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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468517

RESUMO

Fish protein is serving as a source of nutrition for protein starving world. However, sustainable aquaculture products require inexpensive plant by-products due to finite sources of fish meal. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine nutrient utilization, growth performance and hematological indices of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) based diets. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having MOLM as a substitute of fish meal (FM) at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for the period of 90 days. Fingerlings having initial weight 6.35±0.04g were reared in triplicate tanks at the stocking density of 15 and hand fed at the rate of 5% of total biomass twice regularly. Chromic oxide inclusion level was 1% in diets. After analysis, maximum growth performance and improved digestibility of nutrients were found in fish fed with diet at 10% replacement level as compared to fish fed on control diet and other test diets. Additionally, it was found that the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration of fish showed a significantly (p<0.05) inverse correlation with the increase in MOLM. In present research, it was concluded that MOLM has good potential to be used as a FM substitute in C. mrigala diet with maximum effect at 10% showing positive hematological indices.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Moringa oleifera , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3465-3477, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402268

RESUMO

High fat diet induced hyperlipidemia hamster model was used to explore the anti-hyperlipidemia effect of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaves( WEMOL). On this basis,the possible action mechanism was predicted by network pharmacology. Golden hamsters were randomly divided into normal diet group( NFD),high-fat diet group( HFD),simvastatin group,high dose group of WEMOL( HIWEMOL) and low dose group of WEMOL( LOWEMOL). The model was administered simultaneously for 66 days,during which the body weight changes of hamsters were recorded. At the end of the experiment,serum lipid level and serum transaminase level of golden hamsters in each group were detected,and the pathological changes of liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin( HE) staining. The results showed that WEMOL could significantly decrease the serum total cholesterol( TC),total triglyceride( TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol( LDL-c) levels,and reduce the lipid deposition in liver tissue,thus improving the hyperlipidemia of golden hamsters. According to the prediction of network pharmacology,219 targets of potential active components of M.oleifera leaves and 185 targets of water-soluble potential active components of M. oleifera leaves for the treatment of hyperlipidemia were obtained separately. The MCODE analysis was performed on the PPI network of 219 targets and 185 targets obtained above and got five and four clusters respectively. The signaling pathway analysis of clusters showed that among the common pathways,nonalcoholic fatty liver,insulin resistance,MAPK signaling pathway,estrogen signaling pathway,cell apoptosis and HIF-1 signaling pathway were associated with hyperlipidemia. In addition,the potential active components of M. oleifera leaves could also inhibit the metabolic inflammation of hyperlipidemia by modulating complement and coagulation cascades signaling pathway,and GSK3 B,F2,AKT1,RELA,SERPINE1 might be the key targets. The water-soluble potential active components of M. oliefera leaves could modulate lipid metabolism by modulating AMPK signaling pathway and JAK-STAT signaling pathway,with PIK3 CB,PIK3 CA,CASP3,AKT1 and BCL2 as the key targets. These results suggested that WEMOL had anti hyperlipidemia effect,and its mechanism might be related to the protein expression regulation of lipid metabolism,nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis related signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Moringa oleifera , Animais , Cricetinae , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado , Folhas de Planta
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443628

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant with numerous health benefits. In skeletal muscle cells, Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) acts by increasing the oxidative metabolism through the SIRT1-PPARα pathway. SIRT1, besides being a critical energy sensor, is involved in the activation related to redox homeostasis of transcription factors such as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the capacity of MOLE to influence the redox status in C2C12 myotubes through the modulation of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione levels, Nrf2 and its target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, as well as enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and transferase (GST). Moreover, the impact of MOLE supplementation on lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage (i.e., TBARS and protein carbonyls) was evaluated. Our results highlight for the first time that MOLE increased not only Nrf2 and HO-1 protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, but also improved glutathione redox homeostasis and the enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, GPx and GST. Therefore, it is intriguing to speculate that MOLE supplementation could represent a valuable nutrition for the health of skeletal muscles.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Moringa oleifera/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 428, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351506

RESUMO

This study was intended to determine the comparative effects of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract (MOALE) and ascorbic acid supplementation in the drinking water on growth performance, haemato-biochemical profile, antioxidant status and immune response of broiler chickens under tropical climate. All 135-day-old broiler chicks were divided into 3 different treatment groups. T0 served as control, T1 were fed basal ration with MOALE (90 ml/L drinking water), and T2 offered basal ration with ascorbic acid (15 mg/L drinking water) for 35-day experiment. All the standard managemental practices were followed during the experimental period. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of MOALE was calculated with reference to different ascorbic acid concentration as standard. The antioxidant activity percentage of MOALE (90 µl) was 93.89%, and ascorbic acid (15 µg) was 98.76%, respectively, which was nearer to cent percent. Therefore, 90 ml MOALE and 15 mg ascorbic acid per litre drinking water, respectively, were used for supplementation in broiler chicken. The growth performance and feed efficiency were better in MOALE group followed by ascorbic acid supplemented birds without affecting the metabolism of nutrients. However, 10.71% better FCR was noted in MOALE supplemented group followed by ascorbic acid group (6.28%) in comparison with control. Most of the haemato-biochemical profiles were unaffected by the treatment except creatinine, while antioxidant profile was improved in the treatment group. Immunity status of broiler chicken against NDV was enhanced in both treatment groups; however, maximum profit is obtained in MOALE group followed by ascorbic acid supplemented birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Moringa oleifera , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371804

RESUMO

Functional clinical nutrition is an integrative science; it uses dietary strategies, functional foods and medicinal plants, as well as combinations thereof. Both functional foods and medicinal plants, whether associated or not, form nutraceuticals, which can bring benefits to health, in addition to being included in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Some functional food effects from Avena sativa L. (oats), Linum usitatissimum L. (brown flaxseed), Glycine max L. (soya) and Moringa oleifera have been proposed for nutritional disorders through in vitro and in vivo tests. A formulation called a bioactive food compound (BFC) showed efficiency in the association of oats, flaxseed and soy for dyslipidemia and obesity. In this review, we discuss the effects of BFC in other nutritional disorders, as well as the beneficial effects of M. oleifera in obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome, intestinal inflammatory diseases/colorectal carcinogenesis and malnutrition. In addition, we hypothesized that a BFC enriched with M. oleifera could present a synergistic effect and play a potential benefit in nutritional disorders. The traditional consumption of M. oleifera preparations can allow associations with other formulations, such as BFC. These nutraceutical formulations can be easily accepted and can be used in sweet preparations (fruit and/or vegetable juices, fruit and/or vegetable vitamins, porridges, yogurt, cream, mousses or fruit salads, cakes and cookies) or savory (vegetable purees, soups, broths and various sauces), cooked or not. These formulations can be low-cost and easy-to-use. The association of bioactive food substances in dietary formulations can facilitate adherence to consumption and, thus, contribute to the planning of future nutritional interventions for the prevention and adjuvant treatment of the clinical conditions presented in this study. This can be extended to the general population. However, an investigation through clinical studies is needed to prove applicability in humans.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Avena , Linho , Humanos , Moringa oleifera , Soja
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148254, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412387

RESUMO

Multifunctional crops can simultaneously contribute to multiple societal objectives. As a result, they represent an attractive means for improving rural livelihoods. Moringa oleifera is an example of a multifunctional crop that produces nutritious leaves with uses as food, fodder, and a biostimulant to enhance crop growth. It yields seeds containing a water purifying coagulant and oil with cosmetic uses and possible biofuel feedstock. Despite Moringa oleifera's (and other multifunctional crops') various Food-Energy-Water uses, optimizing the benefits of its multiple uses and livelihood improvements remains challenging. There is a need for holistic approaches capable of assessing the multifunctionality of agriculture and livelihood impacts. Therefore, this paper critically evaluates Moringa oleifera's Food-Energy-Water-Livelihood nexus applications to gain insight into the tradeoffs and synergies among its various applications using a systems thinking approach. A systems approach is proposed as a holistic thinking framework that can help navigate the complexity of a crop's multifunctionality. The "Success to the Successful" systems archetype was adopted to capture the competition between the need for leaf yields and seed yields. In areas where there is energy and water insecurity, Moringa oleifera seed production is recommended for its potential to coproduce oil, the water purifying coagulant, and a residue that can be applied as a fertilizer. In areas where food insecurity is an issue, focusing on leaf production would be beneficial due to its significance in augmenting food for human consumption, animal feed, and its use as a biostimulant to increase crop yields. A causal loop diagram was found to effectively map the interconnections among the various uses of Moringa oleifera and associated livelihood improvements. This framework provides stakeholders with a conceptual decision-making tool that can help maximize positive livelihood outcomes. This approach can also be applied for improved management of other multifunctional crops.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Água , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Sementes , Análise de Sistemas
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361729

RESUMO

Tyrosinase (TYR) is a type III copper oxidase present in fungi, plants and animals. The inhibitor of human TYR plays a vital role in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields by preventing synthesis of melanin in the skin. To search for an effective TYR inhibitor from various plant extracts, a kinetic study of TYR inhibition was performed with mushroom TYR. Among Panax ginseng, Alpinia galanga, Vitis vinifera and Moringa oleifera, the extracts of V. vinifera seed, A. galanga rhizome and M. oleifera leaf reversibly inhibited TYR diphenolase activity with IC50 values of 94.8 ± 0.2 µg/mL, 105.4 ± 0.2 µg/mL and 121.3 ± 0.4 µg/mL, respectively. Under the same conditions, the IC50 values of the representative TYR inhibitors of ascorbic acid and kojic acid were found at 235.7 ± 1.0 and 192.3 ± 0.4 µg/mL, respectively. An inhibition kinetics study demonstrated mixed-type inhibition of TYR diphenolase by A. galanga and V. vinifera, whereas a rare uncompetitive inhibition pattern was found from M. oleifera with an inhibition constant of Kii 73 µg/mL. Phytochemical investigation by HPLC-MS proposed luteolin as a specific TYR diphenolase ES complex inhibitor, which was confirmed by the inhibition kinetics of luteolin. The results clearly showed that studying TYR inhibition kinetics with plant extract mixtures can be utilized for the screening of specific TYR inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Luteolina/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Moringa oleifera/química , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/enzimologia , Alpinia/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Ácido Ascórbico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Luteolina/química , Luteolina/isolamento & purificação , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/isolamento & purificação , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Pironas/química , Pironas/isolamento & purificação , Pironas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Sementes/química , Vitis/química
9.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(10): 2025-2039, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227745

RESUMO

Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin compound widely used as a biocide in antifouling paints. Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) has a promising antioxidant potential, which necessitates further exploration. This study was conducted to investigate the potential protective effect of MOO against TBT-induced brain toxicity. The 30 rats were grouped into five groups (six each), Group I negative control, Group II positive control (vehicle), Group III MOO (5 ml/kg body weight [b.wt.]), Group IV TBT (10 mg/kg b.wt.), and Group V TBT & MOO. All treatments were given orally for 28 days. Thereafter, brains were exposed to oxidative stress and neurological parameters analyses. Histopathological and immunohistochemical (caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2) examinations were also carried out. In rats administered TBT, increased malondialdehyde level, decreased reduced glutathione, and low total antioxidant capacity levels were in support of oxidative stress mechanism. Neurotoxicity was indicated by high nitric oxide level and increased acetylcholinestrase activity. Along with the histopathological alterations, the dysregulated expression of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were indicative of the apoptotic mechanism mediated by TBT. Co-administration of MOO with TBT ameliorated the aforementioned toxic effects. In conclusion, TBT causes brain toxicity via oxidative, nitrosative, and apoptotic mechanisms. MOO demonstrates protective effect against TBT-induced brain toxicity mostly via potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Compostos de Trialquitina , Animais , Encéfalo , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Compostos de Trialquitina/toxicidade
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206952

RESUMO

Age-related neurodegenerative disorders are an increasing public health problem. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes. Medicinal plant-based functional foods can be effective for these diseases. The aim of this work is to investigate the neuroprotective role of methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf powder on antioxidant/oxidant imbalance and mitochondrial regulation in a H2O2-induced oxidative stress model in human neuroblastoma cells. On nutritional analysis, results showed that moringa contained 28.50% carbohydrates, 25.02% proteins, 10.42% fat, 11.83% dietary fiber, 1.108 mg ß-carotene, 326.4 µg/100 g vitamin B1 and 15.2 mg/100 g vitamin C. In-vitro assays revealed that moringa methanol extracts had more phenolic content and higher antioxidant activity than acetone extracts. Moreover, pretreatments with methanol extracts showed a protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage through increasing cell viability and reducing free radicals. Furthermore, the extract decreased lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activity. Finally, moringa also prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating calcium levels and increasing mitochondrial membrane potential. The most active concentration was 25 µg/mL. In summary, the nutritional and functional properties of Moringa oleifera as a neuroprotective agent could be beneficial to protect against oxidative stress and provide necessary nutrients for a healthy diet.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Moringa oleifera/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Radicais Livres , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Metanol , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Moringa , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Pós , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(2): 393-403, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312346

RESUMO

An enhanced and different method for the active coagulant agent extraction from Moringa Oleifera seeds powder (MOSP) was established and compared to the conventional extraction method in distillate water. In the improved method, MOSP were extracted using sodium chloride as solvent at different concentrations to extract more coagulant agent from Moringa Oleifera and enhance coagulation activity. In this study, MOSP were initially processed and oil content was removed to minimize coagulant concentration usage (MOSP-EO). Moringa Oleifera seeds powder was characterized by both X-ray and FTIR analysis. Ultrasound treatment as well was considered as an additional treatment for MOSP-EO to investigate its effect on coagulant agent extraction process improvement. Coagulation/flocculation experiments were conducted to assess coagulant extraction performance realized through various conditions. The effect of coagulant dosage, solvent concentration and ultrasound exposition duration were investigated for a real effluent of municipal wastewater treatment. Among the three studied NaCl concentrations, 1.0 M was found to be the best solvent concentration for high turbidity removal of more than 97% using 140 mg/L of MOSP-EO compared to extraction in distillate water 88% using 170 mg/L of the same coagulant. NaCl 1.0 M demonstrated the best performance in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) removal as well, where more than 98% of municipal wastewater initial BOD5 was eliminated. Mixing MOSP-EO assisted with ultrasound waves at different treatment periods did decrease the active coagulant agent extraction and thus showed its inconvenient for Moringa Oleifera coagulation activity usage.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Purificação da Água , Floculação , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes , Águas Residuárias
12.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207664

RESUMO

Plant-derived phytochemicals have been interested in as nutraceuticals for preventing the onset and progress of diabetes mellitus and its serious complications in recent years. Moringa oleifera Lam. is used in vegetables and in herbal medicine for its health-promoting properties against various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to examine an effect of Moringa oleifera on diabetic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by meta-analyzing the current evidence of diabetic rodent models. Peer-reviewed studies written in English from two databases, PubMed and Embase, were searched to 30 April 2021. Studies reporting blood glucose or lipid levels in diabetic rodents with and without receiving extracts of Moringa oleifera were included. Forty-four studies enrolling 349 diabetic rodents treated with extracts of Moringa oleifera and 350 diabetic controls reported blood glucose levels. The pooled effect size was -3.92 (95% CI: -4.65 to -3.19) with a substantial heterogeneity. This effect was likely to be, at least in part, modified by the type of diabetic models. Moreover, diabetic hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were also significantly improved in diabetic rodent models treated with Moringa oleifera.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Moringa oleifera/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
13.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113202, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271350

RESUMO

This study proposes a unique way of preparation of biocoagulant from Moringa oleifera defatted seed press cake. The press cake used in this study is a waste material produced as a by-product during cold press oil making from Moring oleifera seeds. The prepared Moringa oleifera seed defatted press cake based biocoagulant was found more effective than presently used metallic and polymer-based coagulants and flocculants for removal of fine particles of colloidal size from the effluent generated in the process of coal beneficiation. The detailed characterization of Moringa oleifera defatted seed press cake and the prepared biocoagulant for Particle size, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis, Zeta Potential, Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy, etc. was done. The biocoagulant has been found effective in 97.4% total suspended solids removal and 97.48% turbidity removal from coal beneficiation plant effluent. The biocoagulant has been found to work satisfactorily under high fluxes of turbidity and total suspended solids with high removal of fine particles. The age of biocoagulant had negligible effect on fine particle removal efficiency (97.4% for fresh to 95% for 3-week-old biocoagulant). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis reveals considerable increase in flocs size from 198 nm to a 20 µ size well-developed flocs. The biocoagulant has proved as an efficient substitute of the metallic and polymer-based coagulants for the efficient treatment of coal beneficiation plant effluent.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Purificação da Água , Carvão Mineral , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(7): e2100243, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128328

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the world, with a prevalence of 25 % in many countries. To date, no drug has been approved to treat NAFLD, therefore, the use of phytochemicals to prevent this disease is meaningful. In this study, we focused on the effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. on diabetes, attempted to isolate compounds that regulate NAFLD. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera. Spectral data revealed that they were 1-hydroxy-3-phenylpropan-2-yl benzoate (1) and benzyl benzylcarbamate (2), respectively. The three-dimensional structure of compound 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray structural analysis. Neither compound was toxic to HepG2 cells, and compound 1 was found to have a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on intracellular lipid accumulation induced by stimulation of linoleic acid (LA). As a result of measuring the effects of compound 1 on the intracellular lipid production-related protein, it was found that compound 1 enhanced protein expression that promotes lipolysis. On the other hand, since the action of compound 1 was similar to that of PPARα agonists, it is deduced that compound 1 enhanced the activity of PPARα and further enhanced the expression of lipolytic proteins, which is related to the suppression of intracellular lipid accumulation. Furthermore, as the result of docking simulation, compound 1 had a higher binding affinity to the ligand binding site of PPARα than fenofibrate, which is a PPARα agonist, and thus compound 1 was considered to be promising as an agonist of PPARα.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Moringa oleifera/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
Environ Res ; 201: 111475, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166663

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) is an oxidative air pollutant that affects plant growth. Moringa oleifera is a tree species distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions. This species presents high morphological plasticity, which increases its ability to tolerate stressful conditions, but with no O3 risk assessment calculated so far. The present study assessed the O3 risk to different M. oleifera ecotypes using exposure-based index (AOT40) or flux-based index (PODy - where y is a threshold of O3 uptake). PODy considers the O3 uptake through the stomata and the consequence of environmental climate conditions on stomatal conductance (gsto); thus, it is efficient in assessing O3 risk. Five M. oleifera ecotypes were subjected to ambient (Amb.); middle (Mid. X1.5), and High (x2.0) O3 concentrations for 77 days in a free-air controlled exposure facility (FACE). Leaf biomass (LB) was evaluated, and the biomass loss was projected assuming a clean atmosphere (10 ppb as 24 h O3 average). The gsto parameterization was calculated using the Jarvis-type multiplicative algorithm considering several climate factors, i.e., light intensity, air temperature, air vapor pressure deficit, and AOT40. Ozone exposure harmed the LB of all ecotypes. The high gsto (~559 mmol H2O m-2 s-1) can be considered the reason for the species' O3 sensitivity. M. oleifera is adapted to hot climate conditions, and gsto was restricted with air temperature (Tmin) below ~ 9 °C. As expected, the PODy index performed better than the AOT40 for estimating the O3 effect on biomass losses. We recommend a y threshold of 4 nmol m-2 s-1 to incorporate O3 effects on M. oleifera LB. To not exceed a 4% reduction of LB for any M. oleifera genotype, we recommend the critical levels of 1.1 mmol m-2 POD4.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Moringa oleifera , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ecótipo , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Árvores
16.
Food Chem ; 364: 130424, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182363

RESUMO

In this work, we investigated the degradation of moringin (4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]-isothiocyanate), a major bioactive isothiocyanate (ITC) found in moringa seeds (Moringa oleifera Lam), at various food processing conditions. Moringin degrades rapidly to several water-soluble products via a pseudo-first-order kinetics. By analyzing the reaction products, the degradation mechanism was found to be through hydrolyzing to (A) 1-O-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl) α-l-rhamnopyranoside (rhamnobenzyl alcohol RBA) or (B) rhamnobenzylamine. The formed amine further reacts with moringin to form N,N'-bis{4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]}thiourea (di-rhamnobenzyl thiourea, DRBTU). In addition, moringin isomerizes to 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]thiocyanate (RBTC), which further reacts with moringin to form S,N-bis{4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]}-dithiocarbamate (DRBDTC). Furthermore, pH was found to have an effect on the degradation of moringin. RBA and RBTC were major degraded products in neutral and acidic conditions while thiourea (DRBTU) was in alkaline condition. Although moringin showed higher cytotoxicity to cancer cells, its degraded products showed very weak or no activities, suggesting that the isothiocyanate group of ITCs is essential for their cancer chemoprevention activities.


Assuntos
Isotiocianatos , Moringa oleifera , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Cinética , Água
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 144-158, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089759

RESUMO

Wound healing is a complicated process that influences patient's life quality. Plant-based polysaccharide has recently gained interest in its use in wound dressing materials because of its biological compatibility, natural abundance, and ideal physiochemical properties. The present study reveals the potential of polysaccharide isolated from Moringa oleifera seed (MOS-PS) and its nanocomposite with silver (MOS-PS-AgNPs) as alternative materials for wound dressing. First, MOS-PS was isolated and structurally characterized by TLC, HPLC, FTIR, NMR, and GPC analyses. A green and simple method was used to synthesize AgNPs using MOS-PS as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The size, morphology, and structure of the MOS-PS-AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential analysis. The results showed that the MOS-PS-AgNPs were spherically shaped, having no cytotoxicity toward mouse fibroblasts cells and promoting their in-vitro migration. Moreover, the MOS-PS-AgNPs displayed strong anti-microbial activity against wound infectious pathogenic bacteria. Finally, the MOS-PS-AgNPs were used for dressing animal wounds and its preliminary mechanism was studied by RT-PCR and histological analysis. The results showed that the MOS-PS-AgNPs can promote wound contraction and internal tissue growth well. Overall, our results indicated that the MOS-PS-AgNPs might be an excellent candidate for use as an optimal wound dressing material.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Moringa oleifera/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Prata/administração & dosagem , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bandagens , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanocompostos , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Sementes/química , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Cicatrização
18.
Andrologia ; 53(8): e14126, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101882

RESUMO

In this study, we estimated the protective role of Moringa oleifera leaf ethanolic extract (MOLE) against obesity-associated testicular dysfunction. Fifty male albino rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10): Group I (basal diet), group II (basal diet plus MOLE orally), group III (high-fat diet-HFD), group IV (HFD plus oral MOLE) and group V (HFD for 8 weeks followed by a basal diet plus oral MOLE for 6 weeks). The study duration extended for 14 weeks. Serum collected to investigate testosterone, FSH and LH levels. Testicular tissues were used to determine levels of SOD, glutathione, catalase and malondialdehyde. Semen was collected to estimate its quality (morphology, motility and concentration). Morphological changes in the testis were investigated by histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. Compared with both control treatment and MOLE treatment, serum testosterone, FSH, LH, testicular enzymatic catalase, SOD, GSH, survivin immunoreactivity, sperm quality and testicular weight were all significantly decreased in rats treated with HFD, while there were significant increases in testicular malondialdehyde and caspase-3 immunoreactivity. MOLE improved all harmful effects of HFD. Improvements were more pronounced in the protected (G 4) than the treated (G 5) group. MOLE could be a potential solution for obesity-associated fertility problem.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Testículo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112424, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174736

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is used in a wide range of applications, including medical therapies that precisely target disease prevention and treatment. The current study aimed firstly, to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in an eco-friendly manner using Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLE). Secondly, to compare the protective effects of green-synthesized MOLE-SeNPs conjugate and MOLE ethanolic extract as remedies for melamine (MEL) induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. One hundred and five male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 15), including 1st control, 2nd MOLE (800 mg/kg BW), 3rd SeNPs (0.5 mg/kg BW), 4th MOLE-SeNPs (200 µg/kg BW), 5th MEL (700 mg/kg BW), 6th MEL+MOLE, and 7th MEL+MOLE SeNPs. All groups were orally gavaged day after day for 28 days. SeNPs and the colloidal SeNPs were characterized by TEM, SEM, and DLS particle size. SeNPs showed an absorption peak at a wavelength of 530 nm, spherical shape, and an average size between 3.2 and 20 nm. Colloidal SeNPs absorption spectra were recorded between 400 and 700 nm with an average size of 3.3-17 nm. MEL-induced nephropathic alterations represented by a significant increase in serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), renal TNFα, oxidative stress-related indices, and altered the relative mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes Bax, Caspase-3, Bcl2, Fas, and FasL. MEL-induced array of nephrotoxic morphological changes, and up-regulated immune-expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and proliferation-associated nuclear antigen Ki-67. Administration of MOLE or MOLE-SeNPs significantly reversed MEL-induced renal function impairments, oxidative stress, histological alterations, modulation in the relative mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes, and the immune-expression of renal PCNA and Ki-67. Conclusively, the green-synthesized MOLE-SeNPs and MOLE display nephron-protective properties against MEL-induced murine nephropathy. This study is the first to report these effects which were more pronounced in the MOLE group than the green biosynthesized MOLE-SeNPs conjugate group.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Moringa oleifera , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Animais , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triazinas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(26): 7377-7387, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180221

RESUMO

A novel aspartic-type endopeptidase was previously obtained from Moringa oleifera seeds; however, its specific milk-clotting properties have remained unclear. Here, we used various biophysical and molecular simulation approaches for characterizing the structure and function of the aspartic-type endopeptidase. The endopeptidase was preferentially active toward κ-casein (CN) and hydrolyzed it more than calf rennet; however, its ability to hydrolyze α-CN and ß-CN was weaker than that of calf rennet. The endopeptidase cleaved κ-CN at Gln135-Asp136 and generated a 15 588.18 Da peptide with 135 amino acids. We further simulated the docking complex of the endopeptidase and κ-CN and found out that they possibly combined with each other via hydrogen bonds. The flocculation reaction between the endopeptidase and κ-CN indicated that milk coagulation occurred within 60 min. Overall, our observations suggest that the aspartic-type endopeptidase can be a potential rennet alternative for cheese making.


Assuntos
Queijo , Moringa oleifera , Animais , Caseínas , Queijo/análise , Leite , Sementes
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