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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18126, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093582

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women. We searched for qualified studies in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. The clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their infants were reported as means and proportions with 95% confidence interval. Eleven studies involving with 9032 pregnant women with COVID-19 and 338 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Pregnant women with COVID-19 have relatively mild symptoms. However, abnormal proportions of laboratory parameters were similar or even increased, compared to general population. Around 30% of pregnant women with COVID-19 experienced preterm delivery, whereas the mean birth weight was 2855.9 g. Fetal death and detection of SARS-CoV-2 were observed in about 2%, whereas neonatal death was found to be 0.4%. In conclusion, the current review will serve as an ideal basis for future considerations in the treatment and management of COVID-19 in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Peso ao Nascer , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional neonatal uvulectomy is unsupervised, unscientific and potentially dangerous cultural malpractice. It is often accompanied with life threatening neonatal morbidities such as infection, septicemia, anemia, aspiration and oropharyngeal injury. However, there is no current regional and even national data of its public health importance in the health care system. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the burden, associated factors and reasons of traditional uvulectomy among neonatal admissions at Debre Tabor General Hospital, North Central Ethiopia, from September 2018 to August 2019. METHODS: A quantitative cross sectional study supplemented with phenomenological study was employed on 422 mother-neonate pairs. Eight mothers who were not included in the quantitative part were involved as key informants of the qualitative study. Systematic and purposive sampling techniques were used to select study participants for the quantitative and qualitative parts of the study respectively. Multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to investigate significant predictors of traditional neonatal uvulectomy at p-value ≤ 0.05 and 95% CI. Moreover, the qualitative data were carefully transcribed, coded, screened, thematized, synthesized and then triangulated with the quantitative results. RESULTS: The burden of postuvulectomy admission was 67 (15.88%). Most of these admissions had post uvulectomy sepsis [59 (88.1%)] followed by anemia (55.23%). From multivariable analysis, factors that had significant odds of association with traditional neonatal uvulectomy include: having male neonate [AOR = 4.87; 95% CI: 1.10, 21.59], antenatal couple counseling about traditional neonatal uvulectomy [AOR = 0.053; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.35], home delivery [AOR = 6.02; 95% CI: 1.15, 31.61], postnatal couple counseling about traditional neonatal uvulectomy [AOR = 0.101; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.65], prior history of traditional neonatal uvulectomy [AOR = 7.15; 95% CI: 1.18, 43.21] and knowing at least one adverse effect of traditional neonatal uvulectomy [AOR = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.44]. Furthermore, maternal perception of "there is no modern medicine to treat elongated and swollen neonatal uvula' was the most explained reason to practice traditional neonatal uvulectomy. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The burden of traditional neonatal uvulectomy was high. Fortunately, its predictors are modifiable. Therefore, several advocacy teams of neonatal health consisting of mainly women health development armies, elders, religious fathers, health professionals and criminal prosecutors should be actively mobilized against traditional neonatal uvulectomy. Besides, parental couple counseling about the adverse effects of traditional neonatal uvulectomy should be properly implemented in the routine antenatal and postnatal continuum of care in South Gondar Zone, North Central Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Mães/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Úvula/cirurgia , Adulto , Comportamento Ritualístico , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Parto Domiciliar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/tendências , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in the reduction of death in under-five children, neonatal mortality has shown little or no concomitant reduction globally. It is also one of the most common causes of neonatal death in Ethiopia. Little is known on predictors of neonatal sepsis. Risk based screening and commencement of treatment appreciably reduces neonatal death and illness. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to identify predictors of neonatal sepsis in public referral hospitals of Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Institutional based unmatched case-control study was conducted among a total of 231 neonates in Debre Markos and Felege Hiwot referral hospitals from March 2018- April 2018. Neonates who fulfill the preseted criteria for sepsis were considered as cases and neonates diagnosed with other medical reasons except sepsis were controls. For each case, two consecutive controls were selected by simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured pretested questionnaire through a face to face interview with index mothers and by reviewing neonatal record using checklist. The collected data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported to STATA/ SE software version 14. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed. Statistical significance was declared at P<0.05. RESULT: Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that, duration of rupture of membrane ≥ 18hours was significantly associated with sepsis (AOR = 10.4, 95%CI = 2.3-46.5). The other independent predictors of neonatal sepsis were number of maternal antenatal care service ≤3 (AOR = 4.4, 95%CI = 1.7-11.5), meconium stained amniotic fluid (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5-9.8), urinary tract infection during pregnancy (AOR = 10.8, 95% CI = 3.4-33.9), intranatal fever (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1-9.5), first minute APGAR score <7 (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.3-7.7), resuscitation at birth (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI = 1.9-15.5), nasogastric tube insertion (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2). CONCLUSION: Neonatal invasive procedures, ANC follow up during pregnancy, different conditions during birth like meconium stained amniotic fluid, low APGAR score and resuscitation at birth were the independent predictors of neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Parto , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Líquido Amniótico , Índice de Apgar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
4.
BJOG ; 127(12): 1507-1515, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Twin pregnancies have a significantly higher perinatal mortality than singleton pregnancies. Current classification systems for perinatal death lack twin-specific categories, potentially leading to loss of important information regarding cause of death. We introduce and test a classification system designed to assign a cause of death in twin pregnancies (CoDiT). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary maternity unit in England with a perinatal pathology service. POPULATION: Twin pregnancies in the West Midlands affected by fetal or neonatal demise of one or both twins between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2016 in which postmortem examination was undertaken. METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel designed CoDiT by adapting the most appropriate elements of singleton classification systems. The system was tested by assigning cause of death in 265 fetal and neonatal deaths from 144 twin pregnancies. Cause of death was validated by another obstetrician blinded to the original classification. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Inter-rater, intra-rater, inter-disciplinary agreement and cause of death. RESULTS: Cohen's Kappa demonstrated 'strong' (>0.8) inter-rater, intra-rater and inter-disciplinary agreement (95% CI 0.70-0.91). The commonest cause of death irrespective of chorionicity was the placenta; twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) was the commonest placental cause in monochorionic twins and acute chorioamnionitis in dichorionic twins. CONCLUSIONS: This novel classification system records causes of death in twin pregnancies from postmortem reports with high inter-user agreement. We highlight differences in aetiology of death between monochorionic and dichorionic twins. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: New classification system for #twin cause of death 'CoDiT' shows high rater agreement.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/classificação , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379843

RESUMO

Understanding key healthcare system challenges experienced by women during pregnancy and birth is crucial to scale up available interventions and reduce perinatal mortality. A community perspective about preferences and experience of care during this period can be used to improve community-based programs to reduce perinatal mortality. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, we examined women's experience of perinatal loss, aiming to understand the main factors, as perceived and experienced by women, leading to perinatal loss. Qualitative in-depth Interviews were conducted with 25 mothers with a recent perinatal loss, three family members, six healthcare officials, and two focus group discussions with 17 lady health workers. Data were analysed using inductive and deductive coding, by thematic analysis. Our findings revealed three distinct but interrelated themes, which include: 1) poor access to care during pregnancy and birth, 2) unavailability of appropriate healthcare services, and 3) poor quality of care during pregnancy and birth. Women frequently delayed seeking formal care around birth because of delays by themselves, their family members, or the local traditional birth attendants who frequently induced births at women's homes without recognising the dangers to the mothers or their babies. Preference for private care was common, however they often could not bear the cost of care when they needed caesarean section or in-patient care for their sick newborns because these services were absent in public health facilities of the district. Referral to the regional tertiary care hospital was often not officially arranged leading to risky births in small and crowded private clinics. Women's views about negative staff attitudes and the lack of attention given to them in public health facilities highlighted a lack of quality and respectful antenatal care. Improvement in women's access to essential care during pregnancy and around birth, availability of emergency obstetric and newborn care, improving the quality of maternal and newborn care in both public and private health facilities at the district level might reduce perinatal mortality in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than five million perinatal deaths occur each year globally. Despite efforts put forward during the millennium development goals era, perinatal deaths continue to increase relative to under-five deaths, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to determine predictors of perinatal death in the presence of missing data using birth registry data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC), between 2000-2015. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from the medical birth registry at KCMC referral hospital located in Moshi Municipality, Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Data were analyzed using Stata version 15.1. Multiple imputation by fully conditional specification (FCS) was used to impute missing values. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the marginal effects of covariates on perinatal death using a log link mean model with robust standard errors. An exchangeable correlation structure was used to account for the dependence of observations within mothers. RESULTS: Among 50,487 deliveries recorded in the KCMC medical birth registry between 2000-2015, 4.2% (95%CI 4.0%, 4.3%) ended in perinatal death (equivalent to a perinatal mortality rate (PMR) of 41.6 (95%CI 39.9, 43.3) deaths per 1,000 births). After the imputation of missing values, the proportion of perinatal death remained relatively the same. The risk of perinatal death was significantly higher among deliveries from mothers who resided in rural compared to urban areas (RR = 1.241, 95%CI 1.137, 1.355), with primary education level (RR = 1.201, 95%CI 1.083, 1.332) compared to higher education level, with <4 compared to ≥4 antenatal care (ANC) visits (RR = 1.250, 95%CI 1.146, 1.365), with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (RR = 2.638, 95%CI 1.997, 3.486), abruption placenta (RR = 4.218, 95%CI 3.438, 5.175), delivered a low birth weight baby (LBW) (RR = 4.210, 95%CI 3.788, 4.679), male child (RR = 1.090, 95%CI 1.007, 1.181), and were referred for delivery (RR = 2.108, 95%CI 1.919, 2.317). On the other hand, deliveries from mothers who experienced premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) (RR = 0.411, 95%CI 0.283, 0.598) and delivered through cesarean section (CS) (RR = 0.662, 95%CI 0.604, 0.724) had a lower risk of perinatal death. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal mortality in this cohort is higher than the national estimate. Higher risk of perinatal death was associated with low maternal education level, rural residence, <4 ANC visits, PPH, abruption placenta, LBW delivery, child's sex, and being referred for delivery. Ignoring missing values in the analysis of adverse pregnancy outcomes produces biased covariate coefficients and standard errors. Close clinical follow-up of women at high risk of experiencing perinatal death, particularly during ANC visits and delivery, is of high importance to increase perinatal survival.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(5): 651-659, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous induced abortions have been associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, only a few studies have considered the possible influence of gestational age at induced abortion. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the impacts of gestational age during prior induced abortion(s) on subsequent births among first-time mothers in Finland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: First-time mothers (n = 418 690) with singleton births between 1996 and 2013 were identified from the Finnish Medical Birth Register and linked to the Abortion Register. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) of birth outcomes such as prematurity, low birthweight, perinatal death and small for gestational age (SGA). RESULTS: Higher risk was determined for extremely preterm birth (OR 2.28; 95% CI 1.53-3.39) and very low birthweight (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.22-2.16) in women having had late-induced abortion(s) (≥12 gestational weeks) compared with women having had early-induced abortion(s) (<12 gestational weeks); after adjusting for women's background characteristics, abortion method and interval between the pregnancies. When the analysis was limited to a single abortion, an increased risk was found for extremely preterm birth (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.02-2.81). Higher risks were found for extremely preterm (OR 4.09; 95% CI 2.05-8.18) and very low birthweight (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.61-4.35) among women with two or more late-induced abortions compared with those with two or more early-induced abortions. Worse outcomes were seen after a late-induced abortion compared to an early-induced abortion for both medically and surgically induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of subsequent adverse birth outcomes is very small if any, but the risk is higher with increasing gestational age at the time of induced abortion. Our study supports reduction of unintended pregnancy and offering abortion services without delay and as early in gestation as possible.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Idade Gestacional , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Case Rep ; 20: 1874-1878, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Marijuana is the considered the most widely available and used drug across the world. Up to this time, there have been no reports of human death directly caused by acute marijuana toxicity in adults, fetuses, or newborn neonates. CASE REPORT We report a death of an 11-day-old white female neonate due to acute marijuana toxicity. She died of extensive necrosis and hemorrhage of the liver and adrenals due to maternal use of marijuana. CONCLUSIONS This case is unique in that other possible causes of death can be eliminated. With growing use of marijuana by pregnant women and increases in newborn drug screening of umbilical cord homogenate, more cases of neonatal death due to acute marijuana toxicity could be discovered.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/induzido quimicamente , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 501, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal heart rate artefact is a signal processing error whereby the fetal heart rate is masked by the maternal pulse, potentially leading to danger by failure to recognize an abnormal fetal heart rate or a pre-existing fetal death. Maternal heart rate artefact may be exacerbated by autocorrelation algorithms in modern fetal monitors due to smooth transitions between maternal and fetal heart rates rather than breaks in the tracing. In response, manufacturers of cardiotocography monitors recommend verifying fetal life prior to monitoring and have developed safeguards including signal ambiguity detection technologies to simultaneously and continuously monitor the maternal and fetal heart rates. However, these safeguards are not emphasized in current cardiotocography clinical practice guidelines, potentially leading to a patient safety gap. METHODS: The United States Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database was reviewed for records with event type "Death" for the time period March 31, 2009 to March 31, 2019, in combination with search terms selected to capture all cases reported involving cardiotocography devices. Records were reviewed to determine whether maternal heart rate artefact was probable and/or whether the report contained a recommendation from the device manufacturer regarding maternal heart rate artefact. RESULTS: Forty-seven cases of perinatal mortality were identified with probable maternal heart rate artefact including 14 with antepartum fetal death prior to initiation of cardiotocography, 14 with intrapartum fetal death or neonatal death after initiation of cardiotocography, and 19 where the temporal relationship between initiation of cardiotocography and death cannot be definitively established from the report. In 29 cases, there was a recommendation from the manufacturer regarding diagnosis and/or management of maternal heart rate artefact. CONCLUSIONS: This case series indicates a recurring problem with undetected maternal heart rate artefact leading to perinatal mortality and, in cases of pre-existing fetal death, healthcare provider confusion. In response, manufacturers frequently recommend safeguards which are found in their device's instructions for use but not in major intrapartum cardiotocography guidelines. Cardiotocography guidelines should be updated to include the latest safeguards against the risks of maternal heart rate artefact. An additional file summarizing key points for clinicians is included.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Cardiotocografia/mortalidade , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Cardiotocografia/métodos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
10.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002900, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving quality of intrapartum care will reduce intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal mortality, especially in resource-poor settings. Basic neonatal resuscitation can reduce intrapartum stillbirth and early neonatal mortality, if delivered in a high-quality health system, but there is a dearth of evidence on how to scale up such evidence-based interventions. We evaluated the scaling up of a quality improvement (QI) package for neonatal resuscitation on intrapartum-related mortality (intrapartum stillbirth and first day mortality) at hospitals in Nepal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in 12 hospitals over a period of 18 months from April 14, 2017, to October 17, 2018. The hospitals were assigned to one of four wedges through random allocation. The QI package was implemented in a stepped-wedge manner with a delay of three months for each step. The QI package included improving hospital leadership on intrapartum care, building health workers' competency on neonatal resuscitation, and continuous facilitated QI processes in clinical units. An independent data collection system was set up at each hospital to gather data on mortality through patient case note review and demographic characteristics of women using semi-structured exit interviews. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and multivariate logistic regression were used for analyses. During this study period, a total of 89,014 women-infant pairs were enrolled. The mean age of the mother in the study period was 24.0 ± 4.3 years, with 54.9% from disadvantaged ethnic groups and 4.0% of them illiterate. Of the total birth cohort, 54.4% were boys, 16.7% had gestational age less than 37 weeks, and 17.1% had birth weight less than 2,500 grams. The incidence of intrapartum-related mortality was 11.0 per 1,000 births during the control period and 8.0 per 1,000 births during the intervention period (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.92; p = 0.002; intra-cluster correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.0286). The incidence of early neonatal mortality was 12.7 per 1,000 live births during the control period and 10.1 per 1,000 live births during the intervention period (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02; p = 0.09; ICC, 0.1538). The use of bag-and-mask ventilation for babies with low Apgar score (<7 at 1 minute) increased from 3.2% in the control period to 4.0% in the intervention period (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.32-1.77, p = 0.003). There were two major limitations to the study; although a large sample of women-infant pairs were enrolled in the study, the clustering reduced the power of the study. Secondly, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect reduction in early neonatal mortality with the number of clusters provided. CONCLUSION: These results suggest scaled-up implementation of a QI package for neonatal resuscitation can reduce intrapartum-related mortality and improve clinical care. The QI intervention package is likely to be effective in similar settings. More implementation research is required to assess the sustainability of QI interventions and quality of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN30829654.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Mortalidade Infantil , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Parto , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Ressuscitação , Natimorto , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/normas , Nepal , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/mortalidade , Ressuscitação/normas , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 276, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of high-quality national audits for perinatal mortality are needed to improve the registration of all perinatal deaths and the identification of the causes of death. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a Regional Audit System for Stillbirth in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. METHODS: For each stillbirth (≥ 22 weeks of gestation, ≥ 500 g) occurred between January 1, 2014 to December 1, 2016 (n = 332), the same diagnostic workup was performed and a clinical record with data about mother and stillborn was completed. Every case was discussed in a multidisciplinary local audit to assess both the cause of death (ReCoDe classification) and the quality of care. Data were reviewed by the Regional Audit Group. Stillbirth rates, causes of death and the quality of care were established for each case. RESULTS: Total stillbirth rate was 3.09 per 1000 births (332/107,528). Late stillbirth rate was 2.3 per 1000 (251/107,087). Sixteen stillbirths were not registered by the Regional Birth Register. The most prevalent cause of death was placental disorder (33.3%), followed by fetal (17.6%), cord (14.2%) and maternal disorders (7.6%). Unexplained cases were 14%. Compared to local audits, the regional group attributed different causes of death in 17% of cases. At multivariate analysis, infections were associated with early stillbirths (OR 3.38, CI95% 1.62-7.03) and intrapartum cases (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). Placental disorders were related to growth restriction (OR 1.89, CI95% 1.06-3.36) and were more frequent before term (OR 1.86, CI95% 1.11-3.15). Stillbirths judged possibly/probably preventable with a different management (10.9%) occurred more frequently in non-Italian women and were mainly related to maternal disorders (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). CONCLUSIONS: Regional Audit System for Stillbirth improves the registration of stillbirth and allows to define the causes of death. Moreover, sub-optimal care was recognized, allowing to identify populations which could benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais/epidemiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Doenças Placentárias/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , África do Norte/etnologia , Causas de Morte , Auditoria Clínica , Europa Oriental/etnologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cordão Umbilical
12.
Acta Med Indones ; 51(2): 102-109, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is still a challenging autoimmune disease, especially in pregnancy setting. An early risk factors awareness of poor pregnancy outcome is important to optimize the outcome of pregnancy in SLE patients. This study was conducted to describe pregnancy outcome and determine the risk factors associated with poor pregnancy outcome in SLE patients. METHODS: a retrospective case-control study of SLE patients with poor and normal pregnancy outcome was performed. Pregnancy histories were reviewed from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital lupus registry study. The case group was pregnancy with poor outcome, defined as abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and neonatal death. The control group was pregnancy with good outcome, defined as live birth and full term. RESULTS: a total of 84 SLE patients were enrolled in this study with 109 pregnancies after SLE diagnosis. The median age of subjects at the time of pregnancy was 28 (25-32) years old. Poor pregnancy outcome comprising 22.9% abortion, 14.7% premature birth, 5.5% stillbirth, 1.8% IUGR and 4.6% neonatal death. There was a significant difference in the number of planned pregnancy (P=0.011) between groups with poor and good outcome. Clinical variables significantly associated with poor pregnancy outcome were lupus nephritis (OR = 4.813, 95% CI 1.709 - 13.557, P = 0.003) and neuropsychiatric SLE (OR = 5.045, 95% CI 1.278 - 19.920, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: the pregnancy in SLE patient should be planned to have better outcome. Lupus nephritis and neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE were risk factors for poor pregnancy outcome in SLE patient.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Indonésia , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 54(4): 484-491, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Justification of prenatal screening for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses near term is based on, first, evidence that such fetuses/neonates are at increased risk of stillbirth and adverse perinatal outcome, and, second, the expectation that these risks can be reduced by medical interventions, such as early delivery. However, there are no randomized studies demonstrating that routine screening for SGA fetuses and appropriate interventions in the high-risk group can reduce adverse perinatal outcome. Before such meaningful studies can be undertaken, it is essential that the best approach for effective identification of SGA neonates is determined, and that the contribution of SGA neonates to the overall rate of adverse perinatal outcome is established. In a previous study of pregnancies undergoing routine ultrasound examination at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation, we found that, first, screening by estimated fetal weight (EFW) < 10th percentile provided poor prediction of SGA neonates and, second, prediction of > 85% of SGA neonates requires use of EFW < 40th percentile. OBJECTIVES: To examine the contribution of SGA fetuses to the overall rate of adverse perinatal outcome and, to propose a two-stage approach for prediction of a SGA neonate at routine ultrasound examination at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 45 847 singleton pregnancies undergoing routine ultrasound examination at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation. First, we examined the relationship between birth-weight percentile and adverse perinatal outcome, defined as stillbirth, neonatal death or admission to the neonatal unit for ≥ 48 h. Second, we used a two-stage approach for prediction of a SGA neonate and adverse perinatal outcome; in the first stage, fetal biometry was used to distinguish between pregnancies at very low risk (EFW ≥ 40th percentile) and those at increased risk (EFW < 40th percentile) and, in the second stage, the pregnancies with EFW < 40th percentile were stratified into high-, intermediate- and low-risk groups based on the results of EFW and pulsatility index in the uterine arteries, umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery. Different percentiles of EFW and Doppler indices were used to define each risk category, and the performance of screening for a SGA neonate and adverse perinatal outcome in pregnancies delivered at ≤ 2, 2.1-4 and > 4 weeks after assessment was determined. We propose that the high-risk group would require monitoring from initial assessment to delivery, the intermediate-risk group would require monitoring from 2 weeks after initial assessment to delivery, the low-risk group would require monitoring from 4 weeks after initial assessment to delivery, and the very low-risk group would not require any further reassessment. RESULTS: First, although in neonates with low birth weight (< 10th percentile) the risk of adverse perinatal outcome is increased, 84% of adverse perinatal events occur in the group with birth weight ≥ 10th percentile. Second, in screening by EFW < 10th percentile, the predictive performance for a SGA neonate is modest for those born at ≤ 2 weeks after assessment (83% and 69% for neonates with birth weight < 3rd and < 10th percentiles, respectively), but poor for those born at 2.1-4 weeks (65% and 45%, respectively) and > 4 weeks (40% and 30%, respectively) after assessment. Third, improved performance of screening, especially for those delivered at > 2 weeks after assessment, is potentially achieved by a proposed new approach for stratifying pregnancies into management groups based on findings of EFW and Doppler indices (prediction of birth weight < 3rd and < 10th percentiles for deliveries at ≤ 2, 2.1-4 and > 4 weeks after assessment: 89% and 75%, 83% and 74%, and 88% and 82%, respectively). Fourth, the predictive performance for adverse perinatal outcome of EFW < 10th percentile is very poor (26%, 9% and 5% for deliveries at ≤ 2, 2.1-4 and > 4 weeks after assessment, respectively) and this is improved by the proposed new approach (31%, 22% and 29%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study presents an approach for stratifying pregnancies undergoing routine ultrasound examination at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation into four management groups based on findings of EFW and Doppler indices. This approach potentially has a higher predictive performance for a SGA neonate and adverse perinatal outcome than that of screening by EFW < 10th percentile. Copyright © 2019 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Assuntos
Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/sangue , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Feminino , Peso Fetal/fisiologia , Feto/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 811, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perinatal mortality rate (PMR) in Nigeria rose by approximately 5% from 39 to 41 deaths per 1000 total births between 2008 and 2013, indicating a reversal in earlier gains. This study sought to identify factors associated with increased PMR. METHODS: Nationally representative data including 31,121 pregnancies of 7 months or longer obtained from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey were used to investigate the community-, socio-economic-, proximate- and environmental-level factors related to perinatal mortality (PM). Generalized linear latent and mixed models with the logit link and binomial family that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights was employed for the analyses. RESULTS: Babies born to obese women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.89) and babies whose mothers perceived their body size after birth to be smaller than the average size (aOR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.61-2.30) showed greater odds of PM. Babies delivered through caesarean section were more likely to die (aOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 2.02-4.02) than those born through vaginal delivery. Other factors that significantly increased PM included age of the women (≥40 years), living in rural areas, gender (being male) and a fourth or higher birth order with a birth interval ≤ 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Newborn and maternal care interventions are needed, especially for rural communities, that aim at counselling women that are obese. Promoting well-timed caesarean delivery, Kangaroo mother care of small-for-gestational-age babies, child spacing, timely referral for ailing babies and adequate medical check-up for older pregnant women may substantially reduce PM in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/mortalidade , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Adulto , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Cesárea/mortalidade , Demografia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria , Obesidade/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 67(4): 233-238, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per-partum stillbirth continues to represent a public health burden despite the efforts of countries around the world. Prevention of this mortality can only be effective with a better knowledge of factors that are life-threatening to the fetus or newborn. This work aims to determine associated factors with intrapartum and very early neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out at the maternity of the university hospital in Marrakech, where 290 subjects were selected: 145 cases of intrapartum fetal death or a very early neonatal death, and 145 controls of surviving newborn weighing 2500g or more at birth. Data were collected from obstetric, partogram and death records for the year 2016. The factors that were compared between the two groups were factors before admission to maternity, factors related to the management during labor and to the care of newborn. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were found between these deaths and several factors including: multiparity versus primiparity adjusted OR=2.27 [1.17-4.42], pregnant women referral from another health facility adjusted OR=2.11 [1.12-3.99], care for women during the transfer adjusted OR=0.21 [0.9-0.49] and prenatal follow-up of pregnancy adjusted OR=0.22 [0.12-0.4]. Were also associated: fetal monitoring during labor adjusted OR=0.22 [0.08-0.62], neonatal respiratory distress adjusted OR=18.48 [7.60-44.98] and Apgar score (⩽7) adjusted OR=6.05 [2.51-14.62]. CONCLUSION: Intrapartum and very early neonatal mortality is closely related to the newborn's condition at birth, fetal monitoring during labor, pregnancy monitoring, and the organization of the referral system.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/mortalidade , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15788, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169678

RESUMO

Data based on forensic autopsy in neonates and infants in China are rare in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of fetal, neonatal, and infant death and to determine the main cause of death among them.A retrospective analysis of fetal and infant forensic autopsies referred to the Tongji Forensic Medical Center (TFMC) in Hubei, central China, during a 16-year period between January 1999 and December 2014, was performed.In this period, there were 1111 males and 543 females; the total male-to-female ratio (MFR) was 2.05:1. There were 173 fetal and infant autopsies conducted, comprised of 43 fetal, 84 neonatal (<28 days) and 46 infant (4 weeks to 1 year) cases. The annual case number ranged from 5 in 2004 to 18 in 2014 (annual mean of 10.8). MFR was 1.75:1. About 94% of these deaths (163/173) resulted from natural causes, 6 cases (3.5%) were accidental deaths, and 4 (2.3%) resulted from homicide (4 abandoned babies). Among fetuses, the most common causes of death were placental and umbilical cord pathologies (28%, 12/43), followed by intrapartum asphyxia resulting from amniotic fluid aspiration (AFA) or meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) (18.6%, 8/43), congenital malformation (14%, 6/43), and intrapartum infection (9.3%, 4/43). A majority of neonatal deaths (66.7%, 56/84) died within 24 hours of birth. The main causes of neonatal death were asphyxia resulting from AFA, MAS, or hyaline membrane disease, and congenital malformation. The main causes of infant (1-12 months) death were infectious diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis, and viral brainstem encephalitis.This study was the 1st retrospective analysis of autopsies of fetal, neonatal, and infant death in TFMC and central China. We delineate the common causes of early demise among cases referred for autopsy, and report a male preponderance in this population. Our data observed that placental and/or umbilical cord pathology, asphyxia due to AFA, and/or MAS, and pneumonia were the leading causes of fetal, neonatal, and infant death, respectively. And it can inform clinical practitioners about the underlying causes of some of the most distressing cases in their practices.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal/etiologia , Doenças Fetais/mortalidade , Morte do Lactente/etiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , China , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/mortalidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4202-4206, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND To study the clinical effective of emergency cervical cerclage (ECC) in pregnant women who have cervical insufficiency with prolapsed membranes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was devised as a retrospective cohort in a single medical center, in which we collected clinical data from patient records. Inclusion criteria were: physical examination indicated ECC was performed at 15 to 25 gestational weeks at the Sixth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital, and singleton pregnancy. The collected clinical data included: duration of pregnancy at delivery, interval between ECC and delivery, neonatal weight, neonatal mortality, neonatal morbidity, and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission. RESULTS We included 50 women with singleton pregnancies. No surgical complications occurred in any patients. The gestational age at cerclage was 21.3±2.2 weeks. No patients had membrane damage due to surgery. No surgical complications were reported. Five (10%) patients underwent chorioamnionitis. The time interval between ECC and delivery was 11.2±7.1 weeks. The mean gestational age at delivery was 34.1 weeks. The rate of vaginal delivery was 96%. Ten patients had pregnancy lasting longer than 36 weeks. The mean neonate delivery weight was 2510.7 g. Twenty neonates were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and the mean NICU stay was 21 days. CONCLUSIONS ECC has good perinatal results. Our results provide clinical evidence for the efficacy and risks of ECC.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical/mortalidade , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cerclagem Cervical/efeitos adversos , Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Colo do Útero/cirurgia , China , Emergências , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/cirurgia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suturas , Incompetência do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Prolapso Uterino/complicações
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 110, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal infants have poorer birth outcomes than non-Aboriginal infants. Harmful use of tobacco, alcohol, and other substances is higher among Aboriginal women, as is violence, due to factors such as intergenerational trauma and poverty. We estimated the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA) births, preterm births, and perinatal deaths that could be attributed to these risks. METHODS: Birth, hospital, mental health, and death records for Aboriginal singleton infants born in Western Australia from 1998 to 2010 and their parents were linked. Using logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation approach, associations with birth outcomes and population attributable fractions were estimated after adjusting for demographic factors and maternal health during pregnancy. RESULTS: Of 28,119 births, 16% of infants were SGA, 13% were preterm, and 2% died perinatally. 51% of infants were exposed in utero to at least one of the risk factors and the fractions attributable to them were 37% (SGA), 16% (preterm) and 20% (perinatal death). CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of adverse outcomes were attributable to the modifiable risk factors of substance use and assault. Significant improvements in Aboriginal perinatal health are likely to follow reductions in these risk factors. These results highlight the importance of identifying and implementing risk reduction measures which are effective in, and supported by, Aboriginal women, families, and communities.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Modelos Logísticos , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e024735, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is the first mandatory market-based regulatory programme to limit regional carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the USA. Empirical evidence has shown that high concentrations of ambient air pollutants such as CO2 have been positively associated with an increased risk of morbidity (eg, respiratory conditions including asthma and lung cancer) and premature mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of RGGI on death rates in infancy. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We estimated the impacts of RGGI on infant mortality from 2003 through 2014 in the USA (6 years before and after RGGI implementation). Our analytic models included state- and year-fixed effects in addition to a number of covariates. OUTCOME MEASURES: Death rates in infancy: neonatal mortality rates (NMRs), deaths under 28 days as well as infant mortality rates (IMRs), deaths under 1 year. RESULTS: Implementation of RGGI was associated with significant decreases in overall NMRs (a reduction of 0.41/1000 live births) and male NMRs (a reduction of 0.43/1000 live births). However, RGGI did not have a significant effect on female NMRs. Similarly, overall IMRs and male IMRs decreased significantly by 0.37/1000 live births and 0.61/1000 live births, respectively, after implementation of RGGI while female IMRs were not significantly affected by RGGI. CONCLUSIONS: RGGI was associated with decreases in overall infant mortality and boy mortality through reducing air pollutant concentrations. Of note, the impact of this environmental policy on infant girls was much smaller.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Morte do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Infantil , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Morte do Lactente/etiologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
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