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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of early neonatal infant mortality in the state of São Paulo according to preventability and region of residence. METHODS: Ecological study with secondary data from 2008 to 2017, obtained from the Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc - Live Birth Information System) and the Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM - Mortality Information System). The causes of death were classified according to preventability groups, and the annual percentage changes in the death rates of each preventability group were estimated using the Joinpoint software. RESULTS: The early neonatal component showed a reduction trend with an annual percentage change of -1.18 (95%CI -1.63 to -0.72), less pronounced than the other age components of infant mortality. In the analysis according to preventability, the causes reducible by attention to the woman during pregnancy and those reducible by attention to the fetus and the newborn presented annual percentage change of -1.03 (95%CI: -1.92 to -0.13) and -2.6 (95%CI: -4.07 to -1.11), respectively. In the causes reducible by attention to women during delivery, no reduction trend was observed. Regional discrepancies occurred in the variation of early neonatal infant mortality rates according to type of preventability. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality up to the 6th day of life presented greater difficulty of reduction when compared with the other age components. The absence of a reduction trend in preventable deaths due to the attention to women during delivery points to possible fragility in the attention to delivery.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Gravidez
2.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(9): 1-11, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054916

RESUMO

Objective-This report presents 2017-2018 infant mortality rates in the United States by maternal prepregnancy body mass index, and by infant age at death, maternal age, and maternal race and Hispanic origin. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of infant deaths by maternal and infant characteristics are presented using the 2017-2018 linked period birth/infant death files; the linked period birth/infant death file is based on birth and death certificates registered in all states and the District of Columbia. The 2017 linked birth/infant death file is the first year that national data on maternal prepregnancy body mass index were available. Results-Total infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates were lowest for infants of women who were normal weight prepregnancy, and then rose with increasing prepregnancy body mass index. Total, neonatal, and postneonatal rates were higher for infants of women who were underweight prepregnancy compared with infants of women who were normal or overweight before pregnancy. Mortality rates for infants of underweight women were generally, but not exclusively, lower than those of infants born to women with obesity. Infants born to women of normal weight generally had lower mortality rates than infants born to women who had obesity prepregnancy for all maternal age and race and Hispanic-origin groups.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Idade Materna , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003285, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biannual azithromycin distribution has been shown to reduce child mortality as well as increase antimicrobial resistance. Targeting distributions to vulnerable subgroups such as malnourished children is one approach to reaching those at the highest risk of mortality while limiting selection for resistance. The objective of this analysis was to assess whether the effect of azithromycin on mortality differs by nutritional status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A large simple trial randomized communities in Niger to receive biannual distributions of azithromycin or placebo to children 1-59 months old over a 2-year timeframe. In exploratory subgroup analyses, the effect of azithromycin distribution on child mortality was assessed for underweight subgroups using weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) thresholds of -2 and -3. Modification of the effect of azithromycin on mortality by underweight status was examined on the additive and multiplicative scale. Between December 2014 and August 2017, 27,222 children 1-11 months of age from 593 communities had weight measured at their first study visit. Overall, the average age among included children was 4.7 months (interquartile range [IQR] 3-6), 49.5% were female, 23% had a WAZ < -2, and 10% had a WAZ < -3. This analysis included 523 deaths in communities assigned to azithromycin and 661 deaths in communities assigned to placebo. The mortality rate was lower in communities assigned to azithromycin than placebo overall, with larger reductions among children with lower WAZ: -12.6 deaths per 1,000 person-years (95% CI -18.5 to -6.9, P < 0.001) overall, -17.0 (95% CI -28.0 to -7.0, P = 0.001) among children with WAZ < -2, and -25.6 (95% CI -42.6 to -9.6, P = 0.003) among children with WAZ < -3. No statistically significant evidence of effect modification was demonstrated by WAZ subgroup on either the additive or multiplicative scale (WAZ < -2, additive: 95% CI -6.4 to 16.8, P = 0.34; WAZ < -2, multiplicative: 95% CI 0.8 to 1.4, P = 0.50, WAZ < -3, additive: 95% CI -2.2 to 31.1, P = 0.14; WAZ < -3, multiplicative: 95% CI 0.9 to 1.7, P = 0.26). The estimated number of deaths averted with azithromycin was 388 (95% CI 214 to 574) overall, 116 (95% CI 48 to 192) among children with WAZ < -2, and 76 (95% CI 27 to 127) among children with WAZ < -3. Limitations include the availability of a single weight measurement on only the youngest children and the lack of power to detect small effect sizes with this rare outcome. Despite the trial's large size, formal tests for effect modification did not reach statistical significance at the 95% confidence level. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality rates were higher in the underweight subgroups, this study was unable to demonstrate that nutritional status modified the effect of biannual azithromycin distribution on mortality. Even if the effect were greater among underweight children, a nontargeted intervention would result in the greatest absolute number of deaths averted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The MORDOR trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02047981.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/mortalidade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/mortalidade , Níger/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Magreza
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) comprises an array of conditions and procedures denoting an acutely life-threatening pregnancy-related condition. SMM may further compromise fetal well-being. Empirical data are lacking about the relation between SMM and infant mortality. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included 1 892 857 singleton births between 2002 and 2017 in Ontario, Canada, within a universal health care system. The exposure was SMM as an overall construct arising from 23 weeks' gestation up to 42 days after the index delivery. The primary outcome was infant mortality from birth to 365 days. Multivariable modified Poisson regression generated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for maternal age, income, rurality, world region of origin, diabetes mellitus, and chronic hypertension. RESULTS: Infant mortality occurred among 174 of 19 587 live births with SMM (8.9 per 1000) vs 5289 of 1 865 791 live births without SMM (2.8 per 1000) (an adjusted relative risk of 2.93 [95% CI 2.51-3.41]). Of 19 587 pregnancies with SMM, 4523 (23.1%) had sepsis. Relative to births without SMM, the adjusted odds ratio for infant death from sepsis was 1.95 (95% CI 1.10-3.45) if SMM occurred without maternal sepsis and 6.36 (95% CI 3.50-11.55) if SMM included sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: SMM confers a higher risk of infant death. There is also coupling tendency (concurrent event of interest) between SMM with sepsis and infant death from sepsis. Identification of preventable SMM indicators, as well as the development of strategies to limit their onset or progression, may reduce infant mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Saúde Materna/tendências , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 60(5): 640-659, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since its emergence in December 2019, COVID-19 has spread to over 210 countries, with an estimated mortality rate of 3-4%. Little is understood about its effects during pregnancy. AIMS: To describe the current understanding of COVID-19 illness in pregnant women, to describe obstetric outcomes and to identify gaps in the existing knowledge. METHODS: Medline Ovid, EMBASE, World Health Organization COVID-19 research database and Cochrane COVID-19 in pregnancy spreadsheet were accessed on 18/4, 18/5 and 23/5 2020. Articles were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The following were excluded: reviews, opinion pieces, guidelines, articles pertaining solely to other viruses, single case reports. RESULTS: Sixty articles were included in this review. Some pregnant participants may have been included in multiple publications, as admission dates overlap for reports from the same hospital. However, a total of 1287 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant cases are reported. Where universal testing was undertaken, asymptomatic infection occurred in 43.5-92% of cases. In the cohort studies, severe and critical COVID-19 illness rates approximated those of the non-pregnant population. Eight maternal deaths, six neonatal deaths, seven stillbirths and five miscarriages were reported. Nineteen neonates were SARS-CoV-2 positive, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swabs. [Correction added on 2 September 2020, after first online publication: the number of neonates indicated in the preceding sentence has been corrected from 'Thirteen' to 'Nineteen'.] CONCLUSIONS: Where universal screening was conducted, SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was often asymptomatic. Severe and critical disease rates approximate those in the general population. Vertical transmission is possible; however, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates were infected in utero, intrapartum or postpartum. Future work should assess risks of congenital syndromes and adverse perinatal outcomes where infection occurs in early and mid-pregnancy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Austrália , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Trimestres da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21194-21200, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817561

RESUMO

Recent work has emphasized the benefits of patient-physician concordance on clinical care outcomes for underrepresented minorities, arguing it can ameliorate outgroup biases, boost communication, and increase trust. We explore concordance in a setting where racial disparities are particularly severe: childbirth. In the United States, Black newborns die at three times the rate of White newborns. Results examining 1.8 million hospital births in the state of Florida between 1992 and 2015 suggest that newborn-physician racial concordance is associated with a significant improvement in mortality for Black infants. Results further suggest that these benefits manifest during more challenging births and in hospitals that deliver more Black babies. We find no significant improvement in maternal mortality when birthing mothers share race with their physician.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Comunicação , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Médicos , Estados Unidos
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778541

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) is a well-established neonatal resuscitation program designed to reduce newborn mortality in low-resource settings. OBJECTIVES: In this literature review, we aim to identify challenges, knowledge gaps, and successes associated with each stage of HBB programming. DATA SOURCES: Databases used in the systematic search included Medline, POPLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, African Index Medicus, Cochrane, and Index Medicus. STUDY SELECTION: All articles related to HBB, in any language, were included. Article quality was assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted if related to HBB, including its implementation, acquisition and retention of HBB knowledge and skills, changes in provider behavior and clinical care, or the impact on newborn outcomes. RESULTS: Ninety-four articles met inclusion criteria. Barriers to HBB implementation include staff turnover and limited time or focus on training and practice. Researchers of several studies found HBB cost-effective. Posttraining decline in knowledge and skills can be prevented with low-dose high-frequency refresher trainings, on-the-job practice, or similar interventions. Impact of HBB training on provider clinical practices varies. Although not universal, researchers in multiple studies have shown a significant association of decreased perinatal mortality with HBB implementation. LIMITATIONS: In addition to not conducting a gray literature search, articles relating only to Essential Care for Every Baby or Essential Care for Small Babies were not included in this review. CONCLUSIONS: Key challenges and requirements for success associated with each stage of HBB programming were identified. Despite challenges in obtaining neonatal mortality data, the program is widely believed to improve neonatal outcomes in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Competência Clínica , Mortalidade Infantil , Ressuscitação/educação , Ressuscitação/métodos , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido
8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1273-e1281, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic response is affecting maternal and neonatal health services all over the world. We aimed to assess the number of institutional births, their outcomes (institutional stillbirth and neonatal mortality rate), and quality of intrapartum care before and during the national COVID-19 lockdown in Nepal. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we collected participant-level data for pregnant women enrolled in the SUSTAIN and REFINE studies between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, from nine hospitals in Nepal. This period included 12·5 weeks before the national lockdown and 9·5 weeks during the lockdown. Women were eligible for inclusion if they had a gestational age of 22 weeks or more, a fetal heart sound at time of admission, and consented to inclusion. Women who had multiple births and their babies were excluded. We collected information on demographic and obstetric characteristics via extraction from case notes and health worker performance via direct observation by independent clinical researchers. We used regression analyses to assess changes in the number of institutional births, quality of care, and mortality before lockdown versus during lockdown. FINDINGS: Of 22 907 eligible women, 21 763 women were enrolled and 20 354 gave birth, and health worker performance was recorded for 10 543 births. From the beginning to the end of the study period, the mean weekly number of births decreased from 1261·1 births (SE 66·1) before lockdown to 651·4 births (49·9) during lockdown-a reduction of 52·4%. The institutional stillbirth rate increased from 14 per 1000 total births before lockdown to 21 per 1000 total births during lockdown (p=0·0002), and institutional neonatal mortality increased from 13 per 1000 livebirths to 40 per 1000 livebirths (p=0·0022). In terms of quality of care, intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring decreased by 13·4% (-15·4 to -11·3; p<0·0001), and breastfeeding within 1 h of birth decreased by 3·5% (-4·6 to -2·6; p=0·0032). The immediate newborn care practice of placing the baby skin-to-skin with their mother increased by 13·2% (12·1 to 14·5; p<0·0001), and health workers' hand hygiene practices during childbirth increased by 12·9% (11·8 to 13·9) during lockdown (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Institutional childbirth reduced by more than half during lockdown, with increases in institutional stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality, and decreases in quality of care. Some behaviours improved, notably hand hygiene and keeping the baby skin-to-skin with their mother. An urgent need exists to protect access to high quality intrapartum care and prevent excess deaths for the most vulnerable health system users during this pandemic period. FUNDING: Grand Challenges Canada.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Parto Obstétrico , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235954, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to better understand how the lack of emergency child and obstetric care can be related to maternal and neonatal mortality levels. METHODS: We performed spatiotemporal geospatial analyses using data from Brazilian municipalities. An emergency service accessibility index was derived using the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) for 951 hospitals. Mortality data from 2000 to 2015 was used to characterize space-time trends. The data was overlapped using a spatial clusters analysis to identify regions with lack of emergency access and high mortality trends. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2015 Brazil the overall neonatal mortality rate varied from 11,42 to 11,71 by 1000 live births. The maternal mortality presented a slightly decrease from 2,98 to 2,88 by 100 thousand inhabitants. For neonatal mortality the Northeast and North regions presented the highest percentage of up trending. For maternal mortality the North region exhibited the higher volume of up trending. The accessibility index obtained highlighted large portions of the rural areas of the country without any coverage of obstetric or neonatal beds. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses highlighted regions with problems of mortality and access to maternal and newborn emergency services. This sequence of steps can be applied to other low and medium income countries as health situation analysis tool. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Low and middle income countries have greater disparities in access to emergency child and obstetric care. There is a lack of approaches capable to support analysis considering a spatiotemporal perspective for emergency care. Studies using Geographic Information System analysis for maternal and child care, are increasing in frequency. This approach can identify emergency child and obstetric care saturated or deprived regions. The sequence of steps designed here can help researchers, and policy makers to better design strategies aiming to improve emergency child and obstetric care.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Brasil , Bases de Dados Factuais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Análise Espacial
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated associations of area-level deprivation with obstetric and perinatal outcomes in a large population-based routine dataset. METHODS: We used the data of n = 827,105 deliveries who were born in hospitals between 2009 to 2016 in Bavaria, Germany. The Bavarian Index of Multiple Deprivation (BIMD) on district level was assigned to each mother by the zip code of her residential address. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for preterm deliveries, Caesarian sections (CS), stillbirths, small for gestational age (SGA) births and low 5-minute Apgar scores by BIMD quintiles with and without adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: We observed a significantly increased risk for preterm deliveries in mothers from the most deprived compared to the least deprived districts (e.g. OR [95% CI] for highest compared to lowest deprivation quintile: 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]) in adjusted analyses. Increased deprivation was also associated with higher SGA and secondary CS rates, but with lower proportions of stillbirths, primary CS and low Apgar scores. When one large clinic with an unusually high stillbirth rate was excluded, the association of BIMD with stillbirths was attenuated and almost disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: We found that area-level deprivation in Bavaria was positively associated with preterm and SGA births, confirming previous studies. In contrast, the finding of an inverse association between deprivation and both stillbirth rates and low Apgar score came somewhat surprising. However, we conclude that the stillbirths finding is spurious and reflects regional bias due to a clinic which seems to specialize in termination of pregnancies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Áreas de Pobreza , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(8): e1061-e1070, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gains in newborn survival have been achieved in many low-income and middle-income countries, reductions in stillbirth and neonatal mortality have been slow. Prematurity complications are a major driver of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. We aimed to assess the effect of a quality improvement package for intrapartum and immediate newborn care on stillbirth and preterm neonatal survival in Kenya and Uganda, where evidence-based practices are often underutilised. METHODS: This unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial was done in western Kenya and eastern Uganda at facilities that provide 24-h maternity care with at least 200 births per year. The study assessed outcomes of low-birthweight and preterm babies. Eligible facilities were pair-matched and randomly assigned (1:1) into either the intervention group or the control group. All facilities received maternity register data strengthening and a modified WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist; facilities in the intervention group additionally received provider mentoring using PRONTO simulation and team training as well as quality improvement collaboratives. Liveborn or fresh stillborn babies who weighed between 1000 g and 2500 g, or less than 3000 g with a recorded gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were included in the analysis. We abstracted data from maternity registers for maternal and birth outcomes. Follow-up was done by phone or in person to identify the status of the infant at 28 days. The primary outcome was fresh stillbirth and 28-day neonatal mortality. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03112018. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1, 2016, and April 30, 2019, 20 facilities were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10). Among 5343 eligible babies in these facilities, we assessed outcomes of 2938 newborn and fresh stillborn babies (1447 in the intervention and 1491 in the control group). 347 (23%) of 1491 infants in the control group were stillborn or died in the neonatal period compared with 221 (15%) of 1447 infants in the intervention group at 28 days (odds ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·54-0·81). No harm or adverse effects were found. INTERPRETATION: Fresh stillbirth and neonatal mortality among low-birthweight and preterm babies can be decreased using a package of interventions that reinforces evidence-based practices and invests in health system strengthening. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(5): 1-18, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600516

RESUMO

Objectives-This report assesses the contributions of the changing maternal age distribution and maternal age-specific infant mortality rates on overall and race and Hispanic origin-specific infant mortality rates in the United States from 2000 to 2017. Methods-The analyses used 2000-2017 linked birth and infant death data from the National Vital Statistics System. Age-adjusted infant mortality rates, based on the 2000 U.S. maternal age distribution, were calculated for each year. These rates were compared with crude rates for all births and for specific race and Hispanic-origin groups. Decomposition analysis was used to estimate the proportion of the decline due to changes in maternal age distribution and in age-specific mortality rates. Results-During 2000-2017, the age of women giving birth rose as infant mortality rates declined, although unevenly across maternal age groups. The maternal age-adjusted infant mortality rate in 2017 was 6.13 compared with the crude rate of 5.79, resulting in a 0.34 percentage point difference. Changes in the maternal age distribution accounted for 31.3% of the decline in infant mortality rates for all births and for births to non-Hispanic white women, and for 4.8% of the decline in births to non-Hispanic black women. Declines in age-specific mortality rates accounted for the remainder of the decline for these groups and for all of the decline in births to Hispanic women. Conclusion-Changes in the age distribution of women giving birth accounted for about one-third of the decline in infant mortality rates from 2000 through 2017; declines in maternal age-specific mortality rates accounted for about two-thirds of this decline. These patterns varied by race and Hispanic origin.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Idade Materna , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(7): 1-18, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730740

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents 2018 infant mortality statistics by age at death, maternal race and Hispanic origin, maternal age, gestational age, leading causes of death, and maternal state of residence. Trends in infant mortality are also examined. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted for infant deaths and infant mortality rates using the 2018 period linked birth/infant death file; the linked birth/infant death file is based on birth and death certificates registered in all states and the District of Columbia. Results-A total of 21,498 infant deaths were reported in the United States in 2018. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 5.67 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, lower than the rate of 5.79 in 2017 and an historic low in the country. The neonatal and post neonatal mortality rates for 2018 (3.78 and 1.89, respectively) demonstrated a nonsignificant decline compared with 2017 (3.85 and 1.94, respectively). The 2018 mortality rate declined for infants of Hispanic women compared with the 2017 rate; changes in rates for other race and Hispanic-origin groups were not statistically significant. The 2018 infant mortality rate for infants of non-Hispanic black women (10.75) was more than twice as high as that for infants of non-Hispanic white (4.63), non-Hispanic Asian (3.63), and Hispanic women (4.86). Infants born very preterm (less than 28 weeks of gestation) had the highest mortality rate (382.20), 186 times as high as that for infants born at term (37-41 weeks of gestation) (2.05). The five leading causes of infant death in 2018 were the same as in 2017; cause-of-death rankings and mortality rates varied by maternal race and Hispanic origin. Infant mortality rates by state for 2018 ranged from a low of 3.50 in New Hampshire to a high of 8.41 in Mississippi.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Causas de Morte/tendências , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e205239, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556257

RESUMO

Importance: There are few population-based studies addressing trends in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and NICU patient-days, especially in the subpopulation that, by gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW), might otherwise be able to stay in the room with their mothers. Objective: To describe population-based trends in NICU admissions, NICU patient-days, readmissions, and mortality in the birth population of a large integrated health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using data extracted from electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) health care system. Participants included all women who gave birth at KPSC hospitals and their newborns from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2018. Data extraction was limited to data entry fields whose contents were either numbers or fixed categorical choices. Rates of NICU admission, NICU patient-days, readmission rates, and mortality rates were measured in the total population, in newborns with GA 35 weeks or greater and BW 2000 g or more (high GA and BW group), and in the remaining newborns (low GA and BW group). Admissions to the NICU and NICU patient-days were risk adjusted with a machine learning model based on demographic and clinical characteristics before NICU admission. Changes in the trends were assessed with 2-sided correlated seasonal Mann-Kendall test. Data analysis was performed in August 2019. Exposures: Admission to the NICU and NICU patient-days among the birth cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were NICU admission and NICU patient-days in the total neonatal population and GA and BW subgroups. The secondary outcomes were readmission and mortality rates. Results: Over the study period there were 320 340 births (mean [SD] age of mothers, 30.1 [5.7] years; mean [SD] gestational age, 38.6 [1.97] weeks; mean [SD] birth weight, 3302 [573] g). The risk-adjusted NICU admission rate decreased from a mean of 14.5% (95% CI, 14.2%-14.7%) to 10.9% (95% CI, 10.7%-11.7%) (P for trend = .002); 92% of the change was associated with changes in the care of newborns in the high GA and BW group. The number of risk-adjusted NICU patient-days per birth decreased from a mean of 1.50 patient-days (95% CI, 1.43-1.54 patient-days) to 1.40 patient-days (95% CI, 1.36-1.48 patient-days) (P for trend = .03); 70% of the change was associated with newborns in the high GA and BW group. The unadjusted 30-day readmission rates and mortality rates did not change. Conclusions and Relevance: Admission rates to the NICU and numbers of NICU patient-days decreased over the study period without an increase in readmissions or mortality. The observed decrease was associated with the high GA and BW newborn population. How much of this decrease is attributable to intercurrent health care systemwide quality improvement initiatives would require further investigation. The remaining unexplained variation suggests that further changes are also possible.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/tendências , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , California , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Medicaid , Paridade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Timely delivery of fetal growth restriction (FGR) is important in reducing stillbirth. However, targeted earlier delivery of FGR preferentially removes smaller babies from later gestations, thereby right-shifting the distribution of birthweights at term. This artificially increases the birthweight cutoffs defining the lower centiles and redefines normally grown babies as small by population-based birthweight centiles. Our objective was to compare updated Australian national population-based birthweight centile charts over time with the prescriptive INTERGROWTH-21st standard. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of all singleton births ≥34 weeks' gestation in Victoria, Australia in five two-year epochs: 1983-84, 1993-94, 2003-04, 2013-14, and 2016-17. The birthweight cutoffs defining the 3rd and 10th centile from three Australian national population-based birthweight centile charts, for births in 1991-1994, in 1998-2007, and 2004-2013 respectively, were applied to each epoch to calculate the proportion of babies with birthweight <3rd and <10th centile. The same analysis was done using the INTERGROWTH-21st birthweight standard. To assess change over gestation, proportions were also calculated at preterm, early term and late term gestations. RESULTS: From 1983-84 to 2016-17, the proportion of babies with birthweight <3rd fell across all birthweight centile charts, from 3.1% to 1.7% using the oldest Australian chart, from 3.9% to 1.9% using the second oldest Australian chart, from 4.3% to 2.2% using the most recent Australian chart, and from 2.0% to 0.9% using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard. A similar effect was evident for the <10th centile. The effect was most obvious at term gestations. Updating the Australian population birthweight chart progressively right-shifted the birthweight distribution, changing the definition of small over time. The birthweight distribution of INTERGROWTH-21st was left-shifted compared to the Australian charts. CONCLUSIONS: Locally-derived population-based birthweight centiles are better for clinical audit of care but should not be updated. Prescriptive birthweight standards are less useful in defining 'small' due to their significant left-shift.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/fisiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória/epidemiologia
16.
Public Health Rep ; 135(4): 472-482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Geovisualization and spatial analysis are valuable tools for exploring and evaluating the complex social, economic, and environmental interactions that lead to spatial inequalities in health. The objective of this study was to describe spatial patterns of infant mortality and preterm birth in Ohio by using interactive mapping and spatial analysis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Ohio vital statistics records from 2008-2015. We geocoded live births and infant deaths by using residential address at birth. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust spatial and space-time cluster analyses that examined the geographic clustering of infant mortality and preterm birth and changes in spatial distribution over time. RESULTS: The overall infant mortality rate in Ohio during the study period was 6.55 per 1000 births; of 1 097 507 births, 10.3% (n = 112 552) were preterm. We found significant geographic clustering of both infant mortality and preterm birth centered on large urban areas. However, when known demographic risk factors were taken into account, urban clusters disappeared and, for preterm birth, new rural clusters appeared. CONCLUSIONS: Although many public health agencies have the capacity to create maps of health outcomes, complex spatial analysis and geovisualization techniques are still challenging for public health practitioners to use and understand. We found that actively engaging policymakers in reviewing results of the cluster analysis improved understanding of the processes driving spatial patterns of birth outcomes in the state.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Nascimento Vivo , Nascimento Prematuro , Análise Espacial , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ohio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial inequality in neonatal mortality rates (NMR) remains in low- and middle-income countries to the detriment of disadvantaged subpopulations. In Ethiopia, there is a dearth of evidence on the extent and trends of disparity in NMR. This study assessed the socioeconomic, residence and sex-based inequalities in NMR, as well as examined its change over a sixteen year period in Ethiopia. METHODS: Using the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (HEAT) software, data from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) were analyzed between 2000 and 2016. NMR was disaggregated by four equity stratifiers: education, wealth, residence and sex. In addition, absolute and relative inequality measures, namely Difference, Population Attributable Risk (PAR), Ratio, Relative Concentration Index (RCI) and Slope Index of Inequality (SII) were calculated to understand inequalities from different perspectives. Corresponding 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs) were computed to measure statistical significance. FINDINGS: Large educational inequalities in NMR were found in 2000, 2005, and 2011, while wealth-driven inequality occurred in 2011. Sex disparity was noted in all the surveys, and urban-rural differentials remained in all the surveys except in 2016. While socioeconomic and area-related inequalities decreased over time, sex related inequality did not change during the period of study. CONCLUSIONS: NMR appeared to be concentrated among male newborns, neonates born to illiterate and poor women and those living in rural settings. However, the inequality narrowed over time. Interventions appropriate for different subpopulations need to be designed.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(6): 1377-1386, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the primary hypothesis that extremely preterm children antenatally exposed to both magnesium sulfate and antenatal corticosteroids have a lower rate of severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death compared with those exposed to antenatal corticosteroids alone. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of children born at 22 0/7-26 6/7 weeks of gestation from 2011 to 2014 at Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network hospitals (N=3,093). The primary outcome was severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death at 18-26 months of corrected age follow-up based on exposure to antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate or antenatal corticosteroids alone. Secondary outcomes included components of severe neurodevelopmental impairment by exposure group and comparisons of severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death between children exposed to both antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate with those exposed to magnesium sulfate alone or to neither antenatal corticosteroids nor magnesium sulfate. Logistic regression models adjusted for background characteristics. RESULTS: Children exposed to both antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate had a lower rate of severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death (813/2,239, 36.3%) compared with those exposed to antenatal corticosteroids alone (225/508, 44.3%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.73; 95% CI 0.58-0.91), magnesium sulfate alone (47/89, 53%; aOR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.82), or neither therapy (121/251; 48.2%; aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49-0.89). Similarly, children exposed to both antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate had a lower rate of death compared with either or neither therapy, but the rate of severe neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors did not differ between exposure groups. CONCLUSION: In children born between 22 0/7 and 26 6/7 weeks of gestation, exposure to both antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate was associated with lower rates of severe neurodevelopmental impairment or death and death compared with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids alone. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00063063.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/mortalidade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(6): 1387-1397, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether improvement in outcomes from antenatal corticosteroid treatment in extremely and very preterm twins is similar to that observed in singletons, and to investigate whether antenatal corticosteroid treatment has different effects according to chorionicity or birth order. METHODS: This population-based study was based on an analysis of data collected by the Neonatal Research Network of Japan from 2003 to 2015 of neonates weighing 1,500 g or less at birth, from gestational ages of 24 0/7 to 31 6/7 weeks of gestation. After propensity score matching, univariate logistic and interaction analyses were performed to compare short-term (neonatal period) and medium-term (3 years of age) outcomes of the children of mothers who received antenatal corticosteroids with those of children of mothers who did not receive antenatal corticosteroids. We focused on differences between singletons and twins, between monochorionic and dichorionic twins and between the first and second twin. RESULTS: The study comprised 23,502 singletons and 6,546 twins. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment was associated with significant decreased short-term neurologic outcomes in both singletons and twins. However, antenatal corticosteroid treatment was associated with significantly decreased mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.61; 95% CI 0.53-0.70), respiratory distress syndrome (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.76), and cerebral palsy (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72-0.99) in singletons but not in twins (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.68-1.17; OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.87-1.12; and OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61-1.11, respectively). No association was found between chorionicity and the efficacy of antenatal corticosteroid treatment on outcomes. Further, no association was found between birth order and the efficacy of antenatal corticosteroid treatment on outcomes, except for periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis (interaction: P=.02 and P=.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Antenatal corticosteroid treatment in twins was associated with a beneficial effect on short-term neurologic outcomes only, without improvement in other short-term and medium-term outcomes. There was no difference related to chorionicity.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças em Gêmeos/prevenção & controle , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Paralisia Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Japão , Leucomalácia Periventricular/prevenção & controle , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Morbidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Gêmeos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 789, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The One-Child Policy led to the imbalance of the sex ratio at birth (SRB) in China. After that, Two-Child Policy was introduced and gradually liberalized at three stages. If both the husband and wife of one couple were the only child of their parents, they were allowed to have two children in policy (BTCP). If only one of them was the only child, they were allowed to have two children in policy (OTCP). The Universal Two-Child Policy (UTCP) allowed every couple to have two children. The objective of this study was to explore the changing trend of SRB at the stages of Two-Child Policy, to analyze the effect of population policy on SRB in terms of maternal age, delivery mode, parity, maternal education, delivery hospital, and to figure out what factors have greater impact on the SRB. METHODS: The data of the study came from Hebei Province Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System, covered the parturients delivered at 28 gestation weeks or more in 22 hospitals from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2017. We compared the SRB at different policy stages, analyzed the relationship between the SRB and population policy by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total 270,878 singleton deliveries were analyzed. The SRB, 1.084 at BTCP, 1.050 at OTCP, 1.047 at UTCP, declined rapidly (χ2 = 15.97, P < 0.01). With the introduction of Two-Child Policy, the percentage of parturients who were 30-34, ≥35 years old rose significantly, and the percentage of multiparous women increased significantly (40.7, 47.2, 56.6%). The neonatal mortality declined significantly (8.4‰, 6.7‰, 5.9‰, χ2 = 44.49, P < 0.01), the mortality rate of female infant gradually declined (48.2, 43.7, 43.9%). The logistic regression analysis showed the SRB was correlated to the three population policy stages in terms of maternal age, delivery mode, parity, maternal education, delivery hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The SRB has declined to normal level with the gradually liberalizing of Two-Child Policy in China. Advanced maternal age, cesarean delivery, multiparous women, middle level education, rural hospital are the main factors of effect on the decline of the SRB.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Paridade , Política Pública/tendências , Adulto , Cesárea/tendências , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Gravidez , História Reprodutiva , Razão de Masculinidade
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