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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770185

RESUMO

This is an ecological and time-series study using secondary data on perinatal mortality and its components from 2008 to 2017 in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The data were collected from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and Live Births Information System (SINASC) of the Unified Health System Informatics Department (DATASUS) in June 2019. The perinatal mortality rate (×1000 total births) was calculated. Time series were constructed from the perinatal mortality rate for the regions and Espírito Santo. To analyze the trend, the Prais-Winsten model was used. From 2008 to 2017 there were 8132 perinatal deaths (4939 fetal and 3193 early neonatal) out of a total of 542,802 births, a perinatal mortality rate of 15.0/1000 total births. The fetal/early neonatal ratio was 1.5:1, with a strong positive correlation early neonatal mortality rate, perinatal mortality rate, r (9) = 0.8893, with a significance level of p = 0.000574. The presence of differences in trends by health region was observed. Risk factors that stood out were as follows: mother's age ranging between 10 and 19 or 40 and 49 years old, with no education, a gestational age between 22 and 36 weeks, triple and double pregnancy, and a birth weight below 2499 g. Among the causes of death, 49.70% of deaths were concentrated in category of the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases, fetuses and newborns affected by maternal factors and complications of pregnancy, labor, and delivery (P00-P04), and 11.03% were in the category of intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia (P20-P21), both related to proper care during pregnancy and childbirth. We observed a slow reduction in the perinatal mortality rate in the state of Espírito Santo from 2008 to 2017.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
2.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(5): 343-352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to describe the methodology of a pilot perinatal mortality surveillance system (SPItOSS) aimed to improve quality of care and prevent avoidable perinatal severe morbidity and mortality in three Italian regions. DESIGN: population-based surveillance project monitoring incident cases of stillbirths, born dead ≥ 28 weeks of gestation and live births dying within 7 days. Local multidisciplinary audits in obstetric and neonatal units were conducted to assess causes of each death. A selection of deaths was also discussed by experts in regional and national Confidential Enquiries to assess causes and avoidability. The WHO perinatal mortality definition and the ICD-PM classification were adopted to codify perinatal deaths. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: health professionals working in any obstetric and neonatal unit in Lombardy (Northern Italy), Tuscany (Central Italy), and Sicily (Southern Italy), accounting for 32.3% of births in Italy. Data collection started on 01.07.2017 and ended on 30.06.2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: obstetric and neonatal units' participation rate in the participating regions, facility structural organisation description, health professionals' training course participation, estimate of perinatal death rates, clinical audits and Confidential Enquiries rates. RESULTS: health professionals from all obstetric and/or neonatal units (N. 138) joined the pilot project. Overall, 830 incident perinatal deaths were reported; 699 underwent a facility-based clinical audit, and 94 selected cases were analysed in detail through regional and national Confidential Enquiries. Among the latter, 16.0% were assessed as avoidable deaths. Interregional differences related to the facility structural organisation were identified. CONCLUSIONS: SPItOSS was efficient in identifying and analysing incident cases of perinatal deaths and detecting improvable aspects of care and avoidable perinatal deaths. The next objective is to extend the surveillance at the national level, considering that stable funding and a higher number of participating healthcare professionals and experts will be needed.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Perinatal , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Sicília , Natimorto/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Jordânia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1117, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of stillbirth, neonatal and maternal deaths are unacceptably high in low- and middle-income countries, especially around the time of birth. There are scarce resources and/or support implementation of evidence-based training programs. SaferBirths Bundle of Care is a well-proven package of innovative tools coupled with data-driven on-the-job training aimed at reducing perinatal and maternal deaths. The aim of this project is to determine the effect of scaling up the bundle on improving quality of intrapartum care and perinatal survival. METHODS: The project will follow a stepped-wedge cluster implementation design with well-established infrastructures for data collection, management, and analysis in 30 public health facilities in regions in Tanzania. Healthcare workers from selected health facilities will be trained in basic neonatal resuscitation, essential newborn care and essential maternal care. Foetal heart rate monitors (Moyo), neonatal heart rate monitors (NeoBeat) and skills trainers (NeoNatalie Live) will be introduced in the health facilities to facilitate timely identification of foetal distress during labour and improve neonatal resuscitation, respectively. Heart rate signal-data will be automatically collected by Moyo and NeoBeat, and newborn resuscitation training by NeoNatalie Live. Given an average of 4000 baby-mother pairs per year per health facility giving an estimate of 240,000 baby-mother pairs for a 2-years duration, 25% reduction in perinatal mortality at a two-sided significance level of 5%, intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) to be 0.0013, the study power stands at 0.99. DISCUSSION: Previous reports from small-scale Safer Births Bundle implementation studies show satisfactory uptake of interventions with significant improvements in quality of care and lives saved. Better equipped and trained birth attendants are more confident and skilled in providing care. Additionally, local data-driven feedback has shown to drive continuous quality of care improvement initiatives, which is essential to increase perinatal and maternal survival. Strengths of this research project include integration of innovative tools with existing national guidelines, local data-driven decision-making and training. Limitations include the stepwise cluster implementation design that may lead to contamination of the intervention, and/or inability to address the shortage of healthcare workers and medical supplies beyond the project scope. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Name of Trial Registry: ISRCTN Registry. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN30541755 . Date of Registration: 12/10/2020. Type of registration: Prospectively Registered.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Ressuscitação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 614, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 34 weeks of gestation complicates 1% of pregnancies and accounts for one-third of preterm births. International guidelines recommend expectant management, along with antenatal steroids before 34 weeks and antibiotics. Up-to-date evidence about the risks and benefits of administering tocolysis after PPROM, however, is lacking. In theory, reducing uterine contractility could delay delivery and reduce the risks of prematurity and its adverse short- and long-term consequences, but it might also prolong fetal exposure to inflammation, infection, and acute obstetric complications, potentially associated with neonatal death or long-term sequelae. The primary objective of this study is to assess whether short-term (48 h) tocolysis reduces perinatal mortality/morbidity in PPROM at 22 to 33 completed weeks of gestation. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, superiority trial will be performed in 29 French maternity units. Women with PPROM between 220/7 and 336/7 weeks of gestation, a singleton pregnancy, and no condition contraindicating expectant management will be randomized to receive a 48-hour oral treatment by either nifedipine or placebo (1:1 ratio). The primary outcome will be the occurrence of perinatal mortality/morbidity, a composite outcome including fetal death, neonatal death, or severe neonatal morbidity before discharge. If we assume an alpha-risk of 0.05 and beta-risk of 0.20 (i.e., a statistical power of 80%), 702 women (351 per arm) are required to show a reduction of the primary endpoint from 35% (placebo group) to 25% (nifedipine group). We plan to increase the required number of subjects by 20%, to replace any patients who leave the study early. The total number of subjects required is thus 850. Data will be analyzed by the intention-to-treat principle. DISCUSSION: This trial will inform practices and policies worldwide. Optimized prenatal management to improve the prognosis of infants born preterm could benefit about 50,000 women in the European Union and 40,000 in the United States each year. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03976063 (registration date June 5, 2019).


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/tratamento farmacológico , Nifedipino/administração & dosagem , Nifedipino/uso terapêutico , Tocólise/métodos , Tocolíticos/administração & dosagem , Tocolíticos/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tocólise/efeitos adversos
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(10): 946-953, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study is part of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS). It aimed to estimate neonatal near-miss (NNM) and perinatal death frequency and maternal risk factors among births to women with infection during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN: We conducted a 1-week inception hospital-based cohort study. SETTING: The study was carried out in 408 hospitals in 43 LMIC of all the WHO regions in 2017. PATIENTS: We included women with suspected or confirmed infection during pregnancy with at least 28 weeks of gestational age up to day-7 after birth. All babies born to those women were followed from birth until the seventh day after childbirth. Perinatal outcomes were considered at the end of the follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perinatal outcomes were (i) babies alive without severe complication, (ii) NNM and (iii) perinatal death (stillbirth and early neonatal death). RESULTS: 1219 births were analysed. Among them, 25.9% (n=316) and 10.1% (n=123) were NNM and perinatal deaths, respectively. After adjustment, maternal pre-existing medical condition (adjusted odds ratios (aOR)=1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and maternal infection suspected or diagnosed during labour (aOR=1.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2) were the independent risk factors of NNM. Maternal pre-existing medical condition (aOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.8), infection-related severe maternal outcome (aOR=3.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 7.1), mother's infection suspected or diagnosed within 24 hours after childbirth (aOR=2.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7) and vaginal birth (aOR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9) were independently associated with increased odds of perinatal death. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, one-third of births were adverse perinatal outcomes. Pre-existing maternal medical conditions and severe infection-related maternal outcomes were the main risk factors of adverse perinatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Parto , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vagina , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1652, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women delivering in health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and their newborns do not always receive proven interventions needed to prevent and/or adequately manage severe complications. The gaps in quality of care are increasingly pointed out as major contributing factor to the high and slow declining perinatal mortality rates. The World Health Organization Safe Childbirth Checklist (WHO-SCC), as a quality improvement strategy, targets low cost and easy to perform interventions and suits well with the context of limited resource settings. In this matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial, we assess the effectiveness of the WHO-SCC in improving healthcare providers' adherence to best practices and ultimately improving childbirth outcomes. METHODS: This is a multi-country study. In each country we will carry out a matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial whereby four pairs of regional hospitals will be randomized on a 1:1 basis to either the intervention or control group. A context specific WHO-SCC will be implemented in the intervention facilities along with trainings of healthcare providers on best childbirth practices and ongoing supportive supervisions. The standard of care will prevail in the control group. The primary outcome is a summary composite metric that combine the following poor childbirth outcomes: stillbirths, maternal deaths, early neonatal deaths, severe postpartum hemorrhage, maternal infections, early neonatal infections, prolonged obstructed labor, severe pre-eclampsia, uterine rupture in the health facility, eclampsia and maternal near miss. The occurrence of these outcomes will be ascertained in a sample of 2530 childbirth events in each country using data extraction. A secondary outcome of interest is the adherence of healthcare providers to evidence best practices. This will be measured through direct observations of a sample of 620 childbirth events in each country. DISCUSSION: Our study has the potential to provide strong evidence on the effectiveness of the WHO-SCC, a low cost and easy to implement intervention that can be easily scaled up if found effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry on 21st January 2020 under the following number: PACTR202001484669907. https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=9662.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Parto , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 28-36, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422231

RESUMO

Background: Preventing prolongation of the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) for emergency caesarean delivery (CD) remains central to improving perinatal health. This study evaluated the effects of the DDI on perinatal outcome following emergency CD. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 205 consenting women who had emergency CD at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria was conducted. The time-motion documentation of events from decision to delivery was documented; the outcome measures were perinatal morbidity (neonatal resuscitation, 5-minute Apgar score, neonatal intensive admission) and mortality. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The overall mean DDI was 233.99±132.61 minutes (range 44-725 minutes); the mean DDI was shortest for cord prolapse (86.25±86.25 minutes) and was shorter for booked participants compared with unbooked participants (207.19±13.88 minutes vs 249.25±12.05 minutes; P=0.030) and for general anaesthesia compared with spinal anaesthesia (219.48±128.60 minutes vs 236.19±133.42 minutes; P=0.543). All neonatal parameters were significantly worse for unbooked women compared with booked women, including perinatal mortality (10.8% vs 1.3%; P=0.012). Neonatal morbidity increased with DDI for clinical indications, UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and Robson classification for CDs; perinatal mortality was 73.2 per 1000 live births, all were category 1 CDs and all except one occurred with DDI greater than 90 minutes. Severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, obstructed labour and placenta praevia tolerated DDI greater than 90 minutes compared with abruptio placentae and umbilical cord prolapse. However, logistic regression showed no statistical correlation between the DDI and neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: Perinatal morbidity and mortality increased with DDI relative to the clinical urgency but perinatal deaths were increased with DDI greater than 90 minutes. For no category of emergency CD should the DDI exceed 90 minutes, while patient and institutional factors should be addressed to reduce the DDI.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Estudos Transversais , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Médicos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
BJOG ; 128(12): 2013-2021, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of intrapartum oxytocin use, assess associated perinatal and maternal outcomes, and evaluate the impact of a WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist intervention on oxytocin use at primary-level facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Thirty Primary and Community public health facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India from 2014 to 2017. POPULATION: Women admitted to a study facility for childbirth at baseline, 2, 6 or 12 months after intervention initiation. METHODS: The BetterBirth intervention aimed to increase adherence to the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist. We used Rao-Scott Chi-square tests to compare (1) timing of oxytocin use between study arms and (2) perinatal mortality and resuscitation of infants whose mothers received intrapartum oxytocin versus who did not. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intrapartum and postpartum oxytocin administration, perinatal mortality, use of neonatal bag and mask. RESULTS: We observed 5484 deliveries. At baseline, intrapartum oxytocin was administered to 78.2% of women. Two months after intervention initiation, intrapartum oxytocin (I) was administered to 32.1% of women compared with 70.6% in the control (C) (P < 0.01); this difference diminished after the end of the intervention (I = 48.2%, C = 74.7%, P = 0.03). Partograph use remained at <1% at all facilities. Resuscitation was performed on 7.5% of infants whose mother received intrapartum oxytocin versus 2.0% who did not (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, intrapartum oxytocin use was high despite limited maternal/fetal monitoring or caesarean capability, and was associated with increased neonatal resuscitation. The BetterBirth intervention was successful at decreasing intrapartum oxytocin use. Ongoing support is needed to sustain these practices. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Coaching + WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist reduces intrapartum oxytocin use and need for newborn resuscitation.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Tutoria/métodos , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Lista de Checagem/normas , Análise por Conglomerados , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Tutoria/normas , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 633-637, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226448

RESUMO

The Incidence of twin and high order multiple gestation has increased significantly over the past 15 years primarily because of the availability and increased use of ovulation inducing drugs and assisted reproductive technology. Both maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity is higher in multiple pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Proposed study is designed to determine the incidence and obstetric outcome of multiple pregnancy which is a high-risk pregnancy in a tertiary referral hospital. The purpose of this study is to evaluate obstetric outcome of multiple pregnancy. This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Obs and Gynae, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from December 2011 to May 2012. Patients were selected by purposive way. In this study it was observed that incidence of twin pregnancy was 1.66% common age group 30-35 years (48%), common in multipara (74%), no pregnancy crossed EDD. Family history of twin was 32% and unknown etiology 58%. Most common maternal complication was preterm labour (60%). Commonest mode of delivery was LSCS (64%), incidence of perinatal mortality 15%, 36% baby had birth weight in between 2.1-2.5kg, all the baby requiring admission in neonatal unit. This prospective observational study revealed that perinatal mortality was high in our center, there was no maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044835, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: India's National Health Mission has trained community health workers called Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to visit and counsel women before and after birth. Little is known about the extent to which exposure to ASHAs' home visits has reduced perinatal health inequalities as intended. This study aimed to examine whether ASHAs' third trimester home visits may have contributed to equitable improvements in institutional delivery and reductions in perinatal mortality rates (PMRs) between women with varying education levels in Uttar Pradesh (UP) state, India. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from a representative sample of 52 615 women who gave birth in the preceding 2 months in rural areas of 25 districts of UP in 2014-2015. We analysed the data using generalised linear modelling to examine the associations between exposure to home visits and education-based inequalities in institutional delivery and PMRs. RESULTS: Third trimester home visits were associated with higher institutional delivery rates, in particular public facility delivery rates (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.32, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.34), and to a lesser extent private facility delivery rates (aRR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.13), after adjusting for confounders. Associations were stronger among women with lower education levels. Having no compared with any third trimester home visits was associated with higher perinatal mortality (aRR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28). Having any versus no visits was more highly associated with lower perinatal mortality among women with lower education levels than those with the most education, and most notably among public facility births. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that ASHAs' home visits in the third trimester contributed to equitable improvements in institutional deliveries and lower PMRs, particularly within the public sector. Broader strategies must reinforce the role of ASHAs' home visits in reaching the sustainable development goals of improving maternal and newborn health and leaving no one behind.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Visita Domiciliar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD009326, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal complications, including psychological/mental health problems and neonatal morbidity, have commonly been observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic, with long-term effects. This is an update of a review last published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review is to assess the effects of different home-visiting schedules on maternal and newborn mortality during the early postpartum period. The review focuses on the frequency of home visits (how many home visits in total), the timing (when visits started, e.g. within 48 hours of the birth), duration (when visits ended), intensity (how many visits per week), and different types of home-visiting interventions. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (19 May 2021), and checked reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (including cluster-, quasi-RCTs and studies available only as abstracts) comparing different home-visiting interventions that enrolled participants in the early postpartum period (up to 42 days after birth) were eligible for inclusion. We excluded studies in which women were enrolled and received an intervention during the antenatal period (even if the intervention continued into the postnatal period), and studies recruiting only women from specific high-risk groups (e.g. women with alcohol or drug problems). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 randomised trials with data for 12,080 women. The trials were carried out in countries across the world, in both high- and low-resource settings. In low-resource settings, women receiving usual care may have received no additional postnatal care after early hospital discharge. The interventions and controls varied considerably across studies. Trials focused on three broad types of comparisons, as detailed below. In all but four of the included studies, postnatal care at home was delivered by healthcare professionals. The aim of all interventions was broadly to assess the well-being of mothers and babies, and to provide education and support. However, some interventions had more specific aims, such as to encourage breastfeeding, or to provide practical support. For most of our outcomes, only one or two studies provided data, and results were inconsistent overall. All studies had several domains with high or unclear risk of bias. More versus fewer home visits (five studies, 2102 women) The evidence is very uncertain about whether home visits have any effect on maternal and neonatal mortality (very low-certainty evidence). Mean postnatal depression scores as measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) may be slightly higher (worse) with more home visits, though the difference in scores was not clinically meaningful (mean difference (MD) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 1.79; two studies, 767 women; low-certainty evidence). Two separate analyses indicated conflicting results for maternal satisfaction (both low-certainty evidence); one indicated that there may be benefit with fewer visits, though the 95% CI just crossed the line of no effect (risk ratio (RR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.02; two studies, 862 women). However, in another study, the additional support provided by health visitors was associated with increased mean satisfaction scores (MD 14.70, 95% CI 8.43 to 20.97; one study, 280 women; low-certainty evidence). Infant healthcare utilisation may be decreased with more home visits (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.64; four studies, 1365 infants) and exclusive breastfeeding at six weeks may be increased (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36; three studies, 960 women; low-certainty evidence). Serious neonatal morbidity up to six months was not reported in any trial. Different models of postnatal care (three studies, 4394 women) In a cluster-RCT comparing usual care with individualised care by midwives, extended up to three months after the birth, there may be little or no difference in neonatal mortality (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.12; one study, 696 infants). The proportion of women with EPDS scores ≥ 13 at four months is probably reduced with individualised care (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86; one study, 1295 women). One study suggests there may be little to no difference between home visits and telephone screening in neonatal morbidity up to 28 days (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.12; one study, 696 women). In a different study, there was no difference between breastfeeding promotion and routine visits in exclusive breastfeeding rates at six months (RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.69; one study, 656 women). Home versus facility-based postnatal care (eight studies, 5179 women) The evidence suggests there may be little to no difference in postnatal depression rates at 42 days postpartum and also as measured on an EPDS scale at 60 days. Maternal satisfaction with postnatal care may be better with home visits (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.62; three studies, 2368 women). There may be little to no difference in infant emergency health care visits or infant hospital readmissions (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.38; three studies, 3257 women) or in exclusive breastfeeding at two weeks (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.18; 1 study, 513 women). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of home visits on maternal and neonatal mortality. Individualised care as part of a package of home visits probably improves depression scores at four months and increasing the frequency of home visits may improve exclusive breastfeeding rates and infant healthcare utilisation. Maternal satisfaction may also be better with home visits compared to hospital check-ups. Overall, the certainty of evidence was found to be low and findings were not consistent among studies and comparisons. Further well designed RCTs evaluating this complex intervention will be required to formulate the optimal package.


Assuntos
Visita Domiciliar , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Viés , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Satisfação do Paciente , Mortalidade Perinatal , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
14.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254916, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary aims of this study were to investigate if exposure to antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) was associated with lower rates of perinatal mortality (primary outcome) and other adverse perinatal outcomes (i.e., stillbirth, early neonatal mortality, APGAR score of < 7 at 5 mins, neonatal sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome) in preterm infants in hospitals in Tanzania. We also examine factors associated with administration of ACS among women at risk of preterm delivery. METHODS: A hospital-based prospective chart review study was undertaken in four hospitals located in Nyamagana and Sengerema districts, Tanzania. The study population included all stillborn and live born preterm infants delivered between 24 to 34 weeks of gestation between July 2019 to February 2020. A total 1125 preterm infants were delivered by 1008 women (895 singletons, 230 multiple). Sociodemographic and medical data were recorded from participants' medical records. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty-six (35.3%) women were administered at least one dose of ACS between 24 to 34 weeks' gestation and 385 (34.2%) infants were exposed to ACS. Infants exposed to ACS had a lower rate of perinatal mortality (13.77%) compared to those who were not exposed (28.38%). Multivariate analysis indicated that infants exposed to ACS were less likely to die during perinatal period, aRR 0.34 (95%CI 0.26-0.44). Only one-third of the sample was provided with ACS. Administration of ACS was associated with maternal education, attending antenatal care more than 3 times, method used to assess gestational age, maternal infection, exposure to maternal antibiotics, delivery mode and level of health facility. CONCLUSION: ACS significantly reduced the risk in perinatal mortality among infants born preterm in a limited resource setting. However, only about one-third of eligible women were provided with ACS, indicating low usage of ACS. Numerous factors were associated with low usage of ACS in this setting.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Mortalidade Perinatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Sepse , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nascimento Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/mortalidade , Natimorto , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254801, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm labour, between 24 to 28 weeks of gestation, remains prevalent in low resource settings. There is evidence of improved survival after 24 weeks though the ideal mode of delivery remains unclear. There are no clear management protocols to guide patient management. We sought to determine the incidence of preterm labour occurring between 24 to 28 weeks, its associated risk factors and the preferred mode of delivery in a low resource setting with the aim of streamlining patient care. METHODS: Between February 2020 and September 2020, we prospectively followed 392 women with preterm labour between 24 to 28 weeks of gestation and their newborns from admission to discharge at Kawempe National Referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda. The primary outcome was perinatal mortality associated with the different modes of delivery. Secondary outcomes included neonatal and maternal infections, admission to the Neonatal Special Care Unit (SCU), need for neonatal resuscitation, preterm birth and maternal death. Chi-square test was used to assess the association between perinatal mortality and categorical variables such as parity, mode of delivery, employment status, age, antepartum hemorrhage, digital vaginal examination, and admission to Special Care unit. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between comparative outcomes of the different modes of delivery and maternal and neonatal risk factors. RESULTS: The incidence of preterm labour among women who delivered preterm babies between 24 to 28 weeks was 68.9% 95% CI 64.2-73.4). Preterm deliveries between 24 to 28 weeks contributed 20% of the all preterm deliveries and 2.5% of the total hospital deliveries. Preterm labour was independently associated with gravidity (p-value = 0.038), whether labour was medically induced (p-value <0.001), number of digital examinations (p-value <0.001), history of vaginal bleeding prior to onset of labour (p-value < 0.001), whether tocolytics were given (p-value < 0.001), whether an obstetric ultrasound scan was done (p-value <0.001 and number of babies carried (p-value < 0.001). At multivariate analysis; multiple pregnancy OR 15.45 (2.00-119.53), p-value < 0.001, presence of fever prior to admission OR 4.03 (95% CI .23-13.23), p-value = 0.002 and duration of drainage of liquor OR 0.16 (0.03-0.87), p-value = 0.034 were independently associated with preterm labour. The perinatal mortality rate in our study was 778 per 1000 live births. Of the 392 participants, 359 (91.5%), had vaginal delivery, 29 (7.3%) underwent Caesarean delivery and 4 (1%) had assisted vaginal delivery. Caesarean delivery was protective against perinatal mortality compared to vaginal delivery OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.82, p-value = 0.017). The other protective factors included receiving antenatal corticosteroids OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.33-0.98, p-value = 0.040, Doing 3-4 digital exams per day, OR = 0.41, 95% 0.18-0.91, p-value = 0.028) and hospital stay of > 7 days, p value = 0.001. Vaginal delivery was associated with maternal infections, postpartum hemorrhage, and admission to the Special Care Unit. CONCLUSION: Caesarean delivery is the preferred mode of delivery for preterm deliveries between 24 to 28 weeks of gestation especially when labour is not established in low resource settings. It is associated with lesser adverse pregnancy outcomes when compared to vaginal delivery for remote gestation ages.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/mortalidade , Morte Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Sepse/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 531, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is convincing evidence that birth in hospitals with high birth volumes increases the chance of healthy survival in high-risk infants. However, it is unclear whether this is true also for low risk infants. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze effects of hospital's birth volume on mortality, mode of delivery, readmissions, complications and subsequent developmental delays in all births or predefined low risk birth cohorts. The search strategy included EMBASE and Medline supplemented by citing and cited literature of included studies and expert panel highlighting additional literature, published between January/2000 and February/2020. We included studies which were published in English or German language reporting effects of birth volumes on mortality in term or all births in countries with neonatal mortality < 5/1000. We undertook a double-independent title-abstract- and full-text screening and extraction of study characteristics, critical appraisal and outcomes in a qualitative evidence synthesis. RESULTS: 13 retrospective studies with mostly acceptable quality were included. Heterogeneous volume-thresholds, risk adjustments, outcomes and populations hindered a meta-analysis. Qualitatively, four of six studies reported significantly higher perinatal mortality in lower birth volume hospitals. Volume-outcome effects on neonatal mortality (n = 7), stillbirths (n = 3), maternal mortality (n = 1), caesarean sections (n = 2), maternal (n = 1) and neonatal complications (n = 1) were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Analyzed studies indicate higher rates of perinatal mortality for low risk birth in hospitals with low birth volumes. Due to heterogeneity of studies, data synthesis was complicated and a meta-analysis was not possible. Therefore international core outcome sets should be defined and implemented in perinatal registries. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42018095289.


Assuntos
Salas de Parto , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Mortalidade Perinatal
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 478, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some scholars posit that attempts to avert stillbirth among extremely preterm gestations may result in a live birth but an early neonatal death. The literature, however, reports no empirical test of this potential form of left truncation. We examine whether annual cohorts delivered at extremely preterm gestational ages show an inverse correlation between their incidence of stillbirth and early neonatal death. METHODS: We retrieved live birth and infant death information from the California Linked Birth and Infant Death Cohort Files for years 1989 to 2015. We defined the extremely preterm period as delivery from 22 to < 28 weeks of gestation and early neonatal death as infant death at less than 7 days of life. We calculated proportions of stillbirth and early neonatal death separately by cohort year, race/ethnicity, and sex. Our correlational analysis controlled for well-documented declines in neonatal mortality over time. RESULTS: California reported 89,276 extremely preterm deliveries (live births and stillbirths) to Hispanic, non-Hispanic (NH) Black, and NH white mothers from 1989 to 2015. Findings indicate an inverse correlation between stillbirth and early neonatal death in the same cohort year (coefficient: -0.27, 95% CI of - 0.11; - 0.42). Results remain robust to alternative specifications and falsification tests. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the notion that cohorts with an elevated risk of stillbirth also show a reduced risk of early neonatal death among extremely preterm deliveries. Results add to the evidence base that selection in utero may influence the survival characteristics of live-born cohorts.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Viés , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/tendências , Gravidez
18.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 35(6): 654-663, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality in foetuses/children with congenital anomalies remains high. Prenatal diagnosis, essential for risk assessment and organisation of perinatal/postnatal care, offers parents the opportunity to consider the termination of pregnancy. In times of quick changes in prenatal screening programmes, it is relevant to evaluate the effect of prenatal screening on perinatal mortality rates. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to study trends in early foetal and perinatal mortality associated with congenital anomalies before/after the introduction of the Dutch prenatal screening programme. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included 8535 foetuses/neonates with congenital anomalies born in the Northern Netherlands between 2001 and 2017. Total deaths were defined as sum of early foetal (before 24 weeks' gestation) and perinatal deaths (from 24 weeks' gestation till day 7 post-partum). Foetal deaths were categorised into spontaneous or elective termination of pregnancy for foetal anomalies (TOPFA). Trends in total mortality as well as early foetal and perinatal mortality were studied. Joinpoint regression was used to calculate the average annual percentage chance (AAPC) and identify linear trends in mortality within subperiods. RESULTS: Total and perinatal mortality were 17% and 4%. Total mortality was higher in abnormal karyotype and central nervous system anomalies. We observed an increase in total mortality over time: 11.9% in 2001 versus 21.9% in 2017 (AAPC 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5, 3.7), caused by an increase in early foetal mortality from 5.5% to 19.2% (AAPC 8.7, 95% CI 4.7, 12.9) and a decrease in perinatal mortality from 6.4% to 2.7% (AAPC -5.6, 95% CI -10.0, -1.0). The increase in early foetal mortality reflects an increase in TOPFA from 3.6% to 16.9% (AAPC 8.3, 95% CI 4.2, 12.7), mostly occurring at 13-14 and 20-23 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the prenatal screening programme led to a decrease in perinatal mortality among foetuses and neonates with congenital anomalies and a marked increase in early foetal mortality before 24 weeks' gestation due to higher rates of TOPFA.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064567

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) responds for one third of preterm births, and it is associated with other complications that increase the risk of maternal or fetal poor outcome. To reduce uncertainty and provide accurate information to patients, the analysis of the large series is of great importance. In order to learn about the evolution over the time of the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in cases of PPROM at, or before, 28 weeks (very early PPROM) managed with an expectant/conservative protocol, we have designed the present study. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied all cases of very early PPROM attended in Malaga University Regional Hospital from 2000 to 2020. Results: Among 119,888 deliveries assisted, 592 cases of PPROM occurred in pregnancies at or before 28 weeks (0.49% of all deliveries, 3.9% of all preterm births and 12.9% of all cases of PPROM). The mean duration of the latency period between PPROM and delivery was 13.5 days (range 0 to 88 days), enlarging over the years. The mean gestational age at delivery was 27 weeks (SD 2.9; range 17-34). The proportion of cesarean deliveries was 52.5%. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 26.5%, decreasing over the period with a significant correlation Pearson's coefficient -0.128 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In the period 2000-2020, there was an improvement in the outcomes of very early PPROM cases and perinatal mortality showed a clear trend to decrease.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 416, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On the 27th of March 2020 the Zimbabwean government declared the Covid-19 pandemic a 'national disaster'. Travel restrictions and emergency regulations have had significant impacts on maternity services, including resource stock-outs, and closure of antenatal clinics during the lockdown period. Estimates of the indirect impact of Covid-19 on maternal and perinatal mortality was expected it to be considerable, but little data was yet available. This study aimed to examine the impact of Covid-19 and lockdown control measures on non-Covid outcomes in a government tertiary level maternity unit in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, by comparing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality before, and after the lockdown was implemented. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study, using a cross-sectional design to compare routine monthly maternal and perinatal statistics three months before and after Covid-19 emergency measures were implemented at Mpilo Central Hospital. RESULTS: Between January-March and April-June 2020, the mean monthly deliveries reduced from 747.3 (SD ± 61.3) in the first quarter of 2020 to 681.0 (SD ± 17.6) during lockdown, but this was not statistically significant, p = 0.20. The Caesarean section rates fell from a mean of 29.8% (SD ± 1.7) versus 28.0% (SD ± 1.7), which was also not statistically significant, p = 0.18. During lockdown, the percentage of women delivering at Mpilo Central Hospital who were booked at the hospital fell from a mean of 41.6% (SD ± 1.1) to 35.8% (SD ± 4.3) which was statistically significant, p = 0.03. There was no significant change, however, in maternal mortality or severe maternal morbidity (such as post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), uterine rupture, and severe preeclampsia/eclampsia), stillbirth rate or special care baby unit admission. There was an increase in the mean total number of early neonatal deaths (ENND) (mean 18.7 (SD ± 2.9) versus 24.0 (SD ± 4.6), but this was not statistically significant, p = 0.32. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, maternity services at Mpilo showed resilience during the lockdown period, with no significant change in maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes, with the same number of man-hours worked before and during the lockdown Maternal and perinatal outcomes should continue to be monitored to assess the impact of Covid-19 and the lockdown measures as the pandemic in Zimbabwe unfolds. Further studies would be beneficial to explore women's experiences and understand how bookings and deliveries at local clinics changed during this time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária/tendências , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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