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J Environ Manage ; 349: 119402, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37879222


BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on the spatially clustered regions in the association between short-term exposure to temperature and mortality, which is important for identifying high-susceptibility population and enhancing the prevention of high/low temperatures. Previous studies have explored the association inequality, but no study has evaluated the inequalities of temperature-attributable burdens, which may be more meaningful for reducing temperature-related regional inequality. METHODS: Taking the Sichuan Basin (SCB), an economically imbalanced area with high humidity and four distinctive seasons, as an example, we used a novel multi-stage strategy to investigate the two issues. First, distributed lag nonlinear models were independently constructed to obtain the county-level associations between daily temperature and cardiorespiratory mortality. Then, an estimation-error-based spatial scan statistic was used to detect the association-clustered regions. Third, multivariate meta-regression incorporating the identified clustered regions and socioeconomic and natural factors was used to obtain stable county-specific associations, based on which the heat- and cold-attributable deaths were mapped and their inequalities were evaluated using concentration indices and Lorenz curves. RESULTS: On average, a U-shaped temperature-mortality association was examined. A significantly association-clustered region was detected (P = 0.017), in which heat and cold temperatures presented significantly stronger associations than those in the non-clustered region, particularly for heat temperatures. The cold-attributable deaths (3.5%) were substantially more than the heat-attributable deaths (0.5%). Both presented severe inequalities over counties. Significant temperature-attributable inequalities were also found over per-capital public budget, urbanization rate, employment rate and per-capital GDP. The directions of inequalities over GDP and urbanization rate were opposite between heat and cold temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provided the first evidence about the clustering of temperature-mortality associations and the inequality of cold- and heat-attributable burdens. Significantly association-clustered regions and heavy temperature-attributable inequalities were found in the SCB. Rural people bore heavier cold-attributable but less heat-attributable mortality risk than urban people, suggesting that different policies should be designed to reduce the temperature-attributable inequalities for heat and cold temperatures and different regions. This novel strategy can provide an interesting new perspective in the association between environmental exposure and human health.

Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Temperatura , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 38(9): 617-624, Nov-Dic. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-227345


Introduction: Despite the highly favorable prognosis, mortality occurs in nearly 2% of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), in which decompressive craniectomy (DC) may be the only way to save the patient's life. The aim of this report is to describe the risk factors, neuroimaging features, in-hospital complications and functional outcome of severe CVT in patients treated with DC. Materials and methods: Consecutive malignant CVT cases treated with DC from a retrospective third-level hospital database were analyzed. Demographic, clinical, and functional outcomes were analyzed. Results: Twenty-six patients were included (20 female, age 35.4 ± 12.1 years); 53.8% of the patients had acute CVT, with neurological focalization as the most common symptom in 92.3% of the patients. Superior sagittal sinus thromboses were found in 84.6% of cases. Bilateral lesions were present in 10 patients (38.5%). Imaging on admission showed a parenchymal lesion (venous infarction ± hemorrhagic lesion) > 6 cm measured along the longest diameter in 25 patients (96.2%). Mean duration of clinical neurological deterioration was 3.5 days; eleven patients (42.3%) died during hospitalization. Conclusion: In patients with severe forms of CVT, we found higher mortality than previously reported. DC is an effective life-saving treatment with acceptable functional prognosis for survivors.(AU)

Introducción: A pesar del pronóstico favorable en pacientes con trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC), cerca de un 2% de estos pacientes fallecen, para los cuales la craniectomía descompresiva (CD) puede ser una opción terapéutica. El objetivo de este artículo es describir los factores de riesgo, las características de las neuroimágenes, complicaciones hospitalarias y evolución funcional, de pacientes con TVC severa tratados con CD. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron características demográficas, clínicas y funcionales de casos consecutivos de TVC severa tratados con CD, a partir de una base de datos retrospectiva de un hospital de tercer nivel. Resultados: Veintiséis pacientes fueron incluidos (20 mujeres, media de edad 35,4 ±12,1 años); un 53,8% de los pacientes presentaron una TVC aguda, con manifestaciones neurológicas focales como el síntoma más frecuente en el 92,3% de los casos. La trombosis del seno sagital superior estuvo presente en el 84,6% y se presentaron lesiones bilaterales parenquimatosas en 10 pacientes (38,5%). La imagen al ingreso demostró lesiones parenquimatosas (infarto venoso ± lesión hemorrágica) > 6 cm (medida en el mayor diámetro de la misma), en 25 pacientes (96,2%). La duración media del deterioro neurológico fue de 3,5 días; 11 pacientes (42,3%) murieron durante la hospitalización. Conclusión: En pacientes con formas severas de TVC encontramos una mayor mortalidad que la publicada previamente; la CD podría ser una opción terapéutica en ese grupo de pacientes.(AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Trombose Venosa , Craniectomia Descompressiva , Neuroimagem/métodos , Mortalidade , Neurologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2223, 2023 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950237


BACKGROUND: Non-natural mortality in children and adolescents is a global public health problem that varies widely from country to country. Data on child and adolescent maltreatment are not readily available, and mortality due to violent causes is also underestimated. METHODS: Injury-related mortality rates (overall and by specific causes) from 2000 to 2018 in selected European countries were analysed to observe mortality patterns in children and adolescents using data from the Eurostat database. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated for each country. Joinpoint regression analysis with a significance level of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals was performed for mortality trends. RESULTS: Children and adolescent mortality from non-natural causes decreased significantly in Europe from 10.48 around 2005 to 5.91 around 2015. The Eastern countries (Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic) had higher rates; while Spain, Denmark, Italy, and the United Kingdom had the lowest. Rates for European Country declined by 5.10% per year over the entire period. Larger downward trends were observed in Ireland, Spain and Portugal; smaller downward trends were observed for Eastern countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia) and Finland. Among specific causes of death, the largest decreases were observed for accidental causes (-5.9%) and traffic accidents (-6.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among children and adolescents due to non-natural causes has decreased significantly over the past two decades. Accidental events and transport accidents recorded the greatest decline in mortality rates, although there are still some European countries where the number of deaths among children and adolescents from non-natural causes is high. Social, cultural, and health-related reasons may explain the observed differences between countries.

Acidentes de Trânsito , Mortalidade , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Polônia , Reino Unido , Itália
Ugeskr Laeger ; 185(46)2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37987434


Heatwaves are getting more common and is the largest weather-related cause of death in high-income countries. A summary of some of the implications is given in this review. Most of the excess mortality is preventable. However, there is need for increased preparedness and awareness. Common non-communicable diseases increase the risk of unfavorable outcome in relation to heatwave, and many commonly prescribed medications affect the heat regulatory system with increasing evidence for increased hospitalisation and mortality. There is an urgent need for further research on heatwaves effect on prescribed medication and mortality.

Hospitalização , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Comorbidade , Mortalidade
Sci Data ; 10(1): 802, 2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37968265


In the United States, much has been learned about the determinants of longevity from survey data and aggregated tabulations. However, the lack of large-scale, individual-level administrative mortality records has proven to be a barrier to further progress. We introduce the CenSoc datasets, which link the complete-count 1940 U.S. Census to Social Security mortality records. These datasets-CenSoc-DMF (N = 4.7 million) and CenSoc-Numident (N = 7.0 million)-primarily cover deaths among individuals aged 65 and older. The size and richness of CenSoc allows investigators to make new discoveries into geographic, racial, and class-based disparities in old-age mortality in the United States. This article gives an overview of the technical steps taken to construct these datasets, validates them using external aggregate mortality data, and discusses best practices for working with these datasets. The CenSoc datasets are publicly available, enabling new avenues of research into the determinants of mortality disparities in the United States.

Mortalidade , Grupos Raciais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
BMJ Open ; 13(11): e070996, 2023 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000816


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Circulatory system disease (CSD) patterns vary over time and between countries, related to lifestyle risk factors, associated in turn with socioeconomic circumstances. Current global CSD epidemics in developing economies are similar in scale to those observed previously in the USA and Australasia. Australia exhibits an important macroeconomic phenomenon as a rapidly transitioning economy with high immigration throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We wished to examine how that historical immigration related to CSD patterns subsequently. METHODS AND SETTING: We provide a novel empirical analysis employing census-derived place of birth by age bracket and sex from 1891 to 1986, in order to map patterns of immigration against CSD mortality rates from 1907 onwards. Age-specific generalised additive models for both CSD mortality in the general population, and all-cause mortality for the foreign-born (FB) only, from 1910 to 1980 were also devised for both males and females. RESULTS: The percentage of FB fell from 32% in 1891 to 9.8% in 1947. Rates of CSD rose consistently, particularly from the 1940s onwards, peaked in the 1960s, then declined sharply in the 1980s and showed a strong period effect across age groups and genders. The main effects of age and census year and their interaction were highly statistically significant for CSD mortality for males (p<0.001, each term) and for females (p<0.001, each term). The main effect of age and year were statistically significant for all-cause mortality minus net migration rates for the FB females (each p<0.001), and for FB males, age (p<0.001) was significant. CONCLUSIONS: We argue our empirical calculations, supported by historical and socioepidemiological evidence, employing immigration patterns as a proxy for epidemiological transition, affirm the life course hypothesis that both early life circumstances and later life lifestyle drive CSD patterns.

Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Emigração e Imigração , Fatores de Risco , Austrália/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 18(1): 65, 2023 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946282


BACKGROUND: The Baltic countries-Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia-are characterized by a high rate of fully alcohol-attributable mortality, compared with Poland. Alcohol control policy measures implemented since 2001 in the Baltic countries included a restriction on availability and an increase in excise taxation, among others. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol control policy implementation and alcohol-attributable mortality in the Baltic countries and Poland. METHODS: Alcohol-attributable mortality data for 2001-2020 was defined by codes 100% alcohol-attributable for persons aged 15 years and older in the Baltic countries and Poland. Alcohol control policies implemented between 2001 and 2020 were identified, and their impact on alcohol-attributable mortality was evaluated using an interrupted time-series methodology by employing a generalized additive model. RESULTS: Alcohol-attributable mortality was significantly higher in the Baltic countries, compared with Poland, for both males and females. In the final reduced model, alcohol control policy significantly reduced male alcohol-attributable mortality by 7.60% in the 12 months post-policy implementation. For females, the alcohol control policy mean-shift effect was higher, resulting in a significant reduction of alcohol-attributable mortality by 10.77% in the 12 months post-policy implementation. The interaction effects of countries and policy tested in the full model were not statistically significant, which indicated that the impact of alcohol control policy on alcohol-attributable mortality did not differ across countries for both males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of the current study, alcohol control policy in the form of reduced availability and increased taxation was associated with a reduction in alcohol-attributable mortality among both males and females.

Mortalidade , Política Pública , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estônia/epidemiologia , Letônia , Lituânia
Nutrients ; 15(21)2023 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37960246


BACKGROUND: Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the main source of seasoning fat in the Mediterranean diet and it is one of the components with known protective factors on chronic-degenerative disease. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medium-high level of oil consumption on mortality in a cohort with good adherence to the Mediterranean diet. METHODS: A total of 2754 subjects who had completed the food questionnaire in the Multicenter Italian study on Cholelithiasis (MICOL) cohort were included in the study. EVOO consumption was categorized in four levels (<20 g/die, 21-30 g/die, 31-40 g/die, >40 g/die). We performed a flexible parametric survival model to assess mortality by EVOO consumption level adjusted for some covariates. We also performed the analysis on subjects with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to evaluate the effects of oil in this more fragile sub-cohort. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant negative effect on mortality for the whole sample when EVOO consumption was used, both as a continuous variable and when categorized. The protective effect was stronger in the sub-cohort with NAFLD, especially for the highest levels of EVOO consumption (HR = 0.58 with p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown a protective effect of EVOO consumption towards all causes of mortality. Despite the higher caloric intake, the protective power is greater for a consumption >40 g/day in both the overall cohort and the sub-cohorts with and without NAFLD.

Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Azeite de Oliva , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Mortalidade , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
J Bras Pneumol ; 49(5): e20220442, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991067


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the risk of death from COPD and air temperature events in ten major Brazilian microregions. METHODS: This was a time series analysis of daily COPD deaths and daily mean air temperatures between 1996 and 2017. Using distributed nonlinear lag models, we estimated the cumulative relative risks of COPD mortality for four temperature percentiles (representing moderate and extreme cold and heat events) in relation to a minimum mortality temperature, with a lag of 21 days, in each microregion. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between extreme air temperature events and the risk of death from COPD in the southern and southeastern microregions in Brazil. There was an association of extreme cold and an increased mortality risk in the following microregions: 36% (95% CI, 1.12-1.65), in Porto Alegre; 27% (95% CI, 1.03-1.58), in Curitiba; and 34% (95% CI, 1.19-1.52), in São Paulo; whereas moderate cold was associated with an increased risk of 20% (95% CI, 1.01-1.41), 33% (95% CI, 1.09-1.62), and 24% (95% CI, 1.12-1.38) in the same microregions, respectively. There was an increased COPD mortality risk in the São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro microregions: 17% (95% CI, 1.05-1.31) and 12% (95% CI, 1,02-1,23), respectively, due to moderate heat, and 23% (95% CI, 1,09-1,38) and 32% (95% CI, 1,15-1,50) due to extreme heat. CONCLUSIONS: Non-optimal air temperature events were associated with an increased risk of death from COPD in tropical and subtropical areas of Brazil.

Temperatura Alta , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Temperatura , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Mortalidade
Environ Int ; 181: 108310, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951014


BACKGROUND: Air conditioning (AC) presents a viable means of tackling the ill-effects of heat on human health. However, AC releases additional anthropogenic heat outdoors, and this could be detrimental to human health, especially in urban communities. This study determined the excess heat-related mortality attributable to anthropogenic heat from AC use under various projected global warming scenarios in seven Japanese cities. The overall protection from AC use was also measured. METHODS: Daily average 2-meter temperatures in the hottest month of August from 2000 to 2010 were modeled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with BEP+BEM (building effect parameterization and building energy model). Risk functions for heat-mortality associations were generated with and without AC use from a two-stage time series analysis. We coupled simulated August temperatures and heat-mortality risk functions to estimate averted deaths and unavoidable deaths from AC use. RESULTS: Anthropogenic heat from AC use slightly augmented the daily urban temperatures by 0.046 °C in Augusts of 2000-2010 and up to 0.181 °C in a future with 3 °C urban warming. This temperature rise was attributable to 3.1-3.5 % of heat-related deaths in Augusts of 2000-2010 under various urban warming scenarios. About 36-47 % of heat-related deaths could be averted by air conditioning use under various urban warming scenarios. DISCUSSION: AC has a valuable protective effect from heat despite some unavoidable mortality from anthropogenic heat release. Overall, the use of AC as a major adaptive strategy requires careful consideration.

Ar Condicionado , Clima Quente Extremo , Mortalidade , Humanos , Cidades , Japão
Nutrients ; 15(21)2023 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37960311


Iron deficiency/excess may be associated with worse prognosis in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This study ascertained the association of the estimated total body iron (TBI) with mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis. Multicenter clinical data collected in the Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study from 943 patients receiving hemodialysis were analyzed after stratification into tertile categories by baseline TBI-estimated as the heme iron plus iron storage from ferritin levels. The primary outcome was a 5-year all-cause mortality; hazard ratios of the TBI-all-cause mortality association were estimated using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders, including clinical characteristics, laboratory, and drug data, wherein patients with high TBI were the reference category. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses of TBI, serum ferritin levels, and transferrin saturation were performed to predict all-cause mortality; a total of 232 patients died during the follow-up. The low TBI group (<1.6 g) had significantly higher hazard ratios of mortality than the high TBI group (≥2.0 g). As ROC curve analyses showed, TBI predicted mortality more accurately than either levels of serum ferritin or transferrin saturation. Lower TBI increases the mortality risk of Japanese hemodialysis patients, and further studies should examine whether iron supplementation therapy that avoids low TBI improves prognosis.

Ferro , Falência Renal Crônica , Mortalidade , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , População do Leste Asiático , Ferritinas , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Transferrina/análise , Transferrinas
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-58451


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To analyze trends in mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Chile during the period 2000–2020. Methods. Data on age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) from CVD per 100 000 population in Chile for 2000– 2020 were extracted from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze the trends and compute the average annual percent change (AAPC) in Chile. In addition, analyses were conducted by sex and type of CVD. Results. Between 2000 and 2020, the AAMR from CVD decreased in Chile from 159.5 to 94.6 per 100 000 population, with a statistically significant decrease in the AAPC of 2.6% (95% CI [–2.8, –2.4]). No joinpoints were identified. The AAMR from CVD decreased annually by 2.6% (95% CI [–2.8, –2.4]) and 2.8% (95% CI [–3.5, –2.6]) in men and women, respectively. The AAMR from ischemic heart disease reduced annually by 3.6% (95% CI [–4.6, –2.7]) with two joinpoints in 2011 and 2015. In the case of stroke, the mortality rate decreased annually by 3.7% (95% CI [–4.5, –3.0]), with two joinpoints in 2008 and 2011. Conclusions. Cardiovascular disease mortality rates have decreased significantly in Chile, in both sexes, especially in women. This decrease could be explained mainly by a significant reduction in the case fatality in recent decades. These results could be a reference for developing primary prevention and acute management of CVD policies focused on populations with higher mortality.

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Analizar las tendencias de la mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) en Chile durante el período 2000-2020. Métodos. Los datos sobre la tasa de mortalidad ajustada por la edad (TMAE) por ECV por 100 000 habitantes en Chile durante el período 2000-2020 se extrajeron de la base de datos de mortalidad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se utilizó la regresión de tipo joinpoint (punto de cambio) para analizar las tendencias y calcular el cambio porcentual anual promedio (CPAP) en Chile. Además, se realizaron análisis por sexo y por tipo de ECV. Resultados. Entre el 2000 y el 2020, la TMAE por ECV disminuyó en Chile de 159,5 a 94,6 por 100 000 habi- tantes, con una disminución del CPAP estadísticamente significativa del 2,6% (IC del 95% [-2,8 a -2,4]). No se detectó ningún punto de cambio (joinpoint). La TMAE por ECV disminuyó anualmente un 2,6% (IC del 95% [-2,8 a -2,4]) en los hombres y un 2,8% (IC del 95% [-3,5 a -2,6]) en las mujeres. La TMAE por cardiopatía isquémica se redujo anualmente en un 3,6 % (IC del 95 % [-4,6 a -2,7]), encontrándose dos puntos de cambio en el 2011 y el 2015. En el caso de los ataques cerebrovasculares, la tasa de mortalidad disminuyó anual- mente un 3,7% (IC del 95% [-4,5 a -3,0]), encontrándose dos puntos de cambio en el 2008 y el 2011. Conclusiones. La tasa de mortalidad por ECV ha disminuido significativamente en Chile en ambos sexos, pero en especial en las mujeres. Este descenso podría explicarse principalmente por la reducción significa- tiva de la letalidad observada en las últimas décadas. Estos resultados podrían constituir una referencia para la elaboración de políticas de prevención primaria y manejo de casos agudos de ECV que estén centradas en aquellos grupos poblacionales donde la mortalidad es más alta.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Analisar as tendências de mortalidade causada por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) no Chile no período de 2000 a 2020. Métodos. Taxas de mortalidade por DCV ajustadas por idade no Chile referentes ao período de 2000 a 2020 foram extraídas do Banco de Dados de Mortalidade da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foi usado um modelo de regressão linear segmentada (joinpoint) para analisar tendências e calcular a variação percentual média anual no Chile. Além disso, foram realizadas análises por sexo e tipo de DCV. Resultados. No Chile, entre 2000 e 2020, a taxa de mortalidade por DCV ajustada por idade caiu de 159,5 para 94,6 por 100 mil habitantes, com uma redução estatisticamente significante da variação percentual média anual de 2,6% (IC de 95% [-2,8; -2,4]). Não foram identificados pontos de inflexão. Anualmente, a taxa de mortalidade por DCV ajustada por idade caiu 2,6% (IC 95% [-2,8; -2,4]) e 2,8% (IC 95% [-3,5; -2,6]) entre homens e mulheres, respectivamente. A taxa de mortalidade por doença cardíaca isquêmica ajustada por idade caiu 3,6% (95% CI [-4,6; -2,7]) por ano, com dois pontos de inflexão (em 2011 e 2015). No caso do acidente vascular cerebral, a taxa de mortalidade diminuiu 3,7% (IC de 95% [-4,5; -3,0]) por ano, com dois pontos de inflexão (em 2008 e 2011). Conclusões. As taxas de mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares diminuíram significativamente no Chile em ambos os sexos, especialmente nas mulheres. Essa queda pode ser explicada principalmente por uma redução significativa na letalidade observada nas últimas décadas. Esses resultados podem ser uma referên- cia para o desenvolvimento de políticas de prevenção primária e manejo de casos agudos de DCV voltadas para populações com maiores taxas de mortalidade.

Doenças Cardiovasculares , Isquemia Miocárdica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , Chile , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Isquemia Miocárdica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Mortalidade , Análise de Regressão
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-58398


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To analyze the temporal trend of tuberculosis incidence and mortality rates in Brazil between 2011 and 2019. Methods. This was an ecological time series study of tuberculosis incidence and mortality rates in Brazil between 2011 and 2019. Data were extracted from the Notifiable Disease Information System and the Mortality Information System, and population estimates were from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Trends were analyzed by Joinpoint regression, which recognizes inflection points for temporal analysis. Results. The average incidence rate of tuberculosis in Brazil in the period was 35.8 cases per 100 000 population. From 2011 to 2015, this coefficient had an annual percentage change of –1.9% (95% CI [–3.4, –0.5]) followed by an increase of 2.4% (95% CI [0.9, 3.9]) until 2019. The average mortality rate between 2011 and 2019 was 2.2 deaths per 100 000 population, with an average annual percentage change of –0.4% (95% CI [–1.0, 0.2]). Amazonas was the only state with an increase in the annual average percentage variation for the incidence rate (3.2%; 95% CI [1.3, 5.1]) and mortality rate (2.7%; 95% CI [1.0, 4.4]) over the years, while Rio de Janeiro state had an increasing inflection for incidence from 2014 to 2019 (2.4%; 95% CI [1.4, 3.5]) and annual average of decreasing percentage variation (–3.5%; 95% CI [–5.0, –1.9]). Conclusions. During the period analyzed, a decreasing trend in incidence was observed between 2011 and 2015, and an increasing trend for the period from 2015 to 2019. On the other hand, no change in the trend for mortality was found in Brazil.

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Analizar la tendencia temporal de las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad por tuberculosis en Brasil entre el 2011 y el 2019. Métodos. Este fue un estudio ecológico de series temporales de las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad por tuberculosis en Brasil entre el 2011 y el 2019. Los datos se obtuvieron del Sistema de Información sobre Enfermedades de Notificación Obligatoria y del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad, y las estimaciones de población proceden del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. Las tendencias se analizaron mediante el programa de regresión Joinpoint, que reconoce los puntos de inflexión para el análisis temporal. Resultados. La tasa promedio de incidencia de tuberculosis en Brasil para el periodo fue de 35,8 casos por 100 000 habitantes. Entre el 2011 y el 2015, este coeficiente experimentó una variación porcentual anual del -1,9% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95% [-3,4, -0,5]), seguida por un aumento del 2,4% (IC 95% [0,9, 3,9]) hasta el 2019. La tasa de mortalidad promedio entre el 2011 y el 2019 fue de 2,2 muertes por cada 100 000 habitantes, con una variación porcentual promedio anual del -0,4% (IC del 95% [-1,0, 0,2]). El estado de Amazonas fue el único que a lo largo de los años presentó un aumento de la variación porcentual promedio anual de la tasa de incidencia (3,2%; IC del 95% [1,3, 5,1]) y de la tasa de mortalidad (2,7%; IC del 95% [1,0, 4,4]), en tanto que, entre el 2014 y el 2019, el estado de Río de Janeiro presentó una inflexión creciente de la incidencia (2,4%; IC del 95% [1,4, 3,5]) y una variación porcentual promedio anual decreciente (-3,5%; IC del 95% [-5,0, -1,9]). Conclusiones. Durante el periodo analizado, se observa una tendencia decreciente de la incidencia entre el 2011 y el 2015, y una tendencia creciente para el periodo comprendido entre el 2015 y el 2019. En cambio, no se encontró ningún cambio en la tendencia de la mortalidad en Brasil.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Analisar a tendência temporal das taxas de incidência e mortalidade por tuberculose no Brasil entre 2011 e 2019. Métodos. Estudo ecológico de série temporal das taxas de incidência e mortalidade por tuberculose no Brasil entre 2011 e 2019. Os dados foram extraídos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação e do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, e as estimativas populacionais foram obtidas do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. As tendências foram analisadas por regressão joinpoint, que reconhece pontos de inflexão para análise temporal. Resultados. A taxa média de incidência da tuberculose no Brasil no período foi de 35,8 casos por 100 mil habitantes. O coeficiente teve uma variação percentual anual de –1,9% (IC 95% [–3,4; –0,5]) de 2011 a 2015, seguida de um aumento de 2,4% (IC 95% [0,9; 3,9]) até 2019. A taxa média de mortalidade entre 2011 e 2019 foi de 2,2 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes, com uma variação percentual anual média de –0,4% (IC 95% [–1,0; 0,2]). Ao longo dos anos, o Amazonas foi o único estado com aumento na variação percentual anual média na taxa de incidência (3,2%; IC 95% [1,3; 5,1]) e na taxa de mortalidade (2,7%; IC 95% [1,0; 4,4]). Já o estado do Rio de Janeiro teve inflexão crescente na incidência de 2014 a 2019 (2,4%; IC 95% [1,4; 3,5]) e média anual de variação percentual decrescente (–3,5%; IC 95% [–5,0; –1,9]). Conclusões. Durante o período analisado, foi observada uma tendência decrescente na incidência entre 2011 e 2015 e crescente entre 2015 e 2019. Por outro lado, não foi encontrada nenhuma mudança na tendência de mortalidade no Brasil.

Tuberculose , Epidemiologia , Estudos de Séries Temporais , Incidência , Mortalidade , Brasil , Epidemiologia , Estudos de Séries Temporais , Incidência , Mortalidade , Brasil , Tuberculose , Estudos de Séries Temporais , Incidência , Mortalidade
BMC Med ; 21(1): 421, 2023 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936140


BACKGROUND: Malnutrition mortality in older adults is underrepresented in scientific literature. This obscures any recent changes and hinders needed social change. This study aims to assess malnutrition mortality trends in older adults (≥ 65 years old) from 1999 to 2020 in the United States (U.S.). METHODS: Mortality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiology Research (WONDER) database were extracted. The ICD-10 Codes E40 - E46 were used to identify malnutrition deaths. Crude mortality rates (CMR) and age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) were extracted by gender, age, race, census region, and urban-rural classification. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to calculate annual percentage changes (APC) of AAMR by the permutation test and the parametric method was used to calculate 95% confidence intervals. Average Annual Percentage Changes (AAPC) were calculated as the weighted average of APCs. RESULTS: Between 1999 and 2020, 93,244 older adults died from malnutrition. Malnutrition AAMR increased from 10.7 per 100,000 in 1999 to 25.0 per 100,000 in 2020. The mortality trend declined from 1999 to 2006 (APC = -8.8; 95% CI: -10.0, -7.5), plateaued till 2013, then began to rise from 2013 to 2020 with an APC of 22.4 (95% CI: 21.3, 23.5) and an overall AAPC of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.1, 4.7). Persons ≥ 85 years of age, females, Non-Hispanic Whites, residents of the West region of the U.S., and urban areas had the highest AAPCs in their respective groups. CONCLUSION: Despite some initial decrements in malnutrition mortality among older adults in the U.S., the uptrend from 2013 to 2020 nullified all established progress. The end result is that malnutrition mortality rates represent a historical high. The burden of the mortality uptrends disproportionately affected certain demographics, namely persons ≥ 85 years of age, females, Non-Hispanic Whites, those living in the West region of the U.S., and urban areas. Effective interventions are strongly needed. Such interventions should aim to ensure food security and early detection and remedy of malnutrition among older adults through stronger government-funded programs and social support systems, increased funding for nursing homes, and more cohesive patient-centered medical care.

Mortalidade , Brancos , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 143(16)2023 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37938010


When observed mortality is higher than expected mortality, it is referred to as excess mortality. While observed mortality is easy to quantify, calculating expected mortality is challenging. Using different methods can sometimes lead to major differences in excess mortality estimates.

Mortalidade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
Glob Public Health ; 18(1): 2276861, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37970833


While there have been notable advancements in child health in Egypt, disparities in child mortality still exist. Understanding these disparities is crucial to addressing them. The objective of this study is to explore the factors linked to child mortality in Egypt, providing a comprehensive understanding of the disparities in child mortality rates. The study utilises cross-sectional data from Egypt's Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) in 2014 to examine child mortality. The dataset consists of 15,848 observations from mothers with children born within five years prior to the survey. The choice of explanatory variables was guided by the Mosely and Chen Framework and logistic multivariate regression was used to conduct the analyses. The study finds lower education, early childbearing, insufficient birth spacing, lack of breastfeeding, and absence of improved toilet facilities (proxy for living conditions) were all significantly linked to an increased likelihood of child loss. Additionally, poorer people in rural settings experienced the worst child mortality. The findings align with the World Health Organization's Conceptual Framework for Action on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH). Recommended policy interventions include targeting women in rural areas, improving living conditions and removing financial/other barriers to accessing care.

Mortalidade da Criança , Mortalidade Infantil , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Egito/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Transversais , Mortalidade
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 120(8): e20220832, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37971046


BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified inequalities in the variation of mortality rates from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) when comparing regions with different levels of socioeconomic development indicators. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the variation in IHD and CBVD mortality rates and economic development, evaluated by the sociodemographic index (SDI) and social vulnerability index (SVI) in Brazil over a period of 20 years. METHODS: Ecological study of time series of crude and standardized mortality rates (direct method, based on the Brazilian population in year 2000) from IHD and CBVD by sex and Federative Unit (FU) between 2000 and 2019, compared using the SDI and SVI. RESULTS: There was an improvement in SDI and SVI concomitantly to a reduction in age-standardized mortality rate from IHD and CBVD in the country; however, this occurred unevenly across the FUs. The FUs with the best socioeconomic indicators had the greatest reduction in mortality rates. DISCUSSION: The variations in mortality rates from IHD and CBVD, compared using variations in socioeconomic development, are aligned with those from previous studies, but the present study goes further by including the indicators SDI and SVI in the comparison. The limitations include the observational nature of the study, the use of databases, and the vulnerability to ecological bias. CONCLUSION: The observed data raise the hypothesis that the improvement in socioeconomic conditions is one of the factors responsible for the reduction in mortality rates from IHD and CBVD.

FUNDAMENTO: Estudos prévios identificaram desigualdade na variação das taxas de mortalidade por doença isquêmica do coração (DIC) e doença cerebrovascular (DCBV) quando comparadas regiões com diferentes níveis de indicadores de desenvolvimento socioeconômico. OBJETIVO: Analisar a variação das taxas de mortalidade por DIC e DCBV e do desenvolvimento econômico, avaliado pelos índices sociodemográfico (ISD) e de vulnerabilidade social (IVS) no Brasil, em um período de 20 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico de séries temporais das taxas de mortalidade bruta e padronizada (método direto com a população brasileira de 2000) por DIC e DCBV por sexo e UF entre 2000 e 2019 comparadas com o ISD e com o IVS. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora do ISD e IVS concomitante a redução da taxa de mortalidade padronizada por faixa etária por DIC e por DCBV no país, entretanto isso ocorreu de modo desigual entre as unidades federativas (UFs). As UFs com melhores indicadores socioeconômicos obtiveram maior redução nas taxas de mortalidade. DISCUSSÃO: A variação das taxas de mortalidade por DIC e DCBV em comparação com a variação do desenvolvimento socioeconômico são compatíveis com estudos prévios, mas vamos além ao comparar de modo concomitante com o ISD e o IVS. As limitações são o fato de ser um estudo observacional, trabalhar com bancos de dados e estar sujeito ao viés ecológico. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados observados levantam a hipótese de que a melhora das condições socioeconômicas é um dos fatores responsáveis pela redução das taxas de mortalidade por DIC e DCBV.

Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Isquemia Miocárdica , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Mortalidade
Actas urol. esp ; 47(8): 517-526, oct. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-226121


Objetivo Nos proponemos actualizar las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de vejiga en España de 1980 a 2021, estandarizadas por sexo, grupo de edad y comunidades autónomas (CC. AA.). Materiales y métodos Se utilizaron las bases de datos públicas en línea del Instituto Nacional de Estadística para obtener datos sobre población y mortalidad por cáncer de vejiga. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad (TMEE) para todas las edades y las truncadas (<75 y ≥75 años) y se presentaron como tasas por cada 100.000 personas. Se utilizó el modelo de regresión Joinpoint para el cálculo y análisis de las tendencias de las TMEE por cáncer de vejiga. Resultados En la última década, las TMEE por cáncer de vejiga (todas las edades,<75 años y ≥75 años) disminuyeron significativamente en España para ambos sexos. Esta tendencia se observó en 12 CC. AA. para los hombres y en 4 CC. AA. (Andalucía, Canarias, Cataluña y Madrid) para las mujeres, aunque en proporciones diferentes. Para los hombres, la TMEE permaneció estable en Castilla-León y La Rioja (<75 años), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha y Valencia (≥75 años) y las 2 regiones castellanas (todas las edades). En el caso de las mujeres, las TMEE también disminuyeron en Valencia (<75 y ≥75), Castilla-León (≥75), Galicia (≥75 y todas las edades) y Navarra (<75 y todas las edades). Conclusión Nuestros resultados revelan variaciones significativas en las tendencias por CC. AA., sexo y grupo de edad, enfatizando la necesidad de un seguimiento continuado e intervenciones específicas para reducir aún más las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de vejiga en España (AU)

Objective We propose to update bladder cancer mortality rates in Spain from 1980 to 2021, by sex and age-group, by autonomous community (AC). Materials and methods The public online databases of the National Statistical Institute were used to obtain data on population and bladder cancer mortality. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs), all ages and truncated (<75 and ≥75) were estimated and reported as rates per 100,000 persons. Joinpoint regression software was used for estimation and trend analysis of ASMRs bladder cancer. Results In the last decade, the ASMR for bladder cancer (all ages,<75 years and ≥75 years) decreased significantly in Spain for both sexes. This trend was observed in 12 ACs for men and in 4 ACs (Andalusia, Canary Islands, Catalonia and Madrid) for women, although to different degrees. For men, ASMR remained stable in Castilla-León and La Rioja (<75 years), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha and Valencia (≥75years) and the 2 Castilian regions (all ages). For women, ASMR also decreased in Valencia (<75 and ≥75), Castilla-León (≥75), Galicia (≥75 and all ages) and Navarre (<75 and all ages). Conclusion Our results reveal significant variations in trends by AC, sex and age group, emphasizing the need for continued follow-up and targeted interventions to further reduce bladder cancer mortality rates in Spain (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Espanha/epidemiologia
Rev. esp. patol. torac ; 35(3): 179-184, oct. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-227386


Objetivo: Describir y analizar la mortalidad de los pacientes que ingresan en nuestra UCRI, tanto durante el ingreso en dicha UCRI, como a lo largo de toda la estancia hospitalaria, y a los 3 y 6 meses del alta hospitalaria. Metodología: Estudio prospectivo de 380 pacientes, no Covid, ingresados en nuestra UCRI, destinada al tratamiento del fallo respiratorio agudo con VMNI, a lo largo de año y medio de actividad. Se recogieron datos demográficos, índice de Charlson modificado (m), tipo de fallo respiratorio, servicio de pertenencia, días de estancia en UCRI y la mortalidad tanto en UCRI como hospitalaria, y a los 3 y 6 meses del alta del hospital. Resultados: El 55% eran varones con una edad media de 71 años y un índice de Charlson (m) de 6,4. La mortalidad en UCRI fue del 16.4% y la intrahospitalaria del 27%, relacionándose ambas con la edad, el índice de Chalson (m), el servicio de pertenencia y el fallo respiratorio hipoxémico. Tras el alta hospitalaria, la supervivencia a los tres meses fue del 83,6% y a los 6 meses del 75,5% relacionándose ambas con la edad y el índice de Charlson (m). Conclusiones: Las UCRIs son útiles en el tratamiento del fallo respiratorio agudo en pacientes con alta carga de comorbilidad, permitiendo a tales pacientes tener una elevada supervivencia a medio plazo tras el alta hospitalaria. (AU)

Objective: describe and analyze the mortality of patients admitted to our IRCU, both during admission to said IRCU, and throughout the entire hospital stay, and 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge. Methodology: prospective study of 380 non-Covid patients admitted to our IRCU, intended for the treatment of acute respiratory failure with NIV, over a year and a half of activity. Demographic data, modified Charlson index (m), type of respiratory failure, service affiliation, days of stay in the IRCU, and mortality both in the IRCU and in hospital, and at 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge were collected. Results: 55% were men with a mean age of 71 years and a Charlson index (m) of 6.4. Mortality in the IRCU was 16.4% and in-hospital mortality was 27%, both being related to age, the Chalson index (m), the service to which they belong, and hypoxemic respiratory failure. After hospital discharge, survival at three months was 83.6% and at 6 months was 75.5%, both related to age and the Charlson index (m). Conclusions: IRCU are useful in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in patients with a high burden of comorbidity, allowing such patients to have a high medium-term survival after hospital discharge. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Unidades de Cuidados Respiratórios , Ventilação não Invasiva , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória , Respiração Artificial