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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(10): e1523-e1533, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After considerable debate, there is now unequivocal evidence that use of antenatal corticosteroids improves outcomes in preterm neonates when used in women at risk of early preterm birth in reasonably equipped hospitals in low-resource countries. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of dexamethasone administration in the management of preterm birth in a cohort of pregnant women from five low-resource countries. METHODS: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using data from 2828 women (and 3051 babies) who participated in the WHO ACTION-I trial, a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial that assessed the safety and efficacy of dexamethasone in pregnant women at risk of early preterm birth in 29 hospitals across Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan. We used a decision tree model to assess the cost-effectiveness of dexamethasone treatment compared with no intervention from a health-care sector perspective. Outcome data were taken from the primary results of the trial and primary data on cost were collected in 28 hospitals. The primary cost-effectiveness outcome was cost per neonatal death or the cost per disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted, or costs saved per 1000 woman-baby units if the intervention was found to be cost-saving. FINDINGS: Administration of dexamethasone averted 38 neonatal deaths per 1000 woman-baby units and 1132 DALYs per 1000 woman-baby units. Compared with no intervention, use of antenatal corticosteroids was cost-saving in all five countries, ranging from a saving of US$1778 per 1000 woman-baby units (95% uncertainty interval [UI] -13 878 to 9483) in Nigeria, to $20 531 per 1000 woman-baby units (-46 387 to 4897) in Pakistan, to $36 870 per 1000 woman-baby units (-61 569 to -15 672) in Bangladesh, to $38 303 per 1000 woman-baby units (-64 183 to -10 753) in India, and to $53 681 per 1000 woman-baby units (-113 822 to 2394) in Kenya. Findings remained consistent following sensitivity analyses. In all five countries, dexamethasone was more effective and cost less compared with no treatment. INTERPRETATION: Antenatal dexamethasone for early preterm birth was cost-saving when used in hospitals in low-resource countries. Decision makers in low-resource settings can be confident that use of antenatal dexamethasone for early preterm birth is cost-effective, and often cost-saving when used in reasonably equipped hospitals in low-resource countries. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and WHO.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Corticosteroides , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2229532, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053536

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency department (ED) use during pregnancy may be associated with worse obstetrical outcomes, possibly because of differences in access to health care. It is not known whether ED use before pregnancy is associated with serious adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Objective: To study the association between prepregnancy ED use and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, and included all livebirths and stillbirths from April 2003 to January 2020. Exposures: Main exposure was any ED encounter within 90 days preceding the start of the index pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was a composite of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) from 20 weeks' gestation to 42 days' post partum. Secondary outcomes included severe neonatal morbidity (SNM) from 0 to 27 days, neonatal death, and stillbirth. Relative risks (RRs) were adjusted for maternal age, income, and rurality. Results: Of 2 130 245 births, there were 2 119 335 livebirths (99.5%) and 10 910 stillbirths (0.5%). The mean (SD) maternal age was 29.6 (5.4) years, 212 478 (9.9%) were rural dwelling, and 498 219 (23%) had 3 or more comorbidities. Among all births, 218 011 (9.7%) had a prepregnancy ED visit. The rate of SMM was higher among women with a prepregnancy ED visit than those without (22.3 vs 16.5 per 1000 births), with an RR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.30-1.38) and an adjusted RR (aRR) of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.33-1.42). Compared with no prepregnancy ED visit, the aRR was higher in those with 1 (1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.34), 2 (1.51; 95% CI, 1.42-1.61), and 3 or more (1.74; 95% CI, 1.61-1.90) ED visits. Prepregnancy ED visits for a hematological (aRR, 13.60; 95% CI, 10.48-17.64), endocrine (aRR, 4.96; 95% CI, 3.72-6.62), and circulatory (aRR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.68-3.07) conditions were associated with the highest aRRs for SMM. The rate of SNM was higher among newborns whose mother visited the ED within 90 days before pregnancy (68.2 vs 55.4 per 1000 births; aRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.22-1.26) as was the risk of neonatal death (aRR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.37) and stillbirth (aRR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, ED use was common before pregnancy. These findings suggest that ED use may not only reflect a woman's access to prepregnancy care but also higher future risk of severe maternal and perinatal morbidity, potentially offering a useful trigger for health system interventions to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Natimorto , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272734, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examines the association between quality Postnatal Care (PNC) considering timing and providers' type on neonatal mortality. The aim extends to account for regional disparities in service delivery and mortality including high and non-high focus states. METHODS: Ever-married women aged 15-49 years (1,87,702) who had delivered at least one child in five years preceding the survey date surveyed in National Family Health Survey (2015-16) were included in the study. Neonatal deaths between day two and seven and neonatal deaths between day two and twenty-eight were considered dependent variables. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Chances of early neonatal mortality were 29% (OR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.59-0.84) among newborns receiving PNC within a day compared to ones devoid of it while 40% (OR: 0.60; 95%CI: 0.51-0.71) likelihood for the same was noted if PNC was delivered within a week. Likelihood of neonatal mortality decreased by 24% (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.65-0.88) when skilled PNC was delivered within 24 hours. Receiving quality PNC by skilled providers within a day in a non-high focus state decreased the chances of neonatal mortality by 26% (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.59-0.92) compared to ones who did not receive any PNC. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal deaths were significantly associated with socioeconomic and contextual characteristics including age, education, household wealth, social group and region. Timing of PNC delivered and by a skilled healthcare provider was found significant in reducing neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 994-1000, 2022.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the changes in the mortality rate and cause of death of hospitalized neonates in grade A tertiary hospitals in Weifang City of Shandong Province during a 10-year period. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 461 neonates who died in three grade A tertiary hospitals in Weifang City of Shandong Province from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2021. The related clinical data were collected to examine the changes of neonatal mortality with time, gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW). The main causes of death of the neonates were compared between the first 5 years (2012-2016) and the last 5 years (2017-2021) in the period. RESULTS: A total of 43 037 neonates were admitted from 2012 to 2021, among whom 461 died, resulting in a mortality rate of 1.07%. The mortality rate in the last 5 years was significantly lower than that in the first 5 years [0.96% (211/22 059 vs 1.19% (250/20 978); P<0.05]. The mortality rate of neonates decreased with the increases in GA and BW (P<0.05). In the first 5 years, the top three main causes of neonatal death were respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), sepsis, and pneumorrhagia, while in the last 5 years, the top three causes were sepsis, pneumorrhagia, and RDS. The leading cause of death was severe asphyxia for the neonates with a GA of <26 weeks and a BW of <750 g in both the first and last 5 years. For the neonates with a GA of 26-<28 weeks, the leading cause of death changed from RDS in the first 5 years to pneumorrhagia in the last 5 years. For the neonates with a BW of 750-<1 000 g, the leading cause of death changed from pneumorrhagia in the first 5 years to RDS in the last 5 years. For the neonates with a GA of 28-<32 weeks and a BW of 1 000-<1 500 g, the leading cause of death was RDS in both the first and last 5 years. For the neonates with a GA of 32-<37 weeks and a BW of 1 500-<2 500 g, the leading cause of death changed from RDS in the first 5 years to sepsis in the last 5 years. The leading cause of death was sepsis for the neonates with a GA of 37-<42 weeks and a BW of 2 500-<4 000 g in both the first and last 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate of neonates in the grade A tertiary hospitals in Weifang City of Shandong Province has been decreasing in the past 10 years, and it decreases with the increases in GA and BW. Sepsis, RDS, and pneumorrhagia are the leading causes of neonatal death. The mortality rate caused by RDS decreases from the first 5 years to the last 5 years, while the mortality rate caused by sepsis or pneumorrhagia increases from the first 5 years to the last 5 years. Therefore, reducing the incidence rates of sepsis, RDS, and pneumorrhagia is the key to reducing neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Sepse , Peso ao Nascer , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
F1000Res ; 11: 739, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128551

RESUMO

Background: The Maternal and Perinatal Death Surveillance and Response (MPDSR) proposed by the World Health Organization recognises the importance for health systems to understand the reasons underpinning the death of a pregnant woman or her newborn as an essential first step in preventing future similar deaths. Data for the surveillance component of the MPDSR process are typically collected from health facility sources and post-mortem interviews with affected families, though it may be traumatising to them. This brief report aimed to assess the potential utility of an augmented data collection method for mapping journeys of maternal and perinatal deaths, which does not require sourcing additional information from grieving family members. Methods: A descriptive analysis of maternal and perinatal deaths that occurred across all 24 public hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria, between 1 st November 2018 and 30 th October 2019 was conducted. Data on their demographic, obstetric history and complication at presentation, travel to the hospital, and mode of birth were extracted from their hospital records. The extracted travel data was exported to Google Maps, where driving distance and travel time to the hospital for the period of the day of travel were also extracted. Results: Of the 182 maternal deaths, most presented during the week (80.8%), travelled 5-10 km (30.6%) and 10-29 minutes (46.9%), and travelled to the nearest hospital to their places of residence (70.9%). Of the 442 pregnant women who had perinatal deaths, most presented during the week (78.5%), travelled <5 km (26.9%) and 10-29 minutes (38.0%). For both, the least reported travel data was the mode of travel used to care (>90.0%) and the period of the day they travelled (approximately 30.0%). Conclusion: An augmented data collection approach that includes accurate and complete travel data and closer-to-reality estimates of travel time and distance can be beneficial for MPDSR purposes.


Assuntos
Morte Materna , Morte Perinatal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gestantes
7.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, in 2021, more than 80% of all newborn deaths were caused by preventable and treatable conditions. This study aimed to measure the incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes and risk factors among women with pre-eclampsia in the Sidama region of southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective open cohort study was conducted from 8 August 2019 to 1 October 2020. We enrolled 363 women with pre-eclampsia and 367 normotensive women at ≥20 weeks of gestation and followed them until the 37th week. We then followed them until the seventh day after delivery up to the last perinatal outcome status was ascertained. A log-binomial logistic regression model was used to estimate the incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes and its risk factors among women with pre-eclampsia. Relative risk (RR) with a 95% CI was reported. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There were 224 adverse perinatal outcomes observed in the 363 women with pre-eclampsia compared with 136 adverse perinatal outcomes in the 367 normotensive women (p<0.001). There were 23 early neonatal deaths in the pre-eclampsia group compared with six deaths in the normotensive group (p<0.001). There were 35 perinatal deaths in the pre-eclampsia group compared with 16 deaths in the normotensive group (p<0.05). Women with severe features of pre-eclampsia had a 46% (adjusted RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.77) higher risk for adverse perinatal outcomes compared with women without severe features of pre-eclampsia. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more adverse perinatal outcomes occurred among women with pre-eclampsia after controlling for confounders. A higher perinatal outcome observed among women with pre-eclampsia, especially among women with severe features of pre-eclampsia, and those admitted to hospital at <34 weeks. This paper highlights the significantly elevated perinatal risks associated with pre-eclampsia, especially when it has severe features.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Estudos de Coortes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273665, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The neonatal near-miss cases are subject to factors that are major causes of early neonatal deaths. For every death, more newborns suffer a life-threatening complication. Nearly 98% of neonatal death unduly existed in developing countries. Though there were few prior studies in other regions, they failed in identifying the factors of NNM. Besides, there has been no prior study in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors associated with neonatal near-miss. METHODS: A case-control study was employed on a total of 252 cases and 756 controls using a systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using pre-tested and interview administered questionnaires adapted from similar studies and medical records from December 2020 -March 2021. Pragmatic and management criteria definition of neonatal near miss were utilized. Epi-Data version 3.1 and SPSS version 23 were used for data entry and analysis respectively. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were done to identify factors associated with a neonatal near-miss by using COR and AOR with a 95% confidence interval. Finally, the statistical significance was declared at a p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: There were a response rate of 100% for both cases, and controls. Factors that affects neonatal near miss were non-governmental/private employee (AOR, 1.72[95%CI: 1.037, 2.859]), referral in (AOR, 1.51[95%CI: 1.079, 2.108]), multiple birth (AOR, 2.50[95%CI: 1.387, 4.501]), instrumental assisted delivery (AOR, 4.11[95%CI: 1.681, 10.034]), hypertensive during pregnancy (AOR, 3.32[95%CI: 1.987, 5.530]), and male neonates (AOR, 1.71[95%CI: 1.230, 2.373]), paternal education of secondary school (AOR, 0.43[95%CI: 0.210, 0.868]) and college/above (AOR, 0.25[95%CI: 0.109, 0.578]), monthly income (1500-3500 birr) (AOR, 0.29[95%CI: 0.105, 0.809]) and >3500 birr (AOR, 0.34[95%CI: 0.124, 0.906]). CONCLUSION: Maternal occupation, paternal education, income, referral, multiple births, mode of delivery, hypertension during pregnancy, and sex of the neonate have identified factors with neonatal near-miss. Better to create job opportunities, improving education, and income generation. Counseling on multiple birth and hypertension, and minimizing instrumental delivery should be done at the health facility level.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Near Miss , Morte Perinatal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272712, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, socioeconomic status (SES) is an important health determinant across a range of health conditions and diseases. However, measuring SES within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be particularly challenging given the variation and diversity of LMIC populations. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates whether maternal SES as assessed by the newly developed Global Network-SES Index is associated with pregnancy outcomes (stillbirths, perinatal mortality, and neonatal mortality) in six LMICs: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia. METHODS: The analysis included data from 87,923 women enrolled in the Maternal and Newborn Health Registry of the NICHD-funded Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research. Generalized estimating equations models were computed for each outcome by SES level (high, moderate, or low) and controlling for site, maternal age, parity, years of schooling, body mass index, and facility birth, including sampling cluster as a random effect. RESULTS: Women with low SES had significantly higher risks for stillbirth (p < 0.001), perinatal mortality (p = 0.001), and neonatal mortality (p = 0.005) than women with high SES. In addition, those with moderate SES had significantly higher risks of stillbirth (p = 0.003) and perinatal mortality (p = 0.008) in comparison to those with high SES. CONCLUSION: The SES categories were associated with pregnancy outcomes, supporting the validity of the index as a non-income-based measure of SES for use in studies of pregnancy outcomes in LMICs.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Natimorto , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , População Rural , Classe Social , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
10.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04069, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972943

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organization launched the International Classification of Diseases for Perinatal Mortality (ICD-PM) in 2016 to uniformly report on the causes of perinatal deaths. In this systematic review, we aim to describe the global use of the ICD-PM by reporting causes of perinatal mortality and summarizing challenges and suggested amendments. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, and CINAHL databases using key terms related to perinatal mortality and the classification for causes of death. We included studies that applied the ICD-PM and were published between January 2016 and June 2021. The ICD-PM data were extracted and a qualitative analysis was performed to summarize the challenges of the ICD-PM. We applied the PRISMA guidelines, registered our protocol at PROSPERO [CRD42020203466], and used the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS) as a framework to evaluate the quality of evidence. Results: The search retrieved 6599 reports. Of these, we included 15 studies that applied the ICD-PM to 44 900 perinatal deaths. Most causes varied widely; for example, "antepartum hypoxia" was the cause of stillbirths in 0% to 46% (median = 12%, n = 95) in low-income settings, 0% to 62% (median = 6%, n = 1159) in middle-income settings and 0% to 55% (median = 5%, n = 249) in high-income settings. Five studies reported challenges and suggested amendments to the ICD-PM. The most frequently reported challenges included the high proportion of antepartum deaths of unspecified cause (five studies), the inability to determine the cause of death when the timing of death is unknown (three studies), and the challenge of assigning one cause in case of multiple contributing conditions (three studies). Conclusions: The ICD-PM is increasingly being used across the globe and gives health care providers insight into the causes of perinatal death in different settings. However, there is wide variation in reported causes of perinatal death across comparable settings, which suggests that the ICD-PM is applied inconsistently. We summarized the suggested amendments and made additional recommendations to improve the use of the ICD-PM and help strengthen its consistency. Registration: PROSPERO [CRD42020203466].


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14386, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999246

RESUMO

We estimated mortality and economic loss attributable to PM2·5 air pollution exposure in 429 counties of Iran in 2018. Ambient PM2.5-related deaths were estimated using the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM). According to the ground-monitored and satellite-based PM2.5 data, the annual mean population-weighted PM2·5 concentrations for Iran were 30.1 and 38.6 µg m-3, respectively. We estimated that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 contributed to 49,303 (95% confidence interval (CI) 40,914-57,379) deaths in adults ≥ 25 yr. from all-natural causes based on ground monitored data and 58,873 (95% CI 49,024-68,287) deaths using satellite-based models for PM2.5. The crude death rate and the age-standardized death rate per 100,000 population for age group ≥ 25 year due to ground-monitored PM2.5 data versus satellite-based exposure estimates was 97 (95% CI 81-113) versus 116 (95% CI 97-135) and 125 (95% CI 104-145) versus 149 (95% CI 124-173), respectively. For ground-monitored and satellite-based PM2.5 data, the economic loss attributable to ambient PM2.5-total mortality was approximately 10,713 (95% CI 8890-12,467) and 12,792.1 (95% CI 10,652.0-14,837.6) million USD, equivalent to nearly 3.7% (95% CI 3.06-4.29) and 4.3% (95% CI 3.6-4.5.0) of the total gross domestic product in Iran in 2018.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Morte Perinatal , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
12.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04055, 2022 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976004

RESUMO

Background: Breech presentation delivery approach is a controversial issue in obstetrics. How to cope with breech delivery (vaginal or C-section) has been discussed to find the safest in terms of morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the risks of foetal and maternal mortality and perinatal morbidity associated with vaginal delivery against elective caesarean in breech presentations, as reported in observational studies. Methods: Studies assessing perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with breech presentations births. Cochrane, Medline, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Cuiden databases were consulted. This protocol was registered in PROSPERO CRD42020197598. Selection criteria were: years between 2010 and 2020, in English language, and full-term gestation (37-42 weeks). The methodological quality of the eligible articles was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analyses were performed to study each parameter related to neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity. Results: The meta-analysis included 94 285 births with breech presentation. The relative risk of perinatal mortality was 5.48 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.61-11.51) times higher in the vaginal delivery group, 4.12 (95% CI = 2.46-6.89) for birth trauma and 3.33 (95% CI = 1.95-5.67) for Apgar results. Maternal morbidity showed a relative risk 0.30 (95% CI = 0.13-0.67) times higher in the planned caesarean group. Conclusions: An increment in the risk of perinatal mortality, birth trauma, and Apgar lower than 7 was identified in planned vaginal delivery. However, the risk of severe maternal morbidity because of complications of a planned caesarean was slightly higher.


Assuntos
Apresentação Pélvica , Morte Perinatal , Apresentação Pélvica/cirurgia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 634, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 150 babies are stillborn or die in the first month of life in the UK. Most women conceive again, and subsequent pregnancies are often characterised by feelings of stress and anxiety, persisting beyond the birth. Psychological distress increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes and longer-term parenting difficulties. Appropriate emotional support in subsequent pregnancies is key to ensure the wellbeing of women and families. Substantial variability in existing care has been reported, including fragmentation and poor communication. A new care package improving midwifery continuity and access to emotional support during subsequent pregnancy could improve outcomes. However, no study has assessed the feasibility of a full-scale trial to test effectiveness in improving outcomes and cost-effectiveness for the National Health Service (NHS). METHODS: A prospective, mixed-methods pre-and post-cohort study, in two Northwest England Maternity Units. Thirty-eight women, (≤ 20 weeks' gestation, with a previous stillbirth, or neonatal death) were offered the study intervention (allocation of a named midwife care coordinator and access to group and online support). Sixteen women receiving usual care were recruited in the 6 months preceding implementation of the intervention. Outcome data were collected at 2 antenatal and 1 postnatal visit(s). Qualitative interviews captured experiences of care and research processes with women (n = 20), partners (n = 5), and midwives (n = 8). RESULTS: Overall recruitment was 90% of target, and 77% of women completed the study. A diverse sample reflected the local population, but non-English speaking was a barrier to participation. Study processes and data collection methods were acceptable. Those who received increased midwifery continuity valued the relationship with the care coordinator and perceived positive impacts on pregnancy experiences. However, the anticipated increase in antenatal continuity for direct midwife contacts was not observed for the intervention group. Take-up of in-person support groups was also limited. CONCLUSIONS: Women and partners welcomed the opportunity to participate in research. Continuity of midwifery care was supported as a beneficial strategy to improve care and support in pregnancy after the death of a baby by both parents and professionals. Important barriers to implementation included changes in leadership, service pressures and competing priorities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17447733 first registration 13/02/2018.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia , Morte Perinatal , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Clínicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tocologia/métodos , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Natimorto/psicologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12124, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840626

RESUMO

Neonatal mortality is the death of a live-born baby within the first 28 days of birth. For the selected households, neonatal mortality was collected from children aged 0-28 days and women aged 15-49. The neonatal period is a significant 4-week period in human life because it carries a greater mortality risk. To identify the determinant factors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia based on EDHS 2016 data with the application of count regression models. In this study, all neonates in Ethiopia were born within the 5 years preceding EDHS 2016 of the source population in the selected EAs from September to December 2015. Count regression models were used to analyze the data. A total of 10,641 live-born neonates within the previous 5 years of EDHS 2016 had neonatal mortality of women aged 15-49, which was considered in the study to be 7193. The data were found to have excess zeros (96.6%), and the variance (0.052) was higher than its mean (0.04). The count regression model (ZINB) was best fitted to the data with maximum likelihood parameter estimation methods. The average neonatal mortality difference in multiple births was increased by IRR = 8.53 times compared with a single birth. The average number of neonatal deaths experienced during breastfeeding was lower (IRR = 0.38) than that experienced by mothers who did not experience breastfeeding their child. The average neonatal mortality difference in rural residences was increased by IRR = 3.99 times compared to urban mothers' residences. In this study, the prevalence of Neonatal mortality in Ethiopia was higher. For selected ZINB count regression models of explanatory variables, such as multiple birth types, having rural residence factors of neonatal mortality increased the risk of death. However, having early breastfeeding, a female household head, and antenatal visits (1-4) and (5-10) during pregnancy decrease the risk of neonatal death.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Morte Perinatal , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(7): e616-e625, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few quantitative studies into the effect of comprehensive smoke-free legislation on neonatal and infant mortality in middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the effects of implementing comprehensive smoke-free legislation on neonatal mortality and infant mortality across all middle-income countries. METHODS: We applied the synthetic control method using 1990-2018 country-level panel data for 106 middle-income countries from the WHO, World Bank, and Penn World datasets. Outcome variables were neonatal (age 0-28 days) mortality and infant (age 0-12 months) mortality rates per 1000 livebirths per year. For each middle-income country with comprehensive smoke-free legislation, a synthetic control country was constructed from middle-income countries without comprehensive smoke-free legislation, but with similar prelegislation trends in the outcome and predictor variables. Overall legislation effect was the mean average of country-specific effects weighted by the number of livebirths. We compared the distribution of the legislation effects with that of the placebo effects to assess the likelihood that the observed effect was related to the implementation of smoke-free legislation and not merely influenced by other processes. FINDINGS: 31 (29%) of 106 middle-income countries introduced comprehensive smoke-free legislation and had outcome data for at least 3 years after the intervention. We were able to construct a synthetic control country for 18 countries for neonatal mortality and for 15 countries for infant mortality. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation was followed by a mean yearly decrease of 1·63% in neonatal mortality and a mean yearly decrease of 1·33% in infant mortality. An estimated 12 392 neonatal deaths in 18 countries and 8932 infant deaths in 15 countries were avoided over 3 years following the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation. We estimated that an additional 104 063 infant deaths (including 95 850 neonatal deaths) could have been avoided over 3 years if the 72 control middle-income countries had introduced this legislation in 2015. 220 (43%) of 514 placebo effects for neonatal mortality and 112 (39%) of 289 for infant mortality were larger than the estimated aggregated legislation effect, indicating a degree of uncertainty around our estimates. Sensitivity analyses showed results that were consistent with the main analysis and suggested a dose-response association related to comprehensiveness of the legislation. INTERPRETATION: Implementing comprehensive smoke-free legislation in middle-income countries could substantially reduce preventable deaths in neonates and infants. FUNDING: Dutch Heart Foundation, Lung Foundation Netherlands, Dutch Cancer Society, Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, Netherlands Thrombosis Foundation, Health Data Research UK.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Morte do Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 60(3): 367-372, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The competing-risks model for assessment of risk for pre-eclampsia (PE) at 35-37 weeks' gestation identifies the majority of women who are at high risk of subsequent delivery with PE. We aimed to examine the incidence and relative risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patient groups stratified according to the estimated risk of delivery with PE. METHODS: This was a prospective non-interventional, observational study in women with a singleton pregnancy attending for a routine hospital visit at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation. The risk of delivery with PE for each patient in the study population was estimated using the competing-risks model, combining the prior distribution of gestational age at delivery with PE and the likelihood from multiples of the median values of mean arterial pressure, placental growth factor and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. The patients were assigned to one of the following five risk categories: Group A, ≥ 1 in 2; Group B, 1 in 5 to 1 in 3; Group C, 1 in 20 to 1 in 6; Group D, 1 in 50 to 1 in 21; and Group E, < 1 in 50. The outcome measures were delivery with PE, gestational hypertension (GH), small-for-gestational age (SGA) at birth, delivery by Cesarean section, stillbirth, neonatal death, perinatal death and admission to the neonatal unit (NNU) for at least 48 h. In each risk category, the proportion of women with each adverse outcome was determined and relative risks (RR) were calculated as compared with the lowest-risk Group E. RESULTS: In the study population of 29 035 women, 1.6%, 2.7%, 8.2%, 9.8% and 77.8% were categorized into Groups A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Compared with women in Group E, women in the higher-risk groups were more likely to have an adverse outcome. The RR of delivery with PE in Group A compared with Group E was 65.5 (95% CI, 54.1-79.1) and the respective values were 11.9 (95% CI, 9.1-15.5) for GH, 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.1) for delivery by emergency Cesarean section, 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-1.8) for delivery by elective Cesarean section, 8.9 (95% CI, 7.4-10.8) for SGA with birth weight < 3rd percentile, 4.8 (95% CI, 4.3-5.4) for SGA with birth weight < 10th percentile, 5.3 (95% CI, 1.4-20.5) for stillbirth and 3.4 (95% CI, 2.8-4.2) for NNU admission for ≥ 48 h. The RR for these pregnancy complications in higher-risk groups (vs Group E) was particularly high for cases with delivery within 2 weeks after assessment. In terms of SGA, both for birth weight < 10th and < 3rd percentiles, the trend in all cases was stronger than that observed when the analysis was confined to normotensive pregnancies. The rates of neonatal death were too small to allow meaningful comparisons between risk groups. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women identified by the competing-risks model to be at high risk of PE are also at increased risk of GH, Cesarean section, stillbirth, SGA and NNU admission for ≥ 48 h. © 2022 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Fator de Crescimento Placentário , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Artéria Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0272016, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-neonatal mortality is the number of deaths of infants aged 28 days through 11 months and is expressed as post-neonatal deaths per 1000 live births per year. This study aimed to identify the factors that influence post-neonatal death using the 2019 Ethiopia mini demographic and health survey (EMDHS2019). METHODS: The study included 2126 post neonates born from mothers who had been interviewed about births in the five years before the survey. The survey gathering period was carried out from March 21, 2019, to June 28, 2019. The data were first analyzed with a chi-square test of association, and then relevant factors were evaluated with binary logistic regression models and the results were interpreted using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval(CI) of parameters. RESULTS: The prevalence of post neonatal death was 16% (95% CI: 15.46, 17.78). The study also showed that not vaccinated post-neonates (AOR = 2.325, 95% CI: 1.784, 3.029), mothers who were not receiving any tetanus injection (AOR = 2.891, 95% CI: 2.254, 3.708), mothers age group 15-24(AOR = 1.836, 95% CI: 1.168, 2.886), Afar (AOR = 2.868, 95% CI: 1.264, 6.506), Somali(AOR = 2.273, 95% CI: 1.029, 5.020), Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region(SNNP) (AOR = 2.619, 95% CI: 1.096, 6.257), 2-4 birth orders (AOR = 1.936, 95% CI: 1.225, 3.060), not attend antenatal care(ANC) visit (AOR = 6.491, 95% CI: 3.928, 10.726), and preceding birth interval less than 24 months (AOR = 1.755, 95% CI: 1.363,2.261) statistically associated with a higher risk of post neonatal death. Although not given anything other than breast milk (AOR = 0.604, 95% CI 0.462, 0.789), urban residents (AOR = 0.545, 95% CI: 0.338, 0.877), single births (AOR = 0.150, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.234), less than 3 children in a family (AOR = 0.665, 95% CI 0.470, 0.939) and the head of the male household (AOR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.270, 0.724) were statistically associated with a lower risk of post-neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: It is highly suggested that maternal and child health care services (including antenatal care visits, postnatal care visits, and immunization) be strengthened and monitored during the early stages of infancy. Mothers from Somali, Afar, and SNNP regions, as well as multiple births, rural residents, and those giving birth to a child with a birth gap of fewer than 24 months, demand special care.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(7)2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melghat, an impoverished rural area in Maharashtra state, India; has scarce hospital services and low health-seeking behaviour. At baseline (2004) the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) (number of deaths in children aged 0-5 years/1000 live births) was 147.21 and infant mortality rate (IMR) (number of deaths of infants aged under 1 year/1000 live births) was 106.6 per 1000 live births. We aimed at reducing mortality rates through home-based child care (HBCC) using village health workers (VHWs). METHODS: A cluster-randomised control trial was conducted in 34 randomly assigned clusters/villages of Melghat, Maharashtra state, between 2004 and 2009. Participants included all under-five children and their parents. Interventions delivered through VHWs were patient-public involvement, newborn care, disease management and behaviour change communications. Primary outcome indicators were U5MR and IMR. Secondary outcome indicators were neonatal mortality rate (NMR) (number of neonatal deaths aged 0-28 days/1000 live births) and perinatal mortality rate (PMR) (number of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths/1000 total births). Analysis was by intention-to-treat at the individual level. This trial was extended to a service phase (2010-2015) in both arms and a government replication phase (2016-2019) only for the intervention clusters/areas (IA). FINDINGS: There were 18 control areas/clusters (CA) allocated and analysed with 4426 individuals, and 16 of 18 allocated IA, analysed with 3230 individuals. The IMR and U5MR in IA were reduced from 106.60 and 147.21 to 32.75 and 50.38 (reduction by 69.28% and 65.78%, respectively) compared with increases in CA from 67.67 and 105.3 to 86.83 and 122.8, respectively, from baseline to end of intervention. NMR and PMR in IA showed reductions from 50.76 to 22.67 (by 55.34%) and from 75.06 to 24.94 (by 66.77%) respectively. These gains extended to villages in the service and replication phases. INTERPRETATION: This socio-culturally contextualised model for HBCC through VHWs backed up with institutional support is effective for significant reduction of U5MR, IMR and NMR in impoverished rural areas. This reduction was maintained in the study area during the service phase, indicating feasibility of implementation in large-scale public health programmes. Replicability of the model was demonstrated by a linear decline in all the mortality rates in 20 new villages during the government phase. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02473796.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Morte Perinatal , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
20.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(3): 513-522, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813672

RESUMO

Background: Despite a global decline in under-five deaths, the neonatal mortality rate remains slow in developing countries and birth asphyxia remains the third cause of neonatal deaths. Globally, neonatal deaths accounts for 45% of under-five deaths, birth asphyxia causes 23-40% of neonatal deaths in Ethiopia. There is limited data on risk factors of asphyxia in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of birth asphyxia among newborns. Methods: This research followed a hospital-based unmatched case-control study design at Debre Markos comprehensive specialized referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, among 372 newborns (124 cases and 248 controls). Data were collected by interviewing index mothers and chart review using a pre-tested questionnaire. Then it was entered in Epi-data version 3.1 and transferred to STATA version 14.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multiple variable logistic regression were carried out to the possible risk factors. Finally, statistical significance was declared using adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI and p-value <0.05. Results: Prolonged labor >12, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, assisted vaginal delivery, gestational age < 37 weeks, noncephalic presentation, comorbidity, birthweight<2500grams were found to be significant factors of birth asphyxia. Conclusion: In this study, Prolonged labor >12 hours, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, assisted vaginal delivery, gestational age < 37 weeks, non-cephalic presentation comorbidity, fetal distress, birthweight<2500grams were found to be risk factors of birth asphyxia were risk factors of birth asphyxia. Therefore, to reduce neonatal mortality associated with birth asphyxia, attention should be given to holistic pregnancy, labor and delivery care, and post-natal care. Moreover, interventions aimed at reducing birth asphyxia should target the identified factors.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Morte Perinatal , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Asfixia/etiologia , Asfixia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Asfixia Neonatal/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco
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