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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18136, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895766

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Despite the fact that treatment of paraquat poisoning in pregnant women and their fetuses is challenging and raises ethical issues, it is rarely reported in the literature. We report the case of a pregnant woman who took paraquat intentionally. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 36-year-old woman at 38 weeks gestational age, in an apparent suicide attempt, drank 1 mouthful (about 20 ml) of paraquat solution. Ten hours later, her urine dithionate test showed light blue color with a plasma paraquat concentration of 0.547 µg/ml. Six hours after admission, a male infant, whose plasma paraquat concentration was 0.761 µg/ml, together with 0.673 µg/ml in the amniotic fluid measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was delivered but the woman's lung, liver, and kidney function declined rapidly. DIAGNOSIS: INTERVENTIONS:: Because of placenta previa and multiple organ failure, emergency cesarean section, and panhysterectomy were performed for the pregnant woman. Intravenous injection of antibiotic to prevent infection and dexamethasone 30 mg once a day were administered. Mechanical ventilation was performed for the infant and meropenem and penicillin injection was administered. OUTCOMES: The infant died 33 hours after birth while the mother died on the 3rd day after ingestion. LESSONS: Paraquat can enter the fetus through the placenta and the amniotic fluid via fluid exchange. The pathological changes of fetal organs may relate to gestational age, and the prognosis was very poor in both the mother and the fetus.


Assuntos
Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/envenenamento , Paraquat/envenenamento , Morte Perinatal , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Morte Materna , Gravidez , Tentativa de Suicídio
6.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1144-1151, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564161

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in low- and middle-income countries, but AKI incidence in preeclampsia, its risk factors, and renal outcomes are unknown. A prospective observational multicenter study of women admitted with preeclampsia in South Africa was conducted. Creatinine concentrations were extracted from national laboratory databases for women with maximum creatinine of ≥90 µmol/L (≥1.02 mg/dL). Renal injury and recovery were defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria. Predefined risk factors, maternal outcomes, and neonatal outcomes were compared between AKI stages. Of 1547 women admitted with preeclampsia 237 (15.3%) met AKI criteria: 6.9% (n=107) stage 1, 4.3% (n=67) stage 2, and 4.1% (n=63) stage 3. There was a higher risk of maternal death (n=7; relative risk, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6-11.4) and stillbirth (n=80; relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8-2.8) in women with AKI compared with those without. Perinatal mortality was also increased (89 of 240; 37.1%). Hypertension in a previous pregnancy was the strongest predictor of AKI stage 2 or 3 (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.21-4.17). Renal recovery rate reduced with increasing AKI stage. A third of surviving women (76 of 230 [33.0%]) had not recovered baseline renal function by discharge. Approximately half (39 of 76; 51.3%) of these women had no further creatinine testing post-discharge. In summary, AKI was common in women with preeclampsia and had high rates of associated maternal and perinatal mortality. Only two-thirds of women had confirmed renal recovery. History of a previous hypertensive pregnancy was an important risk factor.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Morte Materna/tendências , Morte Perinatal , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Creatinina/sangue , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Função Renal , Razão de Chances , Pobreza , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , África do Sul , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 363-367, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the contribution of blood transfusion management in the improvement of maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with sickle cell disease in Ouagadougou. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study with data collected from February 2012 to January 2014 was used. Patients were differentiated into three groups: patients with at least one exchange transfusion, patients who received blood transfusion, and patients who did not receive any transfusion. Data were collected from patients' patient care documents. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-four patients were included, of whom 53 were in the first group, 32 in the second group, and 79 in the third group. Maternal complications in the last trimester of pregnancy were significantly less important (P=0.000) in the first group (58.5%) than in the second (78.5%) and third group (91.1%). The same trend was observed for postpartum maternal mortality (5.7%; 12.5%; 12.6%; P=0.009). Fetal complications such as preterm birth and early neonatal death were lower in the first group (15.1%; 1.8%) than in the second (40.6%; 23.1%) and third group (32.9%; 7.6%). CONCLUSION: Prophylactic blood transfusion is an important part of the management of pregnant patients with sickle cell disease.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 611, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper examines perinatal death reporting and reviews in Bungoma county, Kenya, where substantial progress has been made, providing important insights for wider scale up to other contexts. METHODS: Quantitative methods were used to analyse trends in perinatal death reporting and reviews between 2014 and 2017 throughout Kenya based on data from the District Health Information System. Qualitative methods helped further understand the success of perinatal death reporting and review in Bungoma county through focus group discussions and individual interviews at 5 hospitals and 1 health centre. Thematic analysis was used to draw out codes for the analysis. RESULTS: Only 13 of the 47 counties in Kenya conduct perinatal death reviews. In 2017, the year after the perinatal death review system was introduced, only 3.6% of perinatal deaths were reviewed in Kenya. Bungoma county has made the greatest strides in Kenya, reviewing 59% of the perinatal deaths that occurred within the county in 2017. Bungoma accounted for 51% of all the perinatal deaths reviewed in Kenya. Factors contributing to the success in Bungoma include harmonisation of facility based perinatal reporting tools with the national level; prioritising the need to document and report mortalities; tailoring continual medical education and supportive supervision visits to needs identified from the review; and better documentation and referral processes. Supportive management and administrative staff have also helped drive forward implementation of actions and increased health staff motivation to reduce perinatal deaths and improve quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: Successful implementation of perinatal death reviews requires clear delineation of roles and responsibilities for action, which are routinely monitored to track implementation progress. As in other low-income settings, Bungoma county has demonstrated that in Kenya, perinatal death reviews can be effectively implemented and sustained, through a focus on learning, solution-oriented responses, influencing those in a power to act, accountability for results, and observable quality of care improvements.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/tendências , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez
9.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1181-1190, 2019 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In women with late preterm pre-eclampsia, the optimal time to initiate delivery is unclear because limitation of maternal disease progression needs to be balanced against infant complications. The aim of this trial was to determine whether planned earlier initiation of delivery reduces maternal adverse outcomes without substantial worsening of neonatal or infant outcomes, compared with expectant management (usual care) in women with late preterm pre-eclampsia. METHODS: In this parallel-group, non-masked, multicentre, randomised controlled trial done in 46 maternity units across England and Wales, we compared planned delivery versus expectant management (usual care) with individual randomisation in women with late preterm pre-eclampsia from 34 to less than 37 weeks' gestation and a singleton or dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy. The co-primary maternal outcome was a composite of maternal morbidity or recorded systolic blood pressure of at least 160 mm Hg with a superiority hypothesis. The co-primary perinatal outcome was a composite of perinatal deaths or neonatal unit admission up to infant hospital discharge with a non-inferiority hypothesis (non-inferiority margin of 10% difference in incidence). Analyses were by intention to treat, together with a per-protocol analysis for the perinatal outcome. The trial was prospectively registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN01879376. The trial is closed to recruitment but follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Sept 29, 2014, and Dec 10, 2018, 901 women were recruited. 450 women (448 women and 471 infants analysed) were allocated to planned delivery and 451 women (451 women and 475 infants analysed) to expectant management. The incidence of the co-primary maternal outcome was significantly lower in the planned delivery group (289 [65%] women) compared with the expectant management group (338 [75%] women; adjusted relative risk 0·86, 95% CI 0·79-0·94; p=0·0005). The incidence of the co-primary perinatal outcome by intention to treat was significantly higher in the planned delivery group (196 [42%] infants) compared with the expectant management group (159 [34%] infants; 1·26, 1·08-1·47; p=0·0034). The results from the per-protocol analysis were similar. There were nine serious adverse events in the planned delivery group and 12 in the expectant management group. INTERPRETATION: There is strong evidence to suggest that planned delivery reduces maternal morbidity and severe hypertension compared with expectant management, with more neonatal unit admissions related to prematurity but no indicators of greater neonatal morbidity. This trade-off should be discussed with women with late preterm pre-eclampsia to allow shared decision making on timing of delivery. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Inglaterra , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Morte Materna , Morbidade , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , País de Gales , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(2): 156-164, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth causes an increased risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mid-trimester 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) reduces the risk of recurrent preterm birth and adverse perinatal outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Systematic search to identify relevant studies published in different languages, registered after 2000, using appropriate MeSH terms. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria were women between 16 and 26+6  weeks of pregnancy with history of preterm delivery in any pregnancy randomized to either 17-OHPC or placebo/no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The number of preterm births and adverse outcomes in the 17-OHPC and placebo arms over the total number of patients in each randomized group were used to calculate the risk ratio (RR) by random-effects models using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using tau2 , χ2 (Cochrane Q), and I2 statistics. MAIN RESULTS: Four studies were included. There was a 29% (RR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.96; P=0.001), 26% (RR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58-0.96; P=0.021), and 40% (RR 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.85; P=0.004) reduction in recurrent preterm birth at <37, <35, and <32 weeks, respectively, in the 17-OHPC group compared with placebo. The reduction in neonatal death was 68% (RR 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15-0.66; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: 17-OHPC could reduce the risk of recurrent preterm birth at <37, <35, and <28 weeks and neonatal death. PROSPERO: CDR42017082190.


Assuntos
Caproato de 17 alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/uso terapêutico , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 276, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of high-quality national audits for perinatal mortality are needed to improve the registration of all perinatal deaths and the identification of the causes of death. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a Regional Audit System for Stillbirth in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. METHODS: For each stillbirth (≥ 22 weeks of gestation, ≥ 500 g) occurred between January 1, 2014 to December 1, 2016 (n = 332), the same diagnostic workup was performed and a clinical record with data about mother and stillborn was completed. Every case was discussed in a multidisciplinary local audit to assess both the cause of death (ReCoDe classification) and the quality of care. Data were reviewed by the Regional Audit Group. Stillbirth rates, causes of death and the quality of care were established for each case. RESULTS: Total stillbirth rate was 3.09 per 1000 births (332/107,528). Late stillbirth rate was 2.3 per 1000 (251/107,087). Sixteen stillbirths were not registered by the Regional Birth Register. The most prevalent cause of death was placental disorder (33.3%), followed by fetal (17.6%), cord (14.2%) and maternal disorders (7.6%). Unexplained cases were 14%. Compared to local audits, the regional group attributed different causes of death in 17% of cases. At multivariate analysis, infections were associated with early stillbirths (OR 3.38, CI95% 1.62-7.03) and intrapartum cases (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). Placental disorders were related to growth restriction (OR 1.89, CI95% 1.06-3.36) and were more frequent before term (OR 1.86, CI95% 1.11-3.15). Stillbirths judged possibly/probably preventable with a different management (10.9%) occurred more frequently in non-Italian women and were mainly related to maternal disorders (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). CONCLUSIONS: Regional Audit System for Stillbirth improves the registration of stillbirth and allows to define the causes of death. Moreover, sub-optimal care was recognized, allowing to identify populations which could benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais/epidemiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Doenças Placentárias/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , África do Norte/etnologia , Causas de Morte , Auditoria Clínica , Europa Oriental/etnologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cordão Umbilical
12.
Acta Med Indones ; 51(2): 102-109, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is still a challenging autoimmune disease, especially in pregnancy setting. An early risk factors awareness of poor pregnancy outcome is important to optimize the outcome of pregnancy in SLE patients. This study was conducted to describe pregnancy outcome and determine the risk factors associated with poor pregnancy outcome in SLE patients. METHODS: a retrospective case-control study of SLE patients with poor and normal pregnancy outcome was performed. Pregnancy histories were reviewed from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital lupus registry study. The case group was pregnancy with poor outcome, defined as abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and neonatal death. The control group was pregnancy with good outcome, defined as live birth and full term. RESULTS: a total of 84 SLE patients were enrolled in this study with 109 pregnancies after SLE diagnosis. The median age of subjects at the time of pregnancy was 28 (25-32) years old. Poor pregnancy outcome comprising 22.9% abortion, 14.7% premature birth, 5.5% stillbirth, 1.8% IUGR and 4.6% neonatal death. There was a significant difference in the number of planned pregnancy (P=0.011) between groups with poor and good outcome. Clinical variables significantly associated with poor pregnancy outcome were lupus nephritis (OR = 4.813, 95% CI 1.709 - 13.557, P = 0.003) and neuropsychiatric SLE (OR = 5.045, 95% CI 1.278 - 19.920, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: the pregnancy in SLE patient should be planned to have better outcome. Lupus nephritis and neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE were risk factors for poor pregnancy outcome in SLE patient.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Indonésia , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nurs Res ; 68(5): E1-E9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although perinatal deaths are still a common pregnancy outcome in developing countries, little is known about the effect perinatal death has on fathers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to understand and describe the meaning of perinatal death in a sample of fathers from northeastern Colombia. METHODS: Using purposive and snowball sampling approaches, we identified 15 participants from northeastern Colombia who agreed to participate. We used a descriptive phenomenological design. Data were collected through in-depth, semistructured interviews. RESULTS: Men suffer in solitude and hide their emotions as they feel the need to be the main supporters of their partners. Three major themes emerged: experience of loss, coming to terms with an irreparable loss, and overcoming the loss. DISCUSSION: While women are receiving care, health staff may neglect or forget men. Men suffer alone while seeking ways of attunement with their partners' emotions to support them during the grieving process. Fathers can overcome and adjust to the loss when they transcend it and find new meaning. Men felt neglected and marginalized at hospitals while their partners were receiving treatment. Health professionals should recognize and acknowledge the pain of fathers who face perinatal death and include them as much as possible in the standard of care. The results identify opportunities for healthcare providers in clinical and outpatient settings to acknowledge the importance of men within the context of pregnancy and to learn about their pain and suffering when they face a perinatal death.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Morte Perinatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Colômbia , Emoções , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9180314, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467919

RESUMO

Background: The first 28 days of life (the neonatal period) constitute the most vulnerable time for a child's survival. Overall 2.7 million neonatal deaths were stated by the 2015 global report of neonatal mortality and they account for 45% of under-five deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region with the highest risk of death in the first month of life and is among the regions showing the least progress in reducing neonatal mortality in the world. Ethiopia, as part of sub-Saharan Africa, also shares the greatest risk of neonatal death. A recent report in Ethiopia showed that neonatal mortality was 29 deaths per 1,000 live births. Therefore, the signs that suggest the onset of severe illness which leads to death and their contributing factors should be identified. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about neonatal danger signs and associated factors among mothers attending immunization clinic at Arba Minch General Hospital. Method: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed from Feb to April 2018. Systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 345 mother-child pairs. A pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariable analysis were carried out using binary logistic regression to check and test the association between dependent and explanatory variables. Model fitness was checked by Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test. Result: Nearly two-fifths (40.9%) of all mothers had good knowledge about neonatal danger signs (95% CI; 35.7, 46.4). Close to thirty-three percent of mothers identified child's body hotness (fever) as a neonatal danger sign. Maternal educational status (AOR: 5.64; 95% CI: 1.68, 18.95) and attendance of postnatal care (AOR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.15) were significantly associated with maternal knowledge about neonatal danger signs in multivariable analysis. Conclusion: Even though considerable improvement has been achieved over the past decades as a result of expanded coverage of maternal and childcare services, still there are a significant number of mothers who have limited knowledge about neonatal danger signs. Therefore, interventional strategies that stress strengthening maternal education and ANC follow-up should be extended.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Imunização , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Mães , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Lancet ; 394(10201): 849-860, 2019 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, characterised by maternal pruritus and increased serum bile acid concentrations, is associated with increased rates of stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal unit admission. Ursodeoxycholic acid is widely used as a treatment without an adequate evidence base. We aimed to evaluate whether ursodeoxycholic acid reduces adverse perinatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. METHODS: We did a double-blind, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial at 33 hospital maternity units in England and Wales. We recruited women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, who were aged 18 years or older and with a gestational age between 20 weeks and 40 weeks and 6 days, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no known lethal fetal anomaly. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to ursodeoxycholic acid or placebo, given as two oral tablets a day at an equivalent dose of 500 mg twice a day. The dose could be increased or decreased at the clinician's discretion, to a maximum of four tablets and a minimum of one tablet a day. We recommended that treatment should be continued from enrolment until the infant's birth. The primary outcome was a composite of perinatal death (in-utero fetal death after randomisation or known neonatal death up to 7 days after birth), preterm delivery (<37 weeks' gestation), or neonatal unit admission for at least 4 h (from birth until hospital discharge). Each infant was counted once within this composite. All analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. The trial was prospectively registered with the ISRCTN registry, number 91918806. FINDINGS: Between Dec 23, 2015, and Aug 7, 2018, 605 women were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive ursodeoxycholic acid (n=305) or placebo (n=300). The primary outcome analysis included 304 women and 322 infants in the ursodeoxycholic acid group, and 300 women and 318 infants in the placebo group (consent to use data was withdrawn for 1 woman and 2 infants). The primary composite outcome occurred in 74 (23%) of 322 infants in the ursodeoxycholic acid group and 85 (27%) of 318 infants in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·62-1·15]). Two serious adverse events were reported in the ursodeoxycholic acid group and six serious adverse events were reported in the placebo group; no serious adverse events were regarded as being related to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid does not reduce adverse perinatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Therefore, its routine use for this condition should be reconsidered. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme.


Assuntos
Colagogos e Coleréticos/administração & dosagem , Colestase Intra-Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colestase Intra-Hepática/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Prurido/prevenção & controle , Natimorto/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 140, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to understand the differences in mortality rate, risk factors for mortality, and cause of death distribution in three neonatal age sub-groups (0-2, 3-7, and 8-27 days) and assess the change in mortality rate with previous assessments to inform programmatic decision-making in the Indian state of Bihar, a large state with a high burden of newborn deaths. METHODS: Detailed interviews were conducted in a representative sample of 23,602 live births between January and December 2016 (96.2% participation) in Bihar state. We estimated the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) for the three age sub-groups and explored the association of these deaths with a variety of risk factors using a hierarchical logistic regression model approach. Verbal autopsies were conducted using the PHMRC questionnaire and the cause of death assigned using the SmartVA automated algorithm. Change in NMR from 2011 to 2016 was estimated by comparing it with a previous assessment. RESULTS: The NMR 0-2-day, 3-7-day, and 8-27-day mortality estimates in 2016 were 24.7 (95% CI 21.8-28.0), 13.2 (11.1 to 15.7), 5.8 (4.4 to 7.5), and 5.8 (4.5 to 7.5) per 1000 live births, respectively. A statistically significant reduction of 23.3% (95% CI 9.2% to 37.3) was seen in NMR from 2011 to 2016, driven by a reduction of 35.3% (95% CI 18.4% to 52.2) in 0-2-day mortality. In the final regression model, the highest odds for mortality in 0-2 days were related to the gestation period of ≤ 8 months (OR 16.5, 95% CI 11.9-22.9) followed by obstetric complications, no antiseptic cord care, and delivery at a private health facility or home. The 3-7- and 8-27-day mortality was driven by illness in the neonatal period (OR 10.33, 95% CI 6.31-16.90, and OR 4.88, 95% CI 3.13-7.61, respectively) and pregnancy with multiple foetuses (OR 5.15, 95% CI 2.39-11.10, and OR 11.77, 95% CI 6.43-21.53, respectively). Birth asphyxia (61.1%) and preterm delivery (22.1%) accounted for most of 0-2-day deaths; pneumonia (34.5%), preterm delivery (33.7%), and meningitis/sepsis (20.1%) accounted for the majority of 3-7-day deaths; meningitis/sepsis (30.6%), pneumonia (29.1%), and preterm delivery (26.2%) were the leading causes of death at 8-27 days. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a detailed neonatal epidemiology by age sub-groups for a major Indian state, which has highlighted the distinctly different mortality rate, risk factors, and causes of death at 0-2 days versus the rest of the neonatal period. Monitoring mortality at 0-2 and 3-7 days separately in the traditional early neonatal period of 0-7 days would enable more effective programming to reduce neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/patologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Nascimento Prematuro/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002838, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in healthcare, stillbirth rates remain relatively unchanged. We conducted a systematic review to quantify the risks of stillbirth and neonatal death at term (from 37 weeks gestation) according to gestational age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the major electronic databases Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar (January 1990-October 2018) without language restrictions. We included cohort studies on term pregnancies that provided estimates of stillbirths or neonatal deaths by gestation week. We estimated the additional weekly risk of stillbirth in term pregnancies that continued versus delivered at various gestational ages. We compared week-specific neonatal mortality rates by gestational age at delivery. We used mixed-effects logistic regression models with random intercepts, and computed risk ratios (RRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen studies (15 million pregnancies, 17,830 stillbirths) were included. All studies were from high-income countries. Four studies provided the risks of stillbirth in mothers of White and Black race, 2 in mothers of White and Asian race, 5 in mothers of White race only, and 2 in mothers of Black race only. The prospective risk of stillbirth increased with gestational age from 0.11 per 1,000 pregnancies at 37 weeks (95% CI 0.07 to 0.15) to 3.18 per 1,000 at 42 weeks (95% CI 1.84 to 4.35). Neonatal mortality increased when pregnancies continued beyond 41 weeks; the risk increased significantly for deliveries at 42 versus 41 weeks gestation (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.86, p = 0.012). One additional stillbirth occurred for every 1,449 (95% CI 1,237 to 1,747) pregnancies that advanced from 40 to 41 weeks. Limitations include variations in the definition of low-risk pregnancy, the wide time span of the studies, the use of registry-based data, and potential confounders affecting the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest there is a significant additional risk of stillbirth, with no corresponding reduction in neonatal mortality, when term pregnancies continue to 41 weeks compared to delivery at 40 weeks. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015013785.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Nascimento a Termo , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mortalidade Perinatal/etnologia , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/etnologia , Nascimento a Termo/etnologia
19.
BJOG ; 126(10): 1258, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166069
20.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(4): 501-506, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171900

RESUMO

Objective: To demonstrate the differences in intrauterine fetal deaths and neonatal deaths between small for date (SFD) and Non-SFD neonates by applying a novel classification from both Z scores of placental weight (PW) and fetal/placental weight ratio (F/P) to small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Methods: From 93,034 placentas/infants of mothers who vaginally delivered a singleton infant (Japan Perinatal Registry Network database 2013), SGA (n=7,780) was chosen according to the reference to Japanese neonatal growth chart. They were divided into two subgroups: SFD (body weight and height less than the 10th percentile, n=3,379) and Non-SFD (only body weight less than the 10th percentile, n=4,401). Z scores of PW and F/P based on the standard curves for sex-, parity-, and gestational-age-specific PW and F/P were calculated. The population was classified into 9 groups according to the combination of 'low vs. middle vs. high' i) PW Z score and ii) F/P Z score. In both i) and ii), ± 1.28 standard deviations in the Z scores were used for classifying low vs. middle vs. high, with 3×3 making 9 groups. From top-left to bottom-right, we labeled the groups as Group A to Group I. Results: SFD and Non-SFD neonates distributed in the same 6 groups (A, D, E, G, H, I). In group E, which was considered to be balanced placental and infant growth, the incidence of intrauterine fetal death was significantly higher in Non-SFD neonates than in SFD neonates. In group D, which was considered to be small placenta and balanced infant growth, the incidence of neonatal death was significantly higher in SFD neonates than in Non-SFD neonates. Conclusion: Assessment of SGA neonates by dividing them into SFD and Non-SFD neonates and application of a 9-group classification by PW and F/P Z scores were informative to understand the pathophysiological involvement of an imbalance between placental and fetal sizes.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/fisiologia , Morte Perinatal , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Peso ao Nascer , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez
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