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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD009599, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stillbirth is generally defined as a death prior to birth at or after 22 weeks' gestation. It remains a major public health concern globally. Antenatal interventions may reduce stillbirths and improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in settings with high rates of stillbirth. There are several key antenatal strategies that aim to prevent stillbirth including nutrition, and prevention and management of infections. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of antenatal interventions for preventing stillbirth for low risk or unselected populations of women. METHODS: We collaborated with Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Information Specialist to identify all their published reviews that specified or reported stillbirth; and we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (search date: 29 Feburary 2020) to identify reviews published within other Cochrane groups. The primary outcome measure was stillbirth but in the absence of stillbirth data, we used perinatal mortality (both stillbirth and death in the first week of life), fetal loss or fetal death as outcomes. Two review authors independently evaluated reviews for inclusion, extracted data and assessed quality of evidence using AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Reviews) and GRADE tools. We assigned interventions to categories with graphic icons to classify the effectiveness of interventions as: clear evidence of benefit or harm; clear evidence of no effect or equivalence; possible benefit or harm; or unknown benefit or harm or no effect or equivalence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 43 Cochrane Reviews that included interventions in pregnant women with the potential for preventing stillbirth; all of the included reviews reported our primary outcome 'stillbirth' or in the absence of stillbirth, 'perinatal death' or 'fetal loss/fetal death'. AMSTAR quality was high in 40 reviews with scores ranging from 8 to 11 and moderate in three reviews with a score of 7. Nutrition interventions Clear evidence of benefit: balanced energy/protein supplementation versus no supplementation suggests a probable reduction in stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.94, 5 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 3408 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Clear evidence of no effect or equivalence for stillbirth or perinatal death: vitamin A alone versus placebo or no treatment; and multiple micronutrients with iron and folic acid versus iron with or without folic acid. Unknown benefit or harm or no effect or equivalence: for all other nutrition interventions examined the effects were uncertain. Prevention and management of infections Possible benefit for fetal loss or death: insecticide-treated anti-malarial nets versus no nets (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.97, 4 RCTs; low-certainty). Unknown evidence of no effect or equivalence: drugs for preventing malaria (stillbirth RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.36, 5 RCTs, 7130 women, moderate certainty in women of all parity; perinatal death RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.63, 4 RCTs, 5216 women, moderate-certainty in women of all parity). Prevention, detection and management of other morbidities Clear evidence of benefit: the following interventions suggest a reduction: midwife-led models of care in settings where the midwife is the primary healthcare provider particularly for low-risk pregnant women (overall fetal loss/neonatal death reduction RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99, 13 RCTs, 17,561 women; high-certainty), training versus not training traditional birth attendants in rural populations of low- and middle-income countries (stillbirth reduction odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.83, 1 RCT, 18,699 women, moderate-certainty; perinatal death reduction OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.83, 1 RCT, 18,699 women, moderate-certainty). Clear evidence of harm: a reduced number of antenatal care visits probably results in an increase in perinatal death (RR 1.14 95% CI 1.00 to 1.31, 5 RCTs, 56,431 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Clear evidence of no effect or equivalence: there was evidence of no effect in the risk of stillbirth/fetal loss or perinatal death for the following interventions and comparisons: psychosocial interventions; and providing case notes to women. Possible benefit: community-based intervention packages (including community support groups/women's groups, community mobilisation and home visitation, or training traditional birth attendants who made home visits) may result in a reduction of stillbirth (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91, 15 RCTs, 201,181 women; low-certainty) and perinatal death (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.86, 17 RCTs, 282,327 women; low-certainty). Unknown benefit or harm or no effect or equivalence: the effects were uncertain for other interventions examined. Screening and management of fetal growth and well-being Clear evidence of benefit: computerised antenatal cardiotocography for assessing infant's well-being in utero compared with traditional antenatal cardiotocography (perinatal mortality reduction RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.88, 2 RCTs, 469 women; moderate-certainty). Unknown benefit or harm or no effect or equivalence: the effects were uncertain for other interventions examined. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: While most interventions were unable to demonstrate a clear effect in reducing stillbirth or perinatal death, several interventions suggested a clear benefit, such as balanced energy/protein supplements, midwife-led models of care, training versus not training traditional birth attendants, and antenatal cardiotocography. Possible benefits were also observed for insecticide-treated anti-malarial nets and community-based intervention packages, whereas a reduced number of antenatal care visits were shown to be harmful. However, there was variation in the effectiveness of interventions across different settings, indicating the need to carefully understand the context in which these interventions were tested. Further high-quality RCTs are needed to evaluate the effects of antenatal preventive interventions and which approaches are most effective to reduce the risk of stillbirth. Stillbirth (or fetal death), perinatal and neonatal death need to be reported separately in future RCTs of antenatal interventions to allow assessment of different interventions on these rare but important outcomes and they need to clearly define the target populations of women where the intervention is most likely to be of benefit. As the high burden of stillbirths occurs in low- and middle-income countries, further high-quality trials need to be conducted in these settings as a priority.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Natimorto , Cardiotocografia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Tocologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD004454, 2020 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. Despite early evidence indicating a beneficial effect of antenatal corticosteroids on fetal lung maturation and widespread recommendations to use this treatment in women at risk of preterm delivery, some uncertainty remains about their effectiveness particularly with regard to their use in lower-resource settings, different gestational ages and high-risk obstetric groups such as women with hypertension or multiple pregnancies. This updated review (which supersedes an earlier review Crowley 1996) was first published in 2006 and subsequently updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of administering a course of corticosteroids to women prior to anticipated preterm birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) on fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal mortality and morbidity, and on the child in later life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (3 September 2020), ClinicalTrials.gov, the databases that contribute to the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (3 September 2020), and reference lists of the retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered all randomised controlled comparisons of antenatal corticosteroid administration with placebo, or with no treatment, given to women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy, prior to anticipated preterm delivery (elective, or following rupture of membranes or spontaneous labour), regardless of other co-morbidity, for inclusion in this review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth methods for data collection and analysis. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, evaluated trustworthiness based on predefined criteria developed by Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth, extracted data and checked them for accuracy, and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Primary outcomes included perinatal death, neonatal death, RDS, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), birthweight, developmental delay in childhood and maternal death. MAIN RESULTS: We included 27 studies (11,272 randomised women and 11,925 neonates) from 20 countries. Ten trials (4422 randomised women) took place in lower- or middle-resource settings. We removed six trials from the analysis that were included in the previous version of the review; this review only includes trials that meet our pre-defined trustworthiness criteria. In 19 trials the women received a single course of steroids. In the remaining eight trials repeated courses may have been prescribed. Fifteen trials were judged to be at low risk of bias, two had a high risk of bias in two or more domains and we ten trials had a high risk of bias due to lack of blinding (placebo was not used in the control arm. Overall, the certainty of evidence was moderate to high, but it was downgraded for IVH due to indirectness; for developmental delay due to risk of bias and for maternal adverse outcomes (death, chorioamnionitis and endometritis) due to imprecision. Neonatal/child outcomes Antenatal corticosteroids reduce the risk of: - perinatal death (risk ratio (RR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 0.93; 9833 infants; 14 studies; high-certainty evidence; 2.3% fewer, 95% CI 1.1% to 3.6% fewer), - neonatal death (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87; 10,609 infants; 22 studies; high-certainty evidence; 2.6% fewer, 95% CI 1.5% to 3.6% fewer), - respiratory distress syndrome (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.78; 11,183 infants; studies = 26; high-certainty evidence; 4.3% fewer, 95% CI 3.2% to 5.2% fewer). Antenatal corticosteroids probably reduce the risk of IVH (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.75; 8475 infants; 12 studies; moderate-certainty evidence; 1.4% fewer, 95% CI 0.8% to1.8% fewer), and probably have little to no effect on birthweight (mean difference (MD) -14.02 g, 95% CI -33.79 to 5.76; 9551 infants; 19 studies; high-certainty evidence). Antenatal corticosteroids probably lead to a reduction in developmental delay in childhood (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; 600 children; 3 studies; moderate-certainty evidence; 3.8% fewer, 95% CI 0.2% to 5.7% fewer). Maternal outcomes Antenatal corticosteroids probably result in little to no difference in maternal death (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.36 to 3.89; 6244 women; 6 studies; moderate-certainty evidence; 0.0% fewer, 95% CI 0.1% fewer to 0.5% more), chorioamnionitis (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.08; 8374 women; 15 studies; moderate-certainty evidence; 0.5% fewer, 95% CI 1.1% fewer to 0.3% more), and endometritis (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.58; 6764 women; 10 studies; moderate-certainty; 0.3% more, 95% CI 0.3% fewer to 1.1% more) The wide 95% CIs in all of these outcomes include possible benefit and possible harm. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this updated review supports the continued use of a single course of antenatal corticosteroids to accelerate fetal lung maturation in women at risk of preterm birth. Treatment with antenatal corticosteroids reduces the risk of perinatal death, neonatal death and RDS and probably reduces the risk of IVH. This evidence is robust, regardless of resource setting (high, middle or low). Further research should focus on variations in the treatment regimen, effectiveness of the intervention in specific understudied subgroups such as multiple pregnancies and other high-risk obstetric groups, and the risks and benefits in the very early or very late preterm periods. Additionally, outcomes from existing trials with follow-up into childhood and adulthood are needed in order to investigate any longer-term effects of antenatal corticosteroids. We encourage authors of previous studies to provide further information which may answer any remaining questions about the use of antenatal corticosteroids without the need for further randomised controlled trials. Individual patient data meta-analyses from published trials are likely to provide answers for most of the remaining clinical uncertainties.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Maturidade dos Órgãos Fetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/embriologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Betametasona/administração & dosagem , Viés , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/prevenção & controle , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Recém-Nascido , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Materna , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perinatal mortality rate in Ethiopia is among the highest in Sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to identify the spatial patterns and determinants of perinatal mortality in the country using a national representative 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data. METHODS: The analysis was completed utilizing data from 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. This data captured the information of 5 years preceding the survey period. A total of 7230 women who at delivered at seven or more months gestational age nested within 622 enumeration areas (EAs) were used. Statistical analysis was performed by using STATA version 14.1, by considering the hierarchical nature of the data. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to identify community and individual-level factors associated with perinatal mortality. ArcGIS version 10.1 was used for spatial analysis. Moran's, I statistics fitted to identify global autocorrelation and local autocorrelation was identified using SatSCan version 9.6. RESULTS: The spatial distribution of perinatal mortality in Ethiopia revealed a clustering pattern. The global Moran's I value was 0.047 with p-value <0.001. Perinatal mortality was positively associated with the maternal age, being from rural residence, history of terminating a pregnancy, and place of delivery, while negatively associated with partners' educational level, higher wealth index, longer birth interval, female being head of household and the number of antenatal care (ANC) follow up. CONCLUSIONS: In Ethiopia, the perinatal mortality is high and had spatial variations across the country. Strengthening partner's education, family planning for longer birth interval, ANC, and delivery services are essential to reduce perinatal mortality and achieve sustainable development goals in Ethiopia. Disparities in perinatal mortality rates should be addressed alongside efforts to address inequities in maternal and neonatal healthcare services all over the country.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Análise por Conglomerados , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multinível , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0238673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between several intriguing perinatal phenomena, namely, modal, optimal, and relative birthweight and gestational age, remains poorly understood, especially the mechanism by which relative birthweight and gestational age resolve the paradox of intersecting perinatal mortality curves. METHODS: Birthweight and gestational age distributions and birthweight- and gestational age-specific perinatal death rates of low- and high-risk cohorts in the United States, 2004-2015, were estimated using births-based and extended fetuses-at-risk formulations. The relationships between these births-based distributions and rates, and the first derivatives of fetuses-at-risk birth and perinatal death rates were examined in order to assess how the rate of change in fetuses-at-risk rates affects gestational age distributions and births-based perinatal death rate patterns. RESULTS: Modal gestational age typically exceeded optimal gestational age because both were influenced by the peak in the first derivative of the birth rate, while optimal gestational age was additionally influenced by the point at which the first derivative of the fetuses-at-risk perinatal death rate showed a sharp increase in late gestation. The clustering and correlation between modal and optimal gestational age within cohorts, the higher perinatal death rate at optimal gestational age among higher-risk cohorts, and the symmetric left-shift in births-based gestational age-specific perinatal death rates in higher-risk cohorts explained how relative gestational age resolved the paradox of intersecting perinatal mortality curves. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the first derivative of the fetuses-at-risk birth and perinatal death rates underlie several births-based perinatal phenomena and this explanation further unifies the fetuses-at-risk and births-based models of perinatal death.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Feto/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Parto/fisiologia , Morte Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 186, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023635

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The virus, known as COVID-19, is recognized as a potentially life-threatening disease by causing severe respiratory disease. Since this virus has not previously been detected in humans, there is a paucity of information regarding its effects on humans. In addition, only limited or no information exists about its impact during pregnancy. CASE PRESENTATION: In the present case study, we report the death of a neonate born to a 32-year-old mother with coronavirus disease 2019 in Ilam, Iran, with Kurdish ethnicity. We report the infection and death of a neonate in Iran with a chest X-ray (CXR) marked abnormality 2 hours after birth demonstrating coronavirus disease 2019 disease. The neonate was born by elective cesarean section, the fetal health was assessed using fetal heart rate and a non-stress test before the birth, and there was no evidence of fetal distress. All the above-mentioned facts and radiographic abnormalities suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 is involved. CONCLUSIONS: In this case study, we report the death of a neonate born to a mother with coronavirus disease 2019, 11 hours after birth. There is a paucity of data on the vertical transmission and the adverse maternal-fetal consequences of this disease, so vertical transmission from mother to child remains to be confirmed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Cesárea/métodos , Deterioração Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Irã (Geográfico) , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Morte Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18126, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093582

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women. We searched for qualified studies in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. The clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their infants were reported as means and proportions with 95% confidence interval. Eleven studies involving with 9032 pregnant women with COVID-19 and 338 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Pregnant women with COVID-19 have relatively mild symptoms. However, abnormal proportions of laboratory parameters were similar or even increased, compared to general population. Around 30% of pregnant women with COVID-19 experienced preterm delivery, whereas the mean birth weight was 2855.9 g. Fetal death and detection of SARS-CoV-2 were observed in about 2%, whereas neonatal death was found to be 0.4%. In conclusion, the current review will serve as an ideal basis for future considerations in the treatment and management of COVID-19 in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Peso ao Nascer , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Helping Babies Breathe program gave major reductions in perinatal mortality in Tanzania from 2009 to 2012. We aimed to study whether this effect was sustained, and whether resuscitation skills changed with continued frequent training. METHODS: We analysed prospective data covering all births (n = 19,571) at Haydom Lutheran Hospital in Tanzania from July 2013 -June 2018. Resuscitation training was continued during this period. All deliveries were monitored by an observer recording the timing of events and resuscitation interventions. Heart rate was recorded by dry-electrode ECG and bag-mask-ventilation by sensors attached to the resuscitator device. We analyzed changes over time in outcomes, use of resuscitation interventions and performance of resuscitation using binary regression models with the log-link function to obtain adjusted relative risks. RESULTS: With introduction of user fees for deliveries since 2014, the number of deliveries decreased by 30% from start to the end of the five-year period. An increase in low heart rate at birth and need for bag-mask-ventilation indicate a gradual selection of more vulnerable newborns delivered in the hospital over time. Despite this selection, newborn deaths <24 hours did not change significantly and was maintained at an average of 8.8/1000 live births. The annual reductions in relative risk for perinatal death adjusted for vulnerability factors was 0.84 (95%CI 0.76-0.94). During the five-year period, longer duration of bag-mask ventilation sequences without interruption was observed. Delivered tidal volumes were increased and mask leak was decreased during ventilation. The time to initiation or total duration of ventilation did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: The reduction in 24-hour newborn mortality after introduction of Helping Babies Breathe was maintained, and a further decrease over the five-year period was evident when analyses were adjusted for vulnerability of the newborns. Perinatal survival and performance of ventilation were significantly improved.


Assuntos
Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Assistência Perinatal , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Ressuscitação/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Deaths during the perinatal period remain a big challenge in Africa, with 38 deaths per 1000 pregnancies in Uganda. The consequences of these deaths can be detrimental to the women; some ending up with postpartum depression. We examined the association between perinatal death and postpartum depression among women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,789 women. Trained research assistants screened women for postpartum depressive symptoms on day 50 postpartum using the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS). Socio-demographic, economic, birth and survival status of the neonate were collected during pregnancy and within one week postpartum. We used generalized estimating equation for the Poisson family with a log link using Stata to estimate the prevalence ratio of the association between postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS scores ≥14) and perinatal death. Mothers who lost their babies between 7-49 days postpartum were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 1,789 participants symptomatically screened for postpartum depression, 377 (21.1%) [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 17.2%, 23.0%] had probable depressive symptoms. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms among the 77 women who had experienced perinatal death (37 stillbirths and 40 early neonatal deaths (≤7 days of life)) was 62.3% [95% CI: 50.8%, 72.6%] compared to 19.2% [95% CI: 17.4%, 21.2%], among 1,712 with live infants at day 50 postpartum. Women who had experienced a perinatal death were three times as likely to have postpartum depressive symptoms as those who had a live birth [adjusted prevalence ratio 3.45 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.48)]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, assessed by EPDS, was high among women who had had a perinatal death in Northern Uganda. Women experiencing a perinatal death need to be screened for postpartum depressive symptoms in order to intervene and reduce associated morbidity.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 7363242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029402

RESUMO

Introduction: Reduction of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality has continued to be a challenge in developing countries. The majority of maternal and neonatal mortality occurred during the early postpartum period. This is mostly due to low postnatal care service utilization. There is a discrepancy of evidence on the effect status of antenatal care on the improvement of postnatal care service utilization. Therefore, this review study is aimed at estimating the pooled effect of antenatal care on postnatal care service utilization. Methods: We searched from PubMed and Cochrane library database, Google Scholar, and Google. Initially, we found 265 articles; after duplication was removed and screened by the relevance of the titles and abstracts, 36 studies were considered for assessment of eligibility. Finally, 14 articles passed the inclusion and exclusion criteria and are included in the meta-analysis. Study quality assessment was done using Janna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. The main information was extracted from each study. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using I 2 = 70% and more considered having high heterogeneity. The publication bias was checked using funnel plot and big test. Meta-analysis using a random effect model was conducted. A forest plot was used to show the estimated size effect of odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 14 articles were included with 15,765 participants for synthesis and meta-analysis. We found that a pooled estimate of women who had antenatal care was 1.53 times more likely to have postnatal care compared with those who had no antenatal care (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.38-1.70, I 2 = 0%). Conclusions: This review results revealed a low utilization of postnatal care service. Antenatal care service utilization has a positive effect on postnatal care service utilization. Policymakers and programmers better considered more antenatal care service use as one strategy of enhancing the utilization of postnatal care service.


Assuntos
Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are a leading cause of global perinatal (fetal and neonatal) and maternal morbidity and mortality. We sought to describe HDP and determine the magnitude and risk factors for adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes among women with HDP in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled pregnant women admitted for delivery and diagnosed with HDP at a tertiary referral hospital in southwestern Uganda from January 2019 to November 2019, excluding women with pre-existing hypertension. The participants were observed and adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes were documented. We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine independent risk factors associated with adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 103 pregnant women with a new-onset HDP were enrolled. Almost all women, 93.2% (n = 96) had either pre-eclampsia with severe features or eclampsia. The majority, 58% (n = 60) of the participants had an adverse perinatal outcome (36.9% admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU), 20.3% stillbirths, and 1.1% neonatal deaths). Fewer participants, 19.4% (n = 20) had an adverse maternal outcome HELLP syndrome (7.8%), ICU admission (3%), and postpartum hemorrhage (3%). In adjusted analyses, gestational age of < 34 weeks at delivery and birth weight <2.5kg were independent risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes while referral from another health facility and eclampsia were independent risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Among women with HDP at our institution, majority had preeclampsia with severe symptoms or eclampsia and an unacceptably high rate of adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes; over a fifth of the mothers experiencing stillbirth. This calls for improved antenatal surveillance of women with HDP and in particular improved neonatal and maternal critical care expertise at delivering facilities. Earlier detection and referral, as well as improvement in initial management at lower level health units and on arrival at the referral site is imperative.


Assuntos
Eclampsia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/mortalidade , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
N Engl J Med ; 383(26): 2514-2525, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a multicountry, randomized trial involving pregnant women between 26 weeks 0 days and 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who were at risk for preterm birth. The participants were assigned to intramuscular dexamethasone or identical placebo. The primary outcomes were neonatal death alone, stillbirth or neonatal death, and possible maternal bacterial infection; neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death were evaluated with superiority analyses, and possible maternal bacterial infection was evaluated with a noninferiority analysis with the use of a prespecified margin of 1.25 on the relative scale. RESULTS: A total of 2852 women (and their 3070 fetuses) from 29 secondary- and tertiary-level hospitals across Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan underwent randomization. The trial was stopped for benefit at the second interim analysis. Neonatal death occurred in 278 of 1417 infants (19.6%) in the dexamethasone group and in 331 of 1406 infants (23.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.97; P = 0.03). Stillbirth or neonatal death occurred in 393 of 1532 fetuses and infants (25.7%) and in 444 of 1519 fetuses and infants (29.2%), respectively (relative risk, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.99; P = 0.04); the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection was 4.8% and 6.3%, respectively (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.03). There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Among women in low-resource countries who were at risk for early preterm birth, the use of dexamethasone resulted in significantly lower risks of neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death than the use of placebo, without an increase in the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the World Health Organization; Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12617000476336; Clinical Trials Registry-India number, CTRI/2017/04/008326.).


Assuntos
Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Injeções Intramusculares , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
12.
Nature ; 586(7831): 757-762, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057194

RESUMO

De novo mutations in protein-coding genes are a well-established cause of developmental disorders1. However, genes known to be associated with developmental disorders account for only a minority of the observed excess of such de novo mutations1,2. Here, to identify previously undescribed genes associated with developmental disorders, we integrate healthcare and research exome-sequence data from 31,058 parent-offspring trios of individuals with developmental disorders, and develop a simulation-based statistical test to identify gene-specific enrichment of de novo mutations. We identified 285 genes that were significantly associated with developmental disorders, including 28 that had not previously been robustly associated with developmental disorders. Although we detected more genes associated with developmental disorders, much of the excess of de novo mutations in protein-coding genes remains unaccounted for. Modelling suggests that more than 1,000 genes associated with developmental disorders have not yet been described, many of which are likely to be less penetrant than the currently known genes. Research access to clinical diagnostic datasets will be critical for completing the map of genes associated with developmental disorders.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA , Análise de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Penetrância , Morte Perinatal , Tamanho da Amostra
13.
J Perinat Med ; 48(9): 950-958, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975205

RESUMO

Objectives To evaluate the strength of association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Methods Secondary analysis of a multinational, cohort study on all consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020 from 73 centers from 22 different countries. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite adverse fetal outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion (pregnancy loss before 22 weeks of gestations), stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after 22 weeks of gestation), neonatal death (death of a live-born infant within the first 28 days of life), and perinatal death (either stillbirth or neonatal death). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate parameters independently associated with the primary outcome. Logistic regression was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 30.6±9.5 weeks, with 8.0% of women being diagnosed in the first, 22.2% in the second and 69.8% in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were six miscarriage (2.3%), six intrauterine device (IUD) (2.3) and 5 (2.0%) neonatal deaths, with an overall rate of perinatal death of 4.2% (11/265), thus resulting into 17 cases experiencing and 226 not experiencing composite adverse fetal outcome. Neither stillbirths nor neonatal deaths had congenital anomalies found at antenatal or postnatal evaluation. Furthermore, none of the cases experiencing IUD had signs of impending demise at arterial or venous Doppler. Neonatal deaths were all considered as prematurity-related adverse events. Of the 250 live-born neonates, one (0.4%) was found positive at RT-PCR pharyngeal swabs performed after delivery. The mother was tested positive during the third trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was asymptomatic and had negative RT-PCR test after 14 days of life. At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3-7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome. Conclusions Early gestational age at infection, maternal ventilatory supports and low birthweight are the main determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes in fetuses with maternal COVID-19 infection. Conversely, the risk of vertical transmission seems negligible.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Morte Fetal , Morte Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, every year greater than twenty million newborns are born weighing less than 2500grams, of which over 96% of them were in developing countries. It contributes to sixty to eighty percent of all neonatal deaths, annually. These infants weighing less than 2500gram will have a poor immune system and are at risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to investigate the survival status and predictors of mortality among neonates admitted with low birth weight at public hospitals in Ethiopia. METHOD: A prospective cohort study was conducted among selected 216 newborns admitted with low birth weight who were admitted in neonatal intensive care unit at Arba Minch General hospital, Sawla General Hospital and Chencha district hospital from 1st March 2018 to 28st February 2019. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.02 and exported to STATA V 14 for analysis. The Kaplan Meier survival curve together with log rank test was used to estimate the survival time of the newborns. Variables which had p-value <0.05 in multivariable analysis using the cox proportional hazard model were declared as statistically significant. RESULT: The cumulative proportion of surviving at the end of third days was 99.01% (95%CI: 96.11, 99.75). Similarly it was 97.81% (95%CI: 94.25, 99.18), 96.27% (95%CI: 91.76, 98.33) and 94.33% (95%CI: 88.72, 97.19) at the end of fourth, fifth and sixth day respectively. The overall mean survival time was 17.13 days (95%CI: 12.76, 21.49). The incidence of mortality among neonates admitted with low birth weight was 83 per 1000 live births. Mothers with DM (AHR:4.79; 95%CI:1.15, 19.8), maternal HIV infection(AHR:6.47;95%CI:1.43,29.3), not keeping the newborn under KMC(AHR:13.0;95%CI:3.42, 49.5) and initiating exclusive breast feeding within one hour(AHR:0.19;95%CI:0.04, 0.95) were statistically significant in multivariable cox regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The risk of mortality among neonates admitted with low birth weight was high at the early admission period and the incidence of mortality was high. Maternal history of diabetes mellitus, HIV/AIDS infection, keeping the newborn under kangaroo mother care and exclusive breast feeding initiation were statistically significant predictors of mortality. Special emphasis should be given for neonates with low birth weight at the early follow up periods and Kangaroo mother care practice should be a usual practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Morte Perinatal , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitalização , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Método Canguru , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 692-697, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate characteristics associated with adverse outcomes in low-risk nulliparous women randomized to elective labor induction at 39 weeks of gestation or expectant management. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of women randomized during the 38th week to induction at 39 weeks of gestation or expectant management. Deliveries before 39 weeks of gestation and those not adherent to study protocol or with fetal anomalies were excluded. A composite of adverse outcomes (perinatal death or severe neonatal complications), third- or fourth-degree lacerations, and postpartum hemorrhage were evaluated. Log binomial regression models estimated relative risks and 95% CIs for associations of outcomes with patient characteristics including randomly assigned treatment group. Interactions between patient characteristics and treatment group were tested. RESULTS: Of 6,096 women with outcome data, 5,007 (82.1%) met criteria for inclusion in this analysis. Frequency of the perinatal composite was 252 (5.0%), 166 (3.3%) for third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration, and 237 (4.7%) for postpartum hemorrhage. In multivariable analysis, intended labor induction at 39 weeks of gestation was associated with a reduced perinatal composite outcome (4.1% vs 6.0%; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.71; 95% CI 0.55-0.90), whereas increasing body mass index (BMI) was associated with an increased perinatal composite outcome (aRR 1.04/unit increase; 95% CI 1.02-1.05). Decreased risk of third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration was observed with increasing BMI (aRR 0.96/unit increase; 95% CI 0.93-0.98) and in Black women compared with White women (1.2% vs 3.9%; aRR 0.34; 95% CI 0.19-0.60). Increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage was observed in Hispanic women compared with White women (6.3% vs 4.0%; aRR 1.64; 95% CI 1.18-2.29). Patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes were similar between treatment groups (P for interaction >.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with expectant management, intended induction at 39 weeks of gestation was associated with reduced risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes were few and similar between groups. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01990612.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Lacerações/diagnóstico , Lacerações/etnologia , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Parto Normal/efeitos adversos , Parto Normal/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Paridade , Morte Perinatal , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etnologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 3, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983321

RESUMO

Introduction: Hargeisa Group Hospital, Somaliland, opened a neonatal unit in 2013. We aimed to study causes of admission, risk factors for neonatal death and post-discharge care to address modifiable factors. Methods: we analysed hospital records from June-October 2013 (n=164). In addition, we reached primary caregivers of 94 patients for further information after discharge. Results: of the 164 patients, 65% were male, 31% weighed <2500 grams, 16% were premature, 43% were exposed to meconium and 29% had premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Twenty-seven percent were admitted after caesarean section and 36% had been bag-mask ventilated. The most common diagnoses for admission were asphyxia (34%), respiratory distress (27%), sepsis (16%) and prematurity (15%). The mortality before discharge was 15%, 23/1430 (1.6%) of live-born at the hospital. Half of the admitted preterm babies died (RR for death for preterm vs term born 4.6, 95% CI 2.3-9.0) as well as 28% of the patients with birth weight <2500 grams (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.2). The mortality rate with or without PROM was 29% vs 15% (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.9). At 28 days of age, 34% of the patients were exclusively breastfed and 44% had not yet been vaccinated. Diarrhoea, vomiting and/or respiratory distress after discharge were reported for 44%. Conclusion: prematurity and low birth weight were important risk factors for neonatal death in this cohort, contributing to the high mortality rate. Low numbers of exclusively breastfed and vaccinated infants are also issues of concern to be targeted in the peri- and postnatal care.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Somália , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 601, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne infectious disease. Perinatal listeriosis is often associated with septicemia, central nervous system (CNS) infection, and serious adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage and neonate death). Here we report the characteristics and outcomes of perinatal listeriosis cases treated over 6 years at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital (BOGH), the largest maternity hospital in China. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of laboratory-confirmed, pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases treated from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2018. The clinical manifestations, laboratory results, perinatal complications and outcomes (post-natal follow-up of 6 months) were investigated. RESULTS: In BOGH, 12 perinatal listeriosis cases were diagnosed based on Listeria monocytogenes positive culture, including 10 single pregnancies and 2 twin pregnancies. The corresponding incidence of pregnancy-associated listeriosis was 13.7/100,000 deliveries. Among those cases, four pregnant women and four newborns had septicemia, and two of the neonates with septicemia also suffered CNS infection. All the maternal patients recovered. Two inevitable miscarriages and four fetal stillbirths occurred. Of the eight delivered newborns, six survived, and two died within 2 days from birth. None of the survivors had neurological sequelae during a 6-month follow-up. The overall feto-neonatal fatality rate was 57.1%; notably, this rate was 100% for infections occurring during the second trimester of pregnancy and only 14.3% for those occurring in the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal listeriosis is associated with high feto-neonatal mortality, and thus, a public health concern. Additional large-scale studies are needed to strengthen the epidemiological understanding of listeriosis in China.


Assuntos
Listeriose/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Feminino , Maternidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/diagnóstico , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Natimorto
18.
Women Birth ; 33(6): 540-543, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid changes to how maternity health care is delivered has occurred in many countries across the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Maternity care provisions have been challenged attempting to balance the needs and safety of pregnant women and their care providers. Women experiencing a pregnancy after loss (PAL) during these times face particularly difficult circumstances. AIM: In this paper we highlight the situation in three high income countries (Australia, Ireland and USA) and point to the need to remember the unique and challenging circumstances of these PAL families. We suggest new practices may be deviating from established evidence-based guidelines and outline the potential ramifications of these changes. FINDINGS: Recommendations for health care providers are suggested to bridge the gap between the necessary safety requirements due to the pandemic, the role of the health care provider, and the needs of families experiencing a pregnancy after loss. DISCUSSION: Changes to practices i.e. limiting the number of antenatal appointments and access to a support person may have detrimental effects on both mother, baby, and their family. However, new guidelines in maternity care practices developed to account for the pandemic have not necessarily considered women experiencing pregnancy after loss. CONCLUSION: Bereaved mothers and their families experiencing a pregnancy after loss should continue to be supported during the COVID-19 pandemic to limit unintended consequences.


Assuntos
Luto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Mães/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gestantes/psicologia , Natimorto/psicologia , Aborto Espontâneo , Austrália , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Pandemias , Morte Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD004945, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risks of stillbirth or neonatal death increase as gestation continues beyond term (around 40 weeks' gestation). It is unclear whether a policy of labour induction can reduce these risks. This Cochrane Review is an update of a review that was originally published in 2006 and subsequently updated in 2012 and 2018. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a policy of labour induction at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation compared with a policy of awaiting spontaneous labour indefinitely (or until a later gestational age, or until a maternal or fetal indication for induction of labour arises) on pregnancy outcomes for the infant and the mother. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (17 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in pregnant women at or beyond 37 weeks, comparing a policy of labour induction with a policy of awaiting spontaneous onset of labour (expectant management). We also included trials published in abstract form only. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion in this review. We included pregnant women at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation. Since risk factors at this stage of pregnancy would normally require intervention, only trials including women at low risk for complications, as defined by trialists, were eligible. The trials of induction of labour in women with prelabour rupture of membranes at or beyond term were not considered in this review but are considered in a separate Cochrane Review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review, we included 34 RCTs (reporting on over 21,000 women and infants) mostly conducted in high-income settings. The trials compared a policy to induce labour usually after 41 completed weeks of gestation (> 287 days) with waiting for labour to start and/or waiting for a period before inducing labour. The trials were generally at low to moderate risk of bias. Compared with a policy of expectant management, a policy of labour induction was associated with fewer (all-cause) perinatal deaths (risk ratio (RR) 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.64; 22 trials, 18,795 infants; high-certainty evidence). There were four perinatal deaths in the labour induction policy group compared with 25 perinatal deaths in the expectant management group. The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) with induction of labour, in order to prevent one perinatal death, was 544 (95% CI 441 to 1042). There were also fewer stillbirths in the induction group (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.75; 22 trials, 18,795 infants; high-certainty evidence); two in the induction policy group and 16 in the expectant management group. For women in the policy of induction arms of trials, there were probably fewer caesarean sections compared with expectant management (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.95; 31 trials, 21,030 women; moderate-certainty evidence); and probably little or no difference in operative vaginal births with induction (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.10; 22 trials, 18,584 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Induction may make little or difference to perineal trauma (severe perineal tear: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.26; 5 trials; 11,589 women; low-certainty evidence). Induction probably makes little or no difference to postpartum haemorrhage (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.15, 9 trials; 12,609 women; moderate-certainty evidence), or breastfeeding at discharge (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.04; 2 trials, 7487 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Very low certainty evidence means that we are uncertain about the effect of induction or expectant management on the length of maternal hospital stay (average mean difference (MD) -0.19 days, 95% CI -0.56 to 0.18; 7 trials; 4120 women; Tau² = 0.20; I² = 94%). Rates of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were lower (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.96; 17 trials, 17,826 infants; high-certainty evidence), and probably fewer babies had Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes in the induction groups compared with expectant management (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.96; 20 trials, 18,345 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). Induction or expectant management may make little or no difference for neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.31; 2 trials, 8851 infants; low-certainty evidence, and probably makes little or no difference for neonatal trauma (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.49; 5 trials, 13,106 infants; moderate-certainty evidence) for induction compared with expectant management. Neurodevelopment at childhood follow-up and postnatal depression were not reported by any trials. In subgroup analyses, no differences were seen for timing of induction (< 40 versus 40-41 versus > 41 weeks' gestation), by parity (primiparous versus multiparous) or state of cervix for any of the main outcomes (perinatal death, stillbirth, NICU admission, caesarean section, operative vaginal birth, or perineal trauma). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear reduction in perinatal death with a policy of labour induction at or beyond 37 weeks compared with expectant management, though absolute rates are small (0.4 versus 3 deaths per 1000). There were also lower caesarean rates without increasing rates of operative vaginal births and there were fewer NICU admissions with a policy of induction. Most of the important outcomes assessed using GRADE had high- or moderate-certainty ratings. While existing trials have not yet reported on childhood neurodevelopment, this is an important area for future research. The optimal timing of offering induction of labour to women at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation needs further investigation, as does further exploration of risk profiles of women and their values and preferences. Offering women tailored counselling may help them make an informed choice between induction of labour for pregnancies, particularly those continuing beyond 41 weeks - or waiting for labour to start and/or waiting before inducing labour.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Gravidez Prolongada , Conduta Expectante , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
20.
J Perinat Med ; 48(9): 857-866, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692708

RESUMO

These guidelines follow the mission of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine, which brings together groups and individuals throughout the world with the goal of improving outcomes of maternal, fetal and neonatal (perinatal) patients. Guidelines for auditing, evaluation, and clinical care in perinatal medicine enable physicians diagnose, treat and follow-up of COVID-19-exposed pregnant women. These guidelines are based on quality evidence in the peer review literature as well as the experience of perinatal expert throughout the world. Physicians are advised to apply these guidelines to the local realities which they face. We plan to update these guidelines as new evidence become available.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Morte Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Natimorto/epidemiologia
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