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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25450, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficiency of fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) and femoral nerve block (FNB) for pain management in knee and hip surgeries. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library database, Web of Science) from inception to January 2019. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two review authors independently extracted data for each included study. Primary outcomes were visual analogue scale at 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, total morphine consumption, the length of hospital stay and the occurrence of nausea and vomiting. Standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for continuous outcomes and discontinuous outcomes respectively. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool to assess risk of bias. Stata 12.0 was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Finally, 7 RCTs involving 508 patients (FICB = 254, FNB = 254) were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with FNB group, FICB has no benefit for visual analogue scale at 12 hours (SMD = 0.02, 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.19; P = .820), 24 hours (SMD = -0.02, 95% CI, -0.22 to 0.18; P = .806), and 48 hours (SMD = -0.02, 95% CI, -0.22 to 0.19; P = .872). No significant differences were found regarding total morphine consumption (SMD = -0.07, 95% CI, -0.29 to 0.15; P = .533). What's more, there was no significant difference between the length of hospital stay and the occurrence of nausea and vomiting (P > .05). CONCLUSION: FICB has equivalent pain control and morphine-sparing efficacy when compared with FNB. More high-quality RCTs are needed to identify the optimal drugs and volume of local infiltration protocols.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Fáscia/inervação , Nervo Femoral , Humanos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013732, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is a potentially painful and discomforting intervention that is widely used in neonatal intensive care. Newborn infants demonstrate increased sensitivity to pain, which may affect clinical and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The use of drugs that reduce pain might be important in improving survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of opioid analgesics for neonates (term or preterm) receiving mechanical ventilation compared to placebo or no drug, other opioids, or other analgesics or sedatives. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 9), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 29 September 2020); Embase (1980 to 29 September 2020); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 29 September 2020). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing opioids to placebo or no drug, to other opioids, or to other analgesics or sedatives in newborn infants on mechanical ventilation. We excluded cross-over trials. We included term (≥ 37 weeks' gestational age) and preterm (< 37 weeks' gestational age) newborn infants on mechanical ventilation. We included any duration of drug treatment and any dosage given continuously or as bolus; we excluded studies that gave opioids to ventilated infants for procedures. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For each of the included trials, we independently extracted data (e.g. number of participants, birth weight, gestational age, types of opioids) using Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) criteria and assessed the risk of bias (e.g. adequacy of randomisation, blinding, completeness of follow-up). We evaluated treatment effects using a fixed-effect model with risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 23 studies (enrolling 2023 infants) published between 1992 and 2019. Fifteen studies (1632 infants) compared the use of morphine or fentanyl versus placebo or no intervention. Four studies included both term and preterm infants, and one study only term infants; all other studies included only preterm infants, with five studies including only very preterm infants. We are uncertain whether opioids have an effect on the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) Scale in the first 12 hours after infusion (MD -5.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.88 to -4.59; 50 participants, 2 studies) and between 12 and 48 hours after infusion (MD -0.98, 95% CI -1.35 to -0.61; 963 participants, 3 studies) because of limitations in study design, high heterogeneity (inconsistency), and imprecision of estimates (very low-certainty evidence - GRADE). The use of morphine or fentanyl probably has little or no effect in reducing duration of mechanical ventilation (MD 0.23 days, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.83; 1259 participants, 7 studies; moderate-certainty evidence because of unclear risk of bias in most studies) and neonatal mortality (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.55; 1189 participants, 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence because of imprecision of estimates). We are uncertain whether opioids have an effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 24 months (RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.39 to 10.29; 78 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence because of serious imprecision of the estimates and indirectness). Limited data were available for the other comparisons (i.e. two studies (54 infants) on morphine versus midazolam, three (222 infants) on morphine versus fentanyl, and one each on morphine versus diamorphine (88 infants), morphine versus remifentanil (20 infants), fentanyl versus sufentanil (20 infants), and fentanyl versus remifentanil (24 infants)). For these comparisons, no meta-analysis was conducted because outcomes were reported by one study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain whether opioids have an effect on pain and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 24 months; the use of morphine or fentanyl probably has little or no effect in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation and neonatal mortality. Data on the other comparisons planned in this review (opioids versus analgesics; opioids versus other opioids) are extremely limited and do not allow any conclusions. In the absence of firm evidence to support a routine policy, opioids should be used selectively - based on clinical judgement and evaluation of pain indicators - although pain measurement in newborns has limitations.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Viés , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Heroína/efeitos adversos , Heroína/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Remifentanil/efeitos adversos , Remifentanil/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Sufentanil/efeitos adversos , Sufentanil/uso terapêutico
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25319, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumbar spine surgery is associated with moderate-to-severe postoperative pain. Adequate pain management during the postoperative period facilitates rehabilitation. Recently, preemptive analgesia has been considered among the important analgesic methods for reducing postoperative pain. However, its efficacy in postoperative pain relief after lumbar spine surgery remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of preemptive analgesia on lumbar spine surgery. METHODS: We searched for randomized controlled trials in PubMed (1996 to May 2020), Embase (1980 to May 2020), and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, May 2020). We included seven studies that evaluated the preemptive analgesic efficacy in lumbar spine surgeries. RESULTS: Seven studies, including 509 patients, met the inclusion criteria. Pooled data revealed that preemptive analgesia is effective for lumbar spine surgeries with respect to the visual analog scale score (P < .05), total morphine equivalent consumption (P < .05), and length of stay (P < .05), without increasing complications (P = .73). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that preemptive analgesia is safe and effective for lumbar spine surgery.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Nurs ; 121(3): 60-63, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625014

RESUMO

This series on palliative care is developed in collaboration with the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association (HPNA; https://advancingexpertcare.org). The HPNA aims to guide nurses in preventing and relieving suffering and in giving the best possible care to patients and families, regardless of the stage of disease or the need for other therapies. The HPNA offers education, certification, advocacy, leadership, and research.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Infusões Parenterais , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cuidados Paliativos
6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 88-96, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid titration is the best way to achieve a balance of pain relief and tolerable side effects for moderate-to-severe cancer pain. Rapid dose titration helps to achieve early analgesia. We explored the efficacy and safety of a 12-hour rapid dose titration in treating cancer pain. METHODS: Opioid-naïve patients with moderate-to-severe cancer pain were randomly divided into oxycodone group and morphine group. The medicines were adjusted to oxycodone sustained-release tablets after 12 hours, and the dose of oxycodone sustained-release tablets was adjusted every 12 hours. The analgesic efficacy and adverse reactions during the treatment were observed until the 72nd hour. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients were included in the analysis, with 51 patients in the oxycodone group and 55 in the morphine group. The pain control rate of all patients reached 96.2% 24 hours after treatment, and it was not significantly different between two groups (P=0.619). The proportion of Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score that decreased by ≥50% was significantly higher in the oxycodone group than in the morphine group (P=0.013). In the first 12 hours and 24 hours, significantly lower proportions of patients in the oxycodone group experienced multiple episodes of breakthrough pain (BTP) than in the morphine group (P=0.032, P=0.021, respectively). The quality of life of the patients in the oxycodone group was significantly higher than that in the morphine group at the 24th hour (P=0.047), as was the degree to which the quality of life had improved (P<0.001). Only grade 1 or 2 adverse reactions were observed during the study period, and no significant difference between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The 12-hour rapid dose titration method can achieve early analgesia, with mild adverse reactions. In particular, the rapid titration method with background sustained-release oxycodone can reduce BTP episodes and achieve significant early pain relief.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Neoplasias , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Anesthesiology ; 134(3): 421-434, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate patterns in acute postoperative pain in a mixed surgical patient cohort with the hypothesis that there would be heterogeneity in these patterns. METHODS: This study included 360 patients from a mixed surgical cohort whose pain was measured across postoperative days 1 through 7. Pain was characterized using the Brief Pain Inventory. Primary analysis used group-based trajectory modeling to estimate trajectories/patterns of postoperative pain. Secondary analysis examined associations between sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral patient factors and pain trajectories. RESULTS: Five distinct postoperative pain trajectories were identified. Many patients (167 of 360, 46%) were in the moderate-to-high pain group, followed by the moderate-to-low (88 of 360, 24%), high (58 of 360, 17%), low (25 of 360, 7%), and decreasing (21 of 360, 6%) pain groups. Lower age (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91 to 0.99), female sex (odds ratio, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.49 to 15.6), higher anxiety (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.14), and more pain behaviors (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.18) were related to increased likelihood of being in the high pain trajectory in multivariable analysis. Preoperative and intraoperative opioids were not associated with postoperative pain trajectories. Pain trajectory group was, however, associated with postoperative opioid use (P < 0.001), with the high pain group (249.5 oral morphine milligram equivalents) requiring four times more opioids than the low pain group (60.0 oral morphine milligram equivalents). CONCLUSIONS: There are multiple distinct acute postoperative pain intensity trajectories, with 63% of patients reporting stable and sustained high or moderate-to-high pain over the first 7 days after surgery. These postoperative pain trajectories were predominantly defined by patient factors and not surgical factors.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 263-269, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wax microsphere bound oxycodone was developed as an abuse-deterrent opioid and maintains a similar pharmacokinetic profile whether administered with or without an intact capsule. We hypothesized that microsphere oxycodone could be utilized for extended release analgesia in patients undergoing radiation (RT) for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) and would not need to be discontinued due to dysphagia or gastrostomy tube dependence. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a prospective trial that enrolled participants > 18 years with histologically confirmed HNC who were scheduled to receive RT. Analgesia was prescribed in accordance with the WHO pain ladder. Microsphere oxycodone was initiated when total daily opioid dose exceeded 30 mg of morphine sulfate equivalent and was titrated weekly during RT. Pain level and effect on quality of life were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. The primary feasibility endpoint was frequency of microsphere oxycodone discontinuation within 3 months of RT for reasons other than pain resolution. RESULTS: Twenty-six eligible patients were enrolled. Microsphere oxycodone was initiated in 16 (61.5%) patients. Six (23.1%) patients utilized a gastrostomy tube to administer microsphere oxycodone during all or part of RT. Microsphere oxycodone was discontinued in 1 (7.6%) patient due to perceived inefficacy. No patients were discontinued due to toxicity or difficulty with administration. Ratings for average pain was 3.1 (± 3.4) at enrollment, 4.0 (± 2.4) at week 6 of RT, and 1.8 (± 2.2) at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the feasibility and safety of microsphere oxycodone for extended release analgesia among patients with HNC undergoing RT.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Analgesia , Transtornos de Deglutição , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gastrostomia , Humanos , Masculino , Microesferas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosite/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 41: 219-228, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of morphine on P2Y12 platelet inhibitors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were used to retrieve literature through 11th May 2019. Standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), P-value, and I2 value were used to assess the strength of the association in this meta-analysis. Outcomes included platelet reactivity, high residual platelet reactivity (HRPR), ticagrelor maximum concentration (Cmax), ticagrelor area under curve (AUC), death rate, reinfarction rate, stroke, stent thrombosis, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) hemorrhage, dyspnea, emesis, contrast-induced nephropathy, and pulmonary edema. RESULTS: A total of 13 articles were included in this study, containing 5688 patients (morphine group: n = 2014, control group: n = 3674). Results illustrated that the morphine group had a higher platelet reactivity (SMD: 0.834, 95%CI: 0.483-1.186, P < 0.001) and HRPR rate (RR: 1.994, 95%CI: 1.536-2.588, P < 0.001) than the control group, while the Cmax of ticagrelor (WMD: -481.838, 95%CI: -841.242-122.434, P = 0.009) was lower than that of the control group. The death rate of the morphine group was lower than that in the control group (RR: 0.561, 95%CI: 0.337-0.933, P = 0.026). The morphine group had a higher emesis rate than the control group (RR: 4.486, 95%CI: 2.263-8.891, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Morphine effectively suppresses the inhibition effect of P2Y12 platelet inhibitors in patients with AMI.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Morfina/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/farmacologia , Ticagrelor/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
10.
Paediatr Drugs ; 23(2): 143-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of midazolam on the overall performance of morphine therapy for pain in ventilated neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has never been investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study is a clinical and economic analysis of morphine monotherapy versus morphine plus midazolam in ventilated infants with RDS. METHODS: A decision-analytic model from the hospital perspective was developed to follow the consequences of the use of the study drugs. Clinical and resource utilization data were extracted based on a retrospective cohort study of 104 neonates with RDS receiving morphine alone versus in combination with midazolam at the main neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Qatar, from 2014 to 2019. Primary outcome measures were the analgesia success rate, via the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale, and overall costs of therapies. Multivariate statistical analyses confirmed no significant variations in baseline characteristics between study groups. RESULTS: With 0.05 significance and 80% power, morphine had a higher rate of successful analgesia (65.4 vs. 34.6%; risk ratio 1.91; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.28; p = 0.019). Overall costs were also in favor of morphine compared with its combination with midazolam, with cost savings of 40,959 Qatari Riyal ($US11,222), year 2019/20 values. The Monte Carlo analyses confirmed the economic advantage of morphine alone in 100% of cases and demonstrated that it is not sensitive to uncertainties in study model inputs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine monotherapy enabled enhanced pain relief over its combination with midazolam in the NICU, at a reduced overall cost. Morphine alone, therefore, seems to be a dominant analgesia strategy.


Assuntos
Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(3): 700-705, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that cholinergic mechanisms play a pivotal role in the anti-nociceptive system by acting synergistically with morphine and reducing postoperative opioid consumption. In addition, the anti-cholinesterase drug physostigmine that increases synaptic acetylcholine concentrations has anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: In this randomised placebo-controlled trial including 110 patients undergoing nephrectomy, we evaluated the effects of intraoperative physostigmine 0.5 mg h-1 i.v. for 24 h on opioid consumption, hyperalgesia, pain scores, and satisfaction with pain control. RESULTS: Physostigmine infusion did not affect opioid consumption compared with placebo. However, the mechanical pain threshold was significantly higher (2.3 [sd 0.3]) vs 2.2 [0.4]; P=0.0491), and the distance from the suture line of hyperalgesia (5.9 [3.3] vs 8.5 [4.6]; P=0.006), wind-up ratios (2.2 [1.5] vs 3.1 [1.5]; P=0.0389), and minimum and maximum postoperative pain scores at 24 h (minimum 1.8 [1.0] vs 2.4 [1.2]; P=0.0451; and maximum 3.2 [1.4] vs 4.2 [1.4]; P=0.0081) and 48 h (minimum 0.9 [1.0] vs 1.6 [1.1]; P=0.0101; and maximum 2.0 [1.5] vs 3.2 [1.6]; P=0.0029) were lower in the study group. Pain Disability Index was lower and satisfaction with pain control was higher after 3 months in the physostigmine group. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous trials, physostigmine did not reduce opioid consumption. As pain thresholds were higher and hyperalgesia and wind-up lower in the physostigmine group, we conclude that physostigmine has anti-hyperalgesic effects and attenuates sensitisation processes. Intraoperative physostigmine may be a useful and safe addition to conventional postoperative pain control. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2012-000130-19.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Hiperalgesia/prevenção & controle , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Fisostigmina/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia Geral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Nefrectomia , Fisostigmina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13062-13064, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378059

RESUMO

Cytokine storm in COVID-19 is linked to disease severity and mortality. 40% of patients with severe COVID-19 require mechanical ventilation. Analgesia and sedation are used for treatment of pain, facilitation of mechanical ventilation, or management of acute agitation. Herein, we present the immunomodulating actions of morphine that may either improve or worsen the clinical course of COVID-19 once cytokine storm develops. A literature search was performed to find articles on potential immunomodulatory effects of morphine. Taken together, the results of in vitro and in vivo models in non-COVID-19 conditions suggest that morphine could have a beneficial effect by mitigating the cytokine storm in the early stages of severe COVID-19. In contrast, it could be potentially harmful in late stages of severe COVID-19, especially in the presence of septic shock.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Choque Séptico/imunologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22809, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasties (THA) and total knee arthroplasties (TKA) are always associated with a frequent incidence of postoperative pain. Effective pain management after surgery is quite essential for surgeons and patients. The purpose of the present meta-analysis is to evaluate the analgesic effect of perioperative ketamine after THA and TKA. METHODS: Seven online databases, Embase, Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and Wanfang Data were searched for the related randomized controlled trials (RCT) by August 15, 2019. The qualities of the included studies were assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0. The visual analog scale (VAS), morphine equivalent consumption, and the side effects were used to evaluate the postoperative analgesic effect of ketamine by meta-analysis, which was performed by Review Manager version 5.3 software. RESULTS: The VAS scores at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after surgery were statistically lower in the ketamine group. The morphine equivalent consumptions in 24 hours and 48 hours after surgery were also significantly lower in the ketamine group. For the side effects, no statistical differences in odds ratio (OR) of sedation, dizziness, hallucination, sweating, pruritus, urinary retention, constipation, version trouble, nightmares, and delirium were observed between the ketamine group and the control group. But postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) showed lower OR in the ketamine group. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis demonstrated perioperative ketamine could be used as a safe and effective analgesic agent for THA and TKA.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Assistência Perioperatória , Escala Visual Analógica
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pain management is the pillar of caring for patients with traumatic rib fractures. Intravenous lidocaine (IVL) is a well-established non-opioid analgesic for post-operative pain, yet its efficacy has yet to be investigated in trauma patients. We hypothesized that IVL is associated with decreased inpatient opioid requirements among patients with rib fractures. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated adult patients presenting to our Level 1 trauma center with isolated chest wall injuries. After 1:1 propensity score matching patients who received vs did not receive IVL, we compared the two groups' average daily opioid use, opioid use in the last 24 hours of admission, and pain scores during admissions hours 24-48. We performed multivariable linear regression for these outcomes (with sensitivity analysis for the opioid use outcomes), adjusting for age as a moderating factor and controlling for hospital length of stay and injury severity. RESULTS: We identified 534 patients, among whom 226 received IVL. Those who received IVL were older and had more serious injury. Compared to propensity-score matched patients who did not receive IVL, patients who received IVL had similar average daily opioid use and pain scores, but 40% lower opioid use during the last 24 hours of admission (p = 0.002). Multivariable regression-with and without sensitivity analysis-did not show an effect of IVL on any outcomes. CONCLUSION: IVL was crudely associated with decreased opioid requirements in the last 24 hours of admission, the time period associated with opioid use at 90 days post-discharge. However, we did not observe beneficial effects of IVL on multivariable adjusted analyses; we are conducting a randomized control trial to further evaluate IVL's opioid-sparing effects for patients with rib fractures.


Assuntos
Administração Intravenosa , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 811-817, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal morphine prolongs analgesia after surgery, but has been implicated in postoperative respiratory depression or apnoeic episodes. However, this has not been investigated in a prospective trial using respiratory polygraphy. This randomised controlled triple-blinded trial tested the hypothesis that intrathecal morphine increases sleep apnoea severity, measured using respiratory polygraphy. METHODS: Sixty subjects undergoing hip arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia received either 15 mg isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% with 0.5 ml normal saline 0.9% (control group) or 15 mg isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% with 0.5 ml intrathecal morphine 100 µg (intrathecal morphine group). Respiratory polygraphy was performed before surgery and on the first and third postoperative nights. The primary outcome was the apnoea-hypopnoea index in the supine position (supine AHI) on the first postoperative night. Secondary outcomes included supine AHI on the third postoperative night, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and ventilatory frequency during the first and third postoperative nights. RESULTS: On the first postoperative night, mean (95% confidence interval) values for supine AHI were 20.6 (13.9-27.3) and 21.2 (12.4-30.0) events h-1 in the control and intrathecal morphine groups, respectively (P=0.90). There were no significant between-group differences for any of the secondary outcomes, except for a significantly higher central and mixed apnoea index preoperatively and significantly lower mean SpO2 on the third postoperative night in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine did not increase sleep apnoea severity when measured using respiratory polygraphy. Of note, all patients had an increased number of apnoeic episodes on the third postoperative night. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02566226.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Idoso , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais , Bupivacaína , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio/sangue , Polissonografia , Decúbito Dorsal , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Palliat Med ; 34(9): 1249-1255, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature contains limited information on the problems faced by dying patients with COVID-19 and the effectiveness of interventions to manage these. AIM: The aim of this audit was to assess the utility of our end-of-life care plan, and specifically the effectiveness of our standardised end-of-life care treatment algorithms, in dying patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: The audit primarily involved data extraction from the end-of-life care plan, which includes four hourly nursing (ward nurses) assessments of specific problems: patients with problems were managed according to standardised treatment algorithms, and the intervention was deemed to be effective if the problem was not present at subsequent assessments. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This audit was undertaken at a general hospital in England, covered the 8 weeks from 16 March to 11 May 2020 and included all inpatients with COVID-19 who had an end-of-life care plan (and died). RESULTS: Sixty-one patients met the audit criteria: the commonest problem was shortness of breath (57.5%), which was generally controlled with conservative doses of morphine (10-20 mg/24 h via a syringe pump). Cough and audible respiratory secretions were relatively uncommon. The second most common problem was agitation/delirium (55.5%), which was generally controlled with standard pharmacological interventions. The cumulative number of patients with shortness of breath, agitation and audible respiratory secretions increased over the last 72 h of life, but most patients were symptom controlled at the point of death. CONCLUSION: Patients dying of COVID-19 experience similar end-of-life problems to other groups of patients. Moreover, they generally respond to standard interventions for these end-of-life problems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento Farmacológico/normas , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Assistência Terminal/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21816, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the soft tissue injury and large amount of bone destruction involved, undesirable postoperative pain remains a challenge for both patients and surgeons after unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). However, there are no studies comparing the effectiveness of oral and intravenous acetaminophen as part of a standard multimodal perioperative pain regimen after UKR. Thus, this prospective randomized study was conducted to compare pain control outcomes with postoperative oral versus intravenous acetaminophen use in adults undergoing UKR. METHODS: The institutional review board of the Traditional Chinese Medicine- western Medicine Hospital of Cangzhou approved the study protocol. This blinded and randomized study was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration. We included patients who were scheduled for UKR with an American Society of Anesthesiologists status of I to III, who were mentally competent, and who were able to give consent for enrolment in the study. Patients were randomly assigned on a 1:1 basis to receive either intravenous acetaminophen or oral acetaminophen. We ensured that the patients, care providers, and outcome assessors were blinded to the group assignment during the study period. Primary outcomes were postoperative pain at rest and during motion (knee flexion of 45°) measured using a visual analog scale score. Secondary outcomes included morphine consumption at 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery, length of hospital stay, range of motion, daily ambulation distance, and adverse events occurrence. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 25.0. Differences associated with a P value of <.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: It was hypothesized that patients receiving intravenous acetaminophen would exhibit similar postoperative outcomes compared with patients receiving oral acetaminophen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5825).


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Internação , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Projetos de Pesquisa , Caminhada
18.
Palliat Med ; 34(9): 1235-1240, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital clinicians have had to rapidly develop expertise in managing the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 including symptoms common at the end of life, such as breathlessness and agitation. There is limited evidence exploring whether end-of-life symptom control in this group requires new or adapted guidance. AIM: To review whether prescribing for symptom control in patients dying with COVID-19 adhered to existing local guidance or whether there was deviation which may represent a need for revised guidance or specialist support in particular patient groups. DESIGN/SETTING: A retrospective review of the electronic patient record of 61 hospital inpatients referred to the specialist palliative care team with swab-confirmed COVID-19 who subsequently died over a 1-month period. Intubated patients were excluded. RESULTS: In all, 83% (40/48) of patients were prescribed opioids at a starting dose consistent with existing local guidelines. In seven of eight patients where higher doses were prescribed, this was on specialist palliative care team advice. Mean total opioid dose required in the last 24 h of life was 14 mg morphine subcutaneous equivalent, and mean total midazolam dose was 9.5 mg. For three patients in whom non-invasive ventilation was in place higher doses were used. CONCLUSION: Prescription of end-of-life symptom control drugs for COVID-19 fell within the existing guidance when supported by specialist palliative care advice. While some patients may require increased doses, routine prescription of higher starting opioid and benzodiazepine doses beyond existing local guidance was not observed.


Assuntos
Biofarmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Harefuah ; 159(6): 423-428, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal morphine provides the optimal treatment for post-cesarean analgesia, despite frequent nausea and vomiting. We investigated the incidence of nausea and vomiting 24 hours after cesarean delivery in women receiving intrathecal morphine 100 µcg and intravenous prophylactic dexamethasone and ondansetron. METHODS: In a prospective, observational, Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved study of women undergoing cesarean delivery according to a standardized anesthetic protocol, the subjects were approached preoperatively and underwent standardized interviews regarding prior anesthesia experience and history of postoperative nausea and vomiting. In the post anesthesia care unit and 24 hours postoperatively, the women were interviewed regarding the incidence of nausea and vomiting, Women with and without nausea at 24 hours were compared for potential associated risk factors. RESULTS: Among 201 women recruited, 29 (14.5%) had nausea and 7 (3.5%) vomited in the postoperative care unit. During the first 24 hours, 36 (17.9%) had experienced nausea and 19 (9.5%) had vomited when interviewed at the 24-hours postoperatively. Women who had nausea 24 hours postoperatively were more likely to have nausea in the post anesthesia care unit than women without nausea during 24 hours after cesarean delivery (41.7% versus 1.2%, p<0.001). We did not find preoperative risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: We report that almost 20% of the women managed with prophylactic dual therapy of ondansetron and dexamethasone had nausea during the 24 hours after administration of low dose intrathecal morphine. Our findings suggested that women who experience nausea or vomiting in the immediate postoperative period are at increased risk of nausea and vomiting in the 24-hour postoperative period.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios , Antieméticos , Cesárea , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(7): 1310-1315, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the effectiveness of cocktail therapy after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). METHODS: We evaluated 128 shoulders undergoing ARCR and used block randomization to divide patients into 2 groups in this double-blind trial: The cocktail group received 20 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine, 5 mg of morphine, 0.3 mg of epinephrine, 2 mg of betamethasone, and saline solution to a total of 42 mL, whereas the control group received 20 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine and saline solution to a total of 42 mL. Postoperatively, one of the drug mixtures was injected into the glenohumeral joint, subacromial bursa, suprascapular nerve, and anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the deltoid muscle according to the treatment group. We recorded patients' visual analog scale scores preoperatively and at 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively; the number of patients using postoperative diclofenac suppositories and buprenorphine hydrochloride; the number of patients experiencing nausea; the number of patients with infection and delayed wound healing as adverse effects; the surgery time; the retear rate; and passive shoulder range of motion. RESULTS: The cocktail group constituted 64 shoulders (50.0%), with 39 men (60.9%) and 25 women (39.1%); the mean age was 64.2 ± 10.2 years. The control group constituted 64 shoulders (50.0%), with 41 men (64.1%) and 23 women (35.9%); the mean age was 65.2 ± 7.5 years. We found no significant difference in age or sex between the 2 groups. There was also no significant difference in rotator cuff tear size or surgery time between the 2 groups. The visual analog scale scores at 8, 16, and 24 hours postoperatively were significantly lower in the cocktail group. The number of patients using suppositories was also significantly lower in the cocktail group. The number of patients receiving buprenorphine injections tended to be lower in the cocktail group, but the difference was not significant. Nausea occurred in 6.3% of patients in the cocktail group and 15.6% in the control group, but the difference was not significant. No infection or delayed wound healing occurred in either group. There was no significant difference in the retear rate between the 2 groups. Passive anterior elevation at 3 months postoperatively was significantly better in the cocktail group than in the control group. CONCLUSION: We compared cocktail therapy and ropivacaine after ARCR and found no difference in results except for VAS score at 8, 16, and 24 hours postoperatively and frequency of postoperative suppository use without an apparent risk of infection or a detrimental effect on tendon healing.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Náusea/etiologia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Duração da Cirurgia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recidiva , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Articulação do Ombro , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização
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