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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the magnitude and trend of hospitalization rates due to traumatic injuries in intensive care units (ICU) in Brazil from 1998 to 2015. METHODS: This is an ecological time-series study that analyzed data from the Hospital Information System. A trend analysis of hospitalization rates was performed according to diagnosis, sex and age using generalized linear regression models and Prais-Winsten estimation. RESULTS: Rates were higher among male patients, but increased hospitalization due to trauma among female patients influenced the ratio between both sexes. Falls and transport accidents were the most frequent causes of trauma. The average annual growth was 3.6% in ICU trauma hospitalization rates in Brazil, the highest growth was reported in the North region (8%; 95%CI 6.4-9.6), among women (5.4%; 95%CI 4.5-6.3), and among people aged 60 years and older (5.5%; 95%CI, 4.7-6.3). The most frequent causes of trauma are falls (4.5%; 95%CI 3.5-5.5) and care complications (5.4%; 95%CI 4.5-6.3). On the other hand, the annual hospital mortality rate due to trauma in ICU is 1.7% lower, on average (95%CI 2.1-1.3). CONCLUSION: An increase in ICU hospitalization rate due to trauma in Brazil may be the result of some factors, such as an increasing number of accidents and cases of violence, the implementation of pre-hospital care, and improved access to care, with more beds in ICU. In addition, population aging is another factor, as a greater increase in hospitalization was observed among people aged 60 years and older.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17592, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626132

RESUMO

Data on outcomes of patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) in China are scarce.To investigate factors associated with the prognosis of patients given MV in the intensive care unit (ICU).A 12-year (January 1, 2006-December 31, 2017) retrospective cohort study.ICU of Beijing Geriatric Hospital, China.A total of 905 patients aged ≥16 years given MV during the study period.None.Among 905 patients included (610 men; median age, 78 years; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE]-II score, 27.3 ±â€Š8.9), 585 survived (388 men; median age, 77 years; average APACHE-II score, 25.6 ±â€Š8.4), and 320 died in the ICU (222 men; median age, 78 years; APACHE-II score, 30.6 ±â€Š8.9). All-cause ICU mortality was 35.4%. In patients aged <65 years, factors associated with ICU mortality were APACHE-II score (odds ratio [OR], 1.108; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.021-1.202; P = .014), nosocomial infection (OR, 6.618; 95% CI, 1.065-41.113; P = .043), acute kidney injury (OR, 17.302; 95% CI, 2.728-109.735; P = .002), invasive hemodynamic monitoring (OR, 10.051; 95% CI, 1.362-74.191; P = .024), MV for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OR, 0.122; 95% CI, 0.016-0.924; P = .042), duration of MV (OR, 0.993; 95% CI, 0.988-0.998; P = .008), successful weaning from MV (OR, 0.012; 95% CI, 0.002-0.066; P < .001), and renal replacement therapy (OR, 0.039; 95% CI, 0.005-0.324; P = .003). In patients aged ≥65 years, factors associated with mortality were APACHE-II score (OR, 1.062; 95% CI, 1.030-1.096; P < .001), nosocomial infection (OR, 2.427; 95% CI, 1.359-4.334; P = .003), septic shock (OR, 2.017; 95% CI, 1.153-3.529; P = .014), blood transfusion (OR, 1.939; 95% CI, 1.174-3.202; P = .010), duration of MV (OR, 0.999; 95% CI, 0.999-1.000; P = .043), and successful weaning from MV (OR, 0.027; 95% CI, 0.015-0.047; P < .001).APACHE-II score, successful weaning, and nosocomial infection in the ICU are independently associated with the prognosis of patients given MV in the ICU.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
3.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1209-1217, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564156

RESUMO

AIMS: There is an increasing demand for hip arthroplasty in China. We aimed to describe trends in in-hospital mortality after this procedure in China and to examine the potential risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 210 450 patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty registered in the Hospital Quality Monitoring System in China between 2013 and 2016. In-hospital mortality after hip arthroplasty and its relation to potential risk factors were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression. RESULTS: During the study period, 626 inpatient deaths occurred within 30 days after hip arthroplasty. Mortality decreased from 2.9% in 2013 to 2.6% in 2016 (p for trend = 0.02). Compared with their counterparts, old age, male sex, and divorced or widowed patients had a higher rate of mortality (all p < 0.05). Risk ratio (RR) for mortality after arthroplasty for fracture was two-fold higher (RR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 2.6) than that for chronic disease. RRs for mortality were 3.3 (95% CI 2.7 to 3.9) and 8.2 (95% CI 6.5 to 10.4) for patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 1 to 2 and CCI ≥ 3, respectively, compared with patients with CCI of 0. The rate of mortality varied according to geographical region, the lowest being in the East region (1.8%), followed by Beijing (2.1%), the North (2.9%), South-West (3.6%), South-Central (3.8%), North-East (4.1%), and North-West (5.2%) regions. CONCLUSION: While in-hospital mortality after hip arthroplasty in China appears low and declined during the study period, discrepancies in mortality after this procedure exist according to sociodemographic factors. Healthcare resources should be allocated more to underdeveloped regions to further reduce mortality. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1209-1217.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , China , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Falha de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Frailty Aging ; 8(4): 176-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637402

RESUMO

The preponderance of studies on frailty assessment in critically ill adults have used the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) to quantify frailty and previous research suggests that surrogates were more likely to be optimistic than physicians in their CFS scores. Whether discordance between surrogates and physicians was relevant to prognosis has been underexplored. Therefore, in a prospective observational cohort of 298 critically ill older adults, we aimed 1) to describe factors related to discordance and 2) to estimate the relationship between such discordance and hospital mortality and other short-term outcomes. Discordance between surrogates and physician was present in 89/298 (29.9%) and independently associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality. Discordance was not associated with markers of intensity of treatment such as intubation, blood transfusion, incident dialysis for acute renal failure and prolonged hospital length of stay. Understanding factors relevant to discordance between physicians and surrogates may lend further insights into short-term prognosis for older adults with critical illness.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Idoso , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Frailty Aging ; 8(4): 222-223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637410

RESUMO

Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder. It may have serious consequences in asyntomatic patients with a mild disease. Therefore, an evaluation of unsual causes is of paramount importance. Polypharmacy is highly prevalent in older people and many drugs can cause hyponatremia as a collateral effect. In our retrospective analysis of geriatric medical records dated 2015 we found that 39 out of the 273 hospitalized patients had hyponatremia. Polipharmacy was highly prevalent, especially in hyponatremic patients. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are seldom considered as a cause of hyponatremia were instead found to be associated to an increased risk of the disorder (adjustedOR 3.61, 95% CI 1 - 12.99, p = 0.05). In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with moderate or severe hyponatremia at hospital admission. Our study underlines the importance of considering rare but potentially reversible causes of hyponatremia, which can lead to serious consequences.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização , Humanos , Registros Médicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1131-1136, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484859

RESUMO

Reinforcing the dissected and fragile aortic root is critical in acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) surgery. This study introduces our new aortic root reinforcement technique and reports our early operative results and midterm follow-up results.A retrospective analysis study was performed on 235 patients (aged 53.2 ±15.5 years) who were admitted to our hospital for ATAAD surgery and underwent the procedure with our new technique between October 2011 and June 2016. Two vascular graft rings were placed inside and outside aortic root, followed by a running horizontal mattress suture, placed just above the coronary artery ostiums and aortic valve commissures, with another horizontal suture at distal end of the aortic root stump, to reinforce the inner vascular graft, aortic wall, and outside vascular graft. Then additional 3-5 vertical mattress sutures were placed for further reinforcement within the reconstructed aortic root. Computed tomography angiography was performed at discharge and annually during follow-up.The patients' 30-day mortality was 5.1% (12/235). There was no uncontrollable intraoperative bleeding from the aortic root, and re-exploration for bleeding occurred in 0.79% (2/235). The survival rate was 90.2% during follow-up of 4.2 ± 2.1 years. There were no requests for aortic root reoperations during follow-up. All patients were free from aortic root disruptions, proximal anastomosis complications, and re-dissections of the reconstructed aortic root.Our new aortic root reinforcement technique provides a safe and effective technique for aortic root in ATAAD surgery, by reinforcing friable aortic root tissues and minimizing aortic root complications.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , China , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Técnicas de Sutura , Resistência à Tração , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17090, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517831

RESUMO

The decision as to whether patients should be admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU), in the absence of information concerning survival rates or prognostic factors in survival, is often challenging. We analyzed survival trends in relation to hospital discharge and examined patient and hospital characteristics associated with survival following ICU care, using a sample of nationwide claims data in Korea from 2002 through 2013. The Korean government implements a compulsory social insurance program that covers the country's entire population, and the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) data from 2002 based on this program were used for this study. The NHIS-NSC is a stratified random sample of 1,025,340 subjects selected from around 46 million Koreans. We evaluated annual survival trends using the Kaplan-Meier test. Analyses of the relationship between survival and patient and hospital characteristics were performed using Cox regression analyses. Employing a multivariate model, variables were selected using the forward selection method to consider the multicollinearity of variables. A total of 32,553 patients admitted to an ICU between 2002 and 2013 were identified among the eligible beneficiaries. The number of patients who had histories of ICU admission steadily increased throughout the study period, and patients older than 80 years constituted a progressively increasing proportion of ICU admissions, from 7.3% in 2002 to 16.9% in 2007 to 23.1% in 2013. The mean number of mechanical equipment items applied consistently increased, while no difference was observed in the trend for overall 1-year survival in patients following ICU treatment across the study period: the 1-year survival rate ranged from 66.7% (year 2003) to 64.2% (year 2010). Advanced age, cancer, renal failure, pneumonia, and influenza were all associated with heightened risk of mortality within 1 year. Our results should prove useful to older patients and their clinicians in their decisions regarding whether to seek ICU care, with the goals of improving the end-of life care and optimizing resource utilization.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16939, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464931

RESUMO

The tracheostomy timing for patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) was usually delayed in our country. Both physician decision time and tracheostomy delay time (time from physician's suggestion of tracheostomy to procedure day) affect tracheostomy timing. The effect of tracheostomy delay time on outcome has not yet been evaluated before.Patients older than 18 years who underwent tracheostomy for PMV were retrospectively collected. The outcomes between different timing of tracheostomy (early: ≤14 days; late: >14 days of intubation) were compared. We also analyzed the effect of physician decision time, tracheostomy delay time, and procedure type on clinical outcomes.A total of 134 patients were included. There were 57 subjects in the early tracheostomy group and 77 in the late group. The early group had significantly shorter mechanical ventilation duration, shorter intensive care unit stays, and shorter hospital stays than late group. There was no difference in weaning rate, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and in-hospital mortality. The physician decision time (8.1 ±â€Š3.4 vs 18.2 ±â€Š8.1 days, P < .001) and tracheostomy delay time (2.1 ±â€Š1.9 vs 6.1 ±â€Š6.8 days, P < .001) were shorter in the early group than in the late group. The tracheostomy delay time [odds ratio (OR) = 0.908, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.832-0.991, P = .031) and procedure type (percutaneous dilatation, OR = 2.489, 95% CI = 1.057-5.864, P = .037) affected successful weaning. Platelet count of >150 × 10/µL (OR = 0.217, 95% CI = 0.051-0.933, P = .043) and procedure type (percutaneous dilatation, OR = 0.252, 95% CI = 0.069-0.912, P = .036) were associated with in-hospital mortality.Shorter tracheostomy delay time is associated with higher weaning success. Percutaneous dilatation tracheostomy is associated with both higher weaning success and lower in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Traqueostomia/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/estatística & dados numéricos , APACHE , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 33(5): 237-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404002

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to decrease the number of patients with acquired aspiration mortality. DESIGN: This was an evaluation research study. Data were collected on acutely ill hospitalized patients from January 2013 to December 2017. METHODS: In 2016, a 1100-bed Midwestern quaternary care facility found an increasing trend in mortality rates of patients with acquired aspiration from 2013 to 2015. A need for improved detection of patients at risk of aspiration was identified. A multidisciplinary team analyzed this need and developed a screening process found on the American College of Chest Physicians practice guidelines and the Massey Bedside Swallowing Screen to reduce these rates. Nurses implemented the aspiration risk screening process on all hospitalized patients. Data were collected through nursing responses and chart reviews. RESULTS: Initial implementation of the aspiration risk screening process yielded procedural concerns that were ameliorated through increased education and refinement of the screen. After refinement and reimplementation, mortality data from 2016 to 2017 revealed a decrease to zero aspiration-related events. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest implementation of a nursing-led aspiration risk screening process with acutely ill patients is a factor in decreasing patient mortality from acquired aspiration. These clinical practice changes of identifying patients at risk of aspirating and involving dysphagia therapists prior to oral intake increase patient safety while decreasing acquired aspiration mortality. IMPACT: This study addressed upward trends in patient mortality with acquired aspiration. Mortality rates declined after implementation of the aspiration risk screening process on hospitalized patients. These findings have potential to impact healthcare personnel and all acutely ill hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Deglutição , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Aspiração Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Estado Terminal , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização , Humanos , Enfermeiras Clínicas , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Aspiração Respiratória/mortalidade
11.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 10(4): 446-453, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very little is known about clinical and biomarker predictors of readmissions following pediatric congenital heart surgery. The cardiac biomarker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) can help predict readmission in adult populations, but the estimated utility in predicting risk of readmission or mortality after pediatric congenital heart surgery has not previously been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the association between pre- and postoperative serum biomarker levels and 30-day readmission or mortality for pediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery. METHODS: We measured pre- and postoperative NT-proBNP levels in two prospective cohorts of 522 pediatric patients <18 years of age who underwent at least one congenital heart operation from 2010 to 2014. Blood samples were collected before and after surgery. We evaluated the association between pre- and postoperative NT-proBNP with readmission or mortality within 30 days of discharge, using multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for covariates based on the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Risk Model. RESULTS: The Johns Hopkins Children's Center cohort and the Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in Acute Kidney Injury (TRIBE-AKI) cohort demonstrate event rates of 12.9% and 9.4%, respectively, for the composite end point. After adjustment for covariates in the STS congenital risk model, we did not find an association between elevated levels of NT-proBNP and increased risk of readmission or mortality following congenital heart surgery for either cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In our two cohorts, preoperative and postoperative values of NT-proBNP were not significantly associated with readmission or mortality following pediatric congenital heart surgery. These findings will inform future studies evaluating multimarker risk assessment models in the pediatric population.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Precursores de Proteínas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16261, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays most of the intensive care units (ICUs) operate as a closed format in comparison to an open format. The new concept of a closed ICU is where patients are admitted under the full responsibility of a trained intensivist, whereas an open ICU is where patients are admitted under the care of another attending physician and intensivists are just available for consultation. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare mortality rate and other clinical features observed in open vs closed ICU formats. METHODS: Biomedical and pharmacological bibliographic database Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), the Cochrane Central and www.ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for required English publications. Mortality, the frequency of patients requiring mechanical ventilation, central line, arterial line and pulmonary arterial catheter were assessed respectively. Statistical analysis was carried out by the RevMan software. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to represent the data following analysis. RESULTS: Five studies with a total number of 6160 participants enrolled between years 1992 to 2007 were included. Results of this analysis showed that mortality rate was significantly higher in the open format ICU (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.17-1.48; P = .00001) (using a fixed effect model) and (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59; P = .005) (using a random effect model). Closed format ICUs were associated with significantly higher number of patients that required central line (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.92; P = .02). Patients requiring mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.65-1.78; P = .77), patients requiring arterial line (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.49-2.29; P = .89) and patients requiring pulmonary arterial catheter (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.40-1.87; P = .71) were similar in the open vs the closed setting. CONCLUSION: This analysis showed that mortality rate was significantly higher in an open as compared to a closed format ICU. However, the frequency of patients requiring mechanical ventilation, arterial line and pulmonary arterial catheter was similarly observed. Larger trials are expected to further confirm those hypotheses.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Inovação Organizacional , Saúde Global , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
13.
BMJ ; 366: l4134, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 30 day mortality, 30 day readmissions, and inpatient spending vary according to whether physicians were exposed to work hour reforms during their residency. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: US Medicare. PARTICIPANTS: 20% random sample (n=485 685) of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or more admitted to hospital and treated by a general internist during 2000-12. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 30 day mortality, 30 day readmissions, and inpatient Medicare Part B spending among patients treated by first year internists who were fully exposed to the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) work hour reforms during their residency (completed residency after 2006) compared with first year internists with partial or no exposure to reforms (completed residency before 2006). Senior internists not exposed to reforms during their residency served as a control group (10th year internists) for general trends in hospital care: a difference-in-difference analysis. RESULTS: Exposure of physicians to work hour reforms during their residency was not associated with statistically significant differences in 30 day mortality, 30 day readmissions, or inpatient spending. Among 485 685 hospital admissions, 30 day mortality rates during 2000-06 and 2007-12 for patients of first year internists were 10.6% (12 567 deaths/118 014 hospital admissions) and 9.6% (13 521/140 529), respectively, and for 10th year internists were 11.2% (11 018/98 811) and 10.6% (13 602/128 331), for an adjusted difference-in-difference effect of -0.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval -0.8% to 0.6%, P=0.68). 30 day readmission rates for first year internists during 2000-06 and 2007-12 were 20.4% (24 074/118 014) and 20.4% (28 689/140 529), respectively, and for 10th year internists were 20.1% (19 840/98 811) and 20.5% (26 277/128 331), for an adjusted difference-in-difference effect of 0.1 percentage points (-0.9% to 1.1%, P=0.87). Medicare Part B inpatient spending for first year internists during 2000-06 and 2007-12 was $1161 (£911; €1024) and $1267 per hospital admission, respectively, and for 10th year internists was $1331 and $1599, for an adjusted difference-in-difference effect of -$46 (95% confidence interval -$94 to $2, P=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of internists to work hour reforms during their residency was not associated with post-training differences in patient mortality, readmissions, or costs of care.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/economia , Internato e Residência , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Readmissão do Paciente/normas , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 919-923, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257330

RESUMO

Tenascin-C (TNC) is involved in aortic disease pathophysiology. This study aims to evaluate TNC's value for predicting in-hospital death in acute aortic dissection (AD).We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with suspected acute AD within 48 hours from symptom onset. Serum TNC and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were examined on admission. Their baseline clinical characteristics and serum D-Dimer (DD) were collected. The endpoint was in-hospital death from AD.In the study cohort,78 survivors and 31 non-survivors with acute AD were enrolled. Compared to survivors, elevated median levels of serum TNC (141.10 pg/mL versus 75.30 pg/mL, P < 0.001), DD (8.74 µg/mL versus 4.58 µg/mL, P < 0.001), and CRP (19.20 mg/L versus 13.40 mg/L, P < 0.001) were found in non-survivors. Multiple logistic regressions revealed TNC, DD, and CRP were independent predictors of in-hospital death from acute AD. The OR and 95% CI were 1.038, 1.017-1.055; 1.084, 1.009-1.165 and 1.386, 1.107-1.643, respectively. Furthermore, TNC's sensitivity and specificity in predicting in-hospital death in acute AD were 83.87% and 83.33%. The combination of TNC and DD can improve the sensitivity and specificity to 90.30% and 88.46%.TNC is a valuable biomarker for predicting in-hospital death from acute AD. The combination of TNC and DD can improve predictions of in-hospital death from acute AD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Tenascina/sangue , Doença Aguda , Aneurisma Dissecante/sangue , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
15.
S Afr Med J ; 109(5): 299-305, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131794

RESUMO

Healthcare delivery systems around the world are designing care through value-based models where value is defined as a function of quality of care outcomes and cost. Mortality is a sentinel outcome measure of quality of care, of fundamental importance to patients and providers. Discovery Health (DH), an administrative funder of healthcare in South Africa (SA), uses service claims data of client medical schemes to examine standardised mortality rates (SMRs) at condition level across hospital systems for the purpose of healthcare system improvement. To accurately examine and contrast variation in condition-level SMRs across acute hospital systems, this outcome metric needs to be risk-adjusted for patient characteristics that make mortality more, or less, likely to occur. This article describes and evaluates the validity of risk-adjustment methods applied to service claims data to accurately determine SMRs across hospital systems. While service claims data may have limitations regarding case risk adjustment, it is important that we do not lose the important opportunity to use claims data as a reliable proxy to comment on the quality of care within healthcare systems. This methodology is robust in its demonstration of variation of performance on mortality outcomes across hospital systems. For the measurement period January 2014 - December 2016, the average risk-adjusted SMRs across hospital systems where DH members were hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction, stroke, pneumonia and coronary artery bypass graft procedures were 9.7%, 8.0%, 5.3% and 3.2%, respectively. This exercise of transparently examining variation in SMRs at hospital system level is the first of its kind in SA's private sector. Our methodological exercise is used to establish a local pattern of variation of SMRs in the private sector as the base off which to scrutinise reasons for variation and off which to build quality of care improvement strategies. High-performing healthcare systems must seek out opportunities for learning and continuous improvement such as those offered by examining important quality of care outcome measures across hospitals.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(7): 793-801, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076868

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Distribution and outcomes of traumatic injury of the esophagus (TIE) in pediatric versus adult populations are unknown. Our study sought to perform a descriptive analysis of TIE in children and adults. METHODS: We reviewed the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) for the years 2010-2015. Demographics, characteristics, and outcomes of pediatric (age < 16 years) and adult TIE patients were described and compared. RESULTS: Among 526,850 pediatric and 3,838,895 adult trauma patients, 90 pediatric (0.02%) and 1,411 (0.04%) adult TIE patients were identified. Demographics and esophageal injury severity did not differ. Children were more likely to sustain blunt trauma (63% versus 37%), with the most common mechanism being transportation-related accidents, were less-severely injured (median ISS 14 versus 22), and had fewer associated injuries (79% versus 95%) and complications (30% versus 51%) (all p < 0.001). Children had shorter hospitalizations (median 5 versus 10 days) and were more likely to be discharged home (84% versus 64%) (both p = 0.01). In-hospital mortality did not differ significantly between children and adults (10% versus 19%, p = 0.09). CONCLUSION: TIE in the pediatric population has unique characteristics compared to adults: it is more likely to be a result of blunt trauma, has lower injury burden, and has more favorable clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/epidemiologia , Esôfago/lesões , Traumatismo Múltiplo , Sistema de Registros , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Laryngol Otol ; 133(6): 487-493, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epistaxis is the most common ENT emergency. This study aimed to assess one-year mortality rates in patients admitted to a large teaching hospital. METHOD: This study was a retrospective case note analysis of all patients admitted to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in Glasgow with epistaxis over a 12-month period. RESULTS: The one-year overall mortality for a patient admitted with epistaxis was 9.8 per cent. The patients who died were older (mean age 77.2 vs 68.8 years; p = 0.002), had a higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric score (9.9 vs 6.7; p < 0.001) and had a higher performance status score (2 or higher vs less than 2; p < 0.001). Other risk factors were a low admission haemoglobin level (less than 128 g/dl vs 128 g/dl or higher; p = 0.025), abnormal coagulation (p = 0.004), low albumin (less than 36 g/l vs more than 36 g/l; p < 0.001) and longer length of stay (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: There are a number of risk factors associated with increased mortality after admission with epistaxis. This information could help with risk stratification of patients at admission and enable the appropriate patient support to be arranged.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Epistaxe/diagnóstico , Epistaxe/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Epistaxe/terapia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 10(3): 261-267, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) during heart operation on outcomes in neonates undergoing Norwood operation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial data set. The adjusted effect of RCP use on each outcome was studied using a penalized logistic regression model with bootstrap validation. RESULTS: Of 549 patients included in the study, 252 patients (45.9%) received RCP during their heart operation. In univariate comparisons, the majority of the baseline characteristics and preoperative risk factors were similar in the RCP and No RCP group. The total cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and the total cross-clamp (CC) time were longer in the RCP group (RCP vs No RCP, median CPB time: 161 minutes vs 109 minutes; median CC time: 63 minutes vs 43 minutes). In adjusted models, the use of RCP was not associated with decreased mortality and/or need for heart transplant at hospital discharge (odds ratio [OR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-1.25) or prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.62-2.28) or prolonged hospital length of stay (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.73-2.30). We demonstrated that use of RCP was associated with longer CPB times, increased use of ultrafiltration, and higher probability of open chest after Norwood operation. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not demonstrate any impact of RCP on in-hospital mortality and/or heart transplantation, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and prolonged hospital length of stay among neonates undergoing Norwood operation.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Procedimentos de Norwood/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Parada Circulatória Induzida por Hipotermia Profunda/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Procedimentos de Norwood/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15353, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096434

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are diseases with golden hour. This study aimed to identify and compare factors that affect in-hospital mortality in patients with stroke and AMI who admitted via the emergency department.This study used the Korean National Health Insurance claims data from 2002 to 2013. The study sample included 7693 patients who had an ischemic stroke, 2828 patients who had a hemorrhagic stroke, and 4916 patients with AMI who were admitted via the emergency departments of a superior general hospital and general hospital, did not transfer to another hospital or come from another hospital, and were aged ≥20 years. This study was analyzed by using Cox's proportional hazards frailty model.Five hundred (6.5%) of 7693 patients with ischemic stroke, 569 (20.1%) of 2828 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 399 (8.1%) of 4916 patients with AMI were dead. The clinical factors were associated with in-hospital mortality such as age, CCI, hypertension, and diabetes of patient characteristics. In treatment characteristics, performing PCI and weekday admission was associated with in-hospital mortality (aHR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27-0.67; aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.77, respectively). In hospital characteristics, the volume, the proportion of transferred patient to other hospital and ratio of beds per one nurse was associated with in-hospital mortality.Clinical factors of patient characteristics, intervention such as performing PCI and reducing ICP of treatment characteristics, and the volume, transferred rate, and the number of nurse of hospital characteristics were associated with in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Transferência de Pacientes , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15557, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096458

RESUMO

Most studies on gender difference of the in-hospital outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were performed in the pre-drug-eluting stents (DES) era. This study was performed to investigate whether gender influences the in-hospital outcome of PCI in the DES era.A total of 44,967 PCI procedure between January and December of 2014 from the nationwide PCI registry database in Korea were analyzed. The study population was male predominant (70.2%). We examined the association of gender with unadjusted and adjusted in-hospital mortality and composite events of PCI, including mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, urgent repeat PCI and bleeding requiring transfusion.Most of the study patients (91.3%) received DES. The incidence rates of in-hospital mortality (2.95% vs 1.99%, P <.001) and composite events (7.01% vs 5.48%, P <.001) were significantly higher in women compared to men. Unadjusted analyses showed that women had a 1.49 times higher risk of in-hospital mortality and a 1.30 times higher risk of composite events than men (P <.001 for each). After adjustment for potential confounders, female gender was not a risk factor for mortality (P = .258), but the risk of composite events remained 1.20 times higher in women than in men (P = .008).Among patients undergoing PCI in the contemporary DES era, female gender was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital composite events, but not in-hospital mortality. More careful attention should be emphasized to minimize procedure-related risks and to improve prognosis in women undergoing PCI.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico
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