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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 705-715, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic evaluation of the results of time-series studies of air pollution is challenged by differences in model specification and publication bias. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of inhalable particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) and fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries or regions. Daily data on mortality and air pollution were collected from 652 cities in 24 countries or regions. We used overdispersed generalized additive models with random-effects meta-analysis to investigate the associations. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. Concentration-response curves from each city were pooled to allow global estimates to be derived. RESULTS: On average, an increase of 10 µg per cubic meter in the 2-day moving average of PM10 concentration, which represents the average over the current and previous day, was associated with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.50) in daily all-cause mortality, 0.36% (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.43) in daily cardiovascular mortality, and 0.47% (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58) in daily respiratory mortality. The corresponding increases in daily mortality for the same change in PM2.5 concentration were 0.68% (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77), 0.55% (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.66), and 0.74% (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95). These associations remained significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants. Associations were stronger in locations with lower annual mean PM concentrations and higher annual mean temperatures. The pooled concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily mortality with increasing PM concentration, with steeper slopes at lower PM concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show independent associations between short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in more than 600 cities across the globe. These data reinforce the evidence of a link between mortality and PM concentration established in regional and local studies. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Risco
2.
BMJ ; 366: l4673, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether vitamin D supplementation is associated with lower mortality in adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register from their inception to 26 December 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials comparing vitamin D supplementation with a placebo or no treatment for mortality were included. Independent data extraction was conducted and study quality assessed. A meta-analysis was carried out by using fixed effects and random effects models to calculate risk ratio of death in the group receiving vitamin D supplementation and the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 52 trials with a total of 75 454 participants were identified. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with all cause mortality (risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.02, I2=0%), cardiovascular mortality (0.98, 0.88 to 1.08, 0%), or non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality (1.05, 0.93 to 1.18, 0%). Vitamin D supplementation statistically significantly reduced the risk of cancer death (0.84, 0.74 to 0.95, 0%). In subgroup analyses, all cause mortality was significantly lower in trials with vitamin D3 supplementation than in trials with vitamin D2 supplementation (P for interaction=0.04); neither vitamin D3 nor vitamin D2 was associated with a statistically significant reduction in all cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation alone was not associated with all cause mortality in adults compared with placebo or no treatment. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of cancer death by 16%. Additional large clinical studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation is associated with lower all cause mortality. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42018117823.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Mortalidade , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e7, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368316

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to gain better insight into factors associated with the capture-related mortality rate in cheetahs. A link to an online questionnaire was sent to zoo and wildlife veterinarians through the Species Survival Plan Programme and European Endangered Species Programme coordinators and via the 'Wildlife VetNet' Google group forum. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions relating to the veterinarians' country of residence and experience, the medicine combinations used, standard monitoring procedures, capture-related complications and mortalities experienced in this species under different capture conditions. In addition, necropsy data from the national wildlife disease database of the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa were examined for cases where anaesthetic death was listed as the cause of death in cheetahs. A total of 75 veterinarians completed the survey, with 38 from African countries and a combined total of 37 from Europe, the United States (US) and Asia. Of these, 24% (n = 18/75) had experienced at least one capture-associated cheetah mortality, with almost all of the fatalities (29/30) reported by veterinarians working in Africa. A lack of anaesthetic monitoring and the absence of supplemental oxygen were shown to be significant risk factors for mortality. Hyperthermia, likely to be associated with capture stress, was the most common reported complication (35%). The results suggest that free-ranging rather than habituated captive cheetahs are particularly at risk of dying during immobilisation and transport. The capture-related fatalities in this species do not appear to be associated with either the veterinarian's level of clinical experience or the immobilisation agents used.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Anestésicos Dissociativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/veterinária , Mortalidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Autopsia/veterinária , Bases de Dados Factuais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/métodos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tranquilizantes/efeitos adversos , Médicos Veterinários
4.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 685-689, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405408

RESUMO

Trauma recidivists are a high-risk patient population. The effects of recidivism on Geriatric trauma mortality have not been investigated. Our hypothesis is that trauma recidivism is associated with high postdischarge mortality after the initial index admission in both the geriatric and adult trauma populations. The trauma registry of our Level I trauma center was queried for patients evaluated between 2008 and 2012. Patients were stratified adult (18-64) and geriatric (≥65) groups and matched with mortality data from the National Death Index. Unique patients were identified and recidivists flagged. Statistical analysis was performed based on characteristics from the index admission using nonparametric tests, and Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to examine postdischarge mortality after index admission for recidivists. A total of 8716 records met inclusion criteria; 800 recidivist records were identified representing 369 unique patients. Recidivists presented between 2 and 7 times. Recidivists were more likely to be male, required ICU admission and mechanical ventilation, had a longer median length of stay, were less likely to discharge home, and had a higher postdischarge mortality. Stratifying into adult and geriatric groups demonstrated significant differences in injury severity, injury patterns, length of stay, race, gender, mechanism, and postdischarge mortality. Recidivists demonstrated a higher postdischarge mortality in both groups with the geriatric group approaching 46 per cent. Trauma recidivists represent an at-risk group with significantly higher postdischarge mortality. Group characteristics differ significantly between the adult and geriatric recidivist populations. Further research is needed to identify modifiable risk factors in these populations to minimize risks of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMJ ; 366: l4570, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the dose-response associations between accelerometer assessed total physical activity, different intensities of physical activity, and sedentary time and all cause mortality. DESIGN: Systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Sport Discus from inception to 31 July 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective cohort studies assessing physical activity and sedentary time by accelerometry and associations with all cause mortality and reported effect estimates as hazard ratios, odds ratios, or relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Guidelines for meta-analyses and systematic reviews for observational studies and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts. One author performed a full text review and another extracted the data. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias. Individual level participant data were harmonised and analysed at study level. Data on physical activity were categorised by quarters at study level, and study specific associations with all cause mortality were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Study specific results were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 39 studies were retrieved for full text review; 10 were eligible for inclusion, three were excluded owing to harmonisation challenges (eg, wrist placement of the accelerometer), and one study did not participate. Two additional studies with unpublished mortality data were also included. Thus, individual level data from eight studies (n=36 383; mean age 62.6 years; 72.8% women), with median follow-up of 5.8 years (range 3.0-14.5 years) and 2149 (5.9%) deaths were analysed. Any physical activity, regardless of intensity, was associated with lower risk of mortality, with a non-linear dose-response. Hazards ratios for mortality were 1.00 (referent) in the first quarter (least active), 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.43 to 0.54) in the second quarter, 0.34 (0.26 to 0.45) in the third quarter, and 0.27 (0.23 to 0.32) in the fourth quarter (most active). Corresponding hazards ratios for light physical activity were 1.00, 0.60 (0.54 to 0.68), 0.44 (0.38 to 0.51), and 0.38 (0.28 to 0.51), and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were 1.00, 0.64 (0.55 to 0.74), 0.55 (0.40 to 0.74), and 0.52 (0.43 to 0.61). For sedentary time, hazards ratios were 1.00 (referent; least sedentary), 1.28 (1.09 to 1.51), 1.71 (1.36 to 2.15), and 2.63 (1.94 to 3.56). CONCLUSION: Higher levels of total physical activity, at any intensity, and less time spent sedentary, are associated with substantially reduced risk for premature mortality, with evidence of a non-linear dose-response pattern in middle aged and older adults. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018091808.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Mortalidade/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(34): 737-744, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465320

RESUMO

From 2013 to 2017, the number of opioid-involved overdose deaths (opioid deaths) in the United States increased 90%, from 25,052 to 47,600.* This increase was primarily driven by substantial increases in deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) or fentanyl analogs† mixed with heroin, sold as heroin, or pressed into counterfeit prescription pills (1-3). Methamphetamine-involved and cocaine-involved deaths that co-involved opioids also substantially increased from 2016 to 2017 (4). Provisional 2018§ estimates of the number of opioid deaths suggest a small decrease from 2017. Investigating the extent to which decreases occurred broadly or were limited to a subset of opioid types (e.g., prescription opioids versus IMF) and drug combinations (e.g., IMF co-involving cocaine) can assist in targeting of intervention efforts. This report describes opioid deaths during January-June 2018 and changes from July-December 2017 in 25¶ of 32 states and the District of Columbia participating in CDC's State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System (SUDORS).** Opioid deaths were analyzed by involvement (opioid determined by medical examiner or coroner to contribute to overdose death) of prescription or illicit opioids,†† as well as by the presence (detection of the drug in decedent) of co-occurring nonopioid drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine, and benzodiazepines). Three key findings emerged regarding changes in opioid deaths from July-December 2017 to January-June 2018. First, overall opioid deaths decreased 4.6%. Second, decreases occurred in prescription opioid deaths without co-involved illicit opioids and deaths involving non-IMF illicit synthetic opioids (fentanyl analogs and U-series drugs) (5). Third, IMF deaths, especially those with multiple illicit opioids and common nonopioids, increased. Consequently, IMF was involved in approximately two-thirds of opioid deaths during January-June 2018. Notably, during January-June 2018, 62.6% of all opioid deaths co-occurred with at least one common nonopioid drug. To maintain and accelerate reductions in opioid deaths, efforts to prevent IMF-involved deaths and address polysubstance misuse with opioids must be enhanced. Key interventions include broadening outreach to groups at high risk for IMF or fentanyl analog exposure and overdose. Improving linkage to and engagement in risk-reduction services and evidence-based treatment for persons with opioid and other substance use disorders with attention to polysubstance use or misuse is also needed.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Analgésicos Opioides/classificação , Benzodiazepinas/análise , Cocaína/análise , Humanos , Metanfetamina/análise , Mortalidade/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
BMJ ; 366: l4009, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of dietary fatty acids with cardiovascular disease mortality and total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 11 264 participants with type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014). EXPOSURES: Dietary fat intake assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires and updated every two to four years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total and cardiovascular disease mortality during follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2502 deaths including 646 deaths due to cardiovascular disease were documented. After multivariate adjustment, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with a lower cardiovascular disease mortality, compared with total carbohydrates: hazard ratios comparing the highest with the lowest quarter were 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.99; P for trend=0.03) for total PUFAs, 0.69 (0.52 to 0.90; P=0.007) for marine n-3 PUFAs, 1.13 (0.85 to 1.51) for α-linolenic acid, and 0.75 (0.56 to 1.01) for linoleic acid. Inverse associations with total mortality were also observed for intakes of total PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, and linoleic acid, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of animal, but not plant, origin were associated with a higher total mortality. In models that examined the theoretical effects of substituting PUFAs for other fats, isocalorically replacing 2% of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs or linoleic acid was associated with 13% (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.77 to 0.99) or 15% (0.85, 0.73 to 0.99) lower cardiovascular disease mortality, respectively. A 2% replacement of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs was associated with 12% (hazard ratio 0.88, 0.83 to 0.94) lower total mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher intake of PUFAs, in comparison with carbohydrates or saturated fatty acids, is associated with lower total mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. These findings highlight the important role of quality of dietary fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and total mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Correlação de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Lancet ; 394(10197): 471-477, 2019 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal surgical excision margins are uncertain for patients with thick (>2 mm) localised cutaneous melanomas. In our previous report of this multicentre, randomised controlled trial, with a median follow-up of 6·7 years, we showed that a narrow excision margin (2 cm vs 4 cm) did not affect melanoma-specific nor overall survival. Here, we present extended follow-up of this cohort. METHODS: In this open-label, multicentre randomised controlled trial, we recruited patients from 53 hospitals in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia, and Norway. We enrolled clinically staged patients aged 75 years or younger diagnosed with localised cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm, and with primary site on the trunk or upper or lower extremities. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to treatment either with a 2-cm or a 4-cm excision margin. A physician enrolled the patients after histological confirmation of a cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm. Some patients were enrolled by a physician acting as responsible for clinical care and as a trial investigator (follow-up, data collection, and manuscript writing). In other cases physicians not involved in running the trial enrolled patients. Randomisation was done by telephone call to a randomisation office, by sealed envelope, or by computer generated lists using permuted blocks. Patients were stratified according to geographical region. No part of the trial was masked. The primary outcome in this extended follow-up study was overall survival and the co-primary outcome was melanoma-specific survival. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03638492. FINDINGS: Between Jan 22, 1992, and May 19, 2004, 936 clinically staged patients were recruited and randomly assigned to a 4-cm excision margin (n=465) or a 2-cm excision margin (n=471). At a median overall follow-up of 19·6 years (235 months, IQR 200-260), 621 deaths were reported-304 (49%) in the 2-cm group and 317 (51%) in the 4-cm group (unadjusted HR 0·98, 95% CI 0·83-1·14; p=0·75). 397 deaths were attributed to cutaneous melanoma-192 (48%) in the 2-cm excision margin group and 205 (52%) in the 4-cm excision margin group (unadjusted HR 0·95, 95% CI 0·78-1·16, p=0·61). INTERPRETATION: A 2-cm excision margin was safe for patients with thick (>2 mm) localised cutaneous melanoma at a follow-up of median 19·6 years. These findings support the use of 2-cm excision margins in current clinical practice. FUNDING: The Swedish Cancer Society, Stockholm Cancer Society, the Swedish Society for Medical Research, Radiumhemmet Research funds, Stockholm County Council, Wallström funds.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Tronco/patologia , Extremidade Superior/patologia , Idoso , Dinamarca , Estônia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Noruega , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia , Tronco/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia
9.
BMJ ; 364: l94, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To use the estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 to describe patterns of suicide mortality globally, regionally, and for 195 countries and territories by age, sex, and Socio-demographic index, and to describe temporal trends between 1990 and 2016. DESIGN: Systematic analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude and age standardised rates from suicide mortality and years of life lost were compared across regions and countries, and by age, sex, and Socio-demographic index (a composite measure of fertility, income, and education). RESULTS: The total number of deaths from suicide increased by 6.7% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4% to 15.6%) globally over the 27 year study period to 817 000 (762 000 to 884 000) deaths in 2016. However, the age standardised mortality rate for suicide decreased by 32.7% (27.2% to 36.6%) worldwide between 1990 and 2016, similar to the decline in the global age standardised mortality rate of 30.6%. Suicide was the leading cause of age standardised years of life lost in the Global Burden of Disease region of high income Asia Pacific and was among the top 10 leading causes in eastern Europe, central Europe, western Europe, central Asia, Australasia, southern Latin America, and high income North America. Rates for men were higher than for women across regions, countries, and age groups, except for the 15 to 19 age group. There was variation in the female to male ratio, with higher ratios at lower levels of Socio-demographic index. Women experienced greater decreases in mortality rates (49.0%, 95% uncertainty interval 42.6% to 54.6%) than men (23.8%, 15.6% to 32.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Age standardised mortality rates for suicide have greatly reduced since 1990, but suicide remains an important contributor to mortality worldwide. Suicide mortality was variable across locations, between sexes, and between age groups. Suicide prevention strategies can be targeted towards vulnerable populations if they are informed by variations in mortality rates.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Comparação Transcultural , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/métodos , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/tendências
10.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 909-910, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160814

RESUMO

We use the genotyping and death register information of 409,693 individuals of British ancestry to investigate fitness effects of the CCR5-∆32 mutation. We estimate a 21% increase in the all-cause mortality rate in individuals who are homozygous for the ∆32 allele. A deleterious effect of the ∆32/∆32 mutation is also independently supported by a significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to a deficiency of ∆32/∆32 individuals at the time of recruitment.


Assuntos
Homozigoto , Mutação , Receptores CCR5/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(23): 524-528, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Each year, rabies causes approximately 59,000 deaths worldwide, including approximately two deaths in the United States. Before 1960, dogs were a common reservoir of rabies in the United States; however, increasingly, species of wildlife (e.g., bats, raccoons) are the main reservoirs. This report characterizes human rabies deaths, summarizes trends in rabies mortality, and highlights current rabies risks in the United States. METHODS: Rabies trends in the United States during 1938-2018 were analyzed using national rabies surveillance data. Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for 2006-2014 were used to estimate the number of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) visits per 100,000 persons during 2017-2018. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' average sales price data were used to estimate PEP costs. RESULTS: From 1960 to 2018, a total of 125 human rabies cases were reported in the United States; 36 (28%) were attributed to dog bites during international travel. Among the 89 infections acquired in the United States, 62 (70%) were attributed to bats. In 2018, approximately 55,000 persons sought PEP after contact with a potentially rabid animal. CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENTS: In the United States, wildlife rabies, especially in bats, continues to pose a risk to humans. Travelers also might be exposed to canine rabies in countries where the disease is still present; increased awareness of rabies while traveling abroad is needed. Vaccinating pets, avoiding contact with wildlife, and seeking medical care if one is bitten or scratched by an animal are the most effective ways to prevent rabies. Understanding the need for timely administration of PEP to prevent death is critical.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Raiva/mortalidade , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ ; 365: l2323, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective associations of baseline and long term trajectories of physical activity on mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Adults from the general population in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 14 599 men and women (aged 40 to 79) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort, assessed at baseline (1993 to 1997) up to 2004 for lifestyle and other risk factors; then followed to 2016 for mortality (median of 12.5 years of follow-up, after the last exposure assessment). MAIN EXPOSURE: Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) derived from questionnaires, calibrated against combined movement and heart rate monitoring. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Multivariable proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for age, sex, sociodemographics, and changes in medical history, overall diet quality, body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels. RESULTS: During 171 277 person years of follow-up, 3148 deaths occurred. Long term increases in PAEE were inversely associated with mortality, independent of baseline PAEE. For each 1 kJ/kg/day per year increase in PAEE (equivalent to a trajectory of being inactive at baseline and gradually, over five years, meeting the World Health Organization minimum physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity physical activity), hazard ratios were: 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.82) for all cause mortality, 0.71 (0.62 to 0.82) for cardiovascular disease mortality, and 0.89 (0.79 to 0.99) for cancer mortality, adjusted for baseline PAEE, and established risk factors. Similar results were observed when analyses were stratified by medical history of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Joint analyses with baseline and trajectories of physical activity show that, compared with consistently inactive individuals, those with increasing physical activity trajectories over time experienced lower risks of mortality from all causes, with hazard ratios of 0.76 (0.65 to 0.88), 0.62 (0.53 to 0.72), and 0.58 (0.43 to 0.78) at low, medium, and high baseline physical activity, respectively. At the population level, meeting and maintaining at least the minimum physical activity recommendations would potentially prevent 46% of deaths associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Middle aged and older adults, including those with cardiovascular disease and cancer, can gain substantial longevity benefits by becoming more physically active, irrespective of past physical activity levels and established risk factors. Considerable population health impacts can be attained with consistent engagement in physical activity during mid to late life.


Assuntos
Exercício , Mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 141-144, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to evaluate the potential effects of age, period and cohort (APC) on trends in suicide between 1983 and 2013 in Turkey. METHODS: Mortality data were obtained from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The data were grouped into seven age groups, four periods and ten birth cohorts. A nonlinear regression model was estimated for both sexes. The effects of age, period and cohort were parameterized using natural spline smoothing functions. RESULTS: There were 61,795 deaths recorded as suicides during the investigated time period, where 64.5% occurred in males (n = 39,862) and 35.5% in females (n = 21,933). There is an upward trend in mortality by age until the end of the study period for males and females. Age effect is decreased until the forties, kept decreasing during the middle ages, and sharply increased after the sixties. The death rates for females declined from 1999 until the end of the study period. For males, the death rates increased until the end of the study period. CONCLUSION: If the current trends continue, it can be expected that these effects will continue to reduce female mortality and increase male mortality. Future studies on suicide, strongly focused on specific factors attributed to period effects, are needed in Turkey.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Comportamento Sexual , Suicídio/tendências , Turquia
15.
BMJ ; 365: l1927, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intensive care unit (ICU) admission on mortality among patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 1727 acute care hospitals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries (aged 65 years or older) admitted with STEMI to either an ICU or a non-ICU unit (general/telemetry ward or intermediate care) between January 2014 and October 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: 30 day mortality. An instrumental variable analysis was done to account for confounding, using as an instrument the additional distance that a patient with STEMI would need to travel beyond the closest hospital to arrive at a hospital in the top quarter of ICU admission rates for STEMI. RESULTS: The analysis included 109 375 patients admitted to hospital with STEMI. Hospitals in the top quarter of ICU admission rates admitted 85% or more of STEMI patients to an ICU. Among patients who received ICU care dependent on their proximity to a hospital in the top quarter of ICU admission rates, ICU admission was associated with lower 30 day mortality than non-ICU admission (absolute decrease 6.1 (95% confidence interval -11.9 to -0.3) percentage points). In a separate analysis among patients with non-STEMI, a group for whom evidence suggests that routine ICU care does not improve outcomes, ICU admission was not associated with differences in mortality (absolute increase 1.3 (-0.9 to 3.4) percentage points). CONCLUSIONS: ICU care for STEMI is associated with improved mortality among patients who could be treated in an ICU or non-ICU unit. An urgent need exists to identify which patients with STEMI benefit from ICU admission and what about ICU care is beneficial.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/economia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
BMJ ; 365: l1580, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate all cause mortality and cause specific mortality among patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study. SETTING: US Department of Veterans Affairs. PARTICIPANTS: New users of PPIs (n=157 625) or H2 blockers (n=56 842). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality and cause specific mortality associated with taking PPIs (values reported as number of attributable deaths per 1000 patients taking PPIs). RESULTS: There were 45.20 excess deaths (95% confidence interval 28.20 to 61.40) per 1000 patients taking PPIs. Circulatory system diseases (number of attributable deaths per 1000 patients taking PPIs 17.47, 95% confidence interval 5.47 to 28.80), neoplasms (12.94, 1.24 to 24.28), infectious and parasitic diseases (4.20, 1.57 to 7.02), and genitourinary system diseases (6.25, 3.22 to 9.24) were associated with taking PPIs. There was a graded relation between cumulative duration of PPI exposure and the risk of all cause mortality and death due to circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary system diseases. Analyses of subcauses of death suggested that taking PPIs was associated with an excess mortality due to cardiovascular disease (15.48, 5.02 to 25.19) and chronic kidney disease (4.19, 1.56 to 6.58). Among patients without documented indication for acid suppression drugs (n=116 377), taking PPIs was associated with an excess mortality due to cardiovascular disease (22.91, 11.89 to 33.57), chronic kidney disease (4.74, 1.53 to 8.05), and upper gastrointestinal cancer (3.12, 0.91 to 5.44). Formal interaction analyses suggested that the risk of death due to these subcauses was not modified by a history of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or upper gastrointestinal cancer. Taking PPIs was not associated with an excess burden of transportation related mortality and death due to peptic ulcer disease (as negative outcome controls). CONCLUSIONS: Taking PPIs is associated with a small excess of cause specific mortality including death due to cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and upper gastrointestinal cancer. The burden was also observed in patients without an indication for PPI use. Heightened vigilance in the use of PPI may be warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Saúde dos Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Lancet ; 394(10195): 322-331, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2000, the scale-up of malaria control interventions has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality caused by the disease globally, fuelling bold aims for disease elimination. In tandem with increased availability of geospatially resolved data, malaria control programmes increasingly use high-resolution maps to characterise spatially heterogeneous patterns of disease risk and thus efficiently target areas of high burden. METHODS: We updated and refined the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate and clinical incidence models for sub-Saharan Africa, which rely on cross-sectional survey data for parasite rate and intervention coverage. For malaria endemic countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa, we produced estimates of parasite rate and incidence by applying an ecological downscaling approach to malaria incidence data acquired via routine surveillance. Mortality estimates were derived by linking incidence to systematically derived vital registration and verbal autopsy data. Informed by high-resolution covariate surfaces, we estimated P falciparum parasite rate, clinical incidence, and mortality at national, subnational, and 5 × 5 km pixel scales with corresponding uncertainty metrics. FINDINGS: We present the first global, high-resolution map of P falciparum malaria mortality and the first global prevalence and incidence maps since 2010. These results are combined with those for Plasmodium vivax (published separately) to form the malaria estimates for the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study. The P falciparum estimates span the period 2000-17, and illustrate the rapid decline in burden between 2005 and 2017, with incidence declining by 27·9% and mortality declining by 42·5%. Despite a growing population in endemic regions, P falciparum cases declined between 2005 and 2017, from 232·3 million (95% uncertainty interval 198·8-277·7) to 193·9 million (156·6-240·2) and deaths declined from 925 800 (596 900-1 341 100) to 618 700 (368 600-952 200). Despite the declines in burden, 90·1% of people within sub-Saharan Africa continue to reside in endemic areas, and this region accounted for 79·4% of cases and 87·6% of deaths in 2017. INTERPRETATION: High-resolution maps of P falciparum provide a contemporary resource for informing global policy and malaria control planning, programme implementation, and monitoring initiatives. Amid progress in reducing global malaria burden, areas where incidence trends have plateaued or increased in the past 5 years underscore the fragility of hard-won gains against malaria. Efforts towards elimination should be strengthened in such areas, and those where burden remained high throughout the study period. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Malária Falciparum/mortalidade , Objetivos Organizacionais , Prevalência , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(6): 579-586, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238638

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the mortality of colorectal cancer and its trend from 1999 to 2015 in Tianjin, China, and to explore the mortality features in different populations in order to provide data for prevention and control strategies of colorectal cancer. Methods: Colorectal cancer mortality data between 1999 and 2015 were collected from Tianjin population - based mortality surveillance system maintained by the Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Population data of permanent residents were collected from Tianjin Municipal Public Security Bureau. The number of new cases and deaths, incidence [including crude incidence, age-adjusted standardized incidence and 95% confidence interval (95% CI)], and mortality (including crude mortality, age-adjusted standardized mortality and 95% CI) of colorectal cancer were calculated. Standardized incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer were calculated using the Segi's world standard population, adjusted with age and gender. JoinPoint regression and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used to determine the statistical significance of differences in mortality trend. Results: A total of 31 376 new onset cases and 14 893 death cases of colorectal cancer were observed in Tianjin from 1999 to 2015. Colorectal cancer incidence increased from 1999 to 2015 with a standardized rate from 9.66/100 000 to 15.36/100 000 [annual percent change(APC)=3.48%, Z=23.21, P<0.001]. Colorectal cancer mortality increased from 1999 to 2015 with a standardized rate from 5.18/100 000 to 6.11/100 000 (APC=1.24%, Z=5.69, P<0.001). Both showed an increasing trend. The death proportion of colon cancer increased (39.67% in 1999 and 50.33% in 2015), while the death proportion of rectal caner decreased (60.33% in 1999 and 48.57% in 2015). The median age of colorectal cancer onset fluctuated steadily around 66 years old (APC=0.16, T=1.75, P=0.100); the median age of death increased from 69 to 73 years old (APC=0.43, T=8.81, P<0.001). From 1999 to 2015, the mortality of colorectal cancer showed a downward trend (all P<0.05) in the age groups of <35 and 35-44 years, while an upward trend (all P<0.05) in the age groups of 45-54 years, 55-64 years and ≥ 65 years. Colorectal cancer mortality in males increased with a standardized rate of 5.53/100 000 in 1999 to 7.33/100 000 in 2015(APC=2.29%, Z=7.86, P<0.001), while colorectal cancer mortality in females flatted with a standardized rate of 4.83/100 000 in 1999 to 4.89/100 000 in 2015 (APC=0.10%, Z=-0.30, P=0.752). Colorectal cancer mortality increased with a standardized rate of 6.75/100 000 in 1999 to 7.33/100 000 in 2015 (APC=0.54%, Z=1.98, P=0.048) in urban areas and of 3.18/100 000 in 1999 to 4.38/100 000 in 2015 (APC=2.47, Z=6.46, P<0.001) in rural areas, whose differences were significant. Standardized mortality rate in rural area was lower but the rising velocity was faster as compared to urban area. Conclusions: Crude mortality and standardized mortality of colorectal cancer increase from 1999 to 2015 in Tianjin population. The people of elder, male and urban area have higher mortality. The mortality in people of male and rural area presents a faster rising state. Further efforts to reduce colorectal cancer mortality in Tianjin are needed to prevention and control of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade
20.
Wiad Lek ; 72(5 cz 2): 1087-1091, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Saving and improvement of population' health is one of the main priorities of the policy in any country. Studying of the level and causes of mortality is a powerful tool for assessing the effectiveness of health care systems. WHO recommends using of the European classification of preventable causes of death that based on three levels of prevention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The aim of this study is to compare the level and structure of mortality of the population of Ukraine and the Poltava region, to substantiate scientific approaches to the study and identification of those causes of death that can be prevented in order to formulate prevention programs at different level. Materials and methods: In research are used the information from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine and from the Center for Medical Statistics of the MoH of Ukraine. RESULTS: Review: Despite the positive dynamics of mortality in recent years, both in the Poltava region and in Ukraine, the indicators remain extremely negative. About 73.3% of all fatalities in Ukraine are three main types of causes cardiovascular diseases, external causes of death and neoplasms. In the Poltava region, 70.56% of all causes of death are due to cardiovascular disease; neoplasms occupy 13.88%; external causes - 4.87%; diseases of the digestive system - 3,06%; respiratory diseases - 1.31% of the causes of death. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The mortality rate both in the Poltava region and in Ukraine has tendency for declines, but remains rather high. General trends in the structure of causes of death: in the first place are diseases of the cardiovascular system, the second - neoplasms, the third -external causes. Structuring of the causes of death that based on the principle of prevention in Ukraine do not conduct.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Mortalidade , Ucrânia
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