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1.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9737

RESUMO

O vídeo apresenta um breve conceito sobre a proporção de óbitos entre os casos de uma determinada doença. O aplicativo FioLibras é um projeto do Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Icict/Fiocruz), em parceria com o Núcleo de Estudos em Diversidade e Inclusão de Surdos da Universidade Federal Fluminense (Nuedis/UFF), e conta com financiamento do Fundo de Inovação da Fiocruz e do Ministério da Saúde, por meio do Programa Fiocruz de Fomento à Inovação (Inova Fiocruz).


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Disseminação de Informação , Línguas de Sinais , e-Acessibilidade
3.
BMJ ; 377: o1308, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672047
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682081

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic had an unfavorable impact on overall mortality in Italy, with the strongest consequences in northern Italy. Scant data are available on cause-specific mortality. This study aims at investigating the impact of the pandemic on the overall and cause-specific mortality in one province in northern Italy, Pavia. We linked individual-level administrative data (i.e., death certification and population data) from the Health Protection Agency (HPA) in Pavia province between 2015 and 2020. We computed age-standardized mortality rates (Italian population 2011) by cause, sex, and calendar year, and computed the rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals to compare rates in 2020 versus 2015-2019. The 2020 excess total mortality in Pavia was 24% in men and 25% in women, reaching rates of 1272.6/100,000 and 1304.4/100,000, respectively. Significant excesses were found for infectious and parasitic diseases, excluding COVID-19 (about +30% in both sexes); respiratory system diseases (44% in men; 30% in women); and dementia and Alzheimer's disease among men (24%). Reductions were reported for neoplasms (-14% in men); cerebrovascular diseases (-25% in men); and ischemic diseases (-13% in women), but also for transport accidents in men. COVID-19 was the third cause of death in both sexes with rates of 274.9/100,000 men (859 total deaths) and 213.9/100,000 women (758 total deaths). Excess mortality in Pavia was higher than Italy but lower than Lombardy. Increases in mortality from causes related to infectious and respiratory diseases can likely be explained by underdiagnosed deaths from COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias
5.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 41: 100501, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking-related mortality varies over different social, environmental, and policy contexts. However, spatial patterns, examined at a small area level, have been seldom considered. Therefore, the study provides a detailed analysis of socio-spatial inequalities in premature mortality related to smoking in the contemporary Czech adult population. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study to investigate the spatial pattern of the age-adjusted smoking-related mortality across Czechia. The spatial inequalities, as measured at the municipality level, were investigated using geostatistical modeling techniques. The ecological regression of the local mortality risk on socioeconomic composition of municipalities was also conducted. The target population was defined as permanent adult residents of Czechia aged 25-64 years in the period of 2011-2015. RESULTS: Among both sexes, a significant spatial gradient in the South-East (lower relative risk) - North-West (higher relative risk) axis was detected. The local mortality risk was significantly related to the level of relative deprivation of the municipalities (a composite index comprised from unemployment rate and level of education): adjusted RR among males (for an increase by 1 SD): 1.21 [95% CI: 1.158-1.256], p < 0.001; adjusted RR among females (for an increase by 1 SD): 1.14 [95% CI: 1.090-1.186], p < 0.001. Mortality among males was approximately twice as high as opposed to females. Regarding the spatial inequalities of the phenomena, however, only rather minor sex-specific patterns were identified. Contrasted to males, mortality among females was unrelated to unemployment rates. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent spatial patterns of the premature mortality were identified. The mortality risk was significantly related to socioeconomic composition of the Czech municipalities. The higher the level of local deprivation, the higher the local mortality risk. The results of the study can be found beneficial for planning of both socially and spatially integrated public health policy.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura , Fumar , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Pequenas Áreas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604538, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664647

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine recent age-period-cohort effects on suicide among foreign-born individuals, a particularly vulnerable sociodemographic group in Spain. Methods: Using 2000-2019 mortality data from Spain's National Institute of Statistics, we estimated age-period-cohort effects on suicide mortality, stratified by foreign-born status (native- vs. foreign-born) and, among the foreign-born, by Spanish citizenship status, a proxy for greater socioeconomic stability. Results: Annual suicide mortality rates were lower among foreign- than native-born individuals. There was heterogeneity in age-period-cohort effects between study groups. After 2010, suicide mortality increased markedly among the foreign-born-especially for female cohorts born around 1950, and slightly among native-born women-especially among female cohorts born after the 1960s. Among native-born men, suicide increased linearly with age and remained stable over time. Increases in suicide among the foreign-born were driven by increases among individuals without Spanish citizenship-especially among cohorts born after 1975. Conclusion: After 2010, suicide in Spain increased markedly among foreign-born individuals and slightly among native-born women, suggesting an association between the downstream effects of the 2008 economic recession and increases in suicide mortality among socioeconomically vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Suicídio , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Mortalidade , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1109, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-standardised noncommunicable disease (NCD) mortality and the proportion of the elderly population in Latvia are high, while public health and health care systems are underresourced. The emerging COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns about its detrimental impact on all-cause and noncommunicable disease mortality in Latvia. We estimated the timing and number of excess all-cause and cause-specific deaths in 2020 in Latvia due to COVID-19 and selected noncommunicable diseases. METHODS: A time series analysis of all-cause and cause-specific weekly mortality from COVID-19, circulatory diseases, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and chronic lower respiratory diseases from the National Causes of Death Database from 2015 to 2020 was used by applying generalised additive modelling (GAM) and joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: Between weeks 14 and 52 (from 1 April to 29 December) of 2020, a total of 3111 excess deaths (95% PI 1339 - 4832) were estimated in Latvia, resulting in 163.77 excess deaths per 100 000. Since September 30, with the outbreak of the second COVID-19 wave, 55% of all excess deaths have occurred. Altogether, COVID-19-related deaths accounted for only 28% of the estimated all-cause excess deaths. A significant increase in excess mortality was estimated for circulatory diseases (68.91 excess deaths per 100 000). Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were listed as the underlying cause in almost 60% of COVID-19-contributing deaths. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause mortality and mortality from circulatory diseases significantly increased in Latvia during the first pandemic year. All-cause excess mortality substantially exceeded reported COVID-19-related deaths, implying COVID-19-related mortality during was significantly underestimated. Increasing mortality from circulatory diseases suggests a negative cumulative effect of COVID-19 exposure and reduced access to healthcare services for NCD patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Letônia/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pandemias
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(6): 878-884, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725345

RESUMO

Objective: To predicate whether China can achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3.4.1 to reduce the age-standardized mortality rate of four major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in residents aged 30-70 years by 2030 based on the trend of the mortality from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We collected the mortality data on cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes by age, gender and year in China from the Global Disease Burden Study 2019 (GBD2019). The age-period-cohort (APC) Bayesian model was applied for modeling the age-standardized mortality rate of four major NCDs in China during 2020-2030 according to the trend of the mortality during 1990-2019, and comparing the predicted value in 2030 with the observed value in 2015 to evaluate the possibility of achieving SDGs 3.4.1. Results: The age-standardized mortality rate of the four major NCDs in China showed a downward trend during 1990-2019. It is predicted that the number of death of the four NCDs in Chinese residents aged 30-70 years would increase from 2.96 million in 2020 to 3.19 million in 2030, while the age-standardized mortality rate would decrease from 308.49/100 000 in 2020 to 277.80/100 000 in 2030. The age-standardized mortality rate in 2030 would only decrease by 15.94% (18.73% for males and 14.31% for females) compared with 330.46/100 000 in 2015, with a 25.09% decrease for cardiovascular diseases, 4.76% for cancers, 37.21% for chronic respiratory diseases, and unchanged for diabetes. Conclusion: Although the age-standardized mortality rate of four major NCDs declined from 1990 to 2019 in China, it is difficult to achieve the SDGs of a 1/3 mortality rate reduction by 2030 according to the current declining trend, suggesting more active and effective efforts for NCD prevention and control are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Mortalidade Prematura , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
9.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56092

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Estimar el impacto de la pandemia de la COVID-19 durante el año 2020, a través del exceso de mortalidad por todas las causas y los años potenciales de vida laboral perdidos en la población en edad de trabajar, de una selección de países latinoamericanos y el Caribe. Métodos. Estudio basado en datos de defunciones por todas las causas entre 15 y 69 años, procedentes principalmente de los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas. Se estimaron defunciones esperadas a partir de las registradas entre 2015 y 2019. El exceso de mortalidad fue estimado a través del indicador P, la razón de mortalidad estandarizada (RME) y los años potenciales de vida laboral perdidos (AVLP) hasta los 70 años. Resultados. El exceso de defunciones en Brasil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, México, Perú y República Dominicana sumó 431 083 (282 558 en hombres y 148 575 en mujeres), lo que representó una pérdida de 5 715 770 (3 742 955 en hombres y 1 972 815 en mujeres) de APVLP. La mortalidad observada fue significativamente superior a la esperada en todos los países, menos República Dominicana. Conclusiones. El impacto de la COVID-19 en la población en edad de trabajar tendrá un impacto profundo en la situación socioeconómica. El recuento oportuno del exceso de muertes resulta útil y puede ser usado como un sistema de alerta temprana para monitorizar la magnitud de los brotes de COVID-19. La monitorización del exceso de mortalidad en personas en edad de trabajar, realizada por el Observatorio Iberoamericano de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo permite evaluar con mayor exactitud la carga social y económica de la COVID-19.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, through excess all-cause mortality and potential years of productive life lost (YPLL) in the working-age population, in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Methods. Study based on data on deaths from all causes from age 15 to 69 years, mainly from national institutes of statistics. Estimates of expected deaths were based on reported deaths from 2015 to 2019. Excess mortality was estimated using the P indicator, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and potential YPLL up to age 70 years. Results. Excess deaths in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Peru totaled 431 083 (282 558 men and 148 575 women), representing a potential loss of 5 715 770 (3 742 955 in men and 1 972 815 in women) years of productive life. Observed mortality was significantly higher than expected in all countries except the Dominican Republic. Conclusions. COVID-19 in the working-age population will have a profound impact on socio-economic conditions. Timely counting of excess deaths is useful and can be used as an early warning system to monitor the magnitude of COVID-19 outbreaks. Monitoring of excess mortality in working-age people by the Ibero-American Observatory on Safety and Health at Work enables more accurate assessment of the social and economic burden of COVID-19.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Estimar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 durante o ano de 2020, por meio do excesso de mortalidade por todas as causas e dos anos produtivos de vida perdidos (APrVP) na população em idade ativa, em uma seleção de países da América Latina e do Caribe. Métodos. Estudo baseado em dados de óbitos por todas as causas entre 15 e 69 anos, principalmente dos Institutos Nacionais de Estatística. Os óbitos esperados foram estimados a partir daqueles registrados entre 2015 e 2019. O excesso de mortalidade foi estimado por meio do indicador P, da razão de mortalidade padronizada (RMP) e dos APrVP até os 70 anos. Resultados. O excesso de óbitos no Brasil, na Bolívia, no Chile, na Colômbia, na Costa Rica, em Cuba, no México, no Peru e na República Dominicana totalizou 431 083 (282 558 em homens e 148 575 em mulheres), o que representou uma perda de 5 715 770 (3 742 955 em homens e 1 972 815 em mulheres) APrVP. A mortalidade observada foi significativamente maior do que o esperado em todos os países, exceto na República Dominicana. Conclusões. O impacto da COVID-19 na população em idade ativa terá um impacto profundo na situação socioeconómica. O cálculo oportuno do excesso de mortes é útil e pode ser usado como um sistema de alerta precoce para monitorar a magnitude dos surtos de COVID-19. O monitoramento do excesso de mortalidade em pessoas em idade ativa, realizado pelo Observatório Ibero-Americano de Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho, permite avaliar com mais precisão a carga social e econômica da COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mortalidade , Anos Potenciais de Vida Perdidos , Carga Global da Doença , Mortalidade , Anos Potenciais de Vida Perdidos , Carga Global da Doença , Mortalidade , Anos Potenciais de Vida Perdidos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
10.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56007

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico, con el objetivo de cuantificar el impacto de la COVID-19 en la mortalidad del Perú. Se calculó el exceso de mortalidad total, por causas naturales y externas. El impacto directo e indirecto de la COVID-19 fue estimado en dos momentos: cuando las muertes por COVID-19 eran confirmadas mediante una prueba de laboratorio y cuando eran confirmadas por criterios más amplios (muertes reclasificadas). Esta comparación se hizo en general, por sexo, edad y geografía. Se calculó la sensibilidad de los criterios de laboratorio y certificado de defunción para la confirmación de una muerte por COVID-19 utilizando las muertes reclasificadas como estándar de oro. Desde la semana epidemiológica 10 del 2020 hasta la 23 del 2021 ocurrieron 349 756 muertes, determinando un exceso de 183 237 muertes, principalmente por causas naturales. Considerando aquellas muertes confirmadas por pruebas de laboratorio se encontró 100 955 muertes; sin embargo, con los criterios de la reclasificación subieron a 188 708. Las pruebas de laboratorio tuvieron una sensibilidad del 53,3%, siendo menor al inicio de la pandemia (10.6%) y durante la primera ola (37,8%). La sensibilidad del certificado de defunción fue mayor que la prueba de laboratorio (41,7% vs 23,9%) solo durante los meses de baja disponibilidad de pruebas. Estos datos evidenciaron que en Perú el impacto de la COVID-19 en la mortalidad fue principalmente directo. Asimismo, en períodos con acceso limitado de pruebas de laboratorio, los certificados de defunción fueron una fuente de información útil para determinar las muertes causadas directamente por la COVID-19.


[ABSTRACT]. An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on mortality in Peru. Total excess mortality due to natural and external causes was calculated. The direct and indirect impact of COVID- 19 was estimated at two points: when COVID-19 deaths were confirmed by a laboratory test and when they were confirmed by broader criteria (reclassified deaths). This comparison was made in general and by sex, age, and geographical location. The sensitivity of laboratory testing and of death certificates as criteria for confirmation of a COVID-19 death was calculated using reclassified deaths as the gold standard. From epidemiological week (EW) 10 of 2020 to EW 23 of 2021, 349 756 deaths occurred, for an excess of 183 237 deaths, mainly due to natural causes. A total of 100 955 deaths corresponded to deaths confirmed by laboratory tests; however, the reclassification criterion brought this figure to 188 708. Laboratory tests had 53.3% sensitivity; this was lower at the onset of the pandemic (10.6%) and during the first wave (37.8%). The sensitivity of death certificates was higher than laboratory tests (41.7% vs 23.9%) only during the months when little testing was available. These data showed that the impact of COVID-19 on mortality in Peru was mainly direct. Also, in periods with limited access to laboratory testing, death certificates were a useful source for determining deaths directly caused by COVID-19.


[RESUMO]. Um estudo transversal analítico foi realizado com o objetivo de quantificar o impacto da COVID-19 na mortalidade no Peru. Foi calculada a sobremortalidade total, por causas naturais e externas. O impacto direto e indireto da COVID-19 foi estimado em dois momentos: quando as mortes por COVID-19 foram confirmadas por teste laboratorial e quando foram confirmadas por critérios mais amplos (óbitos reclassificados). Essa comparação foi feita na população geral, por sexo, idade e geografia. Calculou-se a sensibilidade dos critérios laboratoriais e dos atestados de óbito para a confirmação de morte por COVID-19, utilizando os óbitos reclassificados como padrão-ouro. Da semana epidemiológica 10 de 2020 até a 23 de 2021, ocorreram 349.756 óbitos, o que configura um excesso de 183.237 óbitos, principalmente por causas naturais. Considerando os óbitos confirmados por exames laboratoriais, foram encontrados 100.955 óbitos; no entanto, com os critérios de reclassificação, esse número subiu para 188.708. Os exames laboratoriais tiveram uma sensibilidade de 53,3%, sendo menor no início da pandemia (10,6%) e durante a primeira onda (37,8%). A sensibilidade do atestado de óbito foi maior que a do exame laboratorial (41,7% vs 23,9%) apenas nos meses de baixa disponibilidade de exames. Esses dados evidenciaram que, no Peru, o impacto da COVID-19 na mortalidade foi principalmente direto. Além disso, em períodos com acesso limitado a exames laboratoriais, as declarações de óbito foram uma fonte de informação útil para determinar as mortes causadas diretamente pela COVID-19.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , COVID-19 , Mortalidade , Peru , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Mortalidade , Peru , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Mortalidade
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 98, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between osteocalcin and mortality has been scantly studied. We aimed to investigate the association between osteocalcin along with its trajectories and mortality based on long-term longitudinal data. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 9413 type 2 diabetic patients with at least three measurements of total serum osteocalcin within 3 years since their first inpatient diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Baseline, mean values of osteocalcin levels and their trajectories were used as exposures. A multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the association of osteocalcin levels and their trajectories with mortality. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.37 years, 1638 patients died, of whom 588 were due to cardiovascular events. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) across quintiles of baseline osteocalcin levels were 2.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.42-3.42), 1.65 (95% CI 1.37-1.99), 1.17 (95% CI 0.96-1.42), 1.00, and 1.92 (95% CI 1.60-2.30) for all-cause mortality, and 3.52 (95% CI 2.63-4.71), 2.00 (95% CI 1.46-2.73), 1.03 (95% CI 0.72-1.47), 1.00, 1.67 (95% CI 1.21-2.31) for CVD mortality, respectively. When we used the mean values of osteocalcin as the exposure, U-shaped associations were also found. These U-shaped associations were consistent among patients of different baseline characteristics. Patients with a stable or even increasing trajectory of osteocalcin may have a lower risk of both all-cause and CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A U-shape association between baseline osteocalcin and mortality was observed among patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with lower levels of serum osteocalcin during follow-ups had higher risks for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Osteocalcina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Mortalidade , Osteocalcina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1181, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The populations of many countries-including Malaysia-are rapidly growing older, causing a shift in leading causes of disease and death. In such rapidly ageing populations, it is critical to monitor trends in burden of disease and health of older adults by identifying the leading causes of premature mortality and measuring years of life lost (YLL) to these. The objective of this study, therefore, is to describe the burden (quantified by YLL) associated with major causes of premature mortality among older adults in Malaysia in 2019. METHODS: All deaths that occurred in older adults aged 60 and above in Malaysia in the year 2019 were included in this study. YLL was calculated by summing the number of deaths for the disease category at 5-year age intervals, multiplied by the remaining life expectancy for the specific age and sex group. Both life expectancy and mortality data were obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. RESULTS: In 2019, older adults accounted for 67.4% of total deaths in Malaysia (117,102 out of 173,746). The total number of YLL among older adults in Malaysia in 2019 was estimated at 1.36 million YLL, accounting for 39.6% of the total YLL (3.44 million) lost to all premature deaths in that year. The major causes of premature mortality among older adults were ischaemic heart disease (29.5%) followed by cerebrovascular disease (stroke) (20.8%), lower respiratory infections (15.9%), diabetes mellitus (8.1%) and trachea, bronchus and lung cancers (5.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) remained the largest contributor to premature mortality among older adults in Malaysia. Implementation of population-level NCD health promotion programmes, screening programmes among high-risk groups and holistic intervention programmes among populations living with NCD are critical in reducing the overall burden of premature mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Saúde Global , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Malásia/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
13.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(6): 628-636, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively evaluate the association between BMI and death risk in people aged 65 years and over in Shenzhen, China, and suggest the optimal range of body mass index (BMI) for the older adults. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: A population-based study of elderly adults in Shenzhen, China. PARTICIPANTS: 359044 Shenzhen Healthy Ageing Research participants aged 65 and over with 4682 deaths during a mean of 1.5 years of follow-up were included in this analysis. MEASURES: Hazard ratio of all-cause and cause specific mortality risks associated with BMI categories. The association between BMI and all-cause and cause specific mortality were independently estimated by Cox regression model. RESULTS: Regardless of gender, BMI of 24 -29.9 kg/m2 was a protective factor for death in all ages, while BMI above 30 kg/m2 was still a protective factor for older adults under 70 years old. Regardless of age, BMI at 24-25.9 kg/m2 was associated with lower mortality in men, while BMI at 26-27.9 kg/m2 was associated with lower mortality in women. For the older adults without chronic diseases, BMI at 24-25.9 kg/m2 was also significantly associated with lower mortality. In the analysis of BMI and cause of death, we also found that BMI of 24-25.9 kg/m2 was significantly associated with the lower mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and digestive system disease in China. CONCLUSION: BMI in the range of 24-25.9 kg/m2 may be protective for mortality in Chinese older adults. Additional more large-scale, multicenter and long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm these findings in different populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS Med ; 19(6): e1004023, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The provision of different types of mortality metrics (e.g., mortality rate ratios [MRRs] and life expectancy) allows the research community to access a more informative set of health metrics. The aim of this study was to provide a panel of mortality metrics associated with a comprehensive range of disorders and to design a web page to visualize all results. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a population-based cohort of all 7,378,598 persons living in Denmark at some point between 2000 and 2018, we identified individuals diagnosed at hospitals with 1,803 specific categories of disorders through the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) in the National Patient Register. Information on date and cause of death was obtained from the Registry of Causes of Death. For each of the disorders, a panel of epidemiological and mortality metrics was estimated, including incidence rates, age-of-onset distributions, MRRs, and differences in life expectancy (estimated as life years lost [LYLs]). Additionally, we examined models that adjusted for measures of air pollution to explore potential associations with MRRs. We focus on 39 general medical conditions to simplify the presentation of results, which cover 10 broad categories: circulatory, endocrine, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, urogenital, musculoskeletal, hematologic, mental, and neurologic conditions and cancer. A total of 3,676,694 males and 3,701,904 females were followed up for 101.7 million person-years. During the 19-year follow-up period, 1,034,273 persons (14.0%) died. For 37 of the 39 selected medical conditions, mortality rates were larger and life expectancy shorter compared to the Danish general population. For these 37 disorders, MRRs ranged from 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 to 1.10) for vision problems to 7.85 (7.77 to 7.93) for chronic liver disease, while LYLs ranged from 0.31 (0.14 to 0.47) years (approximately 16 weeks) for allergy to 17.05 (16.95 to 17.15) years for chronic liver disease. Adjustment for air pollution had very little impact on the estimates; however, a limitation of the study is the possibility that the association between the different disorders and mortality could be explained by other underlying factors associated with both the disorder and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we show estimates of incidence, age of onset, age of death, and mortality metrics (both MRRs and LYLs) for a comprehensive range of disorders. The interactive data visualization site (https://nbepi.com/atlas) allows more fine-grained analysis of the link between a range of disorders and key mortality estimates.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Benchmarking , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Mortalidade
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 81, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare system and intersectoral public health policies play a crucial role in improving population health and reducing health inequalities. This study aimed to quantify their impact, operationalized as avoidable deaths, on the gap in life expectancy (LE) and lifespan inequality (LI) between Iran and three neighbour countries viz., Turkey, Qatar, and Kuwait in 2015-2016. METHODS: Annual data on population and causes of deaths by age and sex for Iran and three neighbour countries were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database for the period 2015-2016. A recently developed list by the OECD/Eurostat was used to identify avoidable causes of death (with an upper age limit of 75). The cross-country gaps in LE and LI (measured by standard deviation) were decomposed by age and cause of death using a continuous-change model. RESULTS: Iranian males and females had the second lowest and lowest LE, respectively, compared with their counterparts in the neighbour countries. On the other hand, the highest LIs in both sexes (by 2.3 to 4.5 years in males and 1.1 to 3.3 years in females) were observed in Iran. Avoidable causes contributed substantially to the LE and LI gap in both sexes with injuries and maternal/infant mortality represented the greatest contributions to the disadvantages in Iranian males and females, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher mortality rates in young Iranians led to a double burden of inequality -shorter LE and greater uncertainty at timing of death. Strengthening intersectoral public health policies and healthcare quality targeted at averting premature deaths, especially from injuries among younger people, can mitigate this double burden.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Longevidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Mortalidade Prematura
16.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(3): 181-189, Jun. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-LC-167

RESUMO

Objetivo. Evaluar y comparar la capacidad del lactato, la procalcitonina (PCT) y de los criterios definitorios de sepsis (síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica –SRIS– y del quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment –qSOFA–) para predecir mortalidad a 30 días, o infección –con confirmación microbiológica o bacteriemia verdadera (BV)– en los pa- cientes que acuden al servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH) por un episodio de sospecha de infección. Método. Estudio observacional de cohortes, multicéntrico, prospectivo. Se incluyó por oportunidad a pacientes $ 18 años atendidos por sospecha de infección en 71 SUH españoles desde el 01/10/2019 al 31/03/2020. Se analizó la capacidad predictiva con el área bajo la curva (ABC) de la característica operativa del receptor (COR) y puntos de de- cisión predeterminados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 4.439 pacientes con edad media de 67 (18) años, 2.648 (59,7%) fueron hombres, fallecie- ron a los 30 días 459 (10,3%), se consideraron BV 899 (20,2%) y se consiguió confirmación microbiológica en 2.057 (46,3%). Para la mortalidad a 30 días la mejor ABC-COR fue la obtenida con el modelo qSOFA $ 2 más lactato $ 2 mmol/l con un ABC-COR de 0,738 (0,711-0,765). Para predecir BV y confirmación microbiológica el mejor rendi- miento se obtuvo con el modelo de SRIS $ 2 más PCT $ 0,51 ng/ml, con un ABC-COR de 0,890 (0,880-0,901) y 0,713 (0,698-0,728), respectivamente. Conclusiones. Para la predicción de mortalidad a 30 días, el qSOFA $ 2 es superior al SRIS $ 2 y el mejor rendimien- to lo consigue el modelo qSOFA $ 2 más lactato $ 2 mmol/l. Para predecir BV y confirmación microbiológica, la PCT es superior al lactato y el mejor rendimiento lo obtiene el modelo SRIS $ 2 más PCT $ 0,51 ng/ml.


Objectives. To evaluate lactate, procalcitonin, criteria defining systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and the Quick Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and compare their ability to predict 30-day mortality, infection with microbiologic confirmation, and true bacteremia in patients treated for infection in hospital emergency departments. Methods. Prospective multicenter observational cohort study. We enrolled a convenience sample of patients aged 18 years or older attended in 71 Spanish emergency departments from October 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020. Each model’s predictive power was analyzed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and predetermined decision points were assessed. Results. A total of 4439 patients with a mean (SD) age of 18 years were studied; 2648 (59.7%) were men and 459 (10.3%) died within 30 days. True bacteremia was detected in 899 (20.25%), and microbiologic confirmation was on record for 2057 (46.3%). The model that included the qSOFA score ($ 2) and lactate concentration ($ 0.738 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.711-0.765 mmol/L) proved to be the best predictor of 30-day mortality, with an AUC of 0.890 (95% CI, 0.880-0.901). The model that included the SIRS score ($ 2) and procalcitonin concentration ($ 0.51 ng/mL) proved to be the best predictor of true bacteremia and microbiologic confirmation, with an AUC of 0.713 (95% CI, 0.698-0.728). Conclusions. A qSOFA score of 2 or more plus lactate concentration ($ 0.738 mmol/L) predict 30-day mortality better than the combination of a SIRS score of 2 or more and procalcitonin concentration. A SIRS score of 2 or more plus procalcitonin concentration ($ 0.51 ng/mL) predict true bacteremia and microbiologic confirmation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ciências da Saúde , Mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Ácido Láctico , Pró-Calcitonina , Sepse , Bacteriemia , Infecções , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
17.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(3): 190-195, Jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-LC-169

RESUMO

Objetivo. Conocer los aspectos clínicos relacionados con el tratamiento del antídoto N-acetilcisteína (NAC) en las intoxicaciones por paracetamol. Método. Estudio observacional y retrospectivo de los pacientes atendidos por intoxicación por paracetamol en cuatro servicios de urgencias durante 3 años (2017-2019). Se analizan variables epidemiológicas, clínicas y asistenciales, así como la idoneidad y seguridad en el empleo del tratamiento antidótico. Resultados. Se incluyeron 332 intoxicaciones: 260 casos (78%) tenían más de 16 años y 242 (73%) fueron mujeres. Doscientos sesenta y ocho intoxicaciones (81%) fueron de causa voluntaria y la semivida de eliminación se determinó en 20 ocasiones (6%). La descontaminación digestiva se indicó de forma incorrecta en 39 ocasiones (28%). Se inició tratamiento con antídoto en 195 casos (58,7%). En 282 casos (85%) no hubo ninguna clínica de gravedad. La correlación entre la dosis referida ingerida y la paracetamolemia en los casos de ingesta voluntaria (R2 = 0,23) fue más fuerte que en los casos de ingesta accidental (R2 = 0,007). Existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al relacionar los criterios de gravedad con la dosis referida ajustada al peso (p = 0,001) y el intervalo desde la ingesta y la primera asistencia médica (p = 0,008). Conclusiones. Existe variabilidad en aspectos fundamentales del tratamiento antidótico en las intoxicaciones por paracetamol, a pesar de estar claramente protocolizado su manejo.


Objective. To identify the most common problems related to use of N-acetylcysteine to reverse the toxic effects of paracetamol poisoning. Methods. Retrospective descriptive observational study of clinical records for patients treated for paracetamol poisoning in 4 emergency departments during 3 years (2017-2019). We analyzed epidemiologic, clinical, and care variables, especially those related to the suitability and safety of using N-acetylcysteine as an antidote. Results. We included 332 cases of poisoning of 260 patients (78%) were over the age of 16 years, and 242 (73%) were female. Two hundred sixty-eight poisonings (81%) were the result of voluntary intake. The elimination half-life was determined in 20 cases (6%). Gastrointestinal decontamination was incorrectly prescribed on 39 occasions (28%). Treatment with the antidote was begun in 195 cases (58.7%). No serious clinical signs or symptoms were present in 282 cases (85%). The correlation of paracetamol levels in urine was stronger with the amount of drug ingested voluntarily (R2 = 0.23) than with accidental intake (R2 = 0.007). Predefined severity criteria were significantly related to reported dose ingested per body weight (P = .001) and the interval between intake and first medical assistance (P = .008). Conclusions. Even though clear protocols are available to guide the use of antidote treatment in cases of paracetamol poisoning, variability in fundamental aspects of management is excessive.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciências da Saúde , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Envenenamento , Administração Oral , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Mortalidade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Acetaminofen , Antídotos/envenenamento , Serviços Médicos de Emergência
18.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(3): 196-203, Jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-LC-170

RESUMO

Objetivo. Validación de un indicador de mortalidad previamente descrito en pacientes con COVID-19 en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH). Método. Estudio observacional prospectivo no intervencionista. Se incluyeron pacientes $ 18 años diagnosticados de COVID-19 (1 de diciembre de 2020 hasta 28 de febrero de 2021). Se calculó el indicador para cada paciente: edad $ 50 años (2 puntos), índice de Barthel < 90 puntos (1 punto), alteración de consciencia (1 punto), índice de SaO2/ FIO2 < 400 (1 punto), auscultación respiratoria patológica (1 punto), plaquetas < 100 x 109/L (1 punto), proteína C reactiva $ 5 mg/dL (1 punto) y filtrado glomerular < 45 mL/min (1 punto). La variable dependiente fue la mortalidad observada a 30 días. El rendimiento del indicador se valoró con el análisis del área bajo la curva de la característica operativa del receptor (ABC-COR). Resultados. La validación del indicador se realizó sobre una cohorte de 1.223 pacientes. Tras una mediana de seguimiento de 80 días, 143 pacientes habían fallecido. Un total de 901 pacientes fueron catalogados como riesgo bajo (indicador # 4 puntos), 270 lo fueron como riesgo intermedio (5-6 puntos) y 52 como riesgo alto ($ 7 puntos). La mortalidad a 30 días observada en cada categoría fue de 2,8%, 22,5% y 65,4%, respectivamente. El ABC-COR fue de 0,883 para el indicador utilizado cuantitativamente y de 0,818 cuando se usó cualitativamente en forma de categorías de riesgo. Conclusión. El indicador descrito es una herramienta útil para estratificar el riesgo de mortalidad de los pacientes con COVID-19 que consultan a un SUH de un centro de tercer nivel.


Objective. To validate a previously described hospital emergency department risk model to predict mortality in patients with COVID-19. Methods. Prospective observational noninterventional study. Patients aged over 18 years diagnosed with COVID-19 were included between December 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021. We calculated a risk score for each patient based on age $50 years (2 points) plus 1 point each for the presence of the following predictors: Barthel index <90 points, altered level of consciousness, ratio of arterial oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen <400, abnormal breath sounds, platelet concentration <100 × 109/L, C reactive protein level $5 mg/dL, and glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min. The dependent variable was 30-day mortality. We assessed the score’s performance with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results. The validation cohort included 1223 patients. After a median follow-up of 80 days, 143 patients had died; 901 patients were classified as having low risk (score, #4 points), 270 as intermediate risk (5-6 points), and 52 as high risk ($7 points). Thirty-day mortality rates at each risk level were 2.8%, 22.5%, and 65.4%, respectively. The AUC for the score was 0.883; for risk categorization, the AUC was 0.818. Conclusion. The risk score described is useful for stratifying risk for mortality in patients with COVID-19 who come to a tertiary-care hospital emergency department.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ciências da Saúde , Mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Medição de Risco , Modelos Logísticos
19.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55929

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar el riesgo de letalidad de las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas en pacientes con COVID-19. Métodos. Se realizo un estudio de cohorte, en expedientes clínicos electrónicos de pacientes con RT-PCR positiva para COVID-19 en atención ambulatoria o intrahospitalaria en una Institución de Seguridad Social de marzo 2020 a marzo 2021. Se integraron 2 grupos de estudio, el grupo expuesto se dividió en cuatro subgrupos, cada uno con diagnóstico único y exclusivo de una patología crónica (diabetes, hipertensión, obesidad o enfermedad renal crónica); el grupo no expuesto lo integraron expedientes de pacientes sin comorbilidades. Se revisaron 1 114 expedientes en total utilizando técnica muestral aleatoria simple, una vez obtenido el tamaño mínimo de muestra se calculó el riesgo relativo para cada enfermedad crónica, se realizaron combinaciones de 2, 3 y 4, con cada uno de ellos se realizó el análisis. Resultados. En ausencia de enfermedad crónica degenerativa la prevalencia de letalidad en COVID-19 es 3,8%; en presencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 la letalidad es 15,8; en hipertensión arterial de 15,6%; y en obesidad 15,0%. Cuando se combinan diabetes e hipertensión la letalidad es 54,1%; en diabetes y obesidad 36,8%; y en obesidad e hipertensión 28,1%. Conclusiones. En pacientes con COVID-19 el riesgo relativo para letalidad de letalidad en diabetes es 4,17; en hipertensión 4,13; y en obesidad 3,96. Cuando se combinan dos enfermedades crónicas el riesgo relativo se duplica o triplica, para diabetes e hipertensión el riesgo relativo para letalidad es 14,2; para diabetes y obesidad 9,73; y para obesidad e hipertensión 7,43. Es verdad que las enfermedades crónicas no se presentan solas, generalmente se encuentra asociadas, y desde esa perspectiva los riesgos relativos para letalidad ofrecidos en este artículo adquieren relevancia.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To determine the relative risk of a lethal outcome associated with chronic degenerative conditions in patients with COVID-19. Methods. A cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records belonging to patients who tested positive for COVID-19 on RT-PCR while receiving care as outpatients or inpatients in a social security system facility between March 2020 and March 2021. Two study groups were formed. The exposed group was divided into four subgroups, each of which was diagnosed with one and only one chronic condition (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or chronic kidney disease); the unexposed group was obtained from the medical records of patients without comorbidities. A total of 1 114 medical records were examined using simple random sampling. Once the minimum sample size was reached, the relative risk was calculated for each chronic condition. Combinations of two, three, and four conditions were created, and each of them was included in the analysis. Results. In the absence of a chronic degenerative condition, the prevalence of a lethal outcome from COVID-19 is 3.8%; in the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 15.8%; in the presence of arterial hypertension, 15.6%; and in the presence of obesity, 15.0%. For diabetes and hypertension combined, the prevalence of a lethal outcome is 54.1%; for diabetes and obesity combined, 36.8%, and for obesity and hypertension combined, 28.1%. Conclusion. In patients with COVID-19, the relative risk of a lethal outcome is 4.17 for those with diabetes, 4.13 for those with hypertension, and 3.96 for those with obesity. For two chronic conditions combined, the relative risk doubles or triples. The relative risk of a lethal outcome is 14.27 for diabetes plus hypertension; 9.73 for diabetes plus obesity, and 7.43 for obesity plus hypertension. Chronic conditions do not present alone; they generally occur together, hence the significance of the relative risks for lethal outcomes presented in this paper.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar o risco de letalidade conferido por doenças crônicas degenerativas em pacientes com COVID-19. Métodos. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte em prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes com RT-PCR positivo para COVID-19 em atendimento ambulatorial ou hospitalar em uma instituição de previdência social, no período de março de 2020 a março de 2021. Foram constituídos dois grupos de estudo. O grupo exposto foi dividido em quatro subgrupos, cada um com diagnóstico único e exclusivo de uma doença crônica (diabetes, hipertensão, obesidade ou doença renal crônica). O grupo não exposto foi constituído por prontuários de pacientes sem comorbidades. Foram revisados 1.114 prontuários no total, utilizando técnica de amostragem aleatória simples. Uma vez obtido o tamanho mínimo da amostra, foi calculado o risco relativo para cada doença crônica. Foram realizadas combinações de 2, 3 e 4, tendo sido feita a análise com cada uma delas. Resultados. Na ausência de doença crônica degenerativa, a prevalência de letalidade na COVID-19 é de 3,8%; na presença de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, a letalidade é de 15,8%; na presença de hipertensão arterial, 15,6%; e na presença de obesidade, 15%. Quando tanto diabetes como hipertensão estão presentes, a letalidade é de 54,1%; com diabetes e obesidade, 36,8%; e obesidade com hipertensão, 28,1%. Conclusões. Em pacientes com COVID-19, o risco relativo de letalidade é de 4,17 naqueles com diabetes; 4,13 naqueles com hipertensão; e 3,96 naqueles com obesidade. Quando duas doenças crônicas são combinadas, o risco relativo dobra ou triplica. Para diabetes e hipertensão, o risco relativo de letalidade é 14,27; para diabetes e obesidade, 9,73; e para obesidade e hipertensão, 7,43. As doenças crônicas não ocorrem sozinhas (geralmente estão associadas), e nessa perspectiva os riscos relativos de letalidade apresentados neste artigo tornam-se relevantes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Risco , Mortalidade , Doença Crônica , México , Risco , Mortalidade , Doença Crônica , México , Risco , Mortalidade , Doença Crônica
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 236: 109472, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality have increased substantially in the U.S. Understanding the population health implications of these concerning trends, including by identifying clinical subgroups of alcohol users at increased risk for potentially preventable acute causes of mortality, is of critical importance. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used statewide, all-payer, longitudinally-linked ED patient record and mortality data from California. Participants comprised all residents presenting to a licensed ED at least once in 2009-2011 with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants were followed for one year after index ED visit to assess acute injury (unintentional poisoning, suicide, homicide, motor vehicle crash, and fall- or fire-related injury) and all-cause mortality rates per 100,000 person-years. Age-, sex-, race/ethnicity-adjusted standardized mortality rates (SMRs) for acute injury causes of death were determined using statewide mortality data. RESULTS: Among 437,855 patients with index non-fatal ED visits for AUD, the 12-month acute injury mortality rate was 608.6 per 100,000 (SMR=8.0; 95% CI=7.7, 8.3), and all-cause mortality was 5700.7 per 100,000 (SMR=6.5; 95% CI=6.4, 6.6). Unintentional poisoning accounted for 46.5%, and suicide for 19.7%, of acute-injury deaths. Acute injury deaths comprised 71.7% of all-cause mortality among patients aged 10-24 years, but much lower proportions among older patients. Female AUD patients had lower rates for all mortality outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department patients with a recognized AUD comprise a population at persistently elevated risk for mortality. Age-related AUD patient differences in common causes of death, including drug overdose and suicide, can inform the structure of future clinical interventions.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Suicídio , Causas de Morte , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Homicídio , Humanos , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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