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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 104-107, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914577

RESUMO

From 1987 to 2017, cardiovascular disease (CVD) had been ranking the first cause of death in Suzhou, and the mortality rate showed an upward trend annual percentage changes (APC=0.62%, P=0.001), while the standardized mortality rate showed a downward trend (APC=-2.65%, P<0.001). The probability of premature death of CVD declined consistently from 7.06% in 1987 to 2.00% in 2017 (APC=-4.45%, P<0.001). When the life expectancy was set at 70, the potential years of life lost rate (PYLLR) decreased from 6.35‰ in 1987 to 3.30‰ in 2017, and the standardized PYLLR decreased from 7.30‰ to 2.68‰. When the life expectancy was set at 75, the PYLLR decreased from 10.12‰ to 5.19‰, and the standardized PYLLR decreased from 11.44‰ to 3.88‰. With the increase of years, all PYLLR and standardized PYLLR showed a significantly downward trend (APC=-2.51%--3.89%, P<0.001).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Probabilidade
3.
Angiology ; 71(1): 17-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129986

RESUMO

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has a high burden of morbidity and mortality due to premature (≤55 years in men; ≤65 years in women) myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite this, the prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting with premature MI or ACS is incompletely described. We compared lifestyle, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers associated with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region with selected non-MENA high-income countries. We identified English-language, peer-reviewed publications through PubMed (up to March 2018). We used the World Bank classification system to categorize countries. Patients with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region had a higher prevalence of smoking than older patients with MI/ACS but a lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Men with premature MI/ACS had a higher prevalence of smoking than women but a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. The MENA region had sparse data on lifestyle, diet, psychological stress, and physical activity. To address these knowledge gaps, we initiated the ongoing Gulf Population Risks and Epidemiology of Vascular Events and Treatment (Gulf PREVENT) case-control study to improve primary and secondary prevention of premature MI in the United Arab Emirates, a high-income country in the MENA region.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 4, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797164

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution is associated with a wide range of health effects, including increased respiratory symptoms, cancer, reproductive and birth defects, and premature death. Air quality measurements by standardized measuring equipment, although accurate, can only provide an estimate for part of the population, with decreasing accuracy further away from the monitoring sites. Estimating pollution levels over large geographical domains requires the use of air quality models which ideally incorporate air quality measurements. In order to estimate actual exposure of the population to air pollution (population-weighted concentrations of air pollutants), there is a need to combine data from air quality models with population density data. Here we present the results of exposure estimates for the entire population of Israel using a chemical transport model combined with measurements from the national monitoring network. We evaluated the individual exposure levels for the entire population to several air pollutants based on census tract units. Using this hybrid model, we found that the entire population of Israel is exposed to concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 that exceed the target values but are below the environmental values according to the Israeli Clean Air Law. In addition, we found and that over 1.5 million residents are exposed to NOx at concentrations higher than the target values. This data may help decision makers develop targeted interventions to reduce the concentrations of specific pollutants, based on population-weighted exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Israel , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1363-1368, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838805

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze and compare the disease burden of falls in Chinese population aged 0-19, in 1990 and 2017. Methods: Indicators including number of deaths, mortality rates, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted of life years (DALY), on falls, were gathered from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 and used to describe the disease burden and corresponding parameters on falls, between 1990 and 2017, in China. Results: In 2017, number of death, YLLs, YLDs, DALYs caused by falls were 5 321, 0.43 million person years, 0.14 million person years and 0.57 million person years respectively, among aged 0-19 group. Rates on standardized mortality, YLLs, YLDs and DALYs on falls were 1.76/100 000, 141.49/100 000, 46.99/100 000, and 188.48/100 000, respectively. The burden of falls decreased with the increase of age. Compared with 1990, disease burden of falls decreased in all age groups, both in male and female, with more seen in the lower age groups. Compared with 1990, the number of deaths, rates on YLLs, YLDs and DALYs caused by falls decreased by 65.08%, 46.63%, 47.38% and 36.33% respectively, in 2017. However, the YLDs rate increased by 73.31% between 1990 and 2017. The ratio of YLLs to DALYs decreased from 90.84% in 1990 to 75.07% in 2017, with a proportion as 17.36%. Conclusion: Compared with 1990, although the disease burden of falls among aged 0-19 group showed a decreasing trend, falls still caused serious disease burden for the aged 0-19 group. Research that targeting prevention on falls, should be continued.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Prematura , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 2961-2966, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854692

RESUMO

To quantitatively assess the health benefits brought by the implementation of the Action Plan of Air Pollution Prevention and Control, we firstly analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of PM2.5 population-weighted concentrations over China from 2013 to 2017. The BenMAP model was used to analyze the differences in premature death between the PM2.5 baseline scenario in 2013 and the control scenario in 2017 in 338 prefecture-level cities nationwide, so as to quantitatively analyze the number of premature deaths in 31 provinces. The results show that compared with other provinces, the largest reduction in premature deaths due to the significant decrease of PM2.5 concentration occurred in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its surrounding regions, and the environmental health benefits from air quality have been greatly improved. The results show that from 2013 to 2017 the population weighted PM2.5 concentration was decreasing year by year due to the significant decrease in PM2.5 concentration; Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, and the surrounding areas witnessed the largest reduction in premature deaths. In 2017, the number of avoided premature deaths in 280 prefecture-level cities nationwide increased, but declined in 58 cities. Taking the target value of the first phase of the WHO transition period (an annual average PM2.5 concentration of 35 µg·m-3) as the control scenario, it is estimated that the number of premature deaths in 2013 was approximately 101293, and in 2017 was approximately 41080. The implementation of the Action Plan helped to avoid approximately 60213 premature deaths. According to the method of 'willingness to pay', the monetary benefits are estimated to be approximately 54.97 billion yuan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1827-1835, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews have consistently shown that individuals with mental disorders have an increased risk of premature mortality. Traditionally, this evidence has been based on relative risks or crude estimates of reduced life expectancy. The aim of this study was to compile a comprehensive analysis of mortality-related health metrics associated with mental disorders, including sex-specific and age-specific mortality rate ratios (MRRs) and life-years lost (LYLs), a measure that takes into account age of onset of the disorder. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we included all people younger than 95 years of age who lived in Denmark at some point between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2015. Information on mental disorders was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the date and cause of death was obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. We classified mental disorders into ten groups and causes of death into 11 groups, which were further categorised into natural causes (deaths from diseases and medical conditions) and external causes (suicide, homicide, and accidents). For each specific mental disorder, we estimated MRRs using Poisson regression models, adjusting for sex, age, and calendar time, and excess LYLs (ie, difference in LYLs between people with a mental disorder and the general population) for all-cause mortality and for each specific cause of death. FINDINGS: 7 369 926 people were included in our analysis. We found that mortality rates were higher for people with a diagnosis of a mental disorder than for the general Danish population (28·70 deaths [95% CI 28·57-28·82] vs 12·95 deaths [12·93-12·98] per 1000 person-years). Additionally, all types of disorders were associated with higher mortality rates, with MRRs ranging from 1·92 (95% CI 1·91-1·94) for mood disorders to 3·91 (3·87-3·94) for substance use disorders. All types of mental disorders were associated with shorter life expectancies, with excess LYLs ranging from 5·42 years (95% CI 5·36-5·48) for organic disorders in females to 14·84 years (14·70-14·99) for substance use disorders in males. When we examined specific causes of death, we found that males with any type of mental disorder lost fewer years due to neoplasm-related deaths compared with the general population, although their cancer mortality rates were higher. INTERPRETATION: Mental disorders are associated with premature mortality. We provide a comprehensive analysis of mortality by different types of disorders, presenting both MRRs and premature mortality based on LYLs, displayed by age, sex, and cause of death. By providing accurate estimates of premature mortality, we reveal previously underappreciated features related to competing risks and specific causes of death. FUNDING: Danish National Research Foundation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/mortalidade , Mortalidade Prematura , Sistema de Registros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020418, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656606

RESUMO

Background: There has been a growing interest in the economic burden of mortality; however, a majority of evidence is concerned with particular diseases. Less is known on the overall cost of all-cause early deaths, principally in international context. Therefore, this study aims to estimate production losses of premature mortality across 28 European Union (EU-28) countries in 2015. Methods: The human capital method was applied to estimate the production losses (indirect costs) of all-cause deaths occurring at working age. The sex- and age-specific data on the number of deaths were taken from Eurostat's database and a set of labour market measures was used to determine time of work during whole lifespan in particular countries. Results: The total production losses of all-cause premature mortality in EU-28 in 2015 were €174.6 billion, adjusted for purchasing power parity. The per capita production losses associated with early deaths were €342.39 for the whole EU-28 population on average; Lithuania experienced the highest per capita burden (€643.68), while the average costs were lowest in Greece (€188.69). These figures translated to an economic burden of 1.179% of gross domestic product in EU-28 and this share ranged from 0.679% in Luxembourg to 3.176% in Latvia. Most of the losses were due to men's deaths and the proportion of losses associated with male mortality ranged from 64.7% in the Netherlands to 81.2% in Poland. Conclusions: Premature mortality is a considerable economic burden for European societies; however, the production losses associated with early deaths vary notably in particular countries.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , União Europeia/economia , Mortalidade Prematura , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMJ ; 367: l5584, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weight changes across adulthood and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-94 and 1999-2014. PARTICIPANTS: 36 051 people aged 40 years or over with measured body weight and height at baseline and recalled weight at young adulthood (25 years old) and middle adulthood (10 years before baseline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality from baseline until 31 December 2015. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, 10 500 deaths occurred. Compared with participants who remained at normal weight, those moving from the non-obese to obese category between young and middle adulthood had a 22% (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33) and 49% (1.49, 1.21 to 1.83) higher risk of all cause mortality and heart disease mortality, respectively. Changing from obese to non-obese body mass index over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. An obese to non-obese weight change pattern from middle to late adulthood was associated with increased risk of all cause mortality (1.30, 1.16 to 1.45) and heart disease mortality (1.48, 1.14 to 1.92), whereas moving from the non-obese to obese category over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. Maintaining obesity across adulthood was consistently associated with increased risk of all cause mortality; the hazard ratio was 1.72 (1.52 to 1.95) from young to middle adulthood, 1.61 (1.41 to 1.84) from young to late adulthood, and 1.20 (1.09 to 1.32) from middle to late adulthood. Maximum overweight had a very modest or null association with mortality across adulthood. No significant associations were found between various weight change patterns and cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Stable obesity across adulthood, weight gain from young to middle adulthood, and weight loss from middle to late adulthood were associated with increased risks of mortality. The findings imply that maintaining normal weight across adulthood, especially preventing weight gain in early adulthood, is important for preventing premature deaths in later life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Razão Cintura-Estatura
12.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 120(5): 24-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621563

RESUMO

Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are common, with osteoarthritis (OA) being the most prevalent. RMDs, including OA, are associated with significant pain and functional limitations, as well as mortality rates up to 1.6-fold higher than in the general population. Most studies of OA and mortality have focused on knee and hip OA. Some, but not all, of these studies suggest an increased risk of death, however risks may differ by region. Reasons for discordant findings may be due to methodological considerations including definition of OA, study design, length of follow-up, and whether variables that can change and develop over time, such as measures of OA, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities, were re-assessed during the follow-up period. Research has shown that the prognosis of OA is similar to that seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, in many respects. In RA, disability and comorbidities are the most important predictors of mortality, although pain may be more prominent in the prognosis of OA mortality. The data suggest that addressing functional limitations and pain seen with OA could potentially reduce the increased mortality that has been observed in these individuals. Further study is needed concerning the potential excess mortality attributable to lower body OA, as well as associated disability, pain and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Quadril , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Mortalidade Prematura , Osteoartrite do Quadril/mortalidade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/mortalidade
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4337, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554811

RESUMO

Substantial quantities of air pollution and related health impacts are ultimately attributable to household consumption. However, how consumption pattern affects air pollution impacts remains unclear. Here we show, of the 1.08 (0.74-1.42) million premature deaths due to anthropogenic PM2.5 exposure in China in 2012, 20% are related to household direct emissions through fuel use and 24% are related to household indirect emissions embodied in consumption of goods and services. Income is strongly associated with air pollution-related deaths for urban residents in which health impacts are dominated by indirect emissions. Despite a larger and wealthier urban population, the number of deaths related to rural consumption is higher than that related to urban consumption, largely due to direct emissions from solid fuel combustion in rural China. Our results provide quantitative insight to consumption-based accounting of air pollution and related deaths and may inform more effective and equitable clean air policies in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/tendências , Características da Família , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/etnologia , Material Particulado/análise
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1218, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between 8 May 2018 and 27 May 2019, cumulatively there were 1286 deaths from Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The objective of this study was to estimate the monetary value of human lives lost through EVD in DRC. METHODS: Human capital approach was applied to monetarily value years of life lost due to premature deaths from EVD. The future losses were discounted to their present values at 3% discount rate. The model was reanalysed using 5 and 10% discount rates. The analysis was done alternately using the average life expectancies for DRC, the world, and the Japanese females to assess the effect on the monetary value of years of life lost (MVYLL). RESULTS: The 1286 deaths resulted in a total MVYLL of Int$17,761,539 assuming 3% discount rate and DRC life expectancy of 60.5 years. The average monetary value per EVD death was of Int$13,801. About 44.7 and 48.6% of the total MVYLL was borne by children aged below 9 years and adults aged between 15 years and 59 years, respectively. Re-estimation of the algorithm with average life expectancies of the world (both sexes) and Japanese females, holding discount rate constant at 3%, increased the MVYLL by Int$ 3,667,085 (20.6%) and Int$ 7,508,498 (42.3%), respectively. The application of discount rates of 5 and 10%, holding life expectancy constant at 60.5 years, reduced the MVYLL by Int$ 4,252,785 (- 23.9%) and Int$ 9,658,195 (- 54.4%) respectively. CONCLUSION: The EVD outbreak in DRC led to a considerable MVYLL. There is an urgent need for DRC government and development partners to disburse adequate resources to strengthen the national health system and other systems that address social determinants of health to end recurrence of EVD outbreaks.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/economia , Mortalidade Prematura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1109, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To estimate the relationship of the degree of urbanization to cardiovascular mortality and to risk behaviours before, during and after the 2008 economic crisis in Spain. METHODS: In three areas of residence - large urban areas, small urban areas and rural areas - we calculated the rate of premature mortality (0-74 years) from cardiovascular diseases before the crisis (2005-2007), during the crisis (2008-2010 and 2011-2013) and after the crisis (2014-2016), and the prevalence of risk behaviours in 2006, 2011 and 2016. In each period we estimated the mortality rate ratio (MRR) and the prevalence ratio, taking large urban areas as the reference. RESULTS: In men, no significant differences were observed in mortality between the two urban areas, while the MRR in rural areas went from 0.92 [95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.94) in 2005-2007 to 0.94 (0.92-0.96) in 2014-2016. In women, no significant differences were observed in mortality between the rural and large urban areas, whereas the MRR in small urban areas decreased from 1.11 (1.08-1.14) in 2005-2007 to 1.06 (1.02-1.09) in 2014-2016. The rural areas had the lowest prevalence of smoking, obesity and physical inactivity in men, and of obesity in women. No significant differences were observed in smoking or physical inactivity by area of residence in women. CONCLUSION: The pattern of cardiovascular mortality by degree of urbanization was similar before and after the crisis, although in women the excess mortality in small urban areas with respect to large urban areas was smaller after the crisis. The different pattern of risk behaviours in men and women, according to area of residence, could explain these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Urbanização , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443199

RESUMO

Geographical investigations are a core function of public health monitoring, providing the foundation for resource allocation and policies for reducing health inequalities. The aim of this study was to develop geodemographic area classification based on several area-level indicators and to explore the extent of geographical inequalities in mortality. A series of 19 area-level socioeconomic indicators were used from the 2011 national population census. After normalization and standardization of the geographically smoothed indicators, the k-means cluster algorithm was implemented to classify communities into groups based on similar characteristics. The association between geodemographic area classification and the spatial distribution of mortality was estimated in Poisson log-linear spatial models. The k-means algorithm resulted in four distinct clusters of areas. The most characteristic distinction was between the ageing, socially isolated, and resource-scarce rural communities versus metropolitan areas with younger population, higher educational attainment, and professional occupations. By comparison to metropolitan areas, premature mortality appeared to be 44% (95% Credible Intervals [CrI] of Rate Ratio (RR): 1.06-1.91) higher in traditional rural areas and 36% (95% CrI of RR: 1.13-1.62) higher in young semi-rural areas. These findings warrant future epidemiological studies investigating various causes of the urban-rural differences in premature mortality and implementation policies to reduce the mortality gap between urban and rural areas.


Assuntos
Geografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade Prematura , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chipre , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 288-296, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323611

RESUMO

In the past few decades, extensive epidemiological studies have focused on exploring the adverse effects of PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm) on public health. However, most of them failed to consider the dynamic changes of population distribution adequately and were limited by the accuracy of PM2.5 estimations. Therefore, in this study, location-based service (LBS) data from social media and satellite-derived high-quality PM2.5 concentrations were collected to perform highly spatiotemporal exposure assessments for thirteen cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China. The city-scale exposure levels and the corresponding health outcomes were first estimated. Then the uncertainties in exposure risk assessments were quantified based on in-situ PM2.5 observations and static population data. The results showed that approximately half of the population living in the BTH region were exposed to monthly mean PM2.5 concentration greater than 80 µg/m3 in 2015, and the highest risk was observed in December. In terms of all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory disease, the premature deaths attributed to PM2.5 were estimated to be 138,150, 80,945, and 18,752, respectively. A comparative analysis between five different exposure models further illustrated that the dynamic population distribution and accurate PM2.5 estimations showed great influence on environmental exposure and health assessments and need be carefully considered. Otherwise, the results would be considerably over- or under-estimated.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Pequim , Big Data , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura , Saúde Pública , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Medição de Risco
20.
Scand J Public Health ; 47(5): 482-491, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313982

RESUMO

Aims: Productivity losses related to premature cancer mortality have been assessed for most developed countries but results for Russia are limited to cross-sectional reports. The aim of this study was to quantify productivity costs due to cancer mortality in Russia between 2001 and 2015 and project this to 2030. Methods: Cancer mortality data (2001-2015) were acquired from the State Cancer Registry, whereas population data, labour force participation rates and annual earnings were retrieved from the Federal State Statistics Service. Cancer mortality was projected to 2030 and the human capital approach was applied to estimate productivity losses. Results: The total annual losses increased from US6.5b in 2001-2005 to US$8.1b in 2011-2015, corresponding to 0.24% of the annual gross domestic product. The value is expected to remain high in 2030 (US$7.5b, 0.14% of gross domestic product). Productivity losses per cancer death are predicted to grow faster in women (from US$18,622 to US$22,386) than in men (from US$25,064 to US$28,459). Total losses were found to be highest for breast cancer in women (US$0.6b, 20% of overall losses in women) and lung cancer in men (US$1.2b, 24%). The absolute predicted change of annual losses between 2011-2015 and 2026-2030 was greatest for cervix uteri (+US$214m) in women and for lip, oral and pharyngeal cancers in men (+US$182m). Conclusions: In Russia, productivity losses due to premature cancer mortality are substantial. Given the expected importance especially for potentially preventable cancers, steps to implement effective evidence-based national cancer control policies are urgently required.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eficiência , Mortalidade Prematura , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
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