LC neurons, the rising and decay slopes of action potentials, and consequently increased the action potential duration. In addition, morphine treatment did not alter the rheobase current and first spike latency while affected the inhibitory postsynaptic currents elicited in response to orexin-A. In fact, single morphine exposure could inhibit the disinhibitory effect of orexin-A on LC neurons.


Assuntos
Locus Cerúleo , Morfina , Ratos , Animais , Orexinas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Morfina/farmacologia , Neurônios
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 643: 96-104, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592585

RESUMO

Opioids are highly potent analgesics but develop tolerance. Previous studies have focused on phosphorylation of the µ-opioid receptor as it is involved in maintaining cellular sensitivity via desensitization, recycling, and degradation of the activated receptor. Recently, ubiquitination, another form of posttranslational modification has attracted attention in terms of triggering intracellular signaling and regulation of the activated receptor. Here, we generated a ubiquitination-deficient mutant of the µ-opioid receptor to investigate whether ubiquitination is involved in driving Gi/o-mediated analgesic signaling, receptor desensitization or subsequent receptor internalization. Our study shows that the Gi/o pathway and receptor phosphorylation do not require ubiquitination. Instead, ubiquitination regulates the internalization efficiency and might help in promoting internalization of the desensitized MOP.


Assuntos
Morfina , Receptores Opioides mu , Morfina/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Ubiquitinação
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674576

RESUMO

We attempted to examine the alterations elicited by opioids via coexpressed µ-opioid (MOP) and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptors for receptor localization and Erk1/2 (p44/42 MAPK) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Through two-photon microscopy, the proximity of MOP and NOP receptors was verified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and morphine but not buprenorphine facilitated the process of MOP-NOP heterodimerization. Single-particle tracking (SPT) further revealed that morphine or buprenorphine hindered the movement of the MOP-NOP heterodimers. After exposure to morphine or buprenorphine, receptor localization on lipid rafts was detected by immunocytochemistry, and phosphorylation of Erk1/2 was determined by immunoblotting in HEK 293 cells expressing MOP, NOP, or MOP+NOP receptors. Colocalization of MOP and NOP on lipid rafts was enhanced by morphine but not buprenorphine. Morphine stimulated the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 with a similar potency in HEK 293 cells expressing MOP and MOP+NOP receptors, but buprenorphine appeared to activate Erk1/2 solely through NOP receptors. Our results suggest that opioids can fine-tune the cellular localization of opioid receptors and phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in MOP+NOP-expressing cells.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Receptores Opioides , Humanos , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Fosforilação , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Buprenorfina/farmacologia , Morfina/farmacologia
5.
Hippocampus ; 33(1): 47-62, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514833

RESUMO

We aimed to study how morphine affects synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and CA1 regions along the hippocampal long axis. For this, recording and measuring of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were utilized to test the effects of repeated morphine exposure on paired-pulse evoked responses and long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 (Sch-CA1), temporoammonic-CA1 (TA-CA1) and perforant pathway-dentate gyrus (PP-DG) synapses in transverse slices from the dorsal (DH), intermediate (IH), and ventral (VH) hippocampus in adult male rats. After repeated morphine exposure, the expression of opioid receptors and the α1 and α5 GABAA subunits were also examined. We found that repeated morphine exposure blunt the difference between the DH and the VH in their basal levels of synaptic transmission at Sch-CA1 synapses that were seen in the control groups. Significant paired-pulse facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission was observed at Sch-CA1 synapses in slices taken from all three hippocampal segments as well as at PP-DG synapses in slices taken from the VH segment in the morphine-treated groups as compared to the control groups. Interestingly, significant paired-pulse inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission was observed at TA-CA1 synapses in the DH slices from the morphine-treated group as compared to the control group. While primed-burst stimulation (a protocol reflecting normal neuronal firing) induced a robust LTP in hippocampal subfields in all control groups, resulting in a decaying LTP at TA-CA1 synapses in the VH slices and at PP-DG synapses in both the IH and VH slices taken from the morphine-treated rats. In the DH of morphine-treated rats, we found increased levels of the mRNAs encoding the α1 and α5 GABAA subunits as compared to the control group. Taken together, these findings suggest the potential mechanisms through which repeated morphine exposure causes differential changes in circuit excitability and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus and CA1 regions along the hippocampal long axis.


Assuntos
Morfina , Via Perfurante , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Giro Denteado , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
6.
Brain Res ; 1798: 148150, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343725

RESUMO

The lateral habenula (LHb), known as the brain structure of the epithalamic, plays the main role in depression and drug addiction. The glutamatergic system influences morphine reward. The effect of activation/inhibition of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in the LHb on different phases of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) remains unknown. In this research, the effect of bilateral intra-LHb microinjection of AMPARs agonist and antagonist on the acquisition and expression phases of CPP in male rats has been investigated. Different doses of NBQX, the antagonist of AMPARs, in combination with the effective dose of morphine, increased the CPP score during the acquisition phase. While AMPA, the agonist of AMPARs, significantly reduced the conditioning scores in the acquisition phase. Pretreatment with NBQX (0.5 and 1 µg/rat) reversed the inhibitory effect of AMPA (1 µg/rat) on the acquisition phase of morphine-induced CPP. The antagonist (1 µg/rat) increased the effect of a high dose of agonist (2 µg/rat) on CPP. On the other hand, NBQX significantly increased CPP scores during the expression phase. AMPA did not significantly affect CPP scores in the expression phase, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in the test phase. These results confirmed the importance of AMPARs in the LHb in morphine reward. Our data also suggest that injection of an AMPARs antagonist into the LHb may alter the AMPA-induced morphine response in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Habenula , Morfina , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Morfina/farmacologia , Morfina/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Habenula/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-isoxazol Propiônico , Condicionamento Clássico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
7.
Brain Behav Immun ; 107: 140-151, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe pain in patients can be alleviated by morphine treatment. However, long-term morphine treatment induces analgesic tolerance and the molecular mechanism of morphine analgesic intolerance is still not fully elucidated. Therefore, a novel target for improving morphine analgesic tolerance is required. Whole-genome sequencing showed that circNf1 is highly expressed in the dorsal horns of morphine-treated rats. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are known to be unique and conserved cellular molecules that are mostly present in cytoplasm and participate in various biochemical processes with different functions. Therefore, we focused on exploring the molecular mechanism by which circNf1 contributes to morphine analgesic tolerance. METHODS: CircRNA sequencing revealed differential expression of circRNAs after morphine treatment, and bioinformatics software programs (miRNAda, PicTar, and RNAhybrid) were used to predict possible mRNAs and binding sites. RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP), chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), western blotting, biotin-coupled probe pull-down assay, luciferase assay, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were conducted to detect and measure the expression levels of circRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins. Intrathecal injections of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNA (miRNA) agomirs, and functional virus microinjections were administered to artificially mediate the expression of molecules. Tail immersion and hotplate tests were performed to evaluate morphine analgesic tolerance. RESULTS: Morphine-induced circNf1 expression was high in the spinal cord. RIP-PCR and luciferase assay data showed that circNf1 could combine with both miR-330-3p and miR-665, and FISH showed that circNf1 co-localized with miR-330-3p and miR-665. qRT-PCR assay showed downregulation of miR-330-3p and miR-665 in morphine-treated rats; western blotting results showed that CXCL12 increased after morphine treatment, however, the upregulation of CXCL12 could be alleviated after the intrathecal injection of miR-330-3p as well as miR-665 agomir. qRT-PCR indicated that circNf1 can bind to CXCL12 promoter, the increased circNf1 can enhance CXCL12 mRNA in naïve rats, and inhibition of circNf1 can alleviate the upregulation of CXCL12 mRNA in morphine-treated rats. Behavioral tests revealed that inhibition of circNf1 and CXCL12 and the enhancement of miR-330-3p and miR-665 can alleviate morphine analgesic tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates a novel pathway that can contribute to morphine analgesic tolerance, the circRNA to cytokine pathway, in which circNf1 functions as a sponge for miR-330-3p and miR-665 and induces the upregulation of CXCL12 at both transcriptional and translational levels in morphine-treated rats.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Morfina , Ratos , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Medula Espinal , RNA Mensageiro , Quimiocina CXCL12 , MicroRNAs/genética
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 639: 142-149, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493557

RESUMO

Irregular regeneration or inappropriate remodeling of the axons of the primary afferent neurons after peripheral nerve trauma could be associated with the development of neuropathic pain. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms for the neuritogenesis and neurite outgrowth caused by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and evaluated their opioid modulation. PGE2 in combination with IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, caused neuritogenesis/neurite outgrowth in DRG cells, an effect abolished by a prostanoid EP4, but not EP2, receptor antagonist, and inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase or protein kinase A (PKA). Blockers of T-type Ca2+ channels (T-channels), that are responsible for window currents involving the sustained low-level Ca2+ entry at voltages near the resting membrane potentials and can be functionally upregulated by PKA, inhibited the neuritogenesis/neurite outgrowth caused by PGE2/IBMX or dibutylyl cyclic AMP, a PKA activator, in DRG neurons, an inhibitory effect mimicked by ZnCl2 and ascorbic acid that block Cav3.2, but not Cav3.1 or Cav3.3, T-channels. Morphine and DAMGO, µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, suppressed the neuritogenesis and/or neurite outgrowth induced by PGE2/IBMX in DRG neurons and also DRG neuron-like ND7/23 cells, an effect reversed by naloxone or ß-funaltrexamine, a selective MOR antagonist. Our data suggest that the EP4 receptor/PKA/Cav3.2 pathway is involved in the PGE2-induced neuritogenesis/neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons, which can be suppressed by MOR stimulation. We propose that MOR agonists including morphine in the early phase after peripheral nerve trauma might delay the axonal regeneration of the primary afferent neurons but prevent the development of neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Neuralgia , Animais , Camundongos , 1-Metil-3-Isobutilxantina/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Morfina/farmacologia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Crescimento Neuronal , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2
9.
Addict Biol ; 28(1): e13247, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577719

RESUMO

Chronic opioid exposure causes structural and functional changes in brain circuits, which may contribute to opioid use disorders. Synaptic cell-adhesion molecules are prime candidates for mediating this opioid-evoked plasticity. Neuroligin-3 (NL3) is an X-linked postsynaptic adhesion protein that shapes synaptic function at multiple sites in the mesolimbic dopamine system. We therefore studied how genetic knockout of NL3 alters responses to chronic morphine in male mice. Constitutive NL3 knockout caused a persistent reduction in psychomotor sensitization after chronic morphine exposure and change in the topography of locomotor stimulation produced by morphine. This latter change was recapitulated by conditional genetic deletion of NL3 from cells expressing the Drd1 dopamine receptor, whereas reduced psychomotor sensitization was recapitulated by conditional genetic deletion from dopamine neurons. Without NL3 expression, dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area exhibited diminished activation following chronic morphine exposure, by measuring in vivo calcium signals with fibre photometry. This altered pattern of dopamine neuron activity may be driven by aberrant forms of opioid-evoked synaptic plasticity in the absence of NL3: dopamine neurons lacking NL3 showed weaker synaptic inhibition at baseline, which was subsequently strengthened after chronic morphine. In total, our study highlights neurobiological adaptations in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area that correspond with increased behavioural sensitivity to opioids and further suggests that NL3 expression by dopamine neurons provides a molecular substrate for opioid-evoked adaptations in brain function and behaviour.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Morfina , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Dopamina/fisiologia , Analgésicos Opioides , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244467

RESUMO

Embryonic morphine exposure (EME) leads to abnormal brain development and behavior in the offspring, and the functional alteration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is considered to be one of the important mechanisms. To mimic the problem of susceptibility of human gestational drug abuse on addictive drugs in offspring, we administered morphine exposure on days 5-8 and 13-16 of chicken embryo development and examined the functions of GABA neurons and their receptors in postnatal chicks by neuroelectrophysiology, immunohistochemistry and behavioral methods. We found that morphine exposure during embryonic stages 5-8 (MorphineE5-8) significantly reduced the incidence of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic potentiation (IPSP) and the induction of evoked IPSP and the mean amplitude of GABAA agonist muscimol-induced response in the intermediate medial interstitial (IMM) region, compared to naïve controls or saline-exposed chicks. The results of immunocytochemistry further suggest that MorphineE5-8 decreased the synaptic density of GAD-expressing sites in the IMM, while increased the expression of the GABAA receptor subtype γ2 isoform. Behavioral results found that Morphine5-8 treatment de-inhibited morphine-induced psychomotor responses in postnatal chicks. Morphine exposure at embryonic stages 13-16 (MorphineE13-16) showed no significant changes in the above indicators compared to the saline group. Evidence suggests that early embryonic morphine exposure leads to defects in GABAergic function in the IMM, which in turn alters the responsiveness of postnatal chicks to addictive drugs. These results will help to understand the GABA mechanisms by which embryonic addictive drug exposure contributes to offspring susceptibility to addiction.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Morfina , Humanos , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Morfina/farmacologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neurônios , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo
11.
Peptides ; 160: 170926, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565856

RESUMO

The present study, regarding the orexin receptors having a pivotal role in reward-related psychostimulant use disorder (PUD), aimed to investigate the role of orexin-2 (OX2) receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (HPC) in the extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine (METH)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). In the first set of investigations, to determine the role of OX2 receptors in the extinction of METH-induced CPP, rats were daily given (during the extinction) bilaterally intra-CA1 region different doses of TCS OX2 29 (1, 3, 10, and 30 nmol/0.5 µl 12% DMSO) as the selective OX2 receptor antagonist. Then, to demonstrate the role of OX2 receptors in the reinstatement of METH-induced CPP after the extinction was established, each rat bilaterally received TCS OX2 29 at the same doses in the CA1 region before injection of the sub-threshold (priming) dose of METH (0.25 mg/kg, sc) on the reinstatement day. The data revealed that the administration of TCS OX2 29 in the CA1 region reduces the mean extinction latency and suppresses the reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior in extinguished rats. Additionally, the potency of TCS OX2 29 to inhibit the reinstatement phase was higher compared to the potency of this drug to modulate the extinction phase of METH-induced CPP. Accordingly, it could be concluded that the blockade of the OX2 receptors in this area might be an essential application and potential therapeutics in treating METH use disorder.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica , Metanfetamina , Ratos , Animais , Orexinas/farmacologia , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Morfina/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo
12.
Neurosci Lett ; 795: 137041, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586531

RESUMO

Nowadays various analgesic medications are used for the management of acute and chronic pain. Among these opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs stand in the first line of therapy, however, prolonged administration of these substance is generally challenged by development of analgesic tolerance in patients. Therefore, it is highly valuable to find new pharmacological strategies for prolonged therapeutic procedures. In this respect, Taurine, a free amino acid, has been shown to induce significant analgesia at both spinal and peripheral levels through cholinergic mechanisms. In the present study, we used hot-plate analgesic test to investigate how taurine either as a single medication or in combination with sodium salicylate and morphine may affect both acute response to pain and development of analgesic tolerance. The effect of taurine was also tested on morphine withdrawal syndrome. Hyoscine butyl bromide was used to assess the role of muscarinic receptors in taurine-mediated effects. Finally, biochemical assay was done to reveal how the activity of brain acetylcholinesterase may change in relation with muscarinic receptor activity. Results indicated that acute administration of taurine-sodium salicylate combination causes more potent analgesia compared to the use of tau (but not SS alone) and this seems to be mediated via activity of muscarinic receptors in peripheral nervous system. Furthermore, the effect of this combination undergoes less analgesic tolerance during time. Combination of taurine and morphine is an effective strategy to attenuate both morphine analgesic tolerance and dependence and this also seems to depend on activity of muscarinic receptors, however through differential cellular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Morfina , Humanos , Morfina/farmacologia , Salicilato de Sódio/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1012884, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466814

RESUMO

The twin pandemics of opioid abuse and HIV infection can have devastating effects on physiological systems, including on the brain. Our previous work found that morphine increased the viral reservoir in the brains of treated SIV-infected macaques. In this study, we investigated the interaction of morphine and SIV to identify novel host-specific targets using a multimodal approach. We probed systemic parameters and performed single-cell examination of the targets for infection in the brain, microglia and macrophages. Morphine treatment created an immunosuppressive environment, blunting initial responses to infection, which persisted during antiretroviral treatment. Antiretroviral drug concentrations and penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid and brain were unchanged by morphine treatment. Interestingly, the transcriptional signature of both microglia and brain macrophages was transformed to one of a neurodegenerative phenotype. Notably, the expression of osteopontin, a pleiotropic cytokine, was significantly elevated in microglia. This was especially notable in the white matter, which is also dually affected by HIV and opioids. Increased osteopontin expression was linked to numerous HIV neuropathogenic mechanisms, including those that can maintain a viral reservoir. The opioid morphine is detrimental to SIV/HIV infection, especially in the brain.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Morfina , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Osteopontina/genética , Encéfalo , Analgésicos Opioides , Antirretrovirais , Macaca , Expressão Gênica
14.
Physiol Int ; 109(4): 457-474, 2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480169

RESUMO

Purpose: The interaction of orexinergic neurons with the opioidergic system and their effects on morphine analgesia and tolerance have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of the orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor (OX1R and OX2R) agonist and antagonist on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats. Material and methods: A total of 90 Wistar albino male rats weighing 180-220 g were used in the experiments. To induce morphine tolerance, rats were injected with a single dose of morphine (50 mg kg-1, s.c.) for 3 days. Morphine tolerance was assessed on day 4 in randomly selected rats by analgesia tests. In order to evaluate morphine tolerance situation, orexin-A, SB-334867, orexin-B and TCS OX2 29 were administered together with morphine for 3 days. The analgesic effects of orexin-A (10 µg kg-1), OXR1 antagonist SB-334867 (10 mg kg-1), OXR2 agonist orexin-B (15 µg kg-1), OXR2 antagonist TCS OX2 29 (0.5 mg kg-1) and morphine (5 mg kg-1) were measured at 15 or 30-min intervals by tail-flick and hot-plate antinociceptive tests. Results: The results suggested that the combination of orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 and orexin-B with morphine significantly increased the analgesic effect compared to morphine-tolerant rats. In addition, administration of orexin-A and -B alone showed significant analgesic effects compared to the saline group. However, co-administration of orexin-A and -B with morphine did not increase the analgesic efficacy of morphine. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that co-administration of SB-334867 and orexin-B with morphine attenuated morphine tolerance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the details of the interaction between orexin receptors and the opioidergic system.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Morfina , Ratos , Animais , Receptores de Orexina/fisiologia , Morfina/farmacologia , Orexinas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Analgésicos/farmacologia
15.
Cells ; 11(23)2022 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497184

RESUMO

Morphine, a commonly used antinociceptive drug in hospitals, is known to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by first passing through brain endothelial cells. Despite its pain-relieving effect, morphine also has detrimental effects, such as the potential induction of redox imbalance in the brain. However, there is still insufficient evidence of these effects on the brain, particularly on the brain endothelial cells and the extracellular vesicles that they naturally release. Indeed, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized bioparticles produced by almost all cell types and are currently thought to reflect the physiological state of their parent cells. These vesicles have emerged as a promising source of biomarkers by indicating the functional or dysfunctional state of their parent cells and, thus, allowing a better understanding of the biological processes involved in an adverse state. However, there is very little information on the morphine effect on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), and even less on their released EVs. Therefore, the current study aimed at unraveling the detrimental mechanisms of morphine exposure (at 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM) for 24 h on human brain microvascular endothelial cells as well as on their associated EVs. Isolation of EVs was carried out using an affinity-based method. Several orthogonal techniques (NTA, western blotting and proteomics analysis) were used to validate the EVs enrichment, quality and concentration. Data-independent mass spectrometry (DIA-MS)-based proteomics was applied in order to analyze the proteome modulations induced by morphine on HBMECs and EVs. We were able to quantify almost 5500 proteins in HBMECs and 1500 proteins in EVs, of which 256 and 148, respectively, were found to be differentially expressed in at least one condition. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the "cell adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling" process and the "HIF1 pathway", a pathway related to oxidative stress responses, were significantly modulated upon morphine exposure in HBMECs and EVs. Altogether, the combination of proteomics and bioinformatics findings highlighted shared pathways between HBMECs exposed to morphine and their released EVs. These results put forward molecular signatures of morphine-induced toxicity in HBMECs that were also carried by EVs. Therefore, EVs could potentially be regarded as a useful tool to investigate brain endothelial cells dysfunction, and to a different extent, the BBB dysfunction in patient circulation using these "signature pathways".


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Morfina , Humanos , Morfina/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555511

RESUMO

Opioid drugs are the most effective tools for treating moderate to severe pain. Despite their analgesic efficacy, long-term opioid use can lead to drug tolerance, addiction, and sleep/wake disturbances. While the link between opioids and sleep/wake problems is well-documented, the mechanism underlying opioid-related sleep/wake problems remains largely unresolved. Importantly, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), the cells that transmit environmental light/dark information to the brain's sleep/circadian centers to regulate sleep/wake behavior, express µ-opioid receptors (MORs). In this study, we explored the potential contribution of ipRGCs to opioid-related sleep/circadian disruptions. Using implanted telemetry transmitters, we measured changes in horizontal locomotor activity and body temperature in mice over the course of a chronic morphine paradigm. Mice lacking MORs expressed by ipRGCs (McKO) exhibited reduced morphine-induced behavioral activation/sensitization compared with control littermates with normal patterns of MOR expression. Contrastingly, mice lacking MORs globally (MKO) did not acquire morphine-induced locomotor activation/sensitization. Control mice also showed morphine-induced hypothermia in both the light and dark phases, while McKO littermates only exhibited morphine-induced hypothermia in the dark. Interestingly, only control animals appeared to acquire tolerance to morphine's hypothermic effect. Morphine, however, did not acutely decrease the body temperature of MKO mice. These findings support the idea that MORs expressed by ipRGCs could contribute to opioid-related sleep/wake problems and thermoregulatory changes.


Assuntos
Dermatite Fototóxica , Morfina , Camundongos , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Morfina/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Dor/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Dermatite Fototóxica/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557917

RESUMO

There is still an unmet clinical need to develop new pharmaceuticals for effective and safe pain management. Current pharmacotherapy offers unsatisfactory solutions due to serious side effects related to the chronic use of opioid drugs. Prescription opioids produce analgesia through activation of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and are major contributors to the current opioid crisis. Multifunctional ligands possessing activity at more than one receptor represent a prominent therapeutic approach for the treatment of pain with fewer adverse effects. We recently reported on the design of a bifunctional MOR agonist/neuropeptide FF receptor (NPFFR) antagonist peptididomimetic, KGFF09 (H-Dmt-DArg-Aba-ßAla-Bpa-Phe-NH2), and its antinociceptive effects after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in acute and persistent pain in mice with reduced propensity for unwanted side effects. In this study, we further investigated the antinociceptive properties of KGFF09 in a mouse model of visceral pain after s.c. administration and the potential for opioid-related liabilities of rewarding and sedation/locomotor dysfunction following chronic treatment. KGFF09 produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of the writhing behavior in the acetic acid-induced writhing assay with increased potency when compared to morphine. We also demonstrated the absence of harmful effects caused by typical MOR agonists, i.e., rewarding effects (conditioned-place preference test) and sedation/locomotor impairment (open-field test), at a dose shown to be highly effective in inhibiting pain behavior. Consequently, KGFF09 displayed a favorable benefit/side effect ratio regarding these opioid-related side effects compared to conventional opioid analgesics, such as morphine, underlining the development of dual MOR agonists/NPFFR antagonists as improved treatments for various pain conditions.


Assuntos
Peptidomiméticos , Dor Visceral , Camundongos , Animais , Analgésicos Opioides , Peptidomiméticos/farmacologia , Dor Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Visceral/induzido quimicamente , Morfina/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP
18.
Indian J Med Res ; 156(1): 70-76, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510900

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Several studies have provided evidence that opioids may play a role in cancer recurrence and metastasis. Multiple research data indicate that morphine can act as a proliferative or suppressive agent on tumour cells depending on the applied concentration. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate whether the presence of clinically relevant concentrations of morphine has any effect on the efficacy of paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, on the viability and apoptosis of human triple-negative breast cancer cell line. Methods: MDA.MB.231 cells were treated with paclitaxel in the presence or absence of morphine and examined for cell proliferation by the MTT assay. In addition, the effect of morphine on paclitaxel-induced apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometric assay and by the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels with quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. Results: Morphine significantly increased the proliferation of breast cancer cells at low concentrations (0.1-2.5 µM) but higher concentrations showed cytotoxic effect. Pre-treatment with 0.1 or 1 µM of morphine decreased the paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity, the proportion of apoptotic cell, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expressions. Interpretation & conclusions: Our data suggest that morphine promotes breast cancer cell viability at clinically relevant plasma concentrations and reduces the apoptotic effect of paclitaxel. This interaction may be very important in clinical settings; however, more studies are needed to explore the plausible mechanisms of interaction and to correlate such findings through in vivo animal studies as well as clinically.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Morfina/farmacologia , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Proliferação de Células , Apoptose , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , RNA Mensageiro
19.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 23(1): 92, 2022 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer rely on morphine for analgesia, while studies have indicated morphine can induce immunosuppression in cancer. Therefore, investigating the immunosuppressive roles and molecular mechanism of morphine on lung cancer progression is imperative. METHODS: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of morphine to lung cancer cells. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was detected by flow cytometry. In addition, Maelstrom (MAEL), Nrf2, and PTEN were determined by western blot and RT-qPCR. Immune factors programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), transforming growth factor (TGF-ß), interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-2 were determined by western blot and ELISA assay. RESULTS: Morphine increased the levels of PD-L1, TGF-ß, and IL-10, while decreased IL-2 level. Morphine enhanced MAEL expression in A549 cells and H460 cells. Morphine up-regulated Nrf2 and down-regulated PTEN, and morphine-induced MAEL up-regulation was reversed by PTEN. However, MAEL silencing inhibited the enhanced effects of morphine on cell viability and proliferation of A549 cells. Furthermore, morphine treatment reduced the LDH release and the percentage of CD8+ T cells, and increased the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells and tumor weight. Meanwhile, MAEL silencing reversed the effects of morphine on immune factors (PD-L1, TGF-ß, IL-10, and IL-2), the percentage of CD8+ T cells, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSION: Morphine activated MAEL in lung cancer cells by Nrf2/PTEN pathway and regulated the immune factors, thereby promoting tumor immune escape.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Morfina/farmacologia , Interleucina-10 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Interleucina-2 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Imunidade
20.
Cell ; 185(23): 4361-4375.e19, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368306

RESUMO

Morphine and fentanyl are among the most used opioid drugs that confer analgesia and unwanted side effects through both G protein and arrestin signaling pathways of µ-opioid receptor (µOR). Here, we report structures of the human µOR-G protein complexes bound to morphine and fentanyl, which uncover key differences in how they bind the receptor. We also report structures of µOR bound to TRV130, PZM21, and SR17018, which reveal preferential interactions of these agonists with TM3 side of the ligand-binding pocket rather than TM6/7 side. In contrast, morphine and fentanyl form dual interactions with both TM3 and TM6/7 regions. Mutations at the TM6/7 interface abolish arrestin recruitment of µOR promoted by morphine and fentanyl. Ligands designed to reduce TM6/7 interactions display preferential G protein signaling. Our results provide crucial insights into fentanyl recognition and signaling of µOR, which may facilitate rational design of next-generation analgesics.


Assuntos
Fentanila , Morfina , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Arrestina/metabolismo , Fentanila/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Morfina/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides mu
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