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1.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 53(7): 697-701, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955701

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological and genetic features of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) and its effect on fetal intrauterine growth. Methods: Fourteen CPM cases of Haidian Maternal and Children Health Hospital were collected from May 2018 to March 2022. Clinicopathological examination on placental specimens and molecular genetic analysis were performed. Results: The age of the parturient women ranged from 27 to 34 years, with an average age of (30.0±3.54) years. The gestational weeks ranged from 35+1 to 41+2 weeks. There were 4 premature births and 10 term births, among which 6 were female and 8 were male fetuses. Nine cases (9/14) had adverse pregnancy outcomes, including 7 cases of fetal growth restriction. The weight of CPM placenta decreased, with 6 cases below the 10th percentile of weight standards and 5 cases between the 10th and 25th percentile. All 14 CPM placental specimens showed morphological changes of perfusion dysfunction to varying degrees, with mainly placental-maternal vascular malperfusion followed by placental-fetal vascular malperfusion. The mosaic chromosomes in different CPM cases varied, with 16-trisomy/monosomy mosaicism being the most common followed by 7-trisomy and 21-trisomy/monosomy mosaicism. The mosaic proportion was unequal in different parts of the same CPM placenta, with the mosaic proportion of umbilical cord, fetal membranes, fetal surface, maternal surface, and edge ranging from 1% to 70%. Conclusions: The mosaic chromosomes in different CPM cases vary, and the mosaic proportion is unequal in different parts of the same CPM placenta. The pathological morphology is mainly manifested as perfusion dysfunction, which can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth restriction and preterm birth.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Mosaicismo , Placenta , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Adulto , Placenta/patologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Masculino , Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/genética , Trissomia/genética , Recém-Nascido , Idade Gestacional
2.
BMC Med Genomics ; 17(1): 177, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GATA1-related cytopenia (GRC) is characterized by thrombocytopaenia and/or anaemia ranging from mild to severe. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a healing therapeutic choice for GRC patients. We identified a novel pathogenic variant (GATA1: c.1019delG) in a boy with GATA1-related cytopenia. Then we performed preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) in this GRC family. After a mosaic embryo transfered, a healthy and HLA-compatible with the proband baby was delivered. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband is a 6-year-old boy who was diagnosed to have transfusion-dependent anaemia since 3 year old. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) showed that the proband has a hemizygous variant c.1019delG in GATA1, which is inherited from his mother. His parents decided to undergo PGT to have a health and HLA-compatible offspring. After whole genome amplification (WGA) of biopsied trophectoderm (TE) cells, next generation sequencing (NGS)-based PGT was preformed to analyse embryos on chromosomal aneuploidy, target mutation and HLA typing. There were 3 embryos HLA-matched to the proband. The genotypes of the 3 embryos were heterozygous variant, hemizygous variant, normal respectively. After a heterozygous, mosaic partial trisomy (chr)16, and HLA-matched embryo transfer, a healthy baby was delivered and whose HSCT is compatible with the proband. CONCLUSIONS: NGS-based PGT-HLA is a valuable procedure for the treatment of GATA1-related cytopenia caused by GATA1 variants, or other haematological disorders, oncological and immunological diseases. Furthermore, our study reconfirms that mosaic embryos transfer would bring healthy offspring.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária , Fator de Transcrição GATA1 , Nascido Vivo , Mosaicismo , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Humanos , Masculino , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/genética , Feminino , Nascido Vivo/genética , Criança , Gravidez , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Testes Genéticos
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 298, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex chromosome abnormalities associated with disorders of sexual development (DSD) are rarely described in cats, mainly due to the lack of chromossome studies that precisely reveal the condition. Genetic approaches are therefore required in order to detect sex chromossomes abnormalities as variations in the number and structure of chromosomes, or the presence of a second cell line as mosaicim or chimerism. CASE PRESENTATION: A male Shorthair cryptorchid cat was presented with clinical signs of anorexia, tenesmus and hyperthermia. Ultrasonography revealed a fluid-filled structure, with approximately 1 cm in diameter, adjacent to the descending colon. Computed tomography evidenced a tubular structure, ventral to the descending colon and caudal to the bladder, which extended cranially, through two branches. Histopathological evaluation confirmed the presence of two atrophic uterine horns and one hypoplastic testicle with epididymis at the end of one of the uterine horns. The end of the other uterine horn was attached to a structure composed by a mass of adipocytes. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a mosaic 37,X/38,XY karyotype. The two cell lines were found in 15% and 85% of the lymphocytes, respectively. Genetic analysis confirmed the presence of SRY and ZFY genes in blood and hair bulbs, and revealed a marked reduction in SRY expression in the testicle. Additionally, this case presented exceptionally rare features, such as a Leydig' cell tumour and a chronic endometritis in both uterine horns. CONCLUSIONS: Complete imaging workup, cytogenetic analysis and SRY gene expression should be systematically realized, in order to properly classify disorders of sexual development (DSD) in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Cariótipo , Mosaicismo , Animais , Gatos , Masculino , Doenças do Gato/genética , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/veterinária , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia
4.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(7): e2380, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fontaine progeroid syndrome (FPS, OMIM 612289) is a recently identified genetic disorder stemming from pathogenic variants in the SLC25A24 gene, encoding a mitochondrial carrier protein. It encompasses Gorlin-Chaudry-Moss syndrome and Fontaine-Farriaux syndrome, primarily manifesting as craniosynostosis with brachycephaly, distinctive dysmorphic facial features, hypertrichosis, severe prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, limb shortening, and early aging with characteristic skin changes, phalangeal anomalies, and genital malformations. CASES: All known occurrences of FPS have been postnatally observed until now. Here, we present the first two prenatal cases identified during the second trimester of pregnancy. While affirming the presence of most postnatal abnormalities in prenatal cases, we note the absence of a progeroid appearance in young fetuses. Notably, our reports introduce new phenotypic features like encephalocele and nephromegaly, which were previously unseen postnatally. Moreover, paternal SLC25A24 mosaicism was detected in one case. CONCLUSIONS: We present the initial two fetal instances of FPS, complemented by thorough phenotypic and genetic assessments. Our findings expand the phenotypical spectrum of FPS, unveiling new fetal phenotypic characteristics. Furthermore, one case underscores a potential novel inheritance pattern in this disorder. Lastly, our observations emphasize the efficacy of exome/genome sequencing in both prenatal and postmortem diagnosis of rare polymalformative syndromes with a normal karyotype and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).


Assuntos
Genótipo , Mosaicismo , Fenótipo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Humanos , Mosaicismo/embriologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Masculino , Feto , Adulto , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Progéria/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Antiporters
5.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 63(4): 540-544, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present mosaic distal 9p deletion at prenatal diagnosis in a pregnancy associated with a favorable fetal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY, del(9)(p23)[8]/46,XY[17]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes showed 43% mosaicism for the 9p24.3p23 deletion. Prenatal ultrasound suspected hypospadias and echogenic bowel. At 23 weeks of gestation, she was referred for genetic counseling, and repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,del(9)(p23)[10]/46,XY[10]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Molecular genetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed no uniparental disomy (UPD) 9 by quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) and arr 9p24.3p23 × 1.55 (40%-50% mosaicism) by aCGH. At 27 weeks of gestation, she underwent the third amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,del(9)(p23)[6]/46,XY[14]. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 9p24.3p23 (35% mosaicism). Prenatal ultrasound was normal. She was advised to continue the pregnancy, and a 3020-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered at 41 weeks of gestation. At birth, the karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 46,XY,del(9)(p23)[7]/46,XY[37], 46,XY,del(9)(p23)[17]/46,XY[23] and 46,XY in 40/40 cells, respectively. When follow-up at age three months, the neonate was normal in phenotype and development. The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 46,XY,del(9)(p23)[3]/46,XY[37], and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on buccal mucosal cells showed 13% (13/102 cells) mosaicism for the distal 9p deletion. CONCLUSION: Mosaic distal 9p deletion with a normal cell line at prenatal diagnosis can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome and perinatal progressive decrease of the aneuploid cell line.


Assuntos
Amniocentese , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Mosaicismo , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Adulto , Mosaicismo/embriologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Aneuploidia , Cariotipagem , Resultado da Gravidez/genética
6.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 63(4): 549-551, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present low-level mosaic trisomy at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes, perinatal progressive decrease of the trisomy 7 cell line and a favorable fetal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY in cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr (7) × 2-3, (X,Y) × 1, consistent with 24% mosaicism for trisomy 7. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNA extracted from the uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 7. Prenatal ultrasound findings were normal. She was referred for genetic counseling at 19 weeks of gestation. No repeat amniocentesis was suggested, and continuing the pregnancy was advised. At 22 weeks of gestation, the result of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1)/placental growth factor (PlGF) = 6.1 (normal < 38). She did not have preeclampsia. At 39 weeks of gestation, a 3346-g male baby was delivered without any phenotypic abnormality. aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood and placenta revealed the result of arr (1-22) × 2, (X,Y) × 1 with no genomic imbalance in all tissues. When follow-up at age three months, the baby was normal in development and phenotype. The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 46,XY, and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes of chromosome 7 showed disomy 7 cells in all 102/102 cells. CONCLUSION: Low-level mosaic trisomy 7 at amniocentesis can be associated with cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes, perinatal progressive decrease of the trisomy 7 cell line and a favorable fetal outcome.


Assuntos
Amniocentese , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Mosaicismo , Trissomia , Dissomia Uniparental , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Mosaicismo/embriologia , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Trissomia/genética , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Dissomia Uniparental/diagnóstico , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Recém-Nascido , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Resultado da Gravidez/genética
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(14): e033232, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although individuals with family histories of TAA often undergo clinical molecular genetic testing, adults with nonsyndromic TAA are not typically evaluated for genetic causes. We sought to understand the genetic contribution of both germline and somatic mosaic variants in a cohort of adult individuals with nonsyndromic TAA at a single center. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred eighty-one consecutive patients <60 years who presented with nonsyndromic TAA at the Massachusetts General Hospital underwent deep (>500×) targeted sequencing across 114 candidate genes associated with TAA and its related functional pathways. Samples from 354 age- and sex-matched individuals without TAA were also sequenced, with a 2:1 matching. We found significant enrichments for germline (odds ratio [OR], 2.44, P=4.6×10-6 [95% CI, 1.67-3.58]) and also somatic mosaic variants (OR, 4.71, P=0.026 [95% CI, 1.20-18.43]) between individuals with and without TAA. Likely genetic causes were present in 24% with nonsyndromic TAA, of which 21% arose from germline variants and 3% from somatic mosaic alleles. The 3 most frequently mutated genes in our cohort were FLNA (encoding Filamin A), NOTCH3 (encoding Notch receptor 3), and FBN1 (encoding Fibrillin-1). There was increased frequency of both missense and loss of function variants in TAA individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Likely contributory dominant acting genetic variants were found in almost one quarter of nonsyndromic adults with TAA. Our findings suggest a more extensive genetic architecture to TAA than expected and that genetic testing may improve the care and clinical management of adults with nonsyndromic TAA.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Mosaicismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor Notch3/genética , Fibrilina-1/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fenótipo , Filaminas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Adipocinas
15.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(3): 535-541, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948294

RESUMO

Genomic mosaicism arising from mosaic variants is a phenomenon that describes the presence of a cell or cell populations with different genome compositions from the germline cells of an individual. It comprises all types of genetic variants. A large proportion of childhood genetic disorders are defined as being de novo, meaning that the disease-causing mutations are only detected in the proband, not in any of the parents. Population studies show that 80% of the de novo mutations arise from the paternal haplotype, that is, from paternal sperm mosaicism. This review provides a summary of the types and detection strategies of sperm mosaicism. In addition, it provides discussions on how recent studies demonstrated that genomic mosaic mutations in parents, especially those in the paternal sperms, could be inherited by the offspring and cause childhood disorders. According to the previous findings of the author's research team, sperm mosaicism derived from early embryogenesis and primordial germ cell stages can explain 5% to 20% of the de novo mutations related to clinical phenotypes and can serve as an important predictor of both rare and complex disorders. Sperm mosaicism shows great potential for clinical genetic diagnosis and consultations. Based on the published literature, the author suggests that, large-scale screening for de novo sperm mosaic mutations and population-based genetic screening should be conducted in future studies, which will greatly enhance the risk assessment in the offspring and effectively improve the genetic health at the population level. Implementation of direct sperm detection for de novo mutations will significantly increase the efficiency of the stratification of patient cohorts and improve recurrence risk assessment for future births. Future research in the field should be focused on the impact of environmental and lifestyle factors on the health of the offspring through sperms and their modeling of mutation signatures. In addition, targeted in vitro modeling of sperm mutations will also be a promising direction.


Assuntos
Mosaicismo , Espermatozoides , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Testes Genéticos , Criança
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4963, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862535

RESUMO

Image-based lineage tracing enables tissue turnover kinetics and lineage potentials of different adult cell populations to be investigated. Previously, we reported a genetic mouse model system, Red2Onco, which ectopically expressed mutated oncogenes together with red fluorescent proteins (RFP). This system enabled the expansion kinetics and neighboring effects of oncogenic clones to be dissected. We now report Red2Flpe-SCON: a mosaic knockout system that uses multicolor reporters to label both mutant and wild-type cells. We develop the Red2Flpe mouse line for red clone-specific Flpe expression, as well as the FRT-based SCON (Short Conditional IntrON) method to facilitate tunable conditional mosaic knockouts in mice. We use the Red2Flpe-SCON method to study Sox2 mutant clonal analysis in the esophageal epithelium of adult mice which reveal that the stem cell gene, Sox2, is less essential for adult stem cell maintenance itself, but rather for stem cell proliferation and differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Luminescentes , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Vermelha Fluorescente , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1 , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Mosaicismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Esôfago/metabolismo , Esôfago/patologia , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Íntrons/genética , Feminino , Masculino
17.
Nature ; 631(8019): 134-141, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867047

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of the X chromosome (mLOX) is the most common clonal somatic alteration in leukocytes of female individuals1,2, but little is known about its genetic determinants or phenotypic consequences. Here, to address this, we used data from 883,574 female participants across 8 biobanks; 12% of participants exhibited detectable mLOX in approximately 2% of leukocytes. Female participants with mLOX had an increased risk of myeloid and lymphoid leukaemias. Genetic analyses identified 56 common variants associated with mLOX, implicating genes with roles in chromosomal missegregation, cancer predisposition and autoimmune diseases. Exome-sequence analyses identified rare missense variants in FBXO10 that confer a twofold increased risk of mLOX. Only a small fraction of associations was shared with mosaic Y chromosome loss, suggesting that distinct biological processes drive formation and clonal expansion of sex chromosome missegregation. Allelic shift analyses identified X chromosome alleles that are preferentially retained in mLOX, demonstrating variation at many loci under cellular selection. A polygenic score including 44 allelic shift loci correctly inferred the retained X chromosomes in 80.7% of mLOX cases in the top decile. Our results support a model in which germline variants predispose female individuals to acquiring mLOX, with the allelic content of the X chromosome possibly shaping the magnitude of clonal expansion.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Cromossomos Humanos X , Células Clonais , Leucócitos , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alelos , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Células Clonais/patologia , Exoma/genética , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Leucemia/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2825: 67-78, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38913303

RESUMO

Somatic chromosomal mosaicism, chromosome instability, and cancer are intimately linked together. Addressing the role of somatic genome variations (encompassing chromosomal mosaicism and instability) in cancer yields paradoxical results. Firstly, somatic mosaicism for specific chromosomal rearrangement causes cancer per se. Secondly, chromosomal mosaicism and instability are associated with a variety of diseases (chromosomal disorders demonstrating less severe phenotypes, complex diseases), which exhibit cancer predisposition. Chromosome instability syndromes may be considered the best examples of these diseases. Thirdly, chromosomal mosaicism and instability are able to result not only in cancerous diseases but also in non-cancerous disorders (brain diseases, autoimmune diseases, etc.). Currently, the molecular basis for these three outcomes of somatic chromosomal mosaicism and chromosome instability remains incompletely understood. Here, we address possible mechanisms for the aforementioned scenarios using a system analysis model. A number of theoretical models based on studies dedicated to chromosomal mosaicism and chromosome instability seem to be valuable for disentangling and understanding molecular pathways to cancer-causing genome chaos. In addition, technological aspects of uncovering causes and consequences of somatic chromosomal mosaicism and chromosome instability are discussed. In total, molecular cytogenetics, cytogenomics, and system analysis are likely to form a powerful technological alliance for successful research against cancer.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica , Mosaicismo , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(6)2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38927590

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, and enlarged thumbs and halluces. Approximately 55% of RTS cases result from pathogenic variants in the CREBBP gene, with an additional 8% linked to the EP300 gene. Given the close relationship between these two genes and their involvement in epigenomic modulation, RTS is grouped into chromatinopathies. The extensive clinical heterogeneity observed in RTS, coupled with the growing number of disorders involving the epigenetic machinery, poses a challenge to a phenotype-based diagnostic approach for these conditions. Here, we describe the first case of a patient clinically diagnosed with RTS with a CREBBP truncating variant in mosaic form. We also review previously described cases of mosaicism in CREBBP and apply clinical diagnostic guidelines to these patients, confirming the good specificity of the consensus. Nonetheless, these reports raise questions about the potential underdiagnosis of milder cases of RTS. The application of a targeted phenotype-based approach, coupled with high-depth NGS, may enhance the diagnostic yield of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in mild and mosaic conditions.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Sequenciamento do Exoma/métodos , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/patologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38891897

RESUMO

Heterozygous mutations in the FOXP1 gene (OMIM#605515) are responsible for a well-characterized neurodevelopmental syndrome known as "intellectual developmental disorder with language impairment with or without autistic features" (OMIM#613670) or FOXP1 syndrome for short. The main features of the condition are global developmental delay/intellectual disability; speech impairment in all individuals, regardless of their level of cognitive abilities; behavioral abnormalities; congenital anomalies, including subtle dysmorphic features; and strabismus, brain, cardiac, and urogenital abnormalities. Here, we present two siblings with a de novo heterozygous FOXP1 variant, namely, a four-year-old boy and 14-month-old girl. Both children have significantly delayed early psychomotor development, hypotonia, and very similar, slightly dysmorphic facial features. A lack of expressive speech was the leading symptom in the case of the four-year-old boy. We performed whole-exome sequencing on the male patient, which identified a pathogenic heterozygous c.1541G>A (p.Arg514His) FOXP1 mutation. His sister's targeted mutation analysis also showed the same heterozygous FOXP1 variant. Segregation analysis revealed the de novo origin of the mutation, suggesting the presence of parental gonadal mosaicism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of gonadal mosaicism in FOXP1-related neurodevelopmental disorders in the medical literature.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Mosaicismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Proteínas Repressoras , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Lactente , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Mutação , Sequenciamento do Exoma , Heterozigoto
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