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1.
BMJ ; 367: l5517, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of routine ultrasonography in the third trimester in reducing adverse perinatal outcomes in low risk pregnancies compared with usual care and the effect of this policy on maternal outcomes and obstetric interventions. DESIGN: Pragmatic, multicentre, stepped wedge cluster randomised trial. SETTING: 60 midwifery practices in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 13 046 women aged 16 years or older with a low risk singleton pregnancy. INTERVENTIONS: 60 midwifery practices offered usual care (serial fundal height measurements with clinically indicated ultrasonography). After 3, 7, and 10 months, a third of the practices were randomised to the intervention strategy. As well as receiving usual care, women in the intervention strategy were offered two routine biometry scans at 28-30 and 34-36 weeks' gestation. The same multidisciplinary protocol for detecting and managing fetal growth restriction was used in both strategies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was a composite of severe adverse perinatal outcomes: perinatal death, Apgar score <4, impaired consciousness, asphyxia, seizures, assisted ventilation, septicaemia, meningitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leucomalacia, or necrotising enterocolitis. Secondary outcomes were two composite measures of severe maternal morbidity, and spontaneous labour and birth. RESULTS: Between 1 February 2015 and 29 February 2016, 60 midwifery practices enrolled 13 520 women in mid-pregnancy (mean 22.8 (SD 2.4) weeks' gestation). 13 046 women (intervention n=7067, usual care n=5979) with data based on the national Dutch perinatal registry or hospital records were included in the analyses. Small for gestational age at birth was significantly more often detected in the intervention group than in the usual care group (179 of 556 (32%) v 78 of 407 (19%), P<0.001). The incidence of severe adverse perinatal outcomes was 1.7% (n=118) for the intervention strategy and 1.8% (n=106) for usual care. After adjustment for confounders, the difference between the groups was not significant (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.20). The intervention strategy showed a higher incidence of induction of labour (1.16, 1.04 to 1.30) and a lower incidence of augmentation of labour (0.78, 0.71 to 0.85). Maternal outcomes and other obstetric interventions did not differ between the strategies. CONCLUSION: In low risk pregnancies, routine ultrasonography in the third trimester along with clinically indicated ultrasonography was associated with higher antenatal detection of small for gestational age fetuses but not with a reduced incidence of severe adverse perinatal outcomes compared with usual care alone. The findings do not support routine ultrasonography in the third trimester for low risk pregnancies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR4367.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Índice de Apgar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Tocologia/métodos , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 66, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448028

RESUMO

Introduction: Unattended pregnancies are characterized by significant morbidity maternal and morbidity and mortality fetal. This study aims to determine the frequency of unattended pregnancies, to describe the socio-demographic profile and to assess the maternal and fetal outcomes during childbirth among women who did not attend antenatal care (ANC) in the city of Lubumbashi. Methods: It was an analytical cross-sectional study of maternal pregnancy from December 2013 to May 2014 in 10 maternity hospitals in Lubumbashi. Women who did not receive ANC were compared to women who had followed them (ANC≥4). Maternal socio-demographic parameters, maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Results: We found that the frequency of no pregnancy monitoring was 21.23% and the mean number of antenatal visits was 2.6 ± 1.9. An analysis of the relationship between ANC and socio-demographic characteristics of women who were delivered shows that the lack of follow-up was 2.29 times higher for adolescent girls than for adult women (OR=2.29 [1.54-3.41]), 4 times higher for women living alone than for women living in unions (OR=4.00 [2.05-7.79]) and 4.08 times higher for women with low levels of education (illiterate or primary) than among those with a high level of education (OR=4.08 [3.08-5.40]). Compared to those who followed them well, we did not find that women who did not attend ANC had a high risk of obstetric emergency (OR = 1.90 [1.26-2.95]), rupture of membranes fetal admission (OR=1.31 [1.02-1.68]), fetal mal presentation (OR=1.89 [1.03-3.44]), caesarean delivery (OR=1.78 [1.21-2.63]), eclampsia (OR=3.00 [1.09-8.70]), uterine rupture (OR=4.76 [1.00-47.19]) and anemia (OR=2.33 [1.06-5.13]). Rates of preterm birth (OR = 1.93 [1.33-2.80]), post-maturity (OR=1.47 [1.00-2.30]), low birth weight (OR=2.33 [1.56-3.46]), neonatal depression (OR=3.89 [2.52-6.02]), neonatal transfer (OR=1.60 [1.11-2.32]) and perinatal mortality (OR=2.70 [1.59-4.57]) were significantly higher in neonates from women with prenatal consultations than in those with well followed. Conclusion: Our study shows that the lack of follow-up of ANC is associated with high maternal morbidity and high perinatal morbidity and mortality in our environment.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Maternidades , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 8(2): 82-86, mayo-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016008

RESUMO

Introducción: En los últimos veinte años se han desarrollado esfuerzos por reducir la morbimortalidad perinatal a través de la mejora en los servicios que se ofertan al binomio madre-niño. Objetivo: Determinar las características maternas, fetales y neonatales de riesgo asociadas a mortalidad neonatal Materiales y métodos: Búsqueda bibliográfica, a través de los motores de búsqueda de Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Redalyc, Cochrane, Researchgate, Tripdatabase, Google Scholar y Elsevier, de artículos publicados con una antigüedad no mayor de 5 años, en idioma español como inglés. Discusión: Durante las últimas dos décadas existen esfuerzos por reducir la mortalidad y morbilidad neonatal a través de la mejora en la atención médica, identificando y reduciendo los factores de riesgo. Ante ello, la comunidad científica ha diseñado diversos estudios para determinar los factores maternos y neonatales asociados a la morbi-mortalidad neonatal. Conclusiones: La morbi-mortalidad neonatal es multifactorial y dependerá, en gran manera, de las características de las poblaciones estudiadas. (AU)


Introduction: In the last twenty years, efforts have been made to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality through the improvement of the services offered to the mother-child binomial. Objective: To determine the maternal, fetal and neonatal risk characteristics associated with neonatal mortality Methodology: Bibliographic search of published articles, through the search engines of Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Redalyc, Cochrane, Researchgate, Tripdatabase, Google Scholar, and Elsevier, with no more than 5 years old, in Spanish and English. Discussion: During the last two decades, there has been efforts to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity through improvement in medical care, identifying and reducing risk factors. Given this, the scientific community has designed several studies to determine the maternal and neonatal factors associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conclusions: Neonatal morbidity and mortality is multifactorial and will depend, to a large extent, on the characteristics of the studied populations. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco , Morbidade , Mortalidade Perinatal
4.
BJOG ; 126 Suppl 4: 21-26, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the changes in the rates of perinatal mortality, birth asphyxia, and caesarean sections in relation to interventions implemented over the past 18 years, in a tertiary centre in South India. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Labour and maternity unit of a tertiary centre in South India. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Women who gave birth between 2000 and 2018. METHODS: Information from perinatal audits, chart reviews, and data retrieved from the electronic database were used. Interventions implemented during this time period were audits and training, obstetric re-organisation, and minor changes in staffing and infrastructure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were perinatal mortality rate, birth asphyxia rate, and caesarean section rate. RESULTS: Perinatal mortality rate decreased from 44 per 1000 births in 2000 to 16.4 per 1000 births in 2018 (P < 0.001). The rates of babies born with birth asphyxia requiring admission to the neonatal unit decreased from 24 per 1000 births in 2001 to 0.7 per 1000 births in 2018 (P < 0.00001). The overall caesarean section rate was maintained close to 30%. CONCLUSION: In a large tertiary hospital in South India, with 14 000 deliveries per year, a policy of rigorous audits of stillbirths and birth asphyxia, electronic fetal monitoring, and the introduction of standardised criteria for trial of scar, reduced the perinatal mortality and the rate of babies born with birth asphyxia over the past 18 years, without an increase in the caesarean section rate. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Rigorous perinatal audits with training in fetal cardiotocography, decreased birth asphyxia, without a major increase in caesarean rates.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Asfixia Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Cardiotocografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Período Periparto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(6): 331-339, Jul 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1023702

RESUMO

Introducción: La edad gestacional, definida como semanas de gestación completas, es el principal predictor de resultados perinatales. El monitoreo de las tendencias en la distribución de la edad gestacinal puede ser un indicador importante de los resultados de salud y desarrollo a largo plazo. Objetivos: Primario: Examinar la tendencia de la edad gestacional de los partos asistidos en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital Nacional A. Posadas durante el período comprendido entre 2008-2017. Secundarios: Evaluar la tendencia en la edad gestacional según forma de inicio del parto. Determinar vía de finalización del embarazo según edad gestacional. Establecer complicaciones perinatales asociadas a la edad gestacional. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal. El relevamiento de datos se realizó a través del SIP. Criterio de inclusión: edad gestacional igual o mayor a 37 semanas. Criterios de exclusión: faltante de datos para la variable principal de interés. Las variables se presentan a través de medidas de frecuencia (%). Las comparaciones se realizaron con test Chi cuadrado/Fisher exact test según la conformación de la tabla de doble entrada. Se consideró un p valor<=0.05. Stata 12.0 Resultados: Durante el período de estudio se registraron 38977 nacimientos, de los cuales 28835 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. El mayor porcentaje de nacimientos se produjo a las 39 semanas, variando entre 27% (2008) y 35% (2016). Se encontró una disminución gradual de los nacimientos a las 40 semanas, siendo de 12% en 2008 y 6% en 2017. La edad gestacional más frecuente de finalización programada, hasta el 2014 la edad gestacional más frecuente fue 38 semanas (25%-33%) y a partir del 2015 se postergó a las 39 semanas (29%-37%). En cuanto a la vía de finalización, la prevalencia de partos vaginales fue mayor en todas las semanas, aumentando la frecuencia a mayor edad gestacional (p=0.001). Al analizar las complicaciones perinatales se encontró que la tasa de mortalidad perinatal fue en disminución hasta las 39 semanas, con una diferencia mayor a menor edad gestacional al comparar nacimientos programados y espontáneos (24.5%00 vs 13%00; 13%00 vs 7%00; y 4%00 vs 3%00 a las 37, 38 y 39 semanas respectivamente). El 39% de los nacimientos producidos a las 37 semanas de modo programaado requirieron ingreso a terapia intensiva neonatal, disminuyendo a 19% a las 38 y 14% a las 39 semanas. Conclusión: La distribución de la edad gestacional al término del embarazo ha cambiado en los últimos 10 años a expensas de un aumento de la finalización espntánea a las 39 semanas y a un cambio en la práctica obstétrica con respecto a la postergación de una semana en la finalización programada en aquellas mujeres con patologías materno fetales o cesáreas iterativas. Este cambio constribuye a disminuir la morbimortalidad perinatal ya que fue observado que a menos edad gestacional aumentó el ingreso a terapia intensiva neonatal luego del nacimiento programado, así como también contribuye a la disminución del gasto en salud (AU)


This article details trends of the gestational age and changes in the obstetrical practice during a 10 yr, period. We can define gestational age as weeks of complete gestation, as the main predictor of perinatal results. The monitoring of the trends in the distribution of the gestational age can be an important indicator of the results of the health and development in a long term. Objectives: Primary: to examine the tendency of the gestational age of the deliveries attended in our Hospital between 2008-2017. Secondary to evaluate the tendency of the gestational age according to the start of the delivery. To determine the route of ending of the pregnancy according to the start of the delivery. To determine the route of ending of the pregnancy according with the gestational age. To establish perinatal complications associated to the gestational age. With this study it is proposed to evaluate the tendency to the gestational age at the birth, in a 10-yr. period in our institution and if changes in the obstetric practice in that period influenced in it. In conclusion, the results obtained in this investigation, justify the change of behaviour in the programmed ending of the pregnancy, contributing to the decrease of the perinatal morbi-mortality, and in consecuence, to the diminishing of the waste in health (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Idade Gestacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Obstetrícia/tendências
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 811, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perinatal mortality rate (PMR) in Nigeria rose by approximately 5% from 39 to 41 deaths per 1000 total births between 2008 and 2013, indicating a reversal in earlier gains. This study sought to identify factors associated with increased PMR. METHODS: Nationally representative data including 31,121 pregnancies of 7 months or longer obtained from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey were used to investigate the community-, socio-economic-, proximate- and environmental-level factors related to perinatal mortality (PM). Generalized linear latent and mixed models with the logit link and binomial family that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights was employed for the analyses. RESULTS: Babies born to obese women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.89) and babies whose mothers perceived their body size after birth to be smaller than the average size (aOR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.61-2.30) showed greater odds of PM. Babies delivered through caesarean section were more likely to die (aOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 2.02-4.02) than those born through vaginal delivery. Other factors that significantly increased PM included age of the women (≥40 years), living in rural areas, gender (being male) and a fourth or higher birth order with a birth interval ≤ 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Newborn and maternal care interventions are needed, especially for rural communities, that aim at counselling women that are obese. Promoting well-timed caesarean delivery, Kangaroo mother care of small-for-gestational-age babies, child spacing, timely referral for ailing babies and adequate medical check-up for older pregnant women may substantially reduce PM in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/mortalidade , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Adulto , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Cesárea/mortalidade , Demografia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria , Obesidade/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ceska Gynekol ; 84(2): 129-139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Analysis of maternal morbidity and mortality in Slovak Republic in the years 2007-2015. DESIGN: Prospective epidemiological perinatological nation-wide. SETTINGS: 1st Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. METHODS: The analysis of selected maternal morbidity and mortality data prospective collected in the years 2007-2015. RESULTS: Cesarean section rate progressively increased from 24.1% in the year 2007 up to 30.8% in the year 2013 and up to year 2015 decreased to 30.2%. Vacuum-extraction frequency was 1.3% in the year 2007 and to the year 2015 increased up to 1.6%. Forceps frequency was the same in the year 2007 and 2015: 0.6%. In the years 2008-2015 frequency of perineal tears 3th and 4th degree increased from 0.44% to 0.68% and frequency of episiotomies decreased from 74.7% to 57.2%. In the years 2012-2015 incidence of total severe acute maternal morbidity per 1,000 births was 5.85, peripartum hysterectomy 0.78, severe postpartum bleeding 2.03, transport to anaesthesiology department/intensive care unit 1.26, eclampsia 0.2, HELLP syndrome 0.6, abnormal placental invasion 0.38, uterine rupture 0.45, severe sepsis in pregnancy and puerperium 0.14 and frequency of nonfatal amniotic fluid embolism was 2/100,000 maternities. Total maternal mortality ratio in this period was 11.5 and pregnancy-related deaths ratio 9.9 per 100,000 live births. CONCLUSION: The highest cesarean section rate in Slovakia, 30.8 %, was in the year 2013, but in the next years slowly decreased. Frequency of episiotomies decreased in followed period too. Incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity was 5.85 per 1,000 births. Maternal mortality ratio in Slovakia was one of the highest in European Union and not corresponding with good level of perinatal mortality. Improving of cesarean section rate and episiotomy, incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal mortality still need to be improved in Slovak Republic.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Eclampsia/epidemiologia , Histerectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia , Adulto , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Morbidade , Mortalidade Perinatal , Períneo/lesões , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Vácuo-Extração/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(2): 19-27, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1006973

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar la "Brecha de Oportunidad" mediante el método BABIES con el empleo de tasas de mortalidad perinatal. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con la Base de datos de Vigilancia Epidemiológica Perinatal y Neonatal. Se determinó las tasas de mortalidad perinatal por distritos y por áreas de posible intervención según método BABIES. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad más baja se encontró en el distrito de Independencia (6,1 por 100 nacimientos vivos en 2014, y 5,9 en 2015, respectivamente). El área prioritaria de intervención en el distrito de Comas fue salud materna, y en Carabayllo, Cuidado durante el embarazo. Conclusiones: El método BABIES permite identificar la Brecha de Oportunidad para poder dirigir intervenciones a nivel local.


Objective: To identify the "opportunity gap" with the BABIES method using perinatal mortality rates.Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with the Perinatal and Neonatal Epidemiological Surveillance Database. Perinatal mortality rates by districts and by areas of possible intervention were determined according to the BABIES method. Results: The district of Independencia had the lowest mortality rate, with 6.1 and 5.9 per 100 live births in the years 2014 and 2015, respectively. The priority area of intervention in the district of Comas was "maternal health" and in Carabayllo, "care during pregnancy". Conclusions: The BABIES method allows us to identify the "opportunity gap" which can guide us to perform interventions at the local level.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012245, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stillbirth affects 2.6 million pregnancies worldwide each year. Whilst the majority of cases occur in low- and middle-income countries, stillbirth remains an important clinical issue for high-income countries (HICs) - with both the UK and the USA reporting rates above the mean for HICs. In HICs, the most frequently reported association with stillbirth is placental dysfunction. Placental dysfunction may be evident clinically as fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small-for-dates infants. It can be caused by placental abruption or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and many other disorders and factorsPlacental abnormalities are noted in 11% to 65% of stillbirths. Identification of FGA is difficult in utero. Small-for-gestational age (SGA), as assessed after birth, is the most commonly used surrogate measure for this outcome. The degree of SGA is associated with the likelihood of FGR; 30% of infants with a birthweight < 10th centile are thought to be FGR, while 70% of infants with a birthweight < 3rd centile are thought to be FGR. Critically, SGA is the most significant antenatal risk factor for a stillborn infant. Correct identification of SGA infants is associated with a reduction in the perinatal mortality rate. However, currently used tests, such as measurement of symphysis-fundal height, have a low reported sensitivity and specificity for the identification of SGA infants. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound assessment of fetal growth by estimated fetal weight (EFW) and placental biomarkers alone and in any combination used after 24 weeks of pregnancy in the identification of placental dysfunction as evidenced by either stillbirth, or birth of a SGA infant. Secondary objectives were to investigate the effect of clinical and methodological factors on test performance. SEARCH METHODS: We developed full search strategies with no language or date restrictions. The following sources were searched: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process and Embase via Ovid, Cochrane (Wiley) CENTRAL, Science Citation Index (Web of Science), CINAHL (EBSCO) with search strategies adapted for each database as required; ISRCTN Registry, UK Clinical Trials Gateway, WHO International Clinical Trials Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing studies; specialist abstract and conference proceeding resources (British Library's ZETOC and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index). Search last conducted in Ocober 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of pregnant women of any age with a gestation of at least 24 weeks if relevant outcomes of pregnancy (live birth/stillbirth; SGA infant) were assessed. Studies were included irrespective of whether pregnant women were deemed to be low or high risk for complications or were of mixed populations (low and high risk). Pregnancies complicated by fetal abnormalities and multi-fetal pregnancies were excluded as they have a higher risk of stillbirth from non-placental causes. With regard to biochemical tests, we included assays performed using any technique and at any threshold used to determine test positivity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted the numbers of true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative test results from each study. We assessed risk of bias and applicability using the QUADAS-2 tool. Meta-analyses were performed using the hierarchical summary ROC model to estimate and compare test accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: We included 91 studies that evaluated seven tests - blood tests for human placental lactogen (hPL), oestriol, placental growth factor (PlGF) and uric acid, ultrasound EFW and placental grading and urinary oestriol - in a total of 175,426 pregnant women, in which 15,471 pregnancies ended in the birth of a small baby and 740 pregnancies which ended in stillbirth. The quality of included studies was variable with most domains at low risk of bias although 59% of studies were deemed to be of unclear risk of bias for the reference standard domain. Fifty-three per cent of studies were of high concern for applicability due to inclusion of only high- or low-risk women.Using all available data for SGA (86 studies; 159,490 pregnancies involving 15,471 SGA infants), there was evidence of a difference in accuracy (P < 0.0001) between the seven tests for detecting pregnancies that are SGA at birth. Ultrasound EFW was the most accurate test for detecting SGA at birth with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 21.3 (95% CI 13.1 to 34.6); hPL was the most accurate biochemical test with a DOR of 4.78 (95% CI 3.21 to 7.13). In a hypothetical cohort of 1000 pregnant women, at the median specificity of 0.88 and median prevalence of 19%, EFW, hPL, oestriol, urinary oestriol, uric acid, PlGF and placental grading will miss 50 (95% CI 32 to 68), 116 (97 to 133), 124 (108 to 137), 127 (95 to 152), 139 (118 to 154), 144 (118 to 161), and 144 (122 to 161) SGA infants, respectively. For the detection of pregnancies ending in stillbirth (21 studies; 100,687 pregnancies involving 740 stillbirths), in an indirect comparison of the four biochemical tests, PlGF was the most accurate test with a DOR of 49.2 (95% CI 12.7 to 191). In a hypothetical cohort of 1000 pregnant women, at the median specificity of 0.78 and median prevalence of 1.7%, PlGF, hPL, urinary oestriol and uric acid will miss 2 (95% CI 0 to 4), 4 (2 to 8), 6 (6 to 7) and 8 (3 to 13) stillbirths, respectively. No studies assessed the accuracy of ultrasound EFW for detection of pregnancy ending in stillbirth. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical markers of placental dysfunction used alone have insufficient accuracy to identify pregnancies ending in SGA or stillbirth. Studies combining U and placental biomarkers are needed to determine whether this approach improves diagnostic accuracy over the use of ultrasound estimation of fetal size or biochemical markers of placental dysfunction used alone. Many of the studies included in this review were carried out between 1974 and 2016. Studies of placental substances were mostly carried out before 1991 and after 2013; earlier studies may not reflect developments in test technology.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Natimorto
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15470, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) is a risk factor for perinatal outcomes, since it may increase the probability of gestational complications including gestational diabetes or cesarean delivery. Additionally, IPWC may affect neonatal outcomes increasing the prevalence of newborns small for gestational age or preterm birth. However, the association between IPWC and perinatal outcomes has not systematically synthesized thus far. This study protocol aims to provide a clear, transparent and standardized procedure for systematically reviewing the association between IPWC and perinatal outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review and meta-analyses protocol is based on the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols and the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science will be systematically searched from their inception. No limits will be defined by study design, as such different tools to assess risk of bias will be used:Odd ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals will be reported to evaluate associations between IPWC and perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will systematically synthesize the evidence regarding the association between IPWC and perinatal outcomes. Data will be extracted from published articles and findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Ethical approval and informed consent will not be required due to the nature of the study. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018100449.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
S Afr Med J ; 109(5): 347-352, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa (SA), the largest category of perinatal deaths is unexplained stillbirths. Two-thirds of these occur in the antenatal period and most fetuses are macerated, but at antenatal clinics the mothers were generally regarded as healthy, with low-risk pregnancies. Innovative methods are urgently required to detect fetuses at risk of stillbirth and manage the mothers appropriately. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of raised resistance indices (RIs) of the umbilical artery in a low-risk, low-income population and ascertain whether use of this information can prevent perinatal deaths. METHODS: A descriptive study was performed in Mamelodi township, east of Pretoria, SA, on pregnant women attending antenatal clinics draining to two community health centres (CHCs). These women, classified as having low-risk pregnancies, were screened for placental insufficiency using a continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound apparatus (Umbiflow) between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation. When a raised RI was detected, the mother was referred to a high-risk clinic and managed according to a standard protocol. A cohort analytical study compared women who attended antenatal care at the same clinics as the Umbiflow group but did not have an Umbiflow test with those who had an Umbiflow test. The outcomes of all the deliveries in Mamelodi were recorded. The prevalences of abnormal RIs, absent end-diastolic flow (AEDF), stillbirths and neonatal deaths were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: An Umbiflow RI was performed in 2 868 women, and pregnancy outcome was available for 2 539 fetuses (88.5%); 297 fetuses (11.7%) were regarded as at high risk. AEDF was found in 1.5% of the population screened with an outcome. There were 29 perinatal deaths in the Umbiflow group (low risk n=18, high risk n=11). The perinatal mortality rate for 12 168 women attending the CHCs and the antenatal clinics draining to the CHCs who did not have an RI was 21.3/1 000 births, significantly higher than that in the Umbiflow group (11.4/1 000 births) (risk ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.42 - 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AEDF in this low-risk population is ~10 times higher than that previously recorded. Use of the information prevented a number of perinatal deaths, most of which would have been macerated stillbirths. Screening a low-risk pregnant population using continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound may substantially reduce the prevalence of unexplained stillbirths in SA.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Pobreza , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Artérias Umbilicais/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD009613, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are a number of ways of monitoring blood glucose in women with diabetes during pregnancy, with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) recommended as a key component of the management plan. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of different techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The effectiveness of the various monitoring techniques is unclear. This review is an update of a review that was first published in 2014 and subsequently updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To compare techniques of blood glucose monitoring and their impact on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (1 November 2018), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing techniques of blood glucose monitoring including SMBG, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), automated telemedicine monitoring or clinic monitoring among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2). Trials investigating timing and frequency of monitoring were also eligible for inclusion. RCTs using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: This review update includes a total of 12 trials (863) women (792 women with type 1 diabetes and 152 women with type 2 diabetes). The trials took place in Europe, the USA and Canada. Three of the 12 included studies are at low risk of bias, eight studies are at moderate risk of bias, and one study is at high risk of bias. Four trials reported that they were provided with the continuous glucose monitors free of charge or at a reduced cost by the manufacturer.Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) versus intermittent glucose monitoring, (four studies, 609 women)CGM may reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension) (risk ratio (RR) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.85; 2 studies, 384 women; low-quality evidence), although it should be noted that only two of the four relevant studies reported data for this composite outcome. Conversely, this did not translate into a clear reduction for pre-eclampsia (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.08; 4 studies, 609 women, moderate-quality evidence). There was also no clear reduction in caesarean section (average RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.18; 3 studies, 427 women; I2 = 41%; moderate-quality evidence) or large-for-gestational age (average RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.26; 3 studies, 421 women; I2 = 70%; low-quality evidence) with CGM. There was not enough evidence to assess perinatal mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.05 to 12.61, 71 infants, 1 study; low-quality evidence), or mortality or morbidity composite (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.06; 1 study, 200 women) as the evidence was based on single studies of low quality. CGM appears to reduce neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.93; 3 studies, 428 infants). Neurosensory disability was not reported.Other methods of glucose monitoringFor the following five comparisons, self-monitoring versus a different type of self-monitoring (two studies, 43 women); self-monitoring at home versus hospitalisation (one study, 100 women), pre-prandial versus post-prandial glucose monitoring (one study, 61 women), automated telemedicine monitoring versus conventional system (three studies, 84 women), and constant CGM versus intermittent CGM (one study, 25 women), it is uncertain whether any of the interventions has any impact on any of our GRADE outcomes (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, caesarean section, large-for-gestational age) because the quality of the evidence was found to be very low. This was due to evidence largely being derived from single trials, with design limitations and limitations with imprecision (wide CIs, small sample sizes, and few events). There was not enough evidence to assess perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality and morbidity composite. Other important outcomes, such as neurosensory disability, were not reported in any of these comparisons. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Two new studies (406 women) have been incorporated to one of the comparisons for this update. Although the evidence suggests that CGM in comparison to intermittent glucose monitoring may reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, this did not translate into a clear reduction for pre-eclampsia, and so this result should be viewed with caution. No differences were observed for other primary outcomes for this comparison. The evidence base for the effectiveness of other monitoring techniques analysed in the other five comparisons is weak and based on mainly single studies with very low-quality evidence. Additional evidence from large well-designed randomised trials is required to inform choices of other glucose monitoring techniques and to confirm the effectiveness of CGM.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Adulto , Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 6404-6417, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056325

RESUMO

In the Netherlands, the mortality rate of ear-tagged calves <1 yr is one of the indicators that is continuously monitored in census data and is defined as the number of deceased calves relative to the number of calf-days-at-risk. In 2017, yearly calf mortality rates were published in the lay press and resulted in discussions about the calculation of this parameter among stakeholders because the same parameter appeared to be calculated in many different ways by different organizations. These diverse definitions of calf mortality answered different aims such as early detection of deviations, monitoring trends, or providing insight into herd-specific results, but were difficult to understand by stakeholders. The aim of this study was to evaluate several definitions of calf mortality for scientific validity, usefulness for policymakers, and comprehensibility by farmers. Based on expert consultations, 10 definitions for calf mortality were evaluated that assessed different age categories, time periods, and denominators. Differences in definitions appeared to have a large effect on the magnitude of mortality. For example, with the original mortality parameter, the mortality rate was 16.5% per year. When the first year of life was subdivided into 3 age categories, the mortality rate was 3.3, 4.5, and 3.1% for postnatal calves (≤14 d), preweaned calves (15-55 d), and weaned calves (56 d-1 yr), respectively. Although it was logical that these mortality rates were lower than the original, the sum of the 3 separate mortality rates was also lower than the original mortality rate. The reason was that the number of calves present in a herd and the risk of mortality are not randomly distributed over a calf's first year of life and the conditional nature of mortality rates when calculated for different age categories. Ultimately, 4 parameters to monitor calf mortality in Dutch dairy herds were chosen based on scientific value, usefulness for monitoring of trends, and comprehensibility by farmers: perinatal calf mortality risk (i.e., mortality before, during, or shortly after the moment of birth up to the moment of ear-tagging), postnatal calf mortality risk (≤14 d), preweaned calf mortality rate (15-55 d), and weaned calf mortality rate (56 d-1 yr). Slight differences in definitions of parameters can have a major effect on results, and many factors have to be taken into account when defining an important health indicator such as mortality. Our evaluation resulted in a more thorough understanding of the definitions of the selected parameters and agreement by the stakeholders to use these key indicators to monitor calf mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Fazendeiros , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade , Países Baixos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
16.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 146(1): 126-131, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058318

RESUMO

After the declaration of the Millennium Development Goals in 2000 by the United Nations, many stakeholders allocated financial resources to "global maternal health." Research to expand care and improve delivery of maternal health services has exponentially increased. The present article highlights an overview, namely 10 of the health system, clinical, and technology-based advancements that have occurred in the past three decades in the field of global maternal health. The list of topics has been selected through the cumulative clinical and public health expertise of the authors and is certainly not exhaustive. Rather, the list is intended to provide a mapping of key topics arranged from broad to specific that span from the global policy level to the level of individual care. The list of health system, clinical, and technology-based advancements include: (10) Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals; (9) Development of clinical training programs, including the potential for subspecialty development; (8) Prenatal care expansion and potential; (7) Decentralized health systems, including the use of skilled birth attendants; (6) Antiretroviral therapy for HIV; (5) Essential medicines; (4) Vaccines; (3) mHealth/eHealth; (2) Ultrasonography; and (1) Obstetric hemorrhage management. With the Sustainable Development Goals now underway, the field must build upon past successes to sustain maternal and neonatal well-being in the future global health agenda.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Materna/normas , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Tocologia/organização & administração , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas
19.
Lancet ; 393(10184): 1973-1982, 2019 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal and timely access to a caesarean section is a key requirement for safe childbirth. We identified the burden of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, and the risk factors following caesarean sections in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched electronic databases including MEDLINE and Embase (from Jan 1, 1990, to Nov 20, 2017), without language restrictions, for studies on maternal or perinatal outcomes following caesarean sections in LMICs. We excluded studies in high-income countries, those involving non-pregnant women, case reports, and studies published before 1990. Two reviewers undertook the study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction independently. The main outcome being assessed was prevalence of maternal mortality in women undergoing caesarean sections in LMICs. We used a random effects model to synthesise the rate data, and reported the association between risk factors and outcomes using odds ratios with 95% CIs. The study protocol has been registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42015029191. FINDINGS: We included 196 studies from 67 LMICs. The risk of maternal death in women who had a caesarean section (116 studies, 2 933 457 caesarean sections) was 7·6 per 1000 procedures (95% CI 6·6-8·6, τ2=0·81); the highest burden was in sub-Saharan Africa (10·9 per 1000; 9·5-12·5, τ2=0·81). A quarter of all women who died in LMICs (72 studies, 27 651 deaths) had undergone a caesarean section (23·8%, 95% CI 21·0-26·7; τ2=0·62). INTERPRETATION: Maternal deaths and perinatal deaths following caesarean sections are disproportionately high in LMICs. The timing and urgency of caesarean section pose major risks. FUNDING: Ammalife Charity and ELLY Appeal, Barts Charity, and the UK National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Mortalidade Perinatal , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 36, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High-quality evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is rarely available and relevant for health policy decisions in low-resource settings. In such situations, innovative approaches are needed to generate locally relevant evidence. This study aims to inform decision-making on antenatal care (ANC) recommendations in Rwanda by estimating the incremental cost-effectiveness of the recent (2016) WHO antenatal care recommendations compared to current practice in Rwanda. METHODS: Two health outcome scenarios (optimistic, pessimistic) in terms of expected maternal and perinatal mortality reduction were constructed using expert elicitation with gynaecologists/obstetricians currently practicing in Rwanda. Three costing scenarios were constructed from the societal perspective over a 1-year period. The two main inputs to the cost analyses were a Monte Carlo simulation of the distribution of ANC attendance for a hypothetical cohort of 373,679 women and unit cost estimation of the new recommendations using data from a recent primary costing study of current ANC practice in Rwanda. Results were reported in 2015 USD and compared with the 2015 Rwandan per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 697). RESULTS: Incremental health gains were estimated as 162,509 life-years saved (LYS) in the optimistic scenario and 65,366 LYS in the pessimistic scenario. Incremental cost ranged between $5.8 and $11 million (an increase of 42% and 79%, respectively, compared to current practice) across the costing scenarios. In the optimistic outcome scenario, incremental cost per LYS ranged between $36 (for low ANC attendance) and $67 (high ANC attendance), while in the pessimistic outcome scenario, it ranged between $90 (low ANC attendance) and $168 (high ANC attendance) per LYS. Incremental cost effectiveness was below the GDP-based thresholds in all six scenarios. DISCUSSION: Implementing the new WHO ANC recommendations in Rwanda would likely be very cost-effective; however, the additional resource requirements are substantial. This study demonstrates how expert elicitation combined with other data can provide an affordable source of locally relevant evidence for health policy decisions in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Materna , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Perinatal , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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