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3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1356-1362, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838804

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the trends and potential reasons responsible for injury mortality among children under 18 years old in different stages of the China Children's Development Outlines (CCDO) for children from 1990 to 2017, in China. Methods: Data derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 (GBD2017) were used to analyze the change of injury mortality, among children under 18 years old, by sex and provinces. Results: Since 1990, the Chinese government had formulated and implemented three CCDOs on Children. Each CCDO proposed corresponding main targets and strategic measures based on the development of children under current situation, in each area, accordingly. The first two CCDOs failed to set clear targets for child injury prevention and control, but the third one did propose a quantifiable target. The injury mortality rate of children under 18 years old showed a declining trend in all periods of the three CCDOs, by 26.07%, 40.68% and 26.48%, respectively. Both boys and girls showed significant downward trend in these three stages. Mortality rate on child injury differed in these three stages in all the 31 provinces. Conclusion: Thanks to the contribution of CCDO in different stages that providing important policies and impetus for the prevention and control of child injury, the number of deaths caused by child injury kept reducing, from 1990 to 2017, in China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1330, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce the under-five mortality (U5M), fine-gained spatial assessment of the effects of health interventions is critical because national averages can obscure important sub-national disparities. In turn, sub-national estimates can guide control programmes for spatial targeting. The purpose of our study is to quantify associations of interventions with U5M rate at national and sub-national scales in Uganda and to identify interventions associated with the largest reductions in U5M rate at the sub-national scale. METHODS: Spatially explicit data on U5M, interventions and sociodemographic indicators were obtained from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Climatic data were extracted from remote sensing sources. Bayesian geostatistical Weibull proportional hazards models with spatially varying effects at sub-national scales were utilized to quantify associations between all-cause U5M and interventions at national and regional levels. Bayesian variable selection was employed to select the most important determinants of U5M. RESULTS: At the national level, interventions associated with the highest reduction in U5M were artemisinin-based combination therapy (hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 0.60; 95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI): 0.11, 0.79), initiation of breastfeeding within 1 h of birth (HR = 0.70; 95% BCI: 0.51, 0.86), intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) (HRR = 0.74; 95% BCI: 0.67, 0.97) and access to insecticide-treated nets (ITN) (HRR = 0.75; 95% BCI: 0.63, 0.84). In Central 2, Mid-Western and South-West, largest reduction in U5M was associated with access to ITNs. In Mid-North and West-Nile, improved source of drinking water explained most of the U5M reduction. In North-East, improved sanitation facilities were associated with the highest decline in U5M. In Kampala and Mid-Eastern, IPTp had the largest associated with U5M. In Central1 and East-Central, oral rehydration solution and postnatal care were associated with highest decreases in U5M respectively. CONCLUSION: Sub-national estimates of the associations between U5M and interventions can guide control programmes for spatial targeting and accelerate progress towards mortality-related Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Uganda
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1281, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Death of a mother at an early age of the child may result in an increased risk of childhood mortality, especially in low-and-middle-income countries. This study aims to synthesize estimates of the association between a mother's death and the risk of childhood mortality at different age ranges from birth to 18 years in these settings. METHODS: Various MEDLINE databases, EMBASE, and Global Health databases were searched for population-based cohort and case-control studies published from 1980 to 2017. Studies were included if they reported the risk of childhood mortality for children whose mother had died relative to those whose mothers were alive. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool effect estimates, stratified by various exposures (child's age when mother died, time since mother's death) and outcomes (child's age at risk of child death). RESULTS: A total of 62 stratified risk estimates were extracted from 12 original studies. Childhood mortality was associated with child's age at time of death of a mother and time since a mother's death. For children whose mother died when they were ≤ 42 days, the relative risk (RR) of dying within the first 1-6 months of the child's life was 35.5(95%CI:9.7-130.5, p [het] = 0.05) compared to children whose mother did not die; by 6-12 months this risk dropped to 2.8(95%CI:0.7-10.7). For children whose mother died when they were ≤ 1 year, the subsequent RR of dying in that year was 15.9(95%CI:2.2-116.1,p [het] = 0.02), compared to children whose mother lived. For children whose mother died when they were ≤ 5 years of age, the RR of dying before aged 12 was 4.1(95%CI:3.0-5.7),p [het] = 0.83. Mortality was also elevated in specific analysis  among children whose mother died when child was older than 42 days. Overall, for children whose mother died < 6 and 6+ months ago, RRs of dying before reaching adulthood (≤18 years) were 4.7(95%CI:2.6-8.7,p [het] = 0.2) and 2.1(95%CI:1.3-3.4,p [het] = 0.7), respectively, compared to children whose mother lived. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of an association between the death of a mother and childhood mortality in lower resource settings. These findings emphasize the critical importance of women in family outcomes and the importance of health care for women during the intrapartum and postpartum periods and throughout their child rearing years.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Países em Desenvolvimento , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Int Health ; 11(5): 344-348, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529108

RESUMO

The decline in child mortality over the past two decades has been described as the greatest story in global public health. Indeed, using modern tools and interventions, there has been remarkable progress, reducing deaths in children <5 y of age by nearly half from 2000 to 2017. However, as a consequence of persistent geographic inequalities, we fall short of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal to end all preventable child deaths by 2030, with an estimated 44.6 million preventable deaths expected to occur by the target year. This article discusses how we might further improve the downward trend in child mortality over the next decade to end preventable child deaths.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Saúde Global , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1243, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under-five mortality is still a major health issue in many developing countries like Tanzania. To achieve the Sustainable Development Goal target of ending preventable child deaths in Tanzania, a detailed understanding of the risk factors for under-five deaths is essential to guide targeted interventions. This study aimed to investigate trends and determinants of neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child and under-five mortalities in Tanzania from 2004 to 2016. METHODS: The study used combined data from the 2004-2005, 2010 and 2015-2016 Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys, with a sample of 25,951 singletons live births and 1585 under-five deaths. We calculated age-specific mortality rates, followed by an assessment of trends and determinants (community, socioeconomic, individual and health service) of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-five mortalities in Cox regression models. The models adjusted for potential confounders, clustering and sampling weights. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2016, we found that neonatal mortality rate remained unchanged, while postneonatal mortality and child mortality rates have halved in Tanzania. Infant mortality and under-five mortality rates have also declined. Mothers who gave births through caesarean section, younger mothers (< 20 years), mothers who perceived their babies to be small or very small and those with fourth or higher birth rank and a short preceding birth interval (≤2 years) reported higher risk of neonatal, postneonatal and infant mortalities. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that there was increased survival of children under-5 years in Tanzania driven by significant improvements in postneonatal, infant and child survival rates. However, there remains unfinished work in ending preventable child deaths in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1132, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate in children under 5 years old (U5MR) has decreased considerably in Ecuador in the last decade; however, thousands of children continue to die from causes related to poverty. A social program known as Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH) was created to guarantee a minimum level of consumption for families and to reduce chronic malnutrition and preventable childhood diseases. We sought to evaluate the effect of the BDH program on mortality of children younger than 5 years, particularly from malnutrition, diarrheal diseases, and lower respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Mortality rates and BDH coverage from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated from the 144 (of 222) Ecuadorian counties with intermediate and high quality of vital information. A multivariable regression analyses for panel data was conducted by using a negative binomial regression model with fixed effects, adjusted for all relevant demographic and socioeconomic covariates. RESULTS: Our research shows that for each 1% increase in BDH county coverage there would be a decrease in U5MR from malnutrition of 3% (RR 0.971, 95% CI 0.953-0.989). An effect of BDH county coverage on mortality resulting from respiratory infections was also observed (RR 0.992, 95% CI 0.984-0.999). The BDH also reduced hospitalization rates in children younger than 5 years, overall and for diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: A conditional cash transfer program such as BDH could contribute to the reduction of mortality due to causes related to poverty, such as malnutrition and respiratory infections. The coverage should be maintained -or increased in a period of economic crisis- and its implementation strengthened.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/economia , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pobreza/economia , Assistência Pública/economia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/economia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/mortalidade , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/economia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Infecções Respiratórias/economia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 492, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper reports on a rigorously designed non-masked randomized cluster trial of the childhood survival impact of deploying paid community health workers to provide doorstep preventive, promotional, and curative antenatal, newborn, child, and reproductive health care in three rural Tanzanian districts. METHODS: From August, 2011 to June 2015 ongoing demographic surveillance on 380,000 individuals permitted monitoring of neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates for 50 randomly selected intervention and 51 comparison villages. Over the initial 2 years of the project, logistics and supply support systems were managed by the Ifakara Health Institute. In 2013, the experiment transitioned its operational design to logistical support managed by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare with the goal of enhancing government operational ownership and utilization of results for policy. RESULTS: The baseline under 5 mortality rate was 81.3 deaths per 1000 live births with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 77.2-85.6 in the intervention group and 82.7/1000 (95% CI 78.5-87.1) in the comparison group yielding an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.99 (95% CI 0.88-1.11, p = 0.867). After 4 years of implementation, the under 5 mortality rate was 73.2/1000 (95% CI 69.3-77.3) in the intervention group and 77.4/1000 (95% CI 73.8-81.1) in the comparison group (adjusted HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.86-1.07], p = 0.443). The intervention had no impact on neonatal mortality in either the first 2 years (HR 1.10 [95% CI 0.89-1.36], p = .392) or last 2 years of implementation (HR 0.98 [95% CI 0.74-1.30], p = .902). Although community health worker deployment significantly reduced mortality among children aged 1-59 months during the first 2 years of implementation (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.76-0.96], p = 0.008), mortality among post neonates was the same in both groups in years three and four (HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.85-1.24], p = 0.772). Results adjusted for stock-out effects show that diminishing impact was associated with logistics system lapses that constrained worker access to essential drugs and increased post-neonatal mortality risk in the final two project years (HR 1.42 [95% CI 1·07-1·88], p = 0·015). CONCLUSIONS: Community health worker home-visit deployment had a null effect among neonates, and 2 years of initial impact among children over 1 month of age, but a null effect when tests were based on over 1 month of age data merged for all four project years. The atrophy of under age five effects arose because workers were not continuously equipped with essential medicines in years three and four. Analyses that controlled for stock-out effects suggest that adequately supplied workers had survival effects on children aged 1 to 59 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration for trial number ISRCTN96819844 was retrospectively completed on June 21, 2012.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
11.
S Afr Med J ; 109(7): 480-485, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Rapid Mortality Surveillance System has reported reductions in child mortality rates in recent years in South Africa (SA). In this article, we present information about levels of mortality and causes of death from the second SA National Burden of Disease Study (SA NBD) to inform the response required to reduce child mortality further. OBJECTIVES: To estimate trends in and causes of childhood mortality at national and provincial levels for the period 1997 - 2012, to highlight the importance of the SA NBD. METHODS: Numbers of registered child deaths were adjusted for under-reporting. Adjustments were made for the misclassification of AIDS deaths and the proportion of ill-defined natural causes. Non-natural causes were estimated using results from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for 2000 and the National Injury Mortality Survey for 2009. Six neonatal conditions and 11 other causes were consolidated from the SA NBD and the Child Health Epidemiological Reference Group lists of causes of death for the analysis. The NBD cause-fractions were compared with those from Statistics South Africa, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). RESULTS: Under-5 mortality per 1 000 live births increased from 65 in 1997 to 79 in 2004 as a result of HIV/AIDS, before dropping to 40 by 2012. The neonatal mortality rate declined from 1997 to 2001, followed by small variations. The death rate from diarrhoeal diseases began to decrease in 2008 and the death rate from pneumonia from 2010. By 2012, neonatal deaths accounted for 27% of child deaths, with conditions associated with prematurity, birth asphyxia and severe infections being the main contributors. In 1997, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, Mpumalanga and Eastern Cape provinces had the highest under-5 mortality, close to 80 per 1 000 live births. Mortality rates in North West were in the mid-range and then increased, placing this province in the highest group in the later years. The Western Cape had the lowest mortality rate, declining throughout the period apart from a slight increase in the early 2000s. CONCLUSIONS: The SA NBD identified the causes driving the trends, making it clear that prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, the Expanded Programme on Immunisation and programmes aimed at preventing neonatal deaths need to be equitably implemented throughout the country to address persistent provincial inequalities in child deaths. The rapid reduction of childhood mortality since 2005 suggests that the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal target of 25 per 1 000 for under-5 mortality is achievable for SA. Comparison with alternative estimates highlights the need for cause-of-death data from civil registration to be adjusted using a burden-of-disease approach.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
12.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010809, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275569

RESUMO

Background: Mozambique has one of the highest under-5 mortality rates in the world. Community health workers (CHWs) are deployed to increase access to care; in Mozambique they are known as agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs). This study aimed to investigate child deaths in an area served by APEs by analysing the causes, care seeking patterns, and the influence of social capital. Methods: Caregivers of children under-5 who died in 2015 in Inhambane province, Mozambique, were interviewed using Verbal Autopsy/Social Autopsy (VA/SA) tools with a social capital module. VA data were analysed using the WHO InterVA analytical tool to determine cause of death. SA was analysed using the INDEPTH SA framework for illnesses lasting no more than three weeks. Social capital scores were calculated. Results: 117 child deaths were reported; VA/SA was conducted for 115. Eighty-five had died from an acute illness lasting no more than three weeks, which in most cases could have been treated at community level; 50.6% died from malaria, 11.8% from HIV/AIDS, and 9.4% for each of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections. In 35.3% the caregiver only noticed that the child was sick when symptoms of very severe illness developed. One in four children were never taken outside the home before dying. Sixteen children were first taken to an APE; of these 7 had signs of very severe illness. Caregivers who waited to seek care until the illness was very severe had a lower social capital score. The mean travel time to go to the APE was 2hrs 50min, which was not different from any other provider. Most received treatment from the APE, 3 were referred. The majority went to another provider after the APE; most to a health centre. Conclusions: The leading causes of death in children under-5 can be detected, treated or referred by APEs. Major care seeking delays took place in the home, largely due to lack of early disease recognition and late decision-making. Low social capital, distance to APEs and to referral facilities likely contribute to these delays. Increasing caregiver illness awareness is urgently needed, as well as stronger referral linkages. A review of the geographical coverage and scope of work of APEs should be conducted.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010801, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263547

RESUMO

Background: In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) programme in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, and Nigeria to increase coverage of diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea among children ages 2-59 months. In 2017, a final evaluation of the six RAcE sites was conducted to determine whether the programme goal was reached. A key evaluation objective was to estimate the reduction in childhood mortality and the number of under-five lives saved over the project period in the RAcE project areas. Methods: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate reductions in all-cause child mortality due to changes in coverage of treatment for the integrated community case management (iCCM) illnesses - malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea - while accounting for other changes in maternal and child health interventions in each RAcE project area. Data from RAcE baseline and endline household surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, and routine health service data were used in each LiST model. The models yielded estimated change in under-five mortality rates, and estimated number of lives saved per year by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea treatment. We adjusted the results to estimate the number of lives saved by community health worker (CHW)-provided treatment. Results: The LiST model accounts for coverage changes in iCCM intervention coverage and other health trends in each project area to estimate mortality reduction and child lives saved. Under five mortality declined in all six RAcE sites, with an average decline of 10 percent. An estimated 6200 under-five lives were saved by malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea treatment in the DRC, Malawi, Niger, and Nigeria, of which approximately 4940 (75 percent) were saved by treatment provided by CHWs. This total excludes Mozambique, where there were no estimated under-five lives saved likely due to widespread stockouts of key medications. In all other project areas, lives saved by CHW-provided treatment contributed substantially to the estimated decline in under-five mortality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that iCCM is a strategy that can save lives and measurably decrease child mortality in settings where access to health facility services is low and adequate resources for iCCM implementation are provided for CHW services.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020101, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360441

RESUMO

In 2012, the Government of Canada awarded a grant to the World Health Organization's Global Malaria Programme (GMP) to support the scale-up of integrated community case management (iCCM) of pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in sub-Saharan Africa under the Rapid Access Expansion Programme (RAcE). The two main objectives of the programme were to: (1) Contribute to the reduction of child mortality due to malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea by increasing access to diagnostics, treatment and referral services, and (1) Stimulate policy updates in participating countries and catalyze scale-up of integrated community case management (iCCM) through documentation and dissemination of best practices. Based on the results of the implementation research and programmatic lessons, this collection provides evidence on impact and improving coverage of iCCM in routine health systems, and opportunities and challenges of implementing and sustaining delivery of iCCM at scale.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Canadá , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
15.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 79, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fertility rates remain persistently high in Nigeria, with little difference across socioeconomic groups. While the desire for large family size is culturally rooted, there is little understanding of how repeated child mortality experiences influence fertility behaviour and parity transition in Nigeria. METHODS: Using birth history data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), we applied life table techniques and proportional-hazard regression model to explore the effect of child survival experience on parity transitions. We hypothesize that a woman with one or more child death experience is at elevated risk of progressing towards higher parities. RESULTS: Our findings show that child mortality is concentrated among mothers living in deprived conditions especially in rural areas of the northern part of Nigeria and among those with little or no education and, among those belonging to Hausa/Fulani ethnicity and Islam religion. Mothers with repeated experience of child deaths were significantly at a higher rate of progressing to higher parities than their counterparts (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.31-1.61), when adjusted for relevant biological and socio-demographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Recurrent experience of child deaths exacerbates the risks to higher parity transition. Interventions aimed at reducing fertility in Nigeria should target promoting child survival and family planning concurrently.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade Materna , Paridade , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica Populacional , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 668, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate and timely data on the health of a population are key for evidence-based decision making at both the policy and programmatic level. In many low-income settings, such data are unavailable or outdated. Using an electronic medical records system, we determined the association between nutritional status and severe illness and mortality among young children presenting to a rural primary health care facility in the Gambia. METHODS: Clinical data collected over five years (2010-2014) on children aged under 60 months making acute visits to a primary health care clinic in the rural Gambian district of Kiang West were retrospectively extracted from the medical records system. Generalised estimating equation models were used to investigate associations between nutritional status and illness severity, accounting for repeat visits, gender, age and access to transport to the clinic. The Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) was used to determine the proportion of severe illness likely attributable to different grades of malnutrition. RESULTS: 3839/5021 (77%) children under 60 months of age living in Kiang West presented acutely to the clinic at least once, yielding 21,278 visits (47% girls, median age 20.2 months (Interquartile Range (IQR) 23.92 months)) and 26,001 diagnoses, 86% being infectious diseases. Severe illness was seen in 4.5% of visits (961/21,278). Wasting was associated with an increased risk of severe illness in a dose-dependent manner, ('WHZ < -1' adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 1.68, 95% CI:1.43-1.98, p < 0.001, 'WHZ <-2 and ≥-3' aOR 2.78, 95% CI:2.31-3.36, p < 0.001 and 'WHZ < -3' aOR 7.82, 95% CI:6.40-9.55, p < 0.001) the PAF for wasting (WHZ < -2) was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.18-0.24). Stunting, even in the most severe form (HAZ < -3), was not significantly associated with severe illness (aOR 1.19 95% CI:0.94-1.51) but was associated with a significantly increased risk of death (aOR 6.04 95% CI:1.94-18.78). CONCLUSION: In this population-based cohort of young children in rural Gambia, wasting was associated with disease severity in a dose-dependent manner. Further research is needed into strategies to identify and reach these children with effective interventions to improve their nutritional status.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 760, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, socioeconomic factors such as place of residence, mother's educational level, or household wealth, are strongly associated with risk factors of under-five mortality (U5M) such as health behavior or exposure to diseases and injuries. The aim of the study was to assess the relative contribution of four known socioeconomic factors to the variability in U5M in sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: The study was based on birth histories from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 32 sub-Saharan countries in 2010-2016. The relative contribution of sex of the child, place of residence, mother's educational level, and household wealth to the variability in U5M was assessed using a regression-based decomposition of a Gini-type index. RESULTS: The Gini index - measuring the variability in U5M related to the four socioeconomic factors - varied from 0.006 (95%CI: 0.001-0.010) in Liberia 2013 to 0.034 (95%CI: 0.029-0.039) in Côte d'Ivoire 2011/12. The main contributors to the Gini index (with a relative contribution higher than 25%) were different across countries: mother's educational level in 13 countries, sex of the child in 12 countries, household wealth in 11 countries, and place of residence in 8 countries (in some countries, more than one main contributor was identified). CONCLUSIONS: Factors related to socioeconomic status exert varied effects on the variability in U5M in sub-Saharan African countries. The findings provide evidence in support of prioritizing intersectoral interventions aiming at improving child survival in all subgroups of a population.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1623609, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232229

RESUMO

Background: Studies in which the association between temperature and neonatal mortality (deaths during the first 28 days of life) is tracked over extended periods that cover demographic, economic and epidemiological transitions are quite limited. From previous research about the demographic transition in Swedish Sápmi, we know that infant and child mortality was generally higher among the indigenous (Sami) population compared to non-indigenous populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between extreme temperatures and neonatal mortality among the Sami and non-Sami population in Swedish Sápmi (Lapland) during the nineteenth century. Methods: Data from the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, were used to identify neonatal deaths. We used monthly mean temperature in Tornedalen and identified cold and warm month (5th and 95th) percentiles. Monthly death counts from extreme temperatures were modelled using negative binomial regression. We computed relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for time trends and seasonality. Results: Overall, the neonatal mortality rate was higher among Sami compared to non-Sami infants (62/1,000 vs 35/1,000 live births), although the differences between the two populations decreased after 1860. For the Sami population prior 1860, the results revealed a higher neonatal incidence rate during cold winter months (<-15.4°C, RR = 1.60, CI 1.14-2.23) compared to infants born during months of medium temperature. No association was found between extreme cold months and neonatal mortality for non-Sami populations. Warm months (+15.1°C) had no impact on Sami or non-Sami populations. Conclusions: This study revealed the role of environmental factors (temperature extremes) on infant health during the demographic transition where cold extremes mainly affected the Sami population. Ethnicity and living conditions contributed to differential weather vulnerability.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/história , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/história , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Grupos Populacionais/história , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Previsões , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia
19.
Econ Hum Biol ; 34: 257-273, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047818

RESUMO

Despite a close relationship between the childrens' anthropometric status and mortality rates, the highest mortality rates are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, while the lowest anthropometric indicators, in particular the height-for-age z-scores, are concentrated in South Asia. This discrepancy should, however, be expected to decrease when one accounts for the survivorship bias, i.e. selective mortality. We analyse whether the survivorship bias can explain these observed differences in three standard anthropometric indicators (stunting, underweight and wasting) by using individual data of children from six waves of Demographic and Health Surveys for a large cross-section of 37 low- and middle-income countries between 1991 and 2016. We use both a matching approach and semi-parametric regression to estimate the values for the anthropometric status of deceased children. The results are twofold: first, both methods reveal that the imputed values for the anthropometric indicators are, on average, between 0.10 and 0.25 standard deviations lower than the observed anthropometric indicators. Second, since the share of deceased children in our sample is below ten per cent, the contribution of the anthropometric status of deceased children to overall anthropometric indicators is small and therefore only influences it marginally.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Magreza
20.
Int J Public Health ; 64(5): 773-783, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The life expectancy and mortality rate always exhibit remarkable spatial variations. Their spatial distribution patterns and economic determinants in China were explored. METHODS: Four indexes including lifespan expectancy at birth (LEB), infant mortality rate (IMR), under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) and crude mortality rate (CMR) at county level in China were calculated. The spatial distribution patterns of these indexes were illustrated. Meanwhile, spatial regressive model was applied to explore the relations between major macroeconomic determinants and these indexes. RESULTS: Spatial dependence of these four indexes in China was identified, and the positive spatial autocorrelation indicated a clustering feature rather than stochastic distribution. Additionally, local Moran's I statistics revealed opposite local spatial clusters of LEB and IMR, U5MR in China, that LEB showed that high value clusters in the southwest and low value clusters in the eastern part and northern Xinjiang, and IMR/U5MR exhibited that low value clusters in the east and high value clusters in the west. The spatial regression revealed that income per capita influenced positively on LEB and CMR, and GDP per capita was associated positively with IMR and U5MR. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical factors should be highly considered, and the L-L LEB or H-H IMR/U5MR clustered areas need to be integrated as a whole to formulate public health and economic development plans.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Geografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Longevidade , Vigilância da População , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
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