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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035242

RESUMO

Globally, increasing efforts have been made to hold duty-bearers to account for their commitments to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) over the past two decades, including via social accountability approaches: citizen-led, collective processes for holding duty-bearers to account. There have been many individual studies and several reviews of social accountability approaches but the implications of their findings to inform future accountability efforts are not clear. We addressed this gap by conducting a review of reviews in order to summarise the current evidence on social accountability for RMNCAH, identify factors contributing to intermediary outcomes and health impacts, and identify future research and implementation priorities. The review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO CRD42019134340). We searched eight databases and systematic review repositories and sought expert recommendations for published and unpublished reviews, with no date or language restrictions. Six reviews were analysed using narrative synthesis: four on accountability or social accountability approaches for RMNCAH, and two specifically examining perinatal mortality audits, from which we extracted information relating to community involvement in audits. Our findings confirmed that there is extensive and growing evidence for social accountability approaches, particularly community monitoring interventions. Few documented social accountability approaches to RMNCAH achieve transformational change by going beyond information-gathering and awareness-raising, and attention to marginalised and vulnerable groups, including adolescents, has not been well documented. Drawing generalisable conclusions about results was difficult, due to inconsistent nomenclature and gaps in reporting, particularly regarding objectives, contexts, and health impacts. Promising approaches for successful social accountability initiatives include careful tailoring to the social and political context, strategic planning, and multi-sectoral/multi-stakeholder approaches. Future primary research could advance the evidence by describing interventions and their results in detail and in their contexts, focusing on factors and processes affecting acceptability, adoption, and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Saúde , Responsabilidade Social , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Participação da Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1456-1461, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047706

RESUMO

Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a strategy with specific interventions to reduce pregnancy related morbidity and mortality. Aim: The study assessed the predictors of optimal birth preparedness and complication readiness among parturient in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. Subject and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among parturient at the labor and post-natal wards of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu over a 6 months period. Demographic information and predictors of BPCR were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logistic regression respectively with P value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 420 parturient, 330 (78.6%) and 90 (21.4%) were booked and unbooked respectively. Majority (74.2%) of the booked and about half of the unbooked parturient were knowledgeable about BPCR. Most (92.4%) of the booked parturient were optimally birth prepared at delivery as against 22.2% of the unbooked. Higher parity (adj OR = 3.79; 95% CI = 1.46-9.82, P = 0.01), tertiary educational level (adj OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.23-7.20, P = 0.02), regular antenatal visit (adj OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.06-6.76, P = 0.04), information received on birth preparedness before delivery (adj OR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.07-0.61, P = <0.01), and booked status (adj OR = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.01-0.05, P = <0.001) where significant predictors of optimal BPCR. Conclusion: Encouraging female education, regular antenatal visits, and participation in health talk is advocated to improve BPCR and ultimately reduce maternal and perinatal mortality/morbidity among women in southeast Nigeria.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Nigéria , Paridade , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 6859157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029401

RESUMO

Despite several efforts globally, the problem of perinatal mortality remained an unsolved agenda. As a result, it continued to be an essential part of the third sustainable development goals to end preventable child deaths by 2030. With a rate of 33 per 1000 births, Ethiopia has the highest level of perinatal mortality in the world. Thus, determining the magnitude and identifying the determinants are very crucial for evidence-based interventions. A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in Southwest Ethiopia among 3474 pregnant women to estimate the magnitude of perinatal mortality. Then, a case-control study among 120 cases and 360 controls was conducted to identify the determinants of perinatal mortality. Data were collected by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables having a significant association with perinatal mortality at p < 0.05. The perinatal mortality rate was 34.5 (95% CI: 28.9, 41.1) deaths per 1000 births. Attending ≥4 ANC visits (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.91), having good knowledge on key danger signs (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.75), and having a skilled attendant at birth (AOR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61) were significantly associated with a reduction of perinatal mortality. Being a primipara (AOR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.90, 6.00), twin births (AOR = 5.29; 95% CI: 1.46, 19.21), previous history of perinatal mortality (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.27, 8.72), and obstetric complication during labor (AOR = 4.27; 95% CI: 2.40, 7.59) significantly increased perinatal mortality. In conclusion, the magnitude of perinatal mortality in the study area was high as compared to the national target for 2020. Care during pregnancy and childbirth and conditions of pregnancy and labor were identified as determinants of perinatal mortality. Hence, interventions need to focus on increasing knowledge of danger signs and utilization of skilled maternity care. Special emphasis needs to be given to mothers with a previous history of perinatal mortality, twin pregnancies, and having obstetric complications.


Assuntos
Assistência Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Competência Clínica , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Conhecimento , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Paridade , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Report maternal, fetal and neonatal complications associated with single intrauterine fetal death (sIUFD) in monochorionic twin pregnancies. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: UK. POPULATION: 81 monochorionic twin pregnancies with sIUFD after 14 weeks gestation, irrespective of cause. METHODS: UKOSS reporters submitted data collection forms using data from hospital records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Aetiology of sIUFD; surviving co-twin outcomes: perinatal mortality, central nervous system (CNS) imaging, gestation and mode of delivery, neonatal outcomes; post-mortem findings; maternal outcomes. RESULTS: The commonest aetiology was twin-twin transfusion syndrome (38/81, 47%), "spontaneous" sIUFD (22/81, 27%) was second commonest. Death of the co-twin was common (10/70, 14%). Preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) was the commonest adverse outcome (77%): half were spontaneous and half iatrogenic. Only 46/75 (61%) cases had antenatal CNS imaging, of which 33 cases had known results of which 7/33 (21%) had radiological findings suggestive of neurological damage. Postnatal CNS imaging revealed an additional 7 babies with CNS abnormalities, all born at <36 weeks, including all 4 babies exhibiting abnormal CNS signs. Major maternal morbidity was relatively common, with 6% requiring ITU admission, all related to infection. CONCLUSIONS: Monochorionic twin pregnancies with single IUD are complex and require specialist care. Further research is required regarding optimal gestation at delivery of the surviving co-twin, preterm birth prevention, and classifying the cause of death in twin pregnancies. Awareness of the importance of CNS imaging, and follow-up, needs improvement.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adulto , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/mortalidade , Transfusão Feto-Fetal/mortalidade , Transfusão Feto-Fetal/terapia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Redução de Gravidez Multifetal , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(9): 627-632, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957751

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of 60 MCMA twin pregnant women who were terminated in Peking University Third Hospital from January 2011 to December 2019 were collected, and the general clinical data, prenatal examination and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The age of 60 MCMA twin pregnant women was (31.0±4.1) years old, among which 44 cases were primiparas (73%, 44/60) and 16 cases were multiparas (27%, 16/60). Fifty-eight cases were diagnosed as MCMA twin pregnancy prenatally and were confirmed after delivery. Median ultrasonic diagnosis of gestational age was 12 weeks (range: 8-30 weeks). In the 60 MCMA twin pregnancies, 6 cases were conjoined twins, 5 cases were complicated with twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAPS), and 10 cases were diagnosed as other fetal malformation by prenatal ultrasound examination. Among the 60 MCMA twin pregnant women, 19 cases had spontaneous abortion or induced abortion due to fetal malformation, fetal death or other reasons within 28 weeks of pregnancy, 41 cases entered the perinatal period, a total of 70 newborns survived. The main cause of perinatal fetal or neonatal death was fetal dysplasia. Conclusions: There is a high incidence of fetal abnormality and perinatal mortality in MCMA twin pregnancy. Accurate early diagnosis, enhanced management and monitoring during pregnancy, and individualized treatment are the keys to improve MCMA twin pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Âmnio/diagnóstico por imagem , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Âmnio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 161, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 4.2 million confirmed cases and more than 285,000 deaths, COVID-19 pandemic continues to harm significant number of people worldwide. Several studies have reported the impact of COVID-19 in general population; however, there is scarcity of information related to pharmacological management and maternal and perinatal outcomes during the pandemic. Altered physiological, anatomical, and immunological response during pregnancy makes it more susceptible to infections. Furthermore, during pregnancy, a woman undergoes multiple interactions with the health care system that increases her chance of getting infected; therefore, managing pregnant population presents a unique challenge. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions in relation to COVID-19: What are the different clinical characteristics presented in maternal and perinatal population? What are the different maternal and perinatal outcome measures reported? What are the distinct therapeutic interventions reported to treat COVID-19? Is it safe to use "medications" used in the treatment of COVID-19 during antenatal, perinatal, postnatal, and breastfeeding? METHOD: The search will follow a comprehensive, sequential three step search strategy. Several databases relevant to COVID-19 and its impact on pregnancy including Medline, CINAHL, and LitCovid will be searched from the inception of the disease until the completion of data collection. The quality of this search strategy will be assessed using Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies Evidence-Based Checklist (PRESS EBC). An eligibility form will be developed for a transparent screening and inclusion/exclusion of studies. All studies will be sent to RefWorks, and abstraction will be independently performed by two researchers. Risk of bias will be assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized controlled trials, Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for non-randomized studies, and for case reports, Murad et al. tool will be used. Decision to conduct meta-analysis will be based on several factors including homogeneity and outcome measures reported; otherwise, a narrative synthesis will be deemed appropriate. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will summarize the existing data on effect of COVID-19 on maternal and perinatal population. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review addressing therapeutic management and safety of medicines to treat COVID-19 during pregnancy and breastfeeding. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review has been registered and published with Prospero ( CRD42020172773 ).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade Materna , Mortalidade Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Apgar , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sepse/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Rev. Saúde Pública Paraná (Online) ; 3(1): 75-85, 08/07/2020.
Artigo em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SESA-PR | ID: biblio-1119369

RESUMO

Apesar da diminuição dos óbitos infantis, ainda se observa a necessidade de continuidade de redução, sobretudo da mortalidade perinatal, que se encontra distante dos resultados dos países desenvolvidos os quais abrangem um dígito. Objetivo: investigar a correlação espacial entre a mortalidade perinatal e os indicadores sociais, econômicos e demográficos dos municípios do Paraná. Método: estudo epidemiológico, tipo ecológico, com dados secundários. Utilizadas as variáveis de mortalidade, sociais, econômicas e demográficas, analisadas pelo Índice de Moran e pelo Indicador Espacial de Associação Local. Resultados: identificou-se autocorrelação espacial direta entre mortalidade perinatal (0,638) com analfabetismo (0,183), fecundidade entre 15 a 17 anos (0,074) e Índice de Gini (0,143) e, ainda, autocorrelação negativa para taxa de atividade (-0,142), grau de urbanização (-0,111) e Índice de desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (-0,276). Conclusão: a análise espacial permitiu confirmar a relação entre a mortalidade perinatal e as condições sociais, econômicas e demográficas, bem como, a identificação das regiões que necessitam de investimentos sociais e em saúde devido a maior vulnerabilidade a este tipo de óbito. (AU)


Despite the decrease in infant deaths, there is still a need to reduce them, especially Perinatal Mortality, which is far from the results of developed countries, which are of one digit. Objective: to investigate a spatial correlation between Perinatal Mortality and social, economic and demographic indicators in the municipalities of the state of Paraná. Method: epidemiological, ecological study, with secondary data. Mortality, social, economic and demographic variables were used and analyzed through the Moran Index and the Local Association Spatial Indicator. Results: A direct spatial autocorrelation was identified between Perinatal Mortality (0.638) and Illiteracy (0.183), Fertility between 15 and 17 years (0.074) and Gini Index (0.143), and also negative autocorrelation for Activity Rate (-0.142), Level of Urbanization (-0.111), and Municipal Human Development Index (-0.276). Conclusion: The spatial analysis allowed the confirmation of a relationship between Perinatal Mortality and social, economic and demographic conditions, and the identification of regions that require social and health investments because they are more vulnerable to this type of death. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Adulto , Condições Sociais , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Mortalidade Perinatal , Análise Espacial
10.
N Engl J Med ; 383(1): 49-57, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational age is the major determinant of neonatal death (death within the first 28 days of life) in preterm infants. The joint effect of gestational age and Apgar score on the risk of neonatal death is unknown. METHODS: Using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 113,300 preterm infants (22 weeks 0 days to 36 weeks 6 days of gestation) born from 1992 through 2016. In analyses stratified according to gestational age (22 to 24 weeks, 25 to 27 weeks, 28 to 31 weeks, 32 to 34 weeks, and 35 or 36 weeks), we estimated adjusted relative risks of neonatal death and absolute rate differences in neonatal mortality (i.e., the excess number of neonatal deaths per 100 births) according to the Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes and according to the change in the Apgar score between 5 minutes and 10 minutes. Scores range from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating a better physical condition of the newborn. RESULTS: There were 1986 neonatal deaths (1.8%). The incidence of neonatal death ranged from 0.2% (at 36 weeks of gestation) to 76.5% (at 22 weeks of gestation). Lower Apgar scores were associated with higher relative risks of neonatal death and greater absolute rate differences in neonatal mortality in all gestational-age strata. For example, among infants born at 28 to 31 weeks, the adjusted absolute rate differences according to the 5-minute Apgar score, with those who had a score of 9 or 10 serving as the reference group, were 51.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.1 to 65.4) for a score of 0 or 1, 25.5 (95% CI, 18.3 to 32.8) for a score of 2 or 3, 7.1 (95% CI, 5.1 to 9.1) for a score of 4 to 6, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.9) for a score of 7 or 8. An increase in the Apgar score between 5 minutes and 10 minutes was associated with lower neonatal mortality than a stable Apgar score. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes provided prognostic information about neonatal survival among preterm infants across gestational-age strata. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare and Karolinska Institutet.).


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Morte Perinatal , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mortalidade Perinatal , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e205323, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585017

RESUMO

Importance: Severe early onset fetal growth restriction caused by placental dysfunction leads to high rates of perinatal mortality and neonatal morbidity. The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, inhibits cyclic guanosine monophosphate hydrolysis, thereby activating the effects of nitric oxide, and might improve uteroplacental function and subsequent perinatal outcomes. Objective: To determine whether sildenafil reduces perinatal mortality or major morbidity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted at 10 tertiary referral centers and 1 general hospital in the Netherlands from January 20, 2015, to July 16, 2018. Participants included pregnant women between 20 and 30 weeks of gestation with severe fetal growth restriction, defined as fetal abdominal circumference below the third percentile or estimated fetal weight below the fifth percentile combined with Dopplers measurements outside reference ranges or a maternal hypertensive disorder. The trial was stopped early owing to safety concerns on July 19, 2018, whereas benefit on the primary outcome was unlikely. Data were analyzed from January 20, 2015, to January 18, 2019. The prespecified primary analysis was an intention-to-treat analysis including all randomized participants. Interventions: Participants were randomized to sildenafil, 25 mg, 3 times a day vs placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of perinatal mortality or major neonatal morbidity until hospital discharge. Results: Out of 360 planned participants, a total of 216 pregnant women were included, with 108 women randomized to sildenafil (median gestational age at randomization, 24 weeks 5 days [interquartile range, 23 weeks 3 days to 25 weeks 5 days]; mean [SD] estimated fetal weight, 458 [160] g) and 108 women randomized to placebo (median gestational age, 25 weeks 0 days [interquartile range, 22 weeks 5 days to 26 weeks 3 days]; mean [SD] estimated fetal weight, 464 [186] g). In July 2018, the trial was halted owing to concerns that sildenafil may cause neonatal pulmonary hypertension, whereas benefit on the primary outcome was unlikely. The primary outcome, perinatal mortality or major neonatal morbidity, occurred in the offspring of 65 participants (60.2%) allocated to sildenafil vs 58 participants (54.2%) allocated to placebo (relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.88-1.40; P = .38). Pulmonary hypertension, a predefined outcome important for monitoring safety, occurred in 16 neonates (18.8%) in the sildenafil group vs 4 neonates (5.1%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.28-10.51; P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that antenatal maternal sildenafil administration for severe early onset fetal growth restriction did not reduce the risk of perinatal mortality or major neonatal morbidity. The results suggest that sildenafil may increase the risk of neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02277132.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Doenças Placentárias/tratamento farmacológico , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/efeitos adversos , Doenças Placentárias/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Fluxo Pulsátil , Citrato de Sildenafila/efeitos adversos , Artérias Umbilicais/fisiologia
12.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 303-312, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the frequency of maternal and neonatal complications, as well as maternal disease severity, in pregnancies affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Ovid, ClinicalTrials.gov, MedRxiv, and Scopus were searched from their inception until April 29, 2020. The analysis was limited to reports with at least 10 pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection that reported on maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were pregnant women with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A systematic search of the selected databases was performed by implementing a strategy that included the MeSH terms, key words, and word variants for "coronavirus," "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," and "pregnancy.r The primary outcomes were maternal admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), critical disease, and death. Secondary outcomes included rate of preterm birth, cesarean delivery, vertical transmission, and neonatal death. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages with number of cases and 95% CIs. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Of the 99 articles identified, 13 included 538 pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection, with reported outcomes on 435 (80.9%) deliveries. Maternal ICU admission occurred in 3.0% of cases (8/263, 95% CI 1.6-5.9) and maternal critical disease in 1.4% (3/209, 95% CI 0.5-4.1). No maternal deaths were reported (0/348, 95% CI 0.0-1.1). The preterm birth rate was 20.1% (57/284, 95% CI 15.8-25.1), the cesarean delivery rate was 84.7% (332/392, 95% CI 80.8-87.9), the vertical transmission rate was 0.0% (0/310, 95% CI 0.0-1.2), and the neonatal death rate was 0.3% (1/313, 95% CI 0.1-1.8). CONCLUSION: With data from early in the pandemic, it is reassuring that there are low rates of maternal and neonatal mortality and vertical transmission with SARS-CoV-2. The preterm birth rate of 20% and the cesarean delivery rate exceeding 80% seems related to geographic practice patterns. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42020181497.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Mortalidade Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Betacoronavirus , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530940

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) is a 29-item checklist based on essential childbirth practices to help health-care workers to deliver consistently high quality maternal and perinatal care. The Checklist was intended to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and address the primary cause of maternal death, intrapartum stillbirth, and early neonatal death. The objective of this review was to locate international literature reporting on the effectiveness of utilizing the WHO safe childbirth checklist on improving essential childbirth practices, early neonatal death, stillbirth, maternal mortality, and morbidity. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, google scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), met-Register of Controlled Trials (m-RCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/stop/search/en) to retrieve all available comparative studieshttp://www.opengrey.eu/ published in English after 2008. Two reviewers did study selection, critical appraisal, and data extraction independently. We did a random or fixed-effect meta-analysis to pool studies together and effect estimates were expressed as an odds ratio. Quality of evidence for major outcomes was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, development, and evaluation(GRADE). RESULTS: We retained three cluster randomized trials and six pre-and-post intervention studies reporting on WHO SCC's. The WHO SCC utilization improved quality of preeclampsia management(moderate quality of evidence) (OR = 7.05 [95% CI 2.34-21.29]), maternal infection management(moderate quality of evidence) (OR = 7.29[95%CI 2.29-23.27]), Partograph utilization(moderate quality of evidence) (OR = 3.81 [95% 1.72-8.43]), postpartum counselling(low quality of evidence) (RR = 132.51[95% 49.27-356.36]) and still birth(moderate quality of evidence) (OR = 0.92[95% CI 0.87-0.96]). However, the utilization of the checklist had no impact on early neonatal death (very low quality of evidence) (OR = 1.07[95%CI [1.01-1.13]) and maternal death (low quality of evidence) (OR = 1.06[95% CI 0.77-1.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate quality of evidence indicates that WHO SCC utilization is effective in reducing stillbirth and Improving preeclampsia management, maternal infection management and partograph utilization Low quality of evidence indicates that WHO SCC is effective in enhancing postpartum danger sign counseling. Low and very low quality of evidence suggests that WHO SCC has no impact on maternal and early neonatal death, respectively.


Assuntos
Parto , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Natimorto , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 783, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, several initiatives started after the publication of the PERISTAT findings that showed the perinatal mortality risk was higher than in other European countries. The objective of this study is 1) to report recent trends in perinatal mortality and in intermediate risk groups (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and small for gestational age (SGA)), 2) describing perinatal mortality risk among children born preterm, with congenital anomalies or SGA, and born in maternal high risk groups (parity, age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES)). METHODS: A nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands among 996,423 singleton births in 2010-2015 with a gestational age between 24.0 and 42.6 weeks. Trend tests, univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. We did separate analyses for gestational age subgroups and line of care. RESULTS: The perinatal mortality rate was 5.0 per 1000 and it decreased significantly from 5.6 in 2010 to 4.6 per 1000 in 2015. Preterm birth significantly declined (6.1% in 2010 to 5.6% in 2015). Analysis by gestational age groups showed that the largest decline in perinatal mortality of 32% was seen at 24-27 weeks of gestation where the risk declined from 497 to 339 per 1000. At term, the decline was 23% from 2.2 to 1.7 per 1000. The smallest decline was 3% between 32 and 36 weeks. In children with preterm birth, congenital anomalies or SGA, the perinatal mortality risk significantly declined. Main risk factors for perinatal mortality were African ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.1 95%CI [1.9-2.4]), maternal age ≥ 40 years (aOR1.9 95%CI [1.7-2.2]) and parity 2+ (aOR 1.4 95%CI [1.3-1.5]). Among the (post)term born neonates, there was no significant decline in perinatal mortality in women with low age, low or high SES, non-Western ethnicity and among women who started or delivered under primary care. CONCLUSIONS: There is a decline in preterm birth and in perinatal mortality between 2010 and 2015. The decline in perinatal mortality is both in stillbirths and in neonatal mortality, most prominently among 24-27 weeks and among (post)term births. A possible future target could be deliveries among 32-36 weeks, women with high maternal age or non-Western ethnicity.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Idade Materna , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal/etnologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(5): 1207-1212, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the population of women who underwent mid-trimester preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) in a country where mid-trimester abortions are legal and available. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital, during 2013-2016. Mid-trimester defined as gestational age 13 + 0 to 23 + 6 weeks. Rupture of membrane was defined by documentation of fluid passing through the cervix on sterile speculum examination, and a positive Nitrazine (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ) or erning test. All records were evaluated for medical history, laboratory data, postnatal examination, and autopsy findings, and a database was constructed. RESULTS: A total of 61 women were hospitalized for mid-trimester PPROM during the study period. Mean maternal age was 32 ± 5.98, range 20-45 years old. The majority (50, 82%) of patients decided to terminate their pregnancy before reaching the limit of viability at 24 weeks gestation. The overall prognosis of pregnancies reaching term was better than expected, with six (9.8%) patients delivering live babies and four of them born at term (36 ± 5 to 40 ± 6 weeks gestation), all after PPROM following amniocentesis or selective fetal reduction. A total of 60% of women with hypothyroidism had unbalanced TSH levels above 4.0 mIU/L prior to their pregnancy. A notable number of women (15, 24.6%) had PPROM following a pregnancy achieved by assisted reproductive technology (ART). CONCLUSIONS: Most women with diagnosed mid-trimester PPROM opted for pregnancy termination before the limit of viability when granted the choice. Possible risk factors for early PPROM are unbalanced hypothyroidism and ART. PPROM following amniocentesis can in some cases reseal and reach term, suggesting conservative treatment is a reasonable management for those cases.


Assuntos
Feto Abortado , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/mortalidade , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Adulto , Amniocentese , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(5): 1181-1187, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) encountered in pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all singleton pregnancies with PPROM and MSAF who delivered in a tertiary hospital at 24 + 0-36 + 6 weeks of gestation between 2007 and 2017. Women with PPROM-MSAF (study group) were compared to women with PPROM and clear amniotic fluid (control group). Controls were matched to cases according to age, gravidity, parity and gestational age at delivery in a 3:1 ratio. Primary outcome was defined as neonatal intensive care unit admission. Secondary outcomes were neonatal adverse outcomes, chorioamnionitis and placental abruption diagnosed clinically or by placental cultures and histology. RESULTS: Seventy-five women comprised the study group and were matched to 225 women representing the control group. A significantly higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admissions was noted in the study group compared to controls (61.3% vs. 45.7%, p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MSAF is an independent risk factor for neonatal intensive care unit admission (adjusted OR = 2.82, 95% CI 1.39-5.75, p = 0.004). MSAF was found to be associated to higher rates of cesarean and operative vaginal deliveries (30.7% vs. 24.4% and 5.3% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.057, respectively) as well as to chorioamnionitis and placental abruption (33.3% vs. 19.3%, p = 0.034 and 16.0% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.021, respectively). CONCLUSION: MSAF is associated with higher frequencies of adverse perinatal outcome when compared to clear amniotic fluid in pregnancies complicated by PPROM.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Mecônio , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Corioamnionite/etiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than five million perinatal deaths occur each year globally. Despite efforts put forward during the millennium development goals era, perinatal deaths continue to increase relative to under-five deaths, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to determine predictors of perinatal death in the presence of missing data using birth registry data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC), between 2000-2015. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from the medical birth registry at KCMC referral hospital located in Moshi Municipality, Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Data were analyzed using Stata version 15.1. Multiple imputation by fully conditional specification (FCS) was used to impute missing values. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the marginal effects of covariates on perinatal death using a log link mean model with robust standard errors. An exchangeable correlation structure was used to account for the dependence of observations within mothers. RESULTS: Among 50,487 deliveries recorded in the KCMC medical birth registry between 2000-2015, 4.2% (95%CI 4.0%, 4.3%) ended in perinatal death (equivalent to a perinatal mortality rate (PMR) of 41.6 (95%CI 39.9, 43.3) deaths per 1,000 births). After the imputation of missing values, the proportion of perinatal death remained relatively the same. The risk of perinatal death was significantly higher among deliveries from mothers who resided in rural compared to urban areas (RR = 1.241, 95%CI 1.137, 1.355), with primary education level (RR = 1.201, 95%CI 1.083, 1.332) compared to higher education level, with <4 compared to ≥4 antenatal care (ANC) visits (RR = 1.250, 95%CI 1.146, 1.365), with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (RR = 2.638, 95%CI 1.997, 3.486), abruption placenta (RR = 4.218, 95%CI 3.438, 5.175), delivered a low birth weight baby (LBW) (RR = 4.210, 95%CI 3.788, 4.679), male child (RR = 1.090, 95%CI 1.007, 1.181), and were referred for delivery (RR = 2.108, 95%CI 1.919, 2.317). On the other hand, deliveries from mothers who experienced premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) (RR = 0.411, 95%CI 0.283, 0.598) and delivered through cesarean section (CS) (RR = 0.662, 95%CI 0.604, 0.724) had a lower risk of perinatal death. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal mortality in this cohort is higher than the national estimate. Higher risk of perinatal death was associated with low maternal education level, rural residence, <4 ANC visits, PPH, abruption placenta, LBW delivery, child's sex, and being referred for delivery. Ignoring missing values in the analysis of adverse pregnancy outcomes produces biased covariate coefficients and standard errors. Close clinical follow-up of women at high risk of experiencing perinatal death, particularly during ANC visits and delivery, is of high importance to increase perinatal survival.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(7): 823-829, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has exposed vulnerable populations to an unprecedented global health crisis. The knowledge gained from previous human coronavirus outbreaks suggests that pregnant women and their fetuses are particularly susceptible to poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to summarize the clinical manifestations and maternal and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched databases for all case reports and series from 12 February to 4 April 2020. Multiple terms and combinations were used including COVID-19, pregnancy, maternal mortality, maternal morbidity, complications, clinical manifestations, neonatal morbidity, intrauterine fetal death, neonatal mortality and SARS-CoV-2. Eligibility criteria included peer-reviewed publications written in English or Chinese and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or dual fluorescence PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unpublished reports, unspecified date and location of the study or suspicion of duplicate reporting, cases with suspected COVID-19 that were not confirmed by a laboratory test, and unreported maternal or perinatal outcomes were excluded. Data on clinical manifestations, maternal and perinatal outcomes including vertical transmission were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Eighteen articles reporting data from 108 pregnancies between 8 December 2019 and 1 April 2020 were included in the current study. Most reports described women presenting in the third trimester with fever (68%) and coughing (34%). Lymphocytopenia (59%) with elevated C-reactive protein (70%) was observed and 91% of the women were delivered by cesarean section. Three maternal intensive care unit admissions were noted but no maternal deaths. One neonatal death and one intrauterine death were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of mothers were discharged without any major complications, severe maternal morbidity as a result of COVID-19 and perinatal deaths were reported. Vertical transmission of the COVID-19 could not be ruled out. Careful monitoring of pregnancies with COVID-19 and measures to prevent neonatal infection are warranted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez
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